Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 89

89
10006616
Relaxing Convergence Constraints in Local Priority Hysteresis Switching Logic
Abstract:
This paper addresses certain inherent limitations of local priority hysteresis switching logic. Our main result establishes that under persistent excitation assumption, it is possible to relax constraints requiring strict positivity of local priority and hysteresis switching constants. Relaxing these constraints allows the adaptive system to reach optimality which implies the performance improvement. The unconstrained local priority hysteresis switching logic is examined and conditions for global convergence are derived.
88
10006487
Smartphone Photography in Urban China
Authors:
Abstract:

The smartphone plays a significant role in media convergence, and smartphone photography is reconstructing the way we communicate and think. This article aims to explore the smartphone photography practices of urban Chinese smartphone users and images produced by smartphones from a techno-cultural perspective. The analysis consists of two types of data: One is a semi-structured interview of 21 participants, and the other consists of the images created by the participants. The findings are organised in two parts. The first part summarises the current tendencies of capturing, editing, sharing and archiving digital images via smartphones. The second part shows that food and selfie/anti-selfie are the preferred subjects of smartphone photographic images from a technical and multi-purpose perspective and demonstrates that screenshots and image texts are new genres of non-photographic images that are frequently made by smartphones, which contributes to improving operational efficiency, disseminating information and sharing knowledge. The analyses illustrate the positive impacts between smartphones and photography enthusiasm and practices based on the diffusion of innovation theory, which also makes us rethink the value of photographs and the practice of ‘photographic seeing’ from the screen itself.

87
10006191
Algorithms for Computing of Optimization Problems with a Common Minimum-Norm Fixed Point with Applications
Abstract:
This research is aimed to study a two-step iteration process defined over a finite family of σ-asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive nonself-mappings. The strong convergence is guaranteed under the framework of Banach spaces with some additional structural properties including strict and uniform convexity, reflexivity, and smoothness assumptions. With similar projection technique for nonself-mapping in Hilbert spaces, we hereby use the generalized projection to construct a point within the corresponding domain. Moreover, we have to introduce the use of duality mapping and its inverse to overcome the unavailability of duality representation that is exploit by Hilbert space theorists. We then apply our results for σ-asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive nonself-mappings to solve for ideal efficiency of vector optimization problems composed of finitely many objective functions. We also showed that the obtained solution from our process is the closest to the origin. Moreover, we also give an illustrative numerical example to support our results.
86
10005715
Semilocal Convergence of a Three Step Fifth Order Iterative Method under Höolder Continuity Condition in Banach Spaces
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the semilocal convergence of a fifth order iterative method using recurrence relation under the assumption that first order Fréchet derivative satisfies the Hölder condition. Also, we calculate the R-order of convergence and provide some a priori error bounds. Based on this, we give existence and uniqueness region of the solution for a nonlinear Hammerstein integral equation of the second kind.
85
10004897
L1-Convergence of Modified Trigonometric Sums
Abstract:
The existence of sine and cosine series as a Fourier series, their L1-convergence seems to be one of the difficult question in theory of convergence of trigonometric series in L1-metric norm. In the literature so far available, various authors have studied the L1-convergence of cosine and sine trigonometric series with special coefficients. In this paper, we present a modified cosine and sine sums and criterion for L1-convergence of these modified sums is obtained. Also, a necessary and sufficient condition for the L1-convergence of the cosine and sine series is deduced as corollaries.
84
10003803
CFD Study for Normal and Rifled Tube with a Convergence Check
Abstract:
Computational fluid dynamics were used to simulate and study the heated water boiler tube for both normal and rifled tube with a refinement of the mesh to check the convergence. The operation condition was taken from GARRI power station and used in a boundary condition accordingly. The result indicates the rifled tube has higher heat transfer efficiency than the normal tube.
83
10002037
Steepest Descent Method with New Step Sizes
Abstract:
Steepest descent method is a simple gradient method for optimization. This method has a slow convergence in heading to the optimal solution, which occurs because of the zigzag form of the steps. Barzilai and Borwein modified this algorithm so that it performs well for problems with large dimensions. Barzilai and Borwein method results have sparked a lot of research on the method of steepest descent, including alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method. Inspired by previous works, we modified the step size of the steepest descent method. We then compare the modification results against the Barzilai and Borwein method, alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method for quadratic function cases in terms of the iterations number and the running time. The average results indicate that the steepest descent method with the new step sizes provide good results for small dimensions and able to compete with the results of Barzilai and Borwein method and the alternate minimization gradient method for large dimensions. The new step sizes have faster convergence compared to the other methods, especially for cases with large dimensions.
82
10001176
Efficient Study of Substrate Integrated Waveguide Devices
Abstract:

This paper presents a study of SIW circuits (Substrate Integrated Waveguide) with a rigorous and fast original approach based on Iterative process (WCIP). The theoretical suggested study is validated by the simulation of two different examples of SIW circuits. The obtained results are in good agreement with those of measurement and with software HFSS.

81
10001921
The Convergence Theorems for Mixing Random Variable Sequences
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, some limit properties for mixing random variables sequences were studied and some results on weak law of large number for mixing random variables sequences were presented. Some complete convergence theorems were also obtained. The results extended and improved the corresponding theorems in i.i.d random variables sequences.
80
10000291
Improving the Performance of Back-Propagation Training Algorithm by Using ANN
Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) can be trained using back propagation (BP). It is the most widely used algorithm for supervised learning with multi-layered feed-forward networks. Efficient learning by the BP algorithm is required for many practical applications. The BP algorithm calculates the weight changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to use a twoterm algorithm consisting of a learning rate (LR) and a momentum factor (MF). The major drawbacks of the two-term BP learning algorithm are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds, which limit the scope for real-time applications. Recently the addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor (PF), to the two-term BP algorithm was proposed. The third increases the speed of the BP algorithm. However, the PF term also reduces the convergence of the BP algorithm, and criteria for evaluating convergence are required to facilitate the application of the three terms BP algorithm. Although these two seem to be closely related, as described later, we summarize various improvements to overcome the drawbacks. Here we compare the different methods of convergence of the new three-term BP algorithm.

79
10000256
Preconditioned Generalized Accelerated Overrelaxation Methods for Solving Certain Nonsingular Linear System
Abstract:

In this paper, we present preconditioned generalized accelerated overrelaxation (GAOR) methods for solving certain nonsingular linear system. We compare the spectral radii of the iteration matrices of the preconditioned and the original methods. The comparison results show that the preconditioned GAOR methods converge faster than the GAOR method whenever the GAOR method is convergent. Finally, we give two numerical examples to confirm our theoretical results.

78
9999476
On Algebraic Structure of Improved Gauss-Seidel Iteration
Abstract:

Analysis of real life problems often results in linear systems of equations for which solutions are sought. The method to employ depends, to some extent, on the properties of the coefficient matrix. It is not always feasible to solve linear systems of equations by direct methods, as such the need to use an iterative method becomes imperative. Before an iterative method can be employed to solve a linear system of equations there must be a guaranty that the process of solution will converge. This guaranty, which must be determined apriori, involve the use of some criterion expressible in terms of the entries of the coefficient matrix. It is, therefore, logical that the convergence criterion should depend implicitly on the algebraic structure of such a method. However, in deference to this view is the practice of conducting convergence analysis for Gauss- Seidel iteration on a criterion formulated based on the algebraic structure of Jacobi iteration. To remedy this anomaly, the Gauss- Seidel iteration was studied for its algebraic structure and contrary to the usual assumption, it was discovered that some property of the iteration matrix of Gauss-Seidel method is only diagonally dominant in its first row while the other rows do not satisfy diagonal dominance. With the aid of this structure we herein fashion out an improved version of Gauss-Seidel iteration with the prospect of enhancing convergence and robustness of the method. A numerical section is included to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results obtained for the improved Gauss-Seidel method.

77
9998502
Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm
Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

76
9999734
A New Inversion-free Method for Hermitian Positive Definite Solution of Matrix Equation
Abstract:

An inversion-free iterative algorithm is presented for solving nonlinear matrix equation with a stepsize parameter t. The existence of the maximal solution is discussed in detail, and the method for finding it is proposed. Finally, two numerical examples are reported that show the efficiency of the method.

75
9999855
Spline Collocation for Solving System of Fredholm and Volterra Integral Equations
Abstract:

In this paper, numerical solution of system of Fredholm and Volterra integral equations by means of the Spline collocation method is considered. This approximation reduces the system of integral equations to an explicit system of algebraic equations. The solution is collocated by cubic B-spline and the integrand is approximated by the Newton-Cotes formula. The error analysis of proposed numerical method is studied theoretically. The results are compared with the results obtained by other methods to illustrate the accuracy and the implementation of our method.

74
9998125
Turbulence Modeling of Source and Sink Flows
Abstract:

Flows developed between two parallel disks have many engineering applications. Two types of non-swirling flows can be generated in such a domain. One is purely source flow in disc type domain (outward flow). Other is purely sink flow in disc type domain (inward flow). This situation often appears in some turbo machinery components such as air bearings, heat exchanger, radial diffuser, vortex gyroscope, disc valves, and viscosity meters. The main goal of this paper is to show the mesh convergence, because mesh convergence saves time, and economical to run and increase the efficiency of modeling for both sink and source flow. Then flow field is resolved using a very fine mesh near-wall, using enhanced wall treatment. After that we are going to compare this flow using standard k-epsilon, RNG k-epsilon turbulence models. Lastly compare some experimental data with numerical solution for sink flow. The good agreement of numerical solution with the experimental works validates the current modeling.

73
9998057
Some Results on New Preconditioned Generalized Mixed-Type Splitting Iterative Methods
Abstract:

In this paper, we present new preconditioned generalized mixed-type splitting (GMTS) methods for solving weighted linear least square problems. We compare the spectral radii of the iteration matrices of the preconditioned and the original methods. The comparison results show that the preconditioned GMTS methods converge faster than the GMTS method whenever the GMTS method is convergent. Finally, we give a numerical example to confirm our theoretical results.

72
9998079
Some Results on Preconditioned Modified Accelerated Overrelaxation Method
Abstract:

In this paper, we present new preconditioned modified accelerated overrelaxation (MAOR) method for solving linear systems. We compare the spectral radii of the iteration matrices of the preconditioned and the original methods. The comparison results show that the preconditioned MAOR method converges faster than the MAOR method whenever the MAOR method is convergent. Finally, we give one numerical example to confirm our theoretical results.

71
9997723
Supremacy of Differential Evolution Algorithm in Designing Multiplier-Less Low-Pass FIR Filter
Abstract:

In this communication, we have made an attempt to design multiplier-less low-pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter with the aid of various mutation strategies of Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. Impulse response coefficient of the designed FIR filter has been represented as sums or differences of powers of two. Performance of the proposed filter has been evaluated in terms of its frequency response and associated hardware cost. Supremacy of our approach has been substantiated by comparing our result with many of the existing multiplier-less filter design algorithms of recent interest. It has also been demonstrated that DE-optimized filter outperforms Genetic Algorithm (GA) based design by a large margin.  Hardware efficiency of our algorithm has further been validated by implementing those filters on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip.

70
9997245
A New Modification of Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Coefficients with Global Convergence Properties
Abstract:
Conjugate gradient method has been enormously used to solve large scale unconstrained optimization problems due to the number of iteration, memory, CPU time, and convergence property, in this paper we find a new class of nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient with global convergence properties proved by exact line search. The numerical results for our new βK give a good result when it compared with well known formulas.
69
9997434
Weak Convergence of Mann Iteration for a Hybrid Pair of Mappings in a Banach Space
Abstract:

We prove the weak convergence of Mann iteration for a hybrid pair of maps to a common fixed point of a selfmap f and a multivalued f nonexpansive mapping T in Banach space E.  

68
9997720
Convergence Analysis of an Alternative Gradient Algorithm for Non-Negative Matrix Factorization
Abstract:

Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a useful computational method to find basis information of multivariate nonnegative data. A popular approach to solve the NMF problem is the multiplicative update (MU) algorithm. But, it has some defects. So the columnwisely alternating gradient (cAG) algorithm was proposed. In this paper, we analyze convergence of the cAG algorithm and show advantages over the MU algorithm. The stability of the equilibrium point is used to prove the convergence of the cAG algorithm. A classic model is used to obtain the equilibrium point and the invariant sets are constructed to guarantee the integrity of the stability. Finally, the convergence conditions of the cAG algorithm are obtained, which help reducing the evaluation time and is confirmed in the experiments. By using the same method, the MU algorithm has zero divisor and is convergent at zero has been verified. In addition, the convergence conditions of the MU algorithm at zero are similar to that of the cAG algorithm at non-zero. However, it is meaningless to discuss the convergence at zero, which is not always the result that we want for NMF. Thus, we theoretically illustrate the advantages of the cAG algorithm.

67
9997087
Fixed Points of Contractive-Like Operators by a Faster Iterative Process
Abstract:

In this paper, we prove a strong convergence result using a recently introduced iterative process with contractive-like operators. This improves andgeneralizes corresponding results in the literature in two ways: iterativeprocess is faster, operators are more general. At the end, we indicatethat the results can also be proved with the iterative process witherror terms.

66
9996580
The Performance of Alternating Top-Bottom Strategy for Successive Over Relaxation Scheme on Two Dimensional Boundary Value Problem
Abstract:

This paper present the implementation of a new ordering strategy on Successive Overrelaxation scheme on two dimensional boundary value problems. The strategy involve two directions alternatingly; from top and bottom of the solution domain. The method shows to significantly reduce the iteration number to converge. Four numerical experiments were carried out to examine the performance of the new strategy.

65
9997451
Convergence and Comparison Theorems of the Modified Gauss-Seidel Method
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, the modified Gauss-Seidel method with the new preconditioner for solving the linear system Ax = b, where A is a nonsingular M-matrix with unit diagonal, is considered. The convergence property and the comparison theorems of the proposed method are established. Two examples are given to show the efficiency and effectiveness of the modified Gauss-Seidel method with the presented new preconditioner.

64
16269
Perspectives of Financial Reporting Harmonization
Abstract:

In the current context of globalization, accountability has become a key subject of real interest for both, national and international business areas, due to the need for comparability and transparency of the economic situation, so we can speak about the harmonization and convergence of international accounting. The paper presents a qualitative research through content analysis of several reports concerning the roadmap for convergence. First, we develop a conceptual framework for the evolution of standards’ convergence and further we discuss the degree of standards harmonization and convergence between US GAAP and IAS/IFRS as to October 2012. We find that most topics did not follow the expected progress. Furthermore there are still some differences in the long-term project that are in process to be completed and other that were reassessed as a lower priority project.

63
16412
Implicit Lyapunov Control of Multi-Control Hamiltonians Systems Based On the State Error
Abstract:

In the closed quantum system, if the control system is strongly regular and all other eigenstates are directly coupled to the target state, the control system can be asymptotically stabilized at the target eigenstate by the Lyapunov control based on the state error. However, if the control system is not strongly regular or as long as there is one eigenstate not directly coupled to the target state, the situations will become complicated. In this paper, we propose an implicit Lyapunov control method based on the state error to solve the convergence problems for these two degenerate cases. And at the same time, we expand the target state from the eigenstate to the arbitrary pure state. Especially, the proposed method is also applicable in the control system with multi-control Hamiltonians. On this basis, the convergence of the control systems is analyzed using the LaSalle invariance principle. Furthermore, the relation between the implicit Lyapunov functions of the state distance and the state error is investigated. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed implicit Lyapunov control method. The comparisons of the control effect using the implicit Lyapunov control method based on the state distance with that of the state error are given.

62
1063
Suitability of Entry into the Euro Area: An Excursion in Selected Economies
Abstract:

The current situation in the eurozone raises a number of topics for discussion and to help in finding an answer to the question of whether a common currency is a more suitable means of coping with the impact of the financial crisis or whether national currencies are better suited to this. The economic situation in the EU is now considerably volatile and, due to problems with the fulfilment of the Maastricht convergence criteria, it is now being considered whether, in their further development, new member states will decide to distance themselves from the euro or will, in an attempt to overcome the crisis, speed up the adoption of the euro. The Czech Republic is one country with little interest in adopting the euro, justified by the fact that a better alternative to dealing with this crisis is an independent monetary policy and its ability to respond flexibly to the economic situation not only in Europe, but around the world. One attribute of the crisis in the Czech Republic and its mitigation is the freely floating exchange rate of the national currency. It is not only the Czech Republic that is attempting to alleviate the impact of the crisis, but also new EU member countries facing fresh questions to which theory have yet to provide wholly satisfactory answers. These questions undoubtedly include the problem of inflation targeting and the choice of appropriate instruments for achieving financial stability. The difficulty lies in the fact that these objectives may be contradictory and may require more than one means of achieving them. In this respect we may assume that membership of the euro zone might not in itself mitigate the development of the recession or protect the nation from future crises. We are of the opinion that the decisive factor in the development of any economy will continue to be the domestic economic policy and the operability of market economic mechanisms. We attempt to document this fact using selected countries as examples, these being the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia.

61
16754
The Convergence Results between Backward USSOR and Jacobi Iterative Matrices
Abstract:

In this paper, the backward Ussor iterative matrix is proposed. The relationship of convergence between the backward Ussor iterative matrix and Jacobi iterative matrix is obtained, which makes the results in the corresponding references be improved and refined.Moreover,numerical examples also illustrate the effectiveness of these conclusions.

60
16782
A Family of Improved Secant-Like Method with Super-Linear Convergence
Authors:
Abstract:

A family of improved secant-like method is proposed in this paper. Further, the analysis of the convergence shows that this method has super-linear convergence. Efficiency are demonstrated by numerical experiments when the choice of α is correct.

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