Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 66

Secure E-Pay System Using Steganography and Visual Cryptography

Today’s internet world is highly prone to various online attacks, of which the most harmful attack is phishing. The attackers host the fake websites which are very similar and look alike. We propose an image based authentication using steganography and visual cryptography to prevent phishing. This paper presents a secure steganographic technique for true color (RGB) images and uses Discrete Cosine Transform to compress the images. The proposed method hides the secret data inside the cover image. The use of visual cryptography is to preserve the privacy of an image by decomposing the original image into two shares. Original image can be identified only when both qualified shares are simultaneously available. Individual share does not reveal the identity of the original image. Thus, the existence of the secret message is hard to be detected by the RS steganalysis.

Improving Security by Using Secure Servers Communicating via Internet with Standalone Secure Software
This paper describes the use of the Internet as a feature to enhance the security of our software that is going to be distributed/sold to users potentially all over the world. By placing in a secure server some of the features of the secure software, we increase the security of such software. The communication between the protected software and the secure server is done by a double lock algorithm. This paper also includes an analysis of intruders and describes possible responses to detect threats.
Efficient Semi-Systolic Finite Field Multiplier Using Redundant Basis
The arithmetic operations over GF(2m) have been extensively used in error correcting codes and public-key cryptography schemes. Finite field arithmetic includes addition, multiplication, division and inversion operations. Addition is very simple and can be implemented with an extremely simple circuit. The other operations are much more complex. The multiplication is the most important for cryptosystems, such as the elliptic curve cryptosystem, since computing exponentiation, division, and computing multiplicative inverse can be performed by computing multiplication iteratively. In this paper, we present a parallel computation algorithm that operates Montgomery multiplication over finite field using redundant basis. Also, based on the multiplication algorithm, we present an efficient semi-systolic multiplier over finite field. The multiplier has less space and time complexities compared to related multipliers. As compared to the corresponding existing structures, the multiplier saves at least 5% area, 50% time, and 53% area-time (AT) complexity. Accordingly, it is well suited for VLSI implementation and can be easily applied as a basic component for computing complex operations over finite field, such as inversion and division operation.
Secure Cryptographic Operations on SIM Card for Mobile Financial Services
Mobile technology is very popular nowadays and it provides a digital world where users can experience many value-added services. Service Providers are also eager to offer diverse value-added services to users such as digital identity, mobile financial services and so on. In this context, the security of data storage in smartphones and the security of communication between the smartphone and service provider are critical for the success of these services. In order to provide the required security functions, the SIM card is one acceptable alternative. Since SIM cards include a Secure Element, they are able to store sensitive data, create cryptographically secure keys, encrypt and decrypt data. In this paper, we design and implement a SIM and a smartphone framework that uses a SIM card for secure key generation, key storage, data encryption, data decryption and digital signing for mobile financial services. Our frameworks show that the SIM card can be used as a controlled Secure Element to provide required security functions for popular e-services such as mobile financial services.
Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram

Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.

VANETs: Security Challenges and Future Directions
Connected vehicles are equipped with wireless sensors that aid in Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communication. These vehicles will in the near future provide road safety, improve transport efficiency, and reduce traffic congestion. One of the challenges for connected vehicles is how to ensure that information sent across the network is secure. If security of the network is not guaranteed, several attacks can occur, thereby compromising the robustness, reliability, and efficiency of the network. This paper discusses existing security mechanisms and unique properties of connected vehicles. The methodology employed in this work is exploratory. The paper reviews existing security solutions for connected vehicles. More concretely, it discusses various cryptographic mechanisms available, and suggests areas of improvement. The study proposes a combination of symmetric key encryption and public key cryptography to improve security. The study further proposes message aggregation as a technique to overcome message redundancy. This paper offers a comprehensive overview of connected vehicles technology, its applications, its security mechanisms, open challenges, and potential areas of future research.
A Signature-Based Secure Authentication Framework for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET) is a kind of Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET). It allows the vehicles to communicate with one another as well as with nearby Road Side Units (RSU) and Regional Trusted Authorities (RTA). Vehicles communicate through On-Board Units (OBU) in which privacy has to be assured which will avoid the misuse of private data. A secure authentication framework for VANETs is proposed in which Public Key Cryptography (PKC) based adaptive pseudonym scheme is used to generate self-generated pseudonyms. Self-generated pseudonyms are used instead of real IDs for privacy preservation and non-repudiation. The ID-Based Signature (IBS) and ID-Based Online/Offline Signature (IBOOS) schemes are used for authentication. IBS is used to authenticate between vehicle and RSU whereas IBOOS provides authentication among vehicles. Security attacks like impersonation attack in the network are resolved and the attacking nodes are rejected from the network, thereby ensuring secure communication among the vehicles in the network. Simulation results shows that the proposed system provides better authentication in VANET environment.

New Security Approach of Confidential Resources in Hybrid Clouds

Nowadays, cloud environments are becoming a need for companies, this new technology gives the opportunities to access to the data anywhere and anytime. It also provides an optimized and secured access to the resources and gives more security for the data which is stored in the platform. However, some companies do not trust Cloud providers, they think that providers can access and modify some confidential data such as bank accounts. Many works have been done in this context, they conclude that encryption methods realized by providers ensure the confidentiality, but, they forgot that Cloud providers can decrypt the confidential resources. The best solution here is to apply some operations on the data before sending them to the provider Cloud in the objective to make them unreadable. The principal idea is to allow user how it can protect his data with his own methods. In this paper, we are going to demonstrate our approach and prove that is more efficient in term of execution time than some existing methods. This work aims at enhancing the quality of service of providers and ensuring the trust of the customers. 

Improved of Elliptic Curves Cryptography over a Ring

In this article we will study the elliptic curve defined over the ring An and we define the mathematical operations of ECC, which provides a high security and advantage for wireless applications compared to other asymmetric key cryptosystem.

Cryptography over Sextic Extension with Cubic Subfield

In this paper, we will give a cryptographic application over the integral closure O_Lof sextic extension L, namely L is an extension of Q of degree 6 in the form Q(a,b), which is a rational quadratic and monogenic extension over a pure monogenic cubic subfield K generated by a who is a root of monic irreducible polynomial of degree 2 andb is a root of irreducible polynomial of degree 3.

A Very Efficient Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based On Chaotic Maps and S-Box Tables

Generating random numbers are mainly used to create secret keys or random sequences. It can be carried out by various techniques. In this paper we present a very simple and efficient pseudo random number generator (PRNG) based on chaotic maps and S-Box tables. This technique adopted two main operations one to generate chaotic values using two logistic maps and the second to transform them into binary words using random S-Box tables. The simulation analysis indicates that our PRNG possessing excellent statistical and cryptographic properties.

Survey on Jamming Wireless Networks: Attacks and Prevention Strategies
Wireless networks are built upon the open shared medium which makes easy for attackers to conduct malicious activities. Jamming is one of the most serious security threats to information economy and it must be dealt efficiently. Jammer prevents legitimate data to reach the receiver side and also it seriously degrades the network performance. The objective of this paper is to provide a general overview of jamming in wireless network. It covers relevant works, different jamming techniques, various types of jammers and typical prevention techniques. Challenges associated with comparing several anti-jamming techniques are also highlighted.
Encryption Image via Mutual Singular Value Decomposition

Image or document encryption is needed through egovernment data base. Really in this paper we introduce two matrices images, one is the public, and the second is the secret (original). The analyses of each matrix is achieved using the transformation of singular values decomposition. So each matrix is transformed or analyzed to three matrices say row orthogonal basis, column orthogonal basis, and spectral diagonal basis. Product of the two row basis is calculated. Similarly the product of the two column basis is achieved. Finally we transform or save the files of public, row product and column product. In decryption stage, the original image is deduced by mutual method of the three public files.

Scalable Systolic Multiplier over Binary Extension Fields Based on Two-Level Karatsuba Decomposition

Shifted polynomial basis (SPB) is a variation of polynomial basis representation. SPB has potential for efficient bit level and digi -level implementations of multiplication over binary extension fields with subquadratic space complexity. For efficient implementation of pairing computation with large finite fields, this paper presents a new SPB multiplication algorithm based on Karatsuba schemes, and used that to derive a novel scalable multiplier architecture. Analytical results show that the proposed multiplier provides a trade-off between space and time complexities. Our proposed multiplier is modular, regular, and suitable for very large scale integration (VLSI) implementations. It involves less area complexity compared to the multipliers based on traditional decomposition methods. It is therefore, more suitable for efficient hardware implementation of pairing based cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) in constraint driven applications.

Improved MARS Ciphering Using a Metamorphic-Enhanced Function

MARS is a shared-key (symmetric) block cipher algorithm supporting 128-bit block size and a variable key size of between 128 and 448 bits. MARS has a several rounds of cryptographic core that is designed to take advantage of the powerful results for improving security/performance tradeoff over existing ciphers. In this work, a new function added to improve the ciphering process it is called, Meta-Morphic function. This function use XOR, Rotating, Inverting and No-Operation logical operations before and after encryption process. The aim of these operations is to improve MARS cipher process and makes a high confusion criterion for the Ciphertext.

Enhancing Privacy-Preserving Cloud Database Querying by Preventing Brute Force Attacks

Considering the complexities involved in Cloud computing, there are still plenty of issues that affect the privacy of data in cloud environment. Unless these problems get solved, we think that the problem of preserving privacy in cloud databases is still open. In tokenization and homomorphic cryptography based solutions for privacy preserving cloud database querying, there is possibility that by colluding with service provider adversary may run brute force attacks that will reveal the attribute values.

In this paper we propose a solution by defining the variant of K –means clustering algorithm that effectively detects such brute force attacks and enhances privacy of cloud database querying by preventing this attacks.

Efficient Aggregate Signature Algorithm and Its Application in MANET

An aggregate signature scheme can aggregate n signatures on n distinct messages from n distinct signers into a single signature. Thus, n verification equations can be reduced to one. So the aggregate signature adapts to Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). In this paper, we propose an efficient ID-based aggregate signature scheme with constant pairing computations. Compared with the existing ID-based aggregate signature scheme, this scheme greatly improves the efficiency of signature communication and verification. In addition, in this work, we apply our ID-based aggregate sig- nature to authenticated routing protocol to present a secure routing scheme. Our scheme not only provides sound authentication and a secure routing protocol in ad hoc networks, but also meets the nature of MANET.

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and It’s Routing Protocols

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configuring network, without any centralized control. The topology of this network is not always defined. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of MANETs to the researchers and practitioners, who are involved in the work in the area of modeling and simulation of MANETs. This paper begins with an overview of mobile ad hoc networks. Then it proceeds with the overview of routing protocols used in the MANETS, their properties and simulation methods. A brief tabular comparison between the routing protocols is also given in this paper considering different routing protocol parameters. This paper introduces a new routing scheme developed by the use of evolutionary algorithms (EA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) which will be used for getting the optimized output of MANET. In this paper cryptographic technique, ceaser cipher is also employed for making the optimized route secure.

LumaCert: Conception and Creation of New Digital Certificate for Online User Authentication in e-Banking Systems
Electronic banking must be secure and easy to use and many banks heavily advertise an apparent of 100% secure system which is contestable in many points. In this work, an alternative approach to the design of e-banking system, through a new solution for user authentication and security with digital certificate called LumaCert is introduced. The certificate applies new algorithm for asymmetric encryption by utilizing two mathematical operators called Pentors and UltraPentors. The public and private key in this algorithm represent a quadruple of parameters which are directly dependent from the above mentioned operators. The strength of the algorithm resides in the inability to find the respective Pentor and UltraPentor operator from the mentioned parameters.
Higher-Dimensional Quantum Cryptography
We report on a high-speed quantum cryptography system that utilizes simultaneous entanglement in polarization and in “time-bins". With multiple degrees of freedom contributing to the secret key, we can achieve over ten bits of random entropy per detected coincidence. In addition, we collect from multiple spots o the downconversion cone to further amplify the data rate, allowing usto achieve over 10 Mbits of secure key per second.
A New Design Partially Blind Signature Scheme Based on Two Hard Mathematical Problems

Recently, many existing partially blind signature scheme based on a single hard problem such as factoring, discrete logarithm, residuosity or elliptic curve discrete logarithm problems. However sooner or later these systems will become broken and vulnerable, if the factoring or discrete logarithms problems are cracked. This paper proposes a secured partially blind signature scheme based on factoring (FAC) problem and elliptic curve discrete logarithms (ECDL) problem. As the proposed scheme is focused on factoring and ECDLP hard problems, it has a solid structure and will totally leave the intruder bemused because it is very unlikely to solve the two hard problems simultaneously. In order to assess the security level of the proposed scheme a performance analysis has been conducted. Results have proved that the proposed scheme effectively deals with the partial blindness, randomization, unlinkability and unforgeability properties. Apart from this we have also investigated the computation cost of the proposed scheme. The new proposed scheme is robust and it is difficult for the malevolent attacks to break our scheme.

Multi-VSS Scheme by Shifting Random Grids

Visual secret sharing (VSS) was proposed by Naor and Shamir in 1995. Visual secret sharing schemes encode a secret image into two or more share images, and single share image can’t obtain any information about the secret image. When superimposes the shares, it can restore the secret by human vision. Due to the traditional VSS have some problems like pixel expansion and the cost of sophisticated. And this method only can encode one secret image. The schemes of encrypting more secret images by random grids into two shares were proposed by Chen et al. in 2008. But when those restored secret images have much distortion, those schemes are almost limited in decoding. In the other words, if there is too much distortion, we can’t encrypt too much information. So, if we can adjust distortion to very small, we can encrypt more secret images. In this paper, four new algorithms which based on Chang et al.’s scheme be held in 2010 are proposed. First algorithm can adjust distortion to very small. Second algorithm distributes the distortion into two restored secret images. Third algorithm achieves no distortion for special secret images. Fourth algorithm encrypts three secret images, which not only retain the advantage of VSS but also improve on the problems of decoding.

A Survey on Principal Aspects of Secure Image Transmission

This paper is a review on the aspects and approaches of design an image cryptosystem. First a general introduction given for cryptography and images encryption and followed by different techniques in image encryption and related works for each technique surveyed. Finally, general security analysis methods for encrypted images are mentioned.

Efficient Hardware Implementation of an Elliptic Curve Cryptographic Processor Over GF (2 163)

A new and highly efficient architecture for elliptic curve scalar point multiplication which is optimized for a binary field recommended by NIST and is well-suited for elliptic curve cryptographic (ECC) applications is presented. To achieve the maximum architectural and timing improvements we have reorganized and reordered the critical path of the Lopez-Dahab scalar point multiplication architecture such that logic structures are implemented in parallel and operations in the critical path are diverted to noncritical paths. With G=41, the proposed design is capable of performing a field multiplication over the extension field with degree 163 in 11.92 s with the maximum achievable frequency of 251 MHz on Xilinx Virtex-4 (XC4VLX200) while 22% of the chip area is occupied, where G is the digit size of the underlying digit-serial finite field multiplier.

Three Attacks on Jia et al.'s Remote User Authentication Scheme using Bilinear Pairings and ECC

Recently, Jia et al. proposed a remote user authentication scheme using bilinear pairings and an Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC). However, the scheme is vulnerable to privileged insider attack at their proposed registration phase and to forgery attack at their proposed authentication phase. In addition, the scheme can be vulnerable to server spoofing attack because it does not provide mutual authentication between the user and the remote server. Therefore, this paper points out that the Jia et al. scheme is vulnerable to the above three attacks.

Challenges for Security in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Wireless sensor network is formed with the combination of sensor nodes and sink nodes. Recently Wireless sensor network has attracted attention of the research community. The main application of wireless sensor network is security from different attacks both for mass public and military. However securing these networks, by itself is a critical issue due to many constraints like limited energy, computational power and lower memory. Researchers working in this area have proposed a number of security techniques for this purpose. Still, more work needs to be done.In this paper we provide a detailed discussion on security in wireless sensor networks. This paper will help to identify different obstacles and requirements for security of wireless sensor networks as well as highlight weaknesses of existing techniques.

Compton Scattering of Annihilation Photons as a Short Range Quantum Key Distribution Mechanism
The angular distribution of Compton scattering of two quanta originating in the annihilation of a positron with an electron is investigated as a quantum key distribution (QKD) mechanism in the gamma spectral range. The geometry of coincident Compton scattering is observed on the two sides as a way to obtain partially correlated readings on the quantum channel. We derive the noise probability density function of a conceptually equivalent prepare and measure quantum channel in order to evaluate the limits of the concept in terms of the device secrecy capacity and estimate it at roughly 1.9 bits per 1 000 annihilation events. The high error rate is well above the tolerable error rates of the common reconciliation protocols; therefore, the proposed key agreement protocol by public discussion requires key reconciliation using classical error-correcting codes. We constructed a prototype device based on the readily available monolithic detectors in the least complex setup.
Some Applications of Gröbner bases
In this paper we will introduce a brief introduction to theory of Gr¨obner bases and some applications of Gr¨obner bases to graph coloring problem, automatic geometric theorem proving and cryptography.
A NXM Version of 5X5 Playfair Cipher for any Natural Language (Urdu as Special Case)

In this paper a modified version NXM of traditional 5X5 playfair cipher is introduced which enable the user to encrypt message of any Natural language by taking appropriate size of the matrix depending upon the size of the natural language. 5X5 matrix has the capability of storing only 26 characters of English language and unable to store characters of any language having more than 26 characters. To overcome this limitation NXM matrix is introduced which solve this limitation. In this paper a special case of Urdu language is discussed. Where # is used for completing odd pair and * is used for repeating letters.

Security of Mobile Agent in Ad hoc Network using Threshold Cryptography

In a very simple form a Mobile Agent is an independent piece of code that has mobility and autonomy behavior. One of the main advantages of using Mobile Agent in a network is - it reduces network traffic load. In an, ad hoc network Mobile Agent can be used to protect the network by using agent based IDS or IPS. Besides, to deploy dynamic software in the network or to retrieve information from network nodes Mobile Agent can be useful. But in an ad hoc network the Mobile Agent itself needs some security. Security services should be guaranteed both for Mobile Agent and for Agent Server. In this paper to protect the Mobile Agent and Agent Server in an ad hoc network we have proposed a solution which is based on Threshold Cryptography, a new vibe in the cryptographic world where trust is distributed among multiple nodes in the network.

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