Retrofitting Measures for Existing Housing Stock in Kazakhstan
Residential buildings fund of Kazakhstan was built in the Soviet time about 35-60 years ago without considering energy efficiency measures. Currently, most of these buildings are in a rundown condition and fail to meet the minimum of hygienic, sanitary and comfortable living requirements. The paper aims to examine the reports of recent building energy survey activities in the country and provide a possible solution for retrofitting existing housing stock built before 1989 which could be applicable for building envelope in cold climate. Methodology also includes two-dimensional modeling of possible practical solutions and further recommendations.
The Effectiveness of Implementing Interactive Training for Teaching Kazakh Language
Today, a new system of education is being created in Kazakhstan in order to develop the system of education and to satisfy the world class standards. For this purpose, there have been established new requirements and responsibilities to the instructors. Students should not be limited with providing only theoretical knowledge. Also, they should be encouraged to be competitive, to think creatively and critically. Moreover, students should be able to implement these skills into practice. These issues could be resolved through the permanent improvement of teaching methods. Therefore, a specialist who teaches the languages should use up-to-date methods and introduce new technologies. The result of the investigation suggests that an interactive teaching method is one of the new technologies in this field. This paper aims to provide information about implementing new technologies in the process of teaching language. The paper will discuss about necessity of introducing innovative technologies and the techniques of organizing interactive lessons. At the same time, the structure of the interactive lesson, conditions, principles, discussions, small group works and role-playing games will be considered. Interactive methods are carried out with the help of several types of activities, such as working in a team (with two or more group of people), playing situational or role-playing games, working with different sources of information, discussions, presentations, creative works and learning through solving situational tasks and etc.
Developing Kazakh Language Fluency Test in Nazarbayev University
The Kazakh Language Fluency Test, based on the IELTS exam, was implemented in 2012 at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan. We would like to share our experience in developing this exam and some exam results with other language instructors. In this paper, we will cover all these peculiarities and their related issues. The Kazakh Language Fluency Test is a young exam. During its development, we faced many difficulties. One of the goals of the university and the country is to encourage fluency in the Kazakh language for all citizens of the Republic. Nazarbayev University has introduced a Kazakh language program to assist in achieving this goal. This policy is one-step in ensuring that NU students have a thorough understanding of the Kazakh language through a fluency test based on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS). The Kazakh Language Fluency Test exam aims to determine student’s knowledge of Kazakh language. The fact is that there are three types of students at Nazarbayev University: Kazakh-speaking heritage learners, Russian-speaking and English-speaking students. Unfortunately, we have Kazakh students who do not speak Kazakh. All students who finished school with Russian language instruction are given Kazakh Language Fluency Test in order to determine their Kazakh level. After the test exam, all students can choose appropriate Kazakh course: Basic Kazakh, Intermediate Kazakh and Upper-Intermediate Kazakh. The Kazakh Language Fluency Test consists of four parts: Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking. They are taken on the same day in the abovementioned order.
Towards Achieving Energy Efficiency in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan is currently one of the dynamically
developing states in its region. The stable growth in all sectors of the
economy leads to a corresponding increase in energy consumption.
Thus country consumes significant amount of energy due to the high
level of industrialisation and the presence of energy-intensive
manufacturing such as mining and metallurgy which in turn leads to
low energy efficiency. With allowance for this the Government has
set several priorities to adopt a transition of Republic of Kazakhstan
to a “green economy”. This article provides an overview of
Kazakhstan’s energy efficiency situation in for the period of 1991-
2014. First, the dynamics of production and consumption of
conventional energy resources are given. Second, the potential of
renewable energy sources is summarised followed by the description
of GHG emissions trends in the country. Third, Kazakhstan’ national
initiatives, policies and locally implemented projects in the field of
energy efficiency are described.
Civil Service Reforms in Kazakhstan and Its Influence on Modernization
Civil service (public administration) is an important social institution of society properties. Civil service institution had a significant impact on modernization processes in Kazakhstan through ensuring the functioning of all the subsystems of social life. This article is an attempt to analyze the reforms of public service institution in Kazakhstan and to assess its influence on modernization processes.
Child Care Policy in Kazakhstan: A New Model
Child care policy must be a priority area of public authorities in any country. This study investigates child care policy in Kazakhstan in accordance with the current position of children and laws. The results show that Kazakhstan policy in this sphere needs more systematic model including state economic and social measures, parental involvement and role of non-government organizations.
Women's Religiosity as a Factor in the Persistence of Religious Traditions: Kazakhstan, the XX Century
The main question of the research is - how did the Kazakhs manage to keep their religious thinking in the period of active propaganda of Soviet atheism, for seventy years of struggle against religion with the involvement of the scientific worldview as the primary means of proving the absence of the divine nature and materiality of the world?
Our hypothesis is that In case of Kazakhstan the conservative female religious consciousness seems to have been a factor that helped to preserve the “everyday” religiousness of Kazakhs, which was far from deep theological contents of Islam, but able to revive in a short time after the decennia of proclaimed atheism.
The Taste of Native Land in Everyday Practices of Repatriates – Variations by the Countries of Origin (by Field Materials)
Practices of food sharing as part of the brotherhood and hospitality interpretation have been essential part of the Kazakh ethnic culture since early times. Dialogue in time and space between Kazakhs through differences in food interpretation among the ethnic repatriates may become a link connecting them and platform for stable relations with the host society or serious barrier on the way of their integration in the Kazakhstani society. The article elucidates by the field materials how some aspects of food culture differences among ethnic Kazakhs living abroad (XUAR of China) and ethnic repatriates in Kazakhstan may influence their integration path.
Repatriates in the Kazakhstan: The Problems of Migration and Adaptation to the Historic Homeland
The article is devoted to Kazakh repatriates and their
migration to Kazakhstan as historical homeland, and also addresses
the problem of migrants- adaptation in the republic, particularly in
Almaty oblast (region). The authors used up-to-date statictics and
materials of the Department of Migration Committee to analyze the
newcomers- number and features of the repatriate-s location in this
oblast. Having studied this region they were able to identify the main
reasons why Kazakh Diaspora in Central Asia, Iran, Avganistana and
Turkey is eager to come back to their historic homeland along with
repatriates adaptation to the republic.
Islam and Values of Kazakh Culture
Unlike Christianity and Buddhism, Islam, being one
of the three universal world religions, actively penetrates into
people-s everyday life. The main reason for this is that in Islam the
religion and ideology, philosophy, religious organizations and state
bodies are closely interrelated. In order to analyze the state of being
of interrelations of religion and civil society in Kazakhstan, it is
necessary to study Islam and its relations with spiritual culture of the
society. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan
the religion is separated from the state, i.e. each performs its own
function without interfering into each other-s affairs. The right of the
citizens of our republic to freedom of thinking and faith is based on
the Constitution of the RK, Civil Code, Law “On freedom of faith
and religious unions in the Republic of Kazakhstan".
Legislatively secured separation of the mosque and church from
the state does not mean that religion has no influence on the latter.
The state, consisting of citizens with their own beliefs, including
religious ones, cannot be isolated from the influence of religion.
Nowadays it is commonly accepted that it is not possible to
understand and forecast key social processes without taking into
account the religious factor.
Mission of Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan in the XIX Century: Activity, Expectations and Results
The focus of this research is in the area of the soviet period and the mission of the Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan in the XIX century. There was close connection of national customs and traditions with religious practices, outlooks and attitudes. In particular, such an approach has alleged estimation by Kazakh historians of the process of Christianization of the local population. Some of them are inclined to consider the small number of Christening Kazakhs as evidence that the Russian Orthodox Church didn’t achieve its mission. The number of historians who think that the church didn’t achieve its mission has thousand over the last centuries, however our calculations of the number of Kazakhs who became Orthodox Christian is much more than other historians think. Such Christians can be divided into 3 groups: Some remained Christian until their deaths, others had two faiths and the third hid their true religions, having returned to their former belief. Therefore, to define the exact amount of Christening Kazakhs represented a challenge. Some data does not create a clear picture of the level of Christianization, constant and accurate was not collected. The data appearing in reports of spiritual attendants and civil authorities is not always authentic. Article purpose is illumination and the analysis missionary activity of Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan.
Quality of Life: Expectations and Achievements of Middle Class in Kazakhstan
The improvement of quality of life is the main visible
integrated indicator of state well-being. More and more states pay
attention to define and to achieve social standards of quality of life as
social-economic strategy of development. These standards are
determinate by state features, complex of needs and interests of
individual, family and society.
It still remains in open question: “What is middle class" in
contemporary Kazakhstan. Appearance of new social standards of
quality of life is important indicator of its successful establishment.
The middle class as agent of social, politic and economic reforms
promotes to improve the quality of life of the country. But if consider
a low and a middle stratums of middle class, we can see that high
social expectations and real achievements are still significantly
The article relies on the sociological data, collected during of
search of household-s standards of living in Almaty city and Almaty
region, and case-study of cottage city “Jana Kuat".
Service and Actions of Representatives of the National Intelligentsia on a Way of Independence of the Autonomous State
This article refers to the action of Kazakh
intelligentsia towards the formation of national state and their
attempt for reconstruction of national independence and building the
way to nowadays- independence through reviewing the history of our
The Studying of The “Бақыт”(“Happiness”) Concept In The Kazakh Language
The given article deals with the usage of the concept
in many spheres of science, including its place in the Kazakh
linguistics One of such concepts is the role of the “бақыт”
(“happiness”) concept in the Kazakh outlook. The work tells us about
its studying. The data about studying of the “happiness” concept in
the sphere of philosophy, psychology, cognitive linguistics, lingo
cultural study, logics, psycho-linguistic are given in this work.
Particularly dwelling at length on the studying level of the concept in
the sphere of cognitive linguistics, analysis have been made
pertaining linguist point of views. It was pointed out that the concept
of “happiness” hasn’t been studied yet in the Kazakh linguistics and
it is necessary to find out the meaning of the language units related to
this concept, i.e. blessings, proverbs, sayings and phrasiological units.
Kazakhstani Humanism: Challenges and Prospects
This article examines the emergence and development
of the Kazakhstan species of humanism. The biggest challenge for
Kazakhstan in terms of humanism is connected with advocating
human values in parallel to promoting national interests; preserving
the continuity of traditions in various spheres of life, business and
culture. This should be a common goal for the entire society, the
main direction for a national intelligence, and a platform for the state
policy. An idea worth considering is a formation of national humanist
tradition model; the challenges are adapting people to live in the
context of new industrial and innovative economic conditions,
keeping the balance during intensive economic development of the
country, and ensuring social harmony in the society.
Modern Kazakhstan in Global World After Independence
The article deals with the problems of political and
economic processes in Kazakhstan since independence in the context
of globalization. It analyzes the geopolitical situation and selfpositioning
processes in the world after the end of the "cold war". It
examines the problems of internal economization of the Republic for
20 years of independence. The authors argue that the reforms
proceeded in the economic sphere have brought ambiguous and
tangible results. Despite the difficult economic and political conditions
facing a world economical crisis the country has undergone
fundamental and radical transformations in the whole socio-economic
Regional Security Issue: Central Asian Countries and NATO Cooperation (On the Example of Kazakhstan)
Kazakhstan attaches the great importance to
cooperation with European countries within the framework of
multilateral security organizations such as NATO. Cooperation of
Kazakhstan with the NATO is a prominent aspect of strengthening of
regional security of republic. It covers a wide spectrum of areas, such
as reform of sector of defense and security, military operative
compatibility of armed forces of NATO member-countries and
Kazakhstan, civil emergency planning and scientific cooperation. The
cooperation between Kazakhstan and NATO is based on the mutual
interests of neighboring republics in the region so that the existing
forms of cooperation between Kazakhstan and NATO will not be
negatively perceived both in Asia as well as among CIS countries.
Kazakhstan tailors its participation in the PfP programme through an
annual Individual Partnership Programme, selecting those activities
that will help achieve the goals it has set in the IPAP. Level of
cooperation within the limits of PfP essentially differs on each
republic. Cooperation with Kazakhstan progressed most of all since
has been signed IPAP from the NATO
Kazakhstani Koreans- Conflict of Linguistic Identity: In–between the Sovietized and Kazakhstani Citizens
This paper intends to identify the ethnic Kazakhstani
Koreans- political process of identity formation by exploring their
narrative and practice about the state language represented in the
course of their becoming the new citizens of a new independent state.
The Russophone Kazakhstani Koreans- inability to speak the official
language of their affiliated state is considered there as dissatisfying the
basic requirement of citizens of the independent state, so that they are
becoming marginalized from the public sphere. Their contradictory
attitude that at once demonstrates nominal reception and practical
rejection of the obligatory state language unveils a high barrier inside
between their self-language and other-language. In this paper, the
ethnic Korean group-s conflicting linguistic identity is not seen as a
free and simple choice, but as a dynamic struggle and political process
in which the subject-s past experiences and memories intersect with
the external elements of pressure.
Traditions of Theatrical Art in the Space of Nomadic Culture of the Kazakhs
A number of theoretical and methodological problems connected with substantiation of a new approach and searches of a new research paradigm and the analysis of features of formation and development of the Kazakh stage are considered in the article. The wide spectrum of questions connected with genesis of the Kazakh stage art has caused necessity of consideration of world outlook and social cultural aspects which have affected formation of the given phenomenon in the Kazakh culture. But how can we define the form of expression and aesthetics of the national theatre? Probably, the answer to this question we will find if we apply to deep world view sources, and, as a consequence, it is necessary to study deeply the plot dramaturgy, which is based on myths, rites and eposes, mastering of symbolic gestures and mimics, allegory of a word, etc.
Regional Economy under the Prism of National Security
This article is devoted to the problems of the
disproportional development of regions in the Republic Kazakhstan.
The threats proceeding from problem regions, make strong impact on
the country-s sustainable development, therefore they are necessary
to be considered at the level of national security.
Political Preconditions for National Values of the Kazakhstan Nation
Article is devoted to the problem of Kazakhstan people national values in the conditions of the Republic of Kazakhstan independence. Formation of ethnos national values is viewed as the mandatory constituent of this process in contemporary conditions. The article shows the dynamics of forming socialspiritual basis of Kazakhstan people-s national values. It depicts peculiarities of interethnic relations in poly-ethnic and multiconfessional Kazakhstan. The study reviews in every detail various directions of the state social policy development in the sphere of national values. It is aimed to consolidation of the society to achieve the shared objective, i.e. building democratic and civilized state. The author discloses peculiarities of ethnos national values development using specific sources. It is underlined that renewal and modernization of Kazakhstan society represents new stage in the national value development, and its typical feature is integration process based on peoples- friendship, cultural principles of interethnic communication.
Legal Education as Forming Factor of Legal Culture in Kazakhstan Modern Society
Forming a legal culture among citizens is a
complicated and lengthy process, influencing all spheres of social
life. It includes promoting justice, learning rights and duties, the
introduction of juridical norms and knowledge, and also a process of
developing a system of legal acts and constitutional norms. Currently,
the evaluative and emotional influence of attempts to establish a legal
culture among the citizens of Kazakhstan is limited by real legal
practice. As a result, the values essential to a sound civil society are
absent from the consciousness of the Kazakh people who are thus, in
turn, not able to develop respect for these values. One of the
disadvantages of the modern Kazakh educational system is a
tendency to underrate the actual forces shaping the worldview of
Kazakh youths. The mass-media, which are going through a
personnel crisis, cannot provide society with the legal and political
information necessary to form the sort of legal culture required for a
true civil society.
Social Organization of Kazakhstani Business under Conditions of Customs Union and Common Free Market Zone: Empirical Study Practice
This article is devoted to the analysis of results of
sociological researches carried out by authors directed on studying of
opinion of representatives of small, medium and big business on
formation of the Customs Union, Common Free Market Zone with
participation of Kazakhstan, Russia and Belarus.
It-s forecasted that companies, their branches will interpenetrate
with registration and moving their businesses to regions with more
beneficial conditions. They say that in Kazakhstan there are more
profitable geo-strategic operating environment for business and lower
taxes. Russia using this opportunity will create new conditions for
expansion into other countries of Central Asia and China. Opinions
of participants of questionnaire and expert poll different in estimation
of value of these two integration mechanisms since market segments
on the one hand extend, but also on the other hand - loss of exclusive
influence in certain fields of activity.
A National Idea in Conditions of the Islamic Revival
Discussion and development of principles of the
uniform nation formation within the limits of the Kazakhstan state
obviously became one of the most pressing questions of the day. The
fact that this question has not been solved "from above" as many
other questions has caused really brisk discussion, shows us increase
of civil consciousness in Kazakhstan society, and also the actuality of
this theme which can be carried in the category of fatal questions. In
any sense, nation building has raised civil society to a much higher
level. It would be better to begin with certain definitions. First is the
word "nation". The second is the "state". Both of these terms are very
closely connected with each other, so that in English language they
are in general synonyms. In Russian more shades of these terms
exist. For example in Kazakhstan the citizens of the country
irrespective of nationality (but mainly with reference to non-kazakhs)
are called «kazakhstanians», while the name of the title nation is
\"Kazakhs\". The same we can see in Russia, where, for example, the
Chechen or the Yakut –are \"Rossiyane\" which means “the citizens
of Russian Federation, but not \"Russians\".
The paper was written under the research project “Islam in modern
Kazakhstan: the nature and outcome of the religious revival”.
The Role of the Dominant Party of the Republic of Kazakhstan and China's Ruling Party in a Country's Modernization: Similarities and Differences
The purpose of this work is to identify the positive and negative aspects of parties- participation in the country-s modernization, which in turn, will help a country to determine the necessary steps to improve the social-economic development. The article considers a question of the role of the dominating party of Kazakhstan and ruling party of China in the country-s modernization. Using a comparative analysis reveals differences between the People's Democratic Party “Nur Otan" and the Communist Party of China. It is discussed the policy of carrying out of modernization, the main actions of political parties of both countries with a view of modernization implementation.
Eurasian Economic Integration: Eurasian Economic Community and Shanghai Cooperation Organization
The purpose of this article is to analyze economic and
political tendencies of development of integration processes with
different developing level and speed on the Eurasian space, by considering two organizations at the region – Eurasian Economic
Community and Shanghai Cooperation Organization, by considering the interests of participations in organizations of Russia and China as
a global powers and Kazakhstan as a leader among the Central Asian
countries. This article investigates what certain goals Eurasian
countries (especially Russia, Kazakhstan and China) are waiting from integration within the SCO and the EurAsEC, linking the process
with the theories of regional integration. After European debt crisis it is more topically to research the integration within the specific
Islam and Kazakh Society before Soviet Era
The article considers religious aspects of Kazakh
society pre-Soviet times. Studying the mental, political and spiritual
content of Islam, the reasons for its wide distribution among the ancestors of the Kazakhs is analyzed. Interested Russians since the
accession of the Kazakh Khanate to the Russian Empire more than
once pointed out that Islam is a synthesis of Islam and Shamanism.
But shamanism is a generalization of the name of religion, which
took place prior to Islam in the land of the Kazakh people. Here we can see the elements of Zoroastrianism, Tengrianism, etc. This shows
that the ancestors of the Kazakhs - Turkic people - not renounced the
ancient beliefs completely and leave some portion of these religions
as an integral part of the worldview of the people, by the device.
Therefore, the founder of the Turkic Sufi Yasaui still has a huge impact on the religiosity of the Kazakhs. He managed elements of the
ancient religion, which formed the basis of the Kazakhs world, interpreted in the Muslim perspective. The Russian authorities tried
to quell by Islamization Kazakh people. But it was Islam that has
revived the national consciousness of the Kazakh people.
Features of Party Construction in the Course of Political Modernization of Kazakhstan
This article considers the main features of party
construction in the course of political modernization of Kazakhstan.
Along with consideration of party construction author analyzed how
the transformation of the party system was fulfilled in Kazakhstan.
Besides the basic stages in the course of party construction were
explained by the author. The statistical data is cited.
Two Culture-s Characters in Contemporary Kazakh Cinema
In this article the authors are researching cultural
differences between rural and urban characters in case of
contemporary Kazakh cinema.Two motion pictures are analyzed:
“Strizh" (2007) by AbaiKulbai and “Seker" (2009) by
SabitKurmanbekov.According to the authors- opinion ateenage girl
characters in these two films reflect two cultures (urban and rural) of
Kazakh society, which displays complicated socio-cultural processes
of modern Kazakhstan.
Transliterating Methods of the Kazakh Onyms in the Arabic Language
Transliteration is frequently used especially in writing geographic denominations, personal names (onyms) etc. Proper names (onyms) of all languages must sound similarly in translated works as well as in scientific projects and works written in mother tongue, because we can get introduced with the nation, its history, culture, traditions and other spiritual values through the onyms of that nation. Therefore it is necessary to systematize the different transliterations of onyms of foreign languages. This paper is dedicated to the problem of making the project of transliterating Kazakh onyms into Arabic. In order to achieve this goal we use scientific or practical types of transliteration. Because in this type of transliteration provides easy reading writing source language's texts in the target language without any diacritical symbols, it is limited by the target language's alphabetic system.