Determination of Thermophysical Properties of Water Based Magnetic Nanofluids
In this study, it was aimed to determine the thermophysical properties of two different magnetic nanofluids (NiFe2O4-water and CoFe2O4-water). Magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed into the pure water at different volume fractions from 0 vol.% to 4 vol.%. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 15 oC-55 oC. In order to get better idea on the temperature dependent thermophysical properties of magnetic nanofluids (MNFs), viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements were made. SEM images of both NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were used in order to confirm the average dimensions. The measurements showed that the thermal conductivity of MNFs increased with an increase in the volume fraction as well as viscosity. Increase in the temperature of both MNFs resulted in an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the viscosity. Based on the measured data, the correlations for both the viscosity and the thermal conductivity were presented with respect to solid volume ratio and temperature. Effective thermal conductivity of the prepared MNFs was also calculated. The results indicated that water based NiFe2O4 nanofluid had higher thermal conductivity than that of the CoFe2O4. Once the viscosity values of both MNFs were compared, almost no difference was observed.
Thermal Performance Analysis of Nanofluids in a Concetric Heat Exchanger Equipped with Turbulators
Turbulent forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3–water nanofluid flowing through a concentric tube heat exchanger with and without coiled wire turbulators were studied experimentally. The experiments were conducted in the Reynolds number ranging from 4000 to 20000, particle volume concentrations of 0.8 vol.% and 1.6 vol.%. Two turbulators with the pitches of 25 mm and 39 mm were used. The results of nanofluids indicated that average Nusselt number increased much more with increasing Reynolds number compared to that of pure water. Thermal conductivity enhancement by the nanofluids resulted in heat transfer enhancement. Once the pressure drop of the alumina/water nanofluid was analyzed, it was nearly equal to that of pure water at the same Reynolds number range. It was concluded that nanofluids with the volume fractions of 0.8 and 1.6 did not have a significant effect on pressure drop change. However, the use of wire coils in heat exchanger enhanced heat transfer as well as the pressure drop.
Investigation on Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Spray Cooling Systems Using Nanofluids
This paper aims to study the heat transfer and fluid
flow characteristics of nanofluids used in spray cooling systems. The
effect of spray height, type of nanofluids and concentration of
nanofluids are numerically investigated. Five different nanofluids
such as AgH2O, Al2O3, CuO, SiO2 and TiO2 with volume fraction
range of 0.5% to 2.5% are used. The results revealed that the heat
transfer performance decreases as spray height increases. It is found
that TiO2 has the highest transfer coefficient among other nanofluids.
In dilute spray conditions, low concentration of nanofluids is
observed to be more effective in heat removal in a spray cooling
Mixed Convective Heat Transfer in Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluid in Horizontal Rectangular Duct
In the present study, mixed convection in a horizontal
rectangular duct using Al2O3 is numerically investigated. The effects
of different Rayleigh number, Reynolds number and radiation on
flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied in detail. This study
covers Rayleigh number in the range of 2 × 10^6 ≤ Ra ≤ 2 × 10^7 and
Reynolds number in the range of 100 ≤ Re ≤ 1100. Results reveal that
the Nusselt number increases as Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers
increase. It is also found that the dimensionless temperature
distribution increases as Rayleigh number increases.
Analysis of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Performance by Use of Porous Baffles and Nanofluids
The present work is a numerical simulation of
nanofluids flow in a double pipe heat exchanger provided with
porous baffles. The hot nanofluid flows in the inner cylinder, whereas
the cold nanofluid circulates in the annular gap. The Darcy-
Brinkman-Forchheimer model is adopted to describe the flow in the
porous regions, and the governing equations with the appropriate
boundary conditions are solved by the finite volume method. The
results reveal that the addition of metallic nanoparticles enhances the
rate of heat transfer in comparison to conventional fluids but this
augmentation is accompanied by an increase in pressure drop. The
highest heat exchanger performances are obtained when
nanoparticles are added only to the cold fluid.
Is It Important to Measure the Volumetric Mass Density of Nanofluids?
The present study aims to measure the volumetric mass density of NiPd-heptane nanofluids synthesized using a one step method known as thermal decomposition of metal-surfactant complexes. The particle concentration is up to 7.55g/l and the temperature range of the experiment is from 20°C to 50°C. The measured values were compared with the mixture theory and good agreement between the theoretical equation and measurement were obtained. Moreover, the available nanofluids volumetric mass density data in the literature is reviewed.
Turbulent Forced Convection Flow in a Channel over Periodic Grooves Using Nanofluids
Turbulent forced convection flow in a 2-dimensional channel over periodic grooves is numerically investigated. Finite volume method is used to study the effect of turbulence model. The range of Reynolds number varied from 10000 to 30000 for the ribheight to channel-height ratio (B/H) of 2. The downstream wall is heated by a uniform heat flux while the upstream wall is insulated. The investigation is analyzed with different types of nanoparticles such as SiO2, Al2O3, and ZnO, with water as a base fluid are used. The volume fraction is varied from 1% to 4% and the nanoparticle diameter is utilized between 20nm to 50nm. The results revealed 114% heat transfer enhancement compared to the water in a grooved channel by using SiO2 nanoparticle with volume fraction and nanoparticle diameter of 4% and 20nm respectively.
Experimental Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Laminar Flow Regime inside a Circular Tube
In the present study, Convective heat transfer
coefficient and pressure drop of Al2O3/water nanofluid in laminar
flow regime under constant heat flux conditions inside a circular tube
were experimentally investigated. Al2O3/water nanofluid with 0.5%
and 1% volume concentrations with 15 nm diameter nanoparticles
were used as working fluid. The effect of different volume
concentrations on convective heat transfer coefficient and friction
factor was studied. The results emphasize that increasing of particle
volume concentration leads to enhance convective heat transfer
coefficient. Measurements show the average heat transfer coefficient
enhanced about 11-20% with 0.5% volume concentration and
increased about 16-27% with 1% volume concentration compared to
distilled water. In addition, the convective heat transfer coefficient of
nanofluid enhances with increase in heat flux. From the results, the
average ratio of (fnf/fbf) was about 1.10 for 0.5% volume
concentration. Therefore, there is no significant increase in friction
factor for nanofluids.
Carbon Nanotubes with Magnetic Particles
Magnetic carbon nanotubes composites were obtained
by filling carbon nanotubes with paramagnetic iron oxide particles.
Detailed investigation of magnetic behaviour of resulting composites
was done at different temperatures. Measurements indicate that these
functionalized nanotubes are superparamagnetic at room temperature;
however, no superparamagnetism was observed at 125 K and 80 K.
The blocking temperature TB was estimated at 145 K. These magnetic
carbon nanotubes have the potential of being used in a wide range of
applications, in particular, the production of nanofluids, which can be
controlled and steered by appropriate magnetic fields.
Acoustic Study on the Interactions of Coconut Oil Based Copper Oxide Nanofluid
Novel Coconut oil nanofluids of various concentrations have been prepared through ultrasonically assisted sol-gel method. The structural and morphological properties of the copper oxide nanoparticle have been analyzed with respectively and it revealed the monoclinic end-centered structure of crystallite and shuttle like flake morphology of agglomerates. Ultrasonic studies have been made for the nanofluids at different temperatures. The molecular interactions responsible for the changes in acoustical parameter with respect to concentration and temperature are discussed.
Linear Stability of Convection in a Viscoelastic Nanofluid Layer
This paper presents a linear stability analysis of
natural convection in a horizontal layer of a viscoelastic
nanofluid. The Oldroyd B model was utilized to describe the
rheological behavior of a viscoelastic nanofluid. The model
used for the nanofluid incorporated the effects of Brownian
motion and thermophoresis. The onset criterion for stationary
and oscillatory convection was derived analytically. The effects
of the Deborah number, retardation parameters, concentration
Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, and Lewis number on the
stability of the system were investigated. Results indicated that
there was competition among the processes of thermophoresis,
Brownian diffusion, and viscoelasticity which caused
oscillatory rather than stationary convection to occur.
Oscillatory instability is possible with both bottom- and
top-heavy nanoparticle distributions. Regimes of stationary and
oscillatory convection for various parameters were derived and
are discussed in detail.
Effect of Particle Size in Aviation Turbine Fuel-Al2O3 Nanofluids for Heat Transfer Applications
The effect of Alumina nanoparticle size on thermophysical
properties, heat transfer performance and pressure loss characteristics of
Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF)-Al2O3 nanofluids is studied experimentally for
the proposed application of regenerative cooling of semi-cryogenic rocket
engine thrust chambers. Al2O3 particles with mean diameters of 50 nm or 150
nm are dispersed in ATF. At 500C and 0.3% particle volume concentration,
the bigger particles show increases of 17% in thermal conductivity and 55% in
viscosity, whereas the smaller particles show corresponding increases of 21%
and 22% for thermal conductivity and viscosity respectively. Contrary to these
results, experiments to study the heat transfer performance and pressure loss
characteristics show that at the same pumping power, the maximum
enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at 500C and 0.3% concentration is
approximately 47% using bigger particles, whereas it is only 36% using
Thermal Diffusivity Measurement of Cadmium
Sulphide Nanoparticles Prepared by
In this study we applied thermal lens (TL) technique
to study the effect of size on thermal diffusivity of cadmium sulphide
(CdS) nanofluid prepared by using γ-radiation method containing
particles with different sizes. In TL experimental set up a diode laser
of wavelength 514 nm and intensity stabilized He-Ne laser were used
as the excitation source and the probe beam respectively,
respectively. The experimental results showed that the thermal
diffusivity value of CdS nanofluid increases when the of particle size
Ionanofluids as Novel Fluids for Advanced Heat Transfer Applications
Ionanofluids are a new and innovative class of heat transfer fluids which exhibit fascinating thermophysical properties compared to their base ionic liquids. This paper deals with the findings of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of ionanofluids as a function of a temperature and concentration of nanotubes. Simulation results using ionanofluids as coolants in heat exchanger are also used to access their feasibility and performance in heat transfer devices. Results on thermal conductivity and heat capacity of ionanofluids as well as the estimation of heat transfer areas for ionanofluids and ionic liquids in a model shell and tube heat exchanger reveal that ionanofluids possess superior thermal conductivity and heat capacity and require considerably less heat transfer areas as compared to those of their base ionic liquids. This novel class of fluids shows great potential for advanced heat transfer applications.
Correlation of Viscosity in Nanofluids using Genetic Algorithm-neural Network (GA-NN)
An accurate and proficient artificial neural network
(ANN) based genetic algorithm (GA) is developed for predicting of
nanofluids viscosity. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize
the neural network parameters for minimizing the error between the
predictive viscosity and the experimental one. The experimental
viscosity in two nanofluids Al2O3-H2O and CuO-H2O from 278.15
to 343.15 K and volume fraction up to 15% were used from
literature. The result of this study reveals that GA-NN model is
outperform to the conventional neural nets in predicting the viscosity
of nanofluids with mean absolute relative error of 1.22% and 1.77%
for Al2O3-H2O and CuO-H2O, respectively. Furthermore, the results
of this work have also been compared with others models. The
findings of this work demonstrate that the GA-NN model is an
effective method for prediction viscosity of nanofluids and have
better accuracy and simplicity compared with the others models.