Taguchi-Based Six Sigma Approach to Optimize Surface Roughness for Milling Processes
This paper focuses on using Six Sigma methodologies to improve the surface roughness of a manufactured part produced by the CNC milling machine. It presents a case study where the surface roughness of milled aluminum is required to reduce or eliminate defects and to improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for a CNC milling process. The six sigma methodology, DMAIC (design, measure, analyze, improve, and control) approach, was applied in this study to improve the process, reduce defects, and ultimately reduce costs. The Taguchi-based six sigma approach was applied to identify the optimized processing parameters that led to the targeted surface roughness specified by our customer. A L9 orthogonal array was applied in the Taguchi experimental design, with four controllable factors and one non-controllable/noise factor. The four controllable factors identified consist of feed rate, depth of cut, spindle speed, and surface roughness. The noise factor is the difference between the old cutting tool and the new cutting tool. The confirmation run with the optimal parameters confirmed that the new parameter settings are correct. The new settings also improved the process capability index. The purpose of this study is that the Taguchi–based six sigma approach can be efficiently used to phase out defects and improve the process capability index of the CNC milling process.
Taguchi-Based Optimization of Surface Roughness and Dimensional Accuracy in Wire EDM Process with S7 Heat Treated Steel
This research focuses on the use of the Taguchi method to reduce the surface roughness and improve dimensional accuracy of parts machined by Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) with S7 heat treated steel material. Due to its high impact toughness, the material is a candidate for a wide variety of tooling applications which require high precision in dimension and desired surface roughness. This paper demonstrates that Taguchi Parameter Design methodology is able to optimize both dimensioning and surface roughness successfully by investigating seven wire-EDM controllable parameters: pulse on time (ON), pulse off time (OFF), servo voltage (SV), voltage (V), servo feed (SF), wire tension (WT), and wire speed (WS). The temperature of the water in the Wire EDM process is investigated as the noise factor in this research. Experimental design and analysis based on L18 Taguchi orthogonal arrays are conducted. This paper demonstrates that the Taguchi-based system enables the wire EDM process to produce (1) high precision parts with an average of 0.6601 inches dimension, while the desired dimension is 0.6600 inches; and (2) surface roughness of 1.7322 microns which is significantly improved from 2.8160 microns.
An Innovative Green Cooling Approach Using Peltier Chip in Milling Operation for Surface Roughness Improvement
Surface roughness is one of the key quality parameters of the finished product. During any machining operation, high temperatures are generated at the tool-chip interface impairing surface quality and dimensional accuracy of products. Cutting fluids are generally applied during machining to reduce temperature at the tool-chip interface. However, usages of cutting fluids give rise to problems such as waste disposal, pollution, high cost, and human health hazard. Researchers, now-a-days, are opting towards dry machining and other cooling techniques to minimize use of coolants during machining while keeping surface roughness of products within desirable limits. In this paper, a concept of using peltier cooling effects during aluminium milling operation has been presented and adopted with an aim to improve surface roughness of the machined surface. Experimental evidence shows that peltier cooling effect provides better surface roughness of the machined surface compared to dry machining.
Surface Topography Measurement by Confocal Spectral Interferometry
Confocal spectral interferometry (CSI) is an innovative optical method for determining microtopography of surfaces and thickness of transparent layers, based on the combination of two optical principles: confocal imaging, and spectral interferometry. Confocal optical system images at each instant a single point of the sample. The whole surface is reconstructed by plan scanning. The interference signal generated by mixing two white-light beams is analyzed using a spectrometer. In this work, five ‘rugotests’ of known standard roughnesses are investigated. The topography is then measured and illustrated, and the equivalent roughness is determined and compared with the standard values.
Variation of Quality of Roller-Compacted Concrete Based on Consistency
Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) has been used for decades in many pavement applications due to its economic cost and high construction speed. However, due to the lack of deep researches and experiences, this material has not been widely employed. An RCC mixture with appropriate consistency can induce high compacted density, while high density can induce good aggregate interlock and high strength. Consistency of RCC is mainly known to define its constructability. However, it was not well specified how this property may affect other properties of a constructed RCC pavement (RCCP). This study suggested the possibility of an ideal range of consistency that may provide adequate quality of RCCP. In this research, five sections of RCCP consisted of both 13 mm and 19 mm aggregate sections were investigated. The effects of consistency on compacted depth, strength, international roughness index (IRI), skid resistance are examined. From this study, a new range of consistency is suggested for RCCP application.
Flexural Properties of Halloysite Nanotubes-Polyester Nanocomposites Exposed to Aggressive Environment
This study aimed to investigate the effect of aggressive environment on the flexural properties of halloysite nanotubes-polyester nanocomposites. Results showed that the addition of halloysite nanotubes into polyester matrix was found to improve flexural properties of the nanocomposites in dry condition and after water-methanol exposure. Significant increase in surface roughness was also observed and measured by Alicona Infinite Focus optical microscope.
An Alternative Approach for Assessing the Impact of Cutting Conditions on Surface Roughness Using Single Decision Tree
In this study, an approach to identify factors affecting on surface roughness in a machining process is presented. This study is based on 81 data about surface roughness over a wide range of cutting tools (conventional, cutting tool with holes, cutting tool with composite material), workpiece materials (AISI 1045 Steel, AA2024 aluminum alloy, A48-class30 gray cast iron), spindle speed (630-1000 rpm), feed rate (0.05-0.075 mm/rev), depth of cut (0.05-0.15 mm) and tool overhang (41-65 mm). A single decision tree (SDT) analysis was done to identify factors for predicting a model of surface roughness, and the CART algorithm was employed for building and evaluating regression tree. Results show that a single decision tree is better than traditional regression models with higher rate and forecast accuracy and strong value.
Process Modeling of Electric Discharge Machining of Inconel 825 Using Artificial Neural Network
Electrical discharge machining (EDM), a non-conventional machining process, finds wide applications for shaping difficult-to-cut alloys. Process modeling of EDM is required to exploit the process to the fullest. Process modeling of EDM is a challenging task owing to involvement of so many electrical and non-electrical parameters. This work is an attempt to model the EDM process using artificial neural network (ANN). Experiments were carried out on die-sinking EDM taking Inconel 825 as work material. ANN modeling has been performed using experimental data. The prediction ability of trained network has been verified experimentally. Results indicate that ANN can predict the values of performance measures of EDM satisfactorily.
High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry of the Flow around a Moving Train Model with Boundary Layer Control Elements
Trackside induced airflow velocities, also known as
slipstream velocities, are an important criterion for the design of
high-speed trains. The maximum permitted values are given by the
Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) and have to be
checked in the approval process. For train manufactures it is of great
interest to know in advance, how new train geometries would perform
in TSI tests. The Reynolds number in moving model experiments is
lower compared to full-scale. Especially the limited model length
leads to a thinner boundary layer at the rear end. The hypothesis is
that the boundary layer rolls up to characteristic flow structures in the
train wake, in which the maximum flow velocities can be observed.
The idea is to enlarge the boundary layer using roughness elements
at the train model head so that the ratio between the boundary
layer thickness and the car width at the rear end is comparable to a
full-scale train. This may lead to similar flow structures in the wake
and better prediction accuracy for TSI tests. In this case, the design
of the roughness elements is limited by the moving model rig. Small
rectangular roughness shapes are used to get a sufficient effect on the
boundary layer, while the elements are robust enough to withstand
the high accelerating and decelerating forces during the test runs. For
this investigation, High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV)
measurements on an ICE3 train model have been realized in the
moving model rig of the DLR in Göttingen, the so called tunnel
simulation facility Göttingen (TSG). The flow velocities within the
boundary layer are analysed in a plain parallel to the ground. The
height of the plane corresponds to a test position in the EN standard
(TSI). Three different shapes of roughness elements are tested. The
boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness as well as the
momentum thickness and the form factor are calculated along the
train model. Conditional sampling is used to analyse the size and
dynamics of the flow structures at the time of maximum velocity
in the train wake behind the train. As expected, larger roughness
elements increase the boundary layer thickness and lead to larger
flow velocities in the boundary layer and in the wake flow structures.
The boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness and momentum
thickness are increased by using larger roughness especially when
applied in the height close to the measuring plane. The roughness
elements also cause high fluctuations in the form factors of the
boundary layer. Behind the roughness elements, the form factors
rapidly are approaching toward constant values. This indicates that
the boundary layer, while growing slowly along the second half of
the train model, has reached a state of equilibrium.
A Comparison of Single of Decision Tree, Decision Tree Forest and Group Method of Data Handling to Evaluate the Surface Roughness in Machining Process
The machinability of workpieces (AISI 1045 Steel, AA2024 aluminum alloy, A48-class30 gray cast iron) in turning operation has been carried out using different types of cutting tool (conventional, cutting tool with holes in toolholder and cutting tool filled up with composite material) under dry conditions on a turning machine at different stages of spindle speed (630-1000 rpm), feed rate (0.05-0.075 mm/rev), depth of cut (0.05-0.15 mm) and tool overhang (41-65 mm). Experimentation was performed as per Taguchi’s orthogonal array. To evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting surface roughness the single decision tree (SDT), Decision tree forest (DTF) and Group method of data handling (GMDH) were applied.
Effect of Reynolds Number on Wall-normal Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Open Channel Using both Outer and Inner Scaling
Sudden change of bed condition is frequent in open channel flow. Change of bed condition affects the turbulence characteristics in both streamwise and wall-normal direction. Understanding the turbulence intensity in open channel flow is of vital importance to the modeling of sediment transport and resuspension, bed formation, entrainment, and the exchange of energy and momentum. A comprehensive study was carried out to understand the extent of the effect of Reynolds number and bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics in an open channel flow. Four different bed conditions (impervious smooth bed, impervious continuous rough bed, pervious rough sand bed, and impervious distributed roughness) and two different Reynolds numbers were adopted for this cause. The effect of bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics is seen to be prevalent for most of the flow depth. Effect of Reynolds number on different turbulence characteristics is also evident for flow over different bed, but the extent varies on bed condition. Although the same sand grain is used to create the different rough bed conditions, the difference in turbulence characteristics is an indication that specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence characteristics. Roughness increases the contribution of the extreme turbulent events which produces very large instantaneous Reynolds shear stress and can potentially influence the sediment transport, resuspension of pollutant from bed and alter the nutrient composition, which eventually affect the sustainability of benthic organisms.
Performance Assessment of Carbon Nano Tube Based Cutting Fluid in Machining Process
In machining, there is always a problem with heat generation and friction produced during the process as they consequently affect tool wear and surface finish. An instant heat transfer mechanism could protect the cutting tool edge and enhance the tool life by cooling the cutting edge of the tool. In the present work, carbon nanotube (CNT) based nano-cutting fluid is proposed for machining a hard-to-cut material. Tool wear and surface roughness are considered for the evaluation of the nano-cutting fluid in turning process. The performance of nanocoolant is assessed against the conventional coolant and dry machining conditions and it is observed that the proposed nanocoolant has produced better performance than the conventional coolant.
Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.
Multi-Objective Optimization of Electric Discharge Machining for Inconel 718
Electric discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most widely used non-conventional manufacturing process to shape difficult-to-cut materials. The process yield, in terms of material removal rate, surface roughness and tool wear rate, of EDM may considerably be improved by selecting the optimal combination(s) of process parameters. This paper employs Multi-response signal-to-noise (MRSN) ratio technique to find the optimal combination(s) of the process parameters during EDM of Inconel 718. Three cases v.i.z. high cutting efficiency, high surface finish, and normal machining have been taken and the optimal combinations of input parameters have been obtained for each case. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been employed to find the dominant parameter(s) in all three cases. The experimental verification of the obtained results has also been made. MRSN ratio technique found to be a simple and effective multi-objective optimization technique.
Traction Behavior of Linear Piezo-Viscous Lubricants in Rough Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Contacts
The traction behavior of lubricants with the linear pressure-viscosity response in EHL line contacts is investigated numerically for smooth as well as rough surfaces. The analysis involves the simultaneous solution of Reynolds, elasticity and energy equations along with the computation of lubricant properties and surface temperatures. The temperature modified Doolittle-Tait equations are used to calculate viscosity and density as functions of fluid pressure and temperature, while Carreau model is used to describe the lubricant rheology. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the nearly stationary surface in near-pure sliding EHL conjunction. The linear P-V oil is found to yield much lower traction coefficients and slightly thicker EHL films as compared to the synthetic oil for a given set of dimensionless speed and load parameters. Besides, the increase in traction coefficient attributed to surface roughness is much lower for the former case. The present analysis emphasizes the importance of employing realistic pressure-viscosity response for accurate prediction of EHL traction.
Effects of Canned Cycles and Cutting Parameters on Hole Quality in Cryogenic Drilling of Aluminum 6061-6T
The influence of canned cycles and cutting parameters on hole quality in cryogenic drilling has been investigated experimentally and analytically. A three-level, three-parameter experiment was conducted by using the design-of-experiment methodology. The three levels of independent input parameters were the following: for canned cycles—a chip-breaking canned cycle (G73), a spot drilling canned cycle (G81), and a deep hole canned cycle (G83); for feed rates—0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mm/rev; and for cutting speeds—60, 75, and 100 m/min. The selected work and tool materials were aluminum 6061-6T and high-speed steel (HSS), respectively. For cryogenic cooling, liquid nitrogen (LN2) was used and was applied externally. The measured output parameters were the three widely used quality characteristics of drilled holes—diameter error, circularity, and surface roughness. Pareto ANOVA was applied for analyzing the results. The findings revealed that the canned cycle has a significant effect on diameter error (contribution ratio 44.09%) and small effects on circularity and surface finish (contribution ratio 7.25% and 6.60%, respectively). The best results for the dimensional accuracy and surface roughness were achieved by G81. G73 produced the best circularity results; however, for dimensional accuracy, it was the worst level.
Study the Effect of Roughness on the Higher Order Moment to Extract Information about the Turbulent Flow Structure in an Open Channel Flow
The present study was carried out to understand the extent of effect of roughness and Reynolds number in open channel flow (OCF). To this extent, four different types of bed surface conditions consisting smooth, distributed roughness, continuous roughness, natural sand bed and two different Reynolds number for each bed surfaces were adopted in this study. Particular attention was given on mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds shear stress, correlation, higher order moments and quadrant analysis. Further, the extent of influence of roughness and Reynolds number in the depth-wise direction also studied. Increasing Reynolds shear stress near rough beds are noticed due to arrays of discrete roughness elements and flow over these elements generating a series of wakes which contributes to the generation of significantly higher Reynolds shear stress.
Surface Water Flow of Urban Areas and Sustainable Urban Planning
Urban planning is associated with land transformation from natural areas to modified and developed ones which leads to modification of natural environment. The basic knowledge of relationship between both should be ascertained before proceeding for the development of natural areas. Changes on land surface due to build up pavements, roads and similar land cover, affect surface water flow. There is a gap between urban planning and basic knowledge of hydrological processes which should be known to the planners. The paper aims to identify these variations in surface flow due to urbanization for a temporal scale of 40 years using Storm Water Management Mode (SWMM) and again correlating these findings with the urban planning guidelines in study area along with geological background to find out the suitable combinations of land cover, soil and guidelines. For the purpose of identifying the changes in surface flows, 19 catchments were identified with different geology and growth in 40 years facing different ground water levels fluctuations. The increasing built up, varying surface runoff are studied using Arc GIS and SWMM modeling, regression analysis for runoff. Resulting runoff for various land covers and soil groups with varying built up conditions were observed. The modeling procedures also included observations for varying precipitation and constant built up in all catchments. All these observations were combined for individual catchment and single regression curve was obtained for runoff. Thus, it was observed that alluvial with suitable land cover was better for infiltration and least generation of runoff but excess built up could not be sustained on alluvial soil. Similarly, basalt had least recharge and most runoff demanding maximum vegetation over it. Sandstone resulted in good recharging if planned with more open spaces and natural soils with intermittent vegetation. Hence, these observations made a keystone base for planners while planning various land uses on different soils. This paper contributes and provides a solution to basic knowledge gap, which urban planners face during development of natural surfaces.
Effects of Upstream Wall Roughness on Separated Turbulent Flow over a Forward Facing Step in an Open Channel
The effect of upstream surface roughness over a
smooth forward facing step in an open channel was investigated
using a particle image velocimetry technique. Three different
upstream surface topographies consisting of hydraulically smooth
wall, sandpaper 36 grit and sand grains were examined. Besides the
wall roughness conditions, all other upstream flow characteristics
were kept constant. It was also observed that upstream roughness
decreased the approach velocity by 2% and 10% but increased the
turbulence intensity by 14% and 35% at the wall-normal distance
corresponding to the top plane of the step compared to smooth
upstream. The results showed that roughness decreased the
reattachment lengths by 14% and 30% compared to smooth upstream.
Although the magnitudes of maximum positive and negative
Reynolds shear stress in separated and reattached region were 0.02Ue
for all the cases, the physical size of both the maximum and
minimum contour levels were decreased by increasing upstream
Effects of Roughness on Forward Facing Step in an Open Channel
Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of roughness on the reattachment and redevelopment regions over a 12 mm forward facing step (FFS) in an open channel flow. The experiments were performed over an upstream smooth wall and a smooth FFS, an upstream wall coated with sandpaper 36 grit and a smooth FFS and an upstream rough wall produced from sandpaper 36 grit and a FFS coated with sandpaper 36 grit. To investigate only the wall roughness effects, Reynolds number, Froude number, aspect ratio and blockage ratio were kept constant. Upstream profiles showed reduced streamwise mean velocities close to the rough wall compared to the smooth wall, but the turbulence level was increased by upstream wall roughness. The reattachment length for the smooth-smooth wall experiment was 1.78h; however, when it is replaced with rough-smooth wall the reattachment length decreased to 1.53h. It was observed that the upstream roughness increased the physical size of contours of maximum turbulence level; however, the downstream roughness decreased both the size and magnitude of contours in the vicinity of the leading edge of the step. Quadrant analysis was performed to investigate the dominant Reynolds shear stress contribution in the recirculation region. The Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy profiles after the reattachment showed slower recovery compared to the streamwise mean velocity, however all the profiles fairly collapse on their corresponding upstream profiles at x/h = 60. It was concluded that to obtain a complete collapse several more streamwise distances would be required.
Effect of Composite Material on Damping Capacity Improvement of Cutting Tool in Machining Operation Using Taguchi Approach
Chatter vibrations, occurring during cutting process,
cause vibration between the cutting tool and workpiece, which
deteriorates surface roughness and reduces tool life. The purpose of
this study is to investigate the influence of cutting parameters and
tool construction on surface roughness and vibration in turning of
aluminum alloy AA2024. A new design of cutting tool is proposed,
which is filled up with epoxy granite in order to improve damping
capacity of the tool. Experiments were performed at the lathe using
carbide cutting insert coated with TiC and two different cutting tools
made of AISI 5140 steel. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was applied to
design of experiment and to optimize cutting conditions. By the help
of signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance the optimal cutting
condition and the effect of the cutting parameters on surface
roughness and vibration were determined. Effectiveness of Taguchi
method was verified by confirmation test. It was revealed that new
cutting tool with epoxy granite has reduced vibration and surface
roughness due to high damping properties of epoxy granite in
Effects of Roughness Elements on Heat Transfer during Natural Convection
The present study focused on the investigation of the
effects of roughness elements on heat transfer during natural
convection in a rectangular cavity using numerical technique.
Roughness elements were introduced on the bottom hot wall with a
normalized amplitude (A*/H) of 0.1. Thermal and hydrodynamic
behaviors were studied using computational method based on Lattice
Boltzmann method (LBM). Numerical studies were performed for a
laminar flow in the range of Rayleigh number (Ra) from 103 to 106
for a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio (L/H) 2.0 with a fluid of
Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The presence of the sinusoidal roughness
elements caused a minimum to maximum decrease in the heat
transfer as 7% to 17% respectively compared to smooth enclosure.
The results are presented for mean Nusselt number (Nu), isotherms
Numerical Analysis of Roughness Effect on Mini and Microchannels: Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer
A three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow
through mini and microchannels with designed roughness is
conducted here. The effect of the roughness height (surface
roughness), geometry, Reynolds number on the friction factor, and
Nusselt number is investigated. The study is carried out by
employing CFD software, CFX. Our work focuses on a water flow
inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm and microchannels of 500 and
100 m in diameter. The speed entry varies from 0.1 m/s to 20 m/s.
The general trend can be observed that bigger sizes of roughness
element lead to higher flow resistance. It is found that the friction
factor increases in a nonlinear fashion with the increase in obstruction
height. Particularly, the effect of roughness can no longer be ignored
at relative roughness height higher than 3%. A significant increase in
Poiseuille number is detected for all configurations considered. The
same observation can be done for Nusselt number. The transition
zone between laminar and turbulent flow depends on the channel
Analytical Modelling of Surface Roughness during Compacted Graphite Iron Milling Using Ceramic Inserts
This study investigates the effects of the lead angle
and chip thickness variation on surface roughness during the
machining of compacted graphite iron using ceramic cutting tools
under dry cutting conditions. Analytical models were developed for
predicting the surface roughness values of the specimens after the
face milling process. Experimental data was collected and imported
to the artificial neural network model. A multilayer perceptron model
was used with the back propagation algorithm employing the input
parameters of lead angle, cutting speed and feed rate in connection
with chip thickness. Furthermore, analysis of variance was employed
to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on surface
roughness. Artificial neural network and regression analysis were
used to predict surface roughness. The values thus predicted were
compared with the collected experimental data, and the
corresponding percentage error was computed. Analysis results
revealed that the lead angle is the dominant factor affecting surface
roughness. Experimental results indicated an improvement in the
surface roughness value with decreasing lead angle value from 88° to
Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness, and Near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process
In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the surface hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor hobson talysurf tester, micro vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer.
Multi-Objective Optimization in End Milling of Al-6061 Using Taguchi Based G-PCA
In this study, a multi objective optimization for end
milling of Al 6061 alloy has been presented to provide better
surface quality and higher Material Removal Rate (MRR). The input
parameters considered for the analysis are spindle speed, depth of cut
and feed. The experiments were planned as per Taguchis design of
experiment, with L27 orthogonal array. The Grey Relational Analysis
(GRA) has been used for transforming multiple quality responses
into a single response and the weights of the each performance
characteristics are determined by employing the Principal Component
Analysis (PCA), so that their relative importance can be properly and
objectively described. The results reveal that Taguchi based G-PCA
can effectively acquire the optimal combination of cutting parameters.
Effect of Chemical Additive on Fixed Abrasive Polishing of LBO Crystal with Non-water Based Slurry
Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing was adopted
to manufacture LBO crystal for nano precision surface quality because
of its deliquescent. Ethyl alcohol was selected as the non-water based
slurry solvent and ethanediamine, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide was
added in the slurry as a chemical additive, respectively. Effect of
different additives with non-water based slurry on material removal
rate, surface topography, microscopic appearances, and surface
roughness were investigated in fixed abrasive polishing of LBO
crystal. The results show the best surface quality of LBO crystal with
surface roughness Sa 8.2 nm and small damages was obtained by
non-water based slurry with lactic acid. Non-water based fixed
abrasive polishing can achieve nano precision surface quality of LBO
crystal with high material removal.
Horizontal Directivity of Pipa Radiation
Pipa is one of the most important Chinese traditional
plucked instruments, but its directivity has never been measured
systematically. In western, directivity of loudness for western
instruments is deeply researched through analysis of sound pressure
level, whereas the directivity of timbre is seldom studied. In this paper,
a new method for directivity of timbre was proposed, and horizontal
directivity patterns of loudness and timbre of Pipa were measured.
Directivity of Pipa radiation was measured in an anechoic room. The
sound of Pipa played by a musician was recorded simultaneously by
32 microphones with Pipa in the center. The measuring results were
examined through listening test. According to the measurement of
Pipa directivity radiation, we put forward the best localization of Pipa
in the Chinese traditional orchestra and the optimal recording region.
Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants
Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.
Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Study for Triangular Duct Solar Air Heater Having Discrete V-Shaped Ribs
Solar energy is a good option among renewable
energy resources due to its easy availability and abundance. The
simplest and most efficient way to utilize solar energy is to convert it
into thermal energy and this can be done with the help of solar
collectors. The thermal performance of such collectors is poor due to
less heat transfer from the collector surface to air. In this work,
experimental investigations of single pass solar air heater having
triangular duct and provided with roughness element on the underside
of the absorber plate. V-shaped ribs are used for investigation having
three different values of relative roughness pitch (p/e) ranges from 4-
16 for a fixed value of angle of attack (α), relative roughness height
(e/Dh) and a relative gap distance (d/x) values are 60°, 0.044 and 0.60
respectively. Result shows that considerable augmentation in heat
transfer has been obtained by providing roughness.