A Psychophysiological Evaluation of an Effective Recognition Technique Using Interactive Dynamic Virtual Environments
Recording psychological and physiological correlates of human performance within virtual environments and interpreting their impacts on human engagement, ‘immersion’ and related emotional or ‘effective’ states is both academically and technologically challenging. By exposing participants to an effective, real-time (game-like) virtual environment, designed and evaluated in an earlier study, a psychophysiological database containing the EEG, GSR and Heart Rate of 30 male and female gamers, exposed to 10 games, was constructed. Some 174 features were subsequently identified and extracted from a number of windows, with 28 different timing lengths (e.g. 2, 3, 5, etc. seconds). After reducing the number of features to 30, using a feature selection technique, K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) methods were subsequently employed for the classification process. The classifiers categorised the psychophysiological database into four effective clusters (defined based on a 3-dimensional space – valence, arousal and dominance) and eight emotion labels (relaxed, content, happy, excited, angry, afraid, sad, and bored). The KNN and SVM classifiers achieved average cross-validation accuracies of 97.01% (±1.3%) and 92.84% (±3.67%), respectively. However, no significant differences were found in the classification process based on effective clusters or emotion labels.
Teaching College Classes with Virtual Reality
Recent advances in virtual reality (VR) technologies have made it possible for students to experience a virtual on-the-scene or virtual in-person observation of an educational event. In an experimental class, the author uses VR, particularly 360° videos, to virtually engage students in an event, through a wide spectrum of educational resources, such s a virtual “bystander.” Students were able to observe the event as if they were physically on site, although they could not intervene with the scene. The author will describe the adopted equipment, specification, and cost of building them as well as the quality of VR. The author will discuss (a) feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of using VR as a supplemental technology to teach college students and criteria and methodologies used by the authors to evaluate them; (b) barriers and issues of technological implementation; and (c) pedagogical practices learned through this experiment. The author also attempts to explore (a) how VR could provide an interactive virtual in-person learning experience; (b) how VR can possibly change traditional college education and online education; (c) how educators and balance six critical factors: cost, time, technology, quality, result, and content.
A Comparative Analysis of Heuristics Applied to Collecting Used Lubricant Oils Generated in the City of Pereira, Colombia
Currently, in Colombia is arising a problem related to collecting used lubricant oils which are generated by the increment of the vehicle fleet. This situation does not allow a proper disposal of this type of waste, which in turn results in a negative impact on the environment. Therefore, through the comparative analysis of various heuristics, the best solution to the VRP (Vehicle Routing Problem) was selected by comparing costs and times for the collection of used lubricant oils in the city of Pereira, Colombia; since there is no presence of management companies engaged in the direct administration of the collection of this pollutant. To achieve this aim, six proposals of through methods of solution of two phases were discussed. First, the assignment of the group of generator points of the residue was made (previously identified). Proposals one and four of through methods are based on the closeness of points. The proposals two and five are using the scanning method and the proposals three and six are considering the restriction of the capacity of collection vehicle. Subsequently, the routes were developed - in the first three proposals by the Clarke and Wright's savings algorithm and in the following proposals by the Traveling Salesman optimization mathematical model. After applying techniques, a comparative analysis of the results was performed and it was determined which of the proposals presented the most optimal values in terms of the distance, cost and travel time.
Optimization of Dissolution of Chevreul’s Salt in Ammonium Chloride Solutions
In this study, Chevreul’s salt was dissolved in ammonium chloride solutions. All experiments were performed in a batch reactor. The obtained results were optimized. Parameters used in the experiments were the reaction temperature, the ammonium chloride concentration, the reaction time and the solid-to-liquid ratio. The optimum conditions were determined by 24 factorial experimental design method. The best values of four parameters were determined as based on the experiment results. After the evaluation of experiment results, all parameters were found as effective in experiment conditions selected. The optimum conditions on the maximum Chevreul’s salt dissolution were the ammonium chloride concentration 4.5 M, the reaction time 13.2 min., the reaction temperature 25 oC, and the solid-to-liquid ratio 9/80 g.mL-1. The best dissolution yield in these conditions was 96.20%.
The Investigation of Precipitation Conditions of Chevreul’s Salt
In this study, the precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt were evaluated. The structure of Chevreul’s salt was examined by considering the previous studies. Thermodynamically, the most important precipitation parameters were pH, temperature, and sulphite-copper(II) ratio. The amount of Chevreul’s salt increased with increasing the temperature and sulphite-copper(II) ratio at the certain range, while it increased with decreasing the pH value at the chosen range. The best solution medium for recovery of Chevreul’s salt is sulphur dioxide gas-water system. Moreover, the soluble sulphite salts are used as efficient precipitating reagents. Chevreul’s salt is generally used to produce the highly pure copper powders from synthetic copper sulphate solutions and impure leach solutions. When the pH of the initial ammoniacal solution is greater than 8.5, ammonia in the medium is not free, and Chevreul’s salt from solution does not precipitate. In contrast, copper ammonium sulphide is precipitated. The pH of the initial solution containing ammonia for precipitating of Chevreul’s salt must be less than 8.5.
Plasma Spraying of 316 Stainless Steel on Aluminum and Investigation of Coat/Substrate Interface
By applying coating onto a structural component, the corrosion and/or wear resistance requirements of the surface can be fulfilled. Since the layer adhesion of the coating influences the mechanical integrity of the coat/substrate interface during the service time, it should be examined accurately. At the present work, the tensile bonding strength of the 316 stainless steel plasma sprayed coating on aluminum substrate was determined by using tensile adhesion test, TAT, specimen. The interfacial fracture toughness was specified using four-point bend specimen containing a saw notch and modified chevron-notched short-bar (SB) specimen. The coating microstructure and fractured specimen surface were examined by using scanning electron- and optical-microscopy. The investigation of coated surface after tensile adhesion test indicates that the failure mechanism is mostly cohesive and rarely adhesive type. The calculated value of critical strain energy release rate proposes relatively good interface status. It seems that four-point bending test offers a potentially more sensitive means for evaluation of mechanical integrity of coating/substrate interfaces than is possible with the tensile test. The fracture toughness value reported for the modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen testing cannot be taken as absolute value because its calculation is based on the minimum stress intensity coefficient value which has been suggested for the fracture toughness determination of homogeneous parts in the ASTM E1304-97 standard.
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Geometrical Shape of Plate Heat Exchangers on Heat Transfer Efficiency
Optimizations of Plate Heat Exchangers (PHS) have received great attention in the past decade. In this study, heat transfer and pressure drop coefficients are compared for rectangular and circular PHS employing numerical simulations. Plates are designed to have equivalent areas. Simulations were implemented to investigate the efficiency of PHSs considering heat transfer, friction factor and pressure drop. Amount of heat transfer and pressure drop was obtained for different range of Reynolds numbers. These two parameters were compared with aim of F "weighting factor correlation". In this comparison, the minimum amount of F indicates higher efficiency. Results reveal that the F value for rectangular shape is less than circular plate, and hence using rectangular shape of PHS is more efficient than circular one. It was observed that, the amount of friction factor is correlated to the Reynolds numbers, such that friction factor decreased in both rectangular and circular plates with an increase in Reynolds number. Furthermore, such simulations revealed that the amount of heat transfer in rectangular plate is more than circular plate for different range of Reynolds numbers. The difference is more distinct for higher Reynolds number. However, amount of pressure drop in circular plate is less than rectangular plate for the same range of Reynolds numbers which is considered as a negative point for rectangular plate efficiency. It can be concluded that, while rectangular PHSs occupy more space than circular plate, the efficiency of rectangular plate is higher.
Useful Lifetime Prediction of Chevron Rubber Spring for Railway Vehicle
Useful lifetime evaluation of chevron rubber spring
was very important in design procedure to assure the safety and
reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion
for the replacement period of chevron rubber spring. In this study, we
performed characteristic analysis and useful lifetime prediction of
chevron rubber spring. Rubber material coefficient was obtained by
curve fittings of uniaxial tension equibiaxial tension and pure shear
test. Computer simulation was executed to predict and evaluate the
load capacity and stiffness for chevron rubber spring. In order to
useful lifetime prediction of rubber material, we carried out the
compression set with heat aging test in an oven at the temperature
ranging from 50°C to 100°C during a period 180 days. By using the
Arrhenius plot, several useful lifetime prediction equations for rubber
material was proposed.
Experimental Chevreul’s Salt Production Methods on Copper Recovery
Experimental production methods of Chevreul’s salt
being an intermediate stage product in copper recovery were
investigated on this article. Chevreul’s salt, Cu2SO3.CuSO3.2H2O,
being a mixed valence copper sulphite compound, has been obtained
by using different methods and reagents. Chevreul’s salt has an
intense brick-red color. It is highly stable and expensive. The
production of Chevreul’s salt plays a key role in hydrometallurgy.
Thermodynamic tendency on precipitation of Chevreul’s salt is
related to pH and temperature. Besides, SO2 gaseous is a versatile
reagent for precipitating of copper sulphites, Using of SO2 for
selective precipitation can be made by appropriate adjustments of pH
and temperature. Chevreul’s salt does not form in acidic solutions if
those solutions contains considerable amount of sulfurous acid. It is
necessary to maintain between pH 2–4.5, because, solubility of
Chevreul’s salt increases with decreasing of pH values. Also, the
region which Chevreul’s salt is stable can be seen from the potentialpH
Interactive Shadow Play Animation System
The paper describes a Chinese shadow play animation
system based on Kinect. Users, without any professional training, can
personally manipulate the shadow characters to finish a shadow play
performance by their body actions and get a shadow play video
through giving the record command to our system if they want. In our
system, Kinect is responsible for capturing human movement and
voice commands data. Gesture recognition module is used to control
the change of the shadow play scenes. After packaging the data from
Kinect and the recognition result from gesture recognition module,
VRPN transmits them to the server-side. At last, the server-side uses
the information to control the motion of shadow characters and video
recording. This system not only achieves human-computer interaction,
but also realizes the interaction between people. It brings an
entertaining experience to users and easy to operate for all ages. Even
more important is that the application background of Chinese shadow
play embodies the protection of the art of shadow play animation.
Comparison between Approaches Used in Two WalkAbout Projects
Learning through creation of contextual games is a
very promising approach when undertaking interdisciplinary and
international group projects. During 2013 and 2014 the authors
organized two intensive student projects. The two projects were in
different countries and different conditions. Between them, the two
projects involved 68 students and 12 mentors from five EU countries
and from various academic disciplines. In this paper we share our
experience of these two projects and we suggest approaches that can
be utilized to strengthen the chances of succeeding in short (12-15
days long) intensive student projects.
Compensation of Power Quality Disturbances Using DVR
One of the key aspects of power quality improvement
in power system is the mitigation of voltage sags/swells and flicker.
Custom power devices have been known as the best tools for voltage
disturbances mitigation as well as reactive power compensation.
Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) which is the most efficient and
effective modern custom power device can provide the most
commercial solution to solve several problems of power quality in
distribution networks. This paper deals with analysis and simulation
technique of DVR based on instantaneous power theory which is a
quick control to detect signals. The main purpose of this work is to
remove three important disturbances including voltage sags/swells
and flicker. Simulation of the proposed method was carried out on
two sample systems by using Matlab software environment and the
results of simulation show that the proposed method is able to
provide desirable power quality in the presence of wide range of
3D Numerical Studies on Jets Acoustic Characteristics of Chevron Nozzles for Aerospace Applications
The present environmental issues have made aircraft jet noise reduction a crucial problem in aero-acoustics research. Acoustic studies reveal that addition of chevrons to the nozzle reduces the sound pressure level reasonably with acceptable reduction in performance. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies on acoustic characteristics of different types of chevron nozzles have been carried out with non-reacting flows for the shape optimization of chevrons in supersonic nozzles for aerospace applications. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated steady 3D density based, k-ε turbulence model. In this paper chevron with sharp edge, flat edge, round edge and U-type edge are selected for the jet acoustic characterization of supersonic nozzles. We observed that compared to the base model a case with round-shaped chevron nozzle could reduce 4.13% acoustic level with 0.6% thrust loss. We concluded that the prudent selection of the chevron shape will enable an appreciable reduction of the aircraft jet noise without compromising its overall performance. It is evident from the present numerical simulations that k-ε model can predict reasonably well the acoustic level of chevron supersonic nozzles for its shape optimization.
Exp-Function Method for Finding Some Exact Solutions of Rosenau Kawahara and Rosenau Korteweg-de Vries Equations
In this paper, we apply the Exp-function method to
Rosenau-Kawahara and Rosenau-KdV equations. Rosenau-Kawahara
equation is the combination of the Rosenau and standard Kawahara
equations and Rosenau-KdV equation is the combination of the
Rosenau and standard KdV equations. These equations are nonlinear
partial differential equations (NPDE) which play an important role
in mathematical physics. Exp-function method is easy, succinct and
powerful to implement to nonlinear partial differential equations
arising in mathematical physics. We mainly try to present an
application of Exp-function method and offer solutions for common
errors wich occur during some of the recent works.
Efficacy of Biosimilar Pegylated Interferon Alpha 40 KD (Peg INF) in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection
Introduction: Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin combination is standard of care in the management of chronic HCV infected patients. Efficacy of the therapy is judged by the ability to achieve biochemical and virological response as judged by RVR, EVR, ETR and SVR.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of newly marketed biosimilar Pegylated Interferon Alpha 40KD (Peg INF) in chronic HCV patients. Materials and methods: This was observational, prospective multicentre study to evaluate the ability of biosimilar pegylated interferon alfa 2a (40KD) along with Ribavirin (weight based) to achieve SVR. The enrolled patients were separated into Naïve (A), Relapsers (B) and Non Responders(C) based on the previous history of interferon exposure and its response. The RGT was followed on ALT and RVR, EVR, ETR and SVR.Results:As per protocol analysis estimated SVR for three groups is 86.6% for naïve, 89.4% for relapsers and 52.4% for non-responders to standard interferon. Conclusion: It is concluded that Bio-similar pegylated interferon alfa-2a (40kD) along with Ribavirin has good anti-viral efficacy in Naïve, Relapsers and Non-responders to standard IFN of chronic HCV infected patients requiring treatment.
A Study on Changing of Energy-Saving Performance of GHP Air Conditioning System with Time-Series Variation
This paper deals the energy saving performance of GHP (Gas engine heat pump) air conditioning system has improved with time-series variation. There are two types of air conditioning systems, VRF (Variable refrigerant flow) and central cooling and heating system. VRF is classified as EHP (Electric driven heat pump) and GHP. EHP drives the compressor with electric motor. GHP drives the compressor with the gas engine. The electric consumption of GHP is less than one tenth of EHP does.
In this study, the energy consumption data of GHP installed the junior high schools was collected. An annual and monthly energy consumption per rated thermal output power of each apparatus was calculated, and then their energy efficiency was analyzed. From these data, we investigated improvement of the energy saving of the GHP air conditioning system by the change in the generation.
Virtual Assembly in a Semi-Immersive Environment
Virtual Assembly (VA) is one of the key technologies
in advanced manufacturing field. It is a promising application of
virtual reality in design and manufacturing field. It has drawn much
interest from industries and research institutes in the last two decades.
This paper describes a process for integrating an interactive Virtual
Reality-based assembly simulation of a digital mockup with the
CAD/CAM infrastructure. The necessary hardware and software
preconditions for the process are explained so that it can easily be
adopted by non VR experts. The article outlines how assembly
simulation can improve the CAD/CAM procedures and structures;
how CAD model preparations have to be carried out and which
virtual environment requirements have to be fulfilled. The issue of
data transfer is also explained in the paper. The other challenges and
requirements like anti-aliasing and collision detection have also been
explained. Finally, a VA simulation has been carried out for a ball
valve assembly and a car door assembly with the help of Vizard
virtual reality toolkit in a semi-immersive environment and their
performance analysis has been done on different workstations to
evaluate the importance of graphical processing unit (GPU) in the
field of VA.
Space Vector PWM Simulation for Three Phase DC/AC Inverter
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation SVPWM is
one of the most used techniques to generate sinusoidal voltage and
current due to its facility and efficiency with low harmonics
distortion. This algorithm is specially used in power electronic
applications. This paper describes simulation algorithm of SVPWM
& SPWM using MatLab/simulink environment. It also implements a
closed loop three phases DC-AC converter controlling its outputs
voltages amplitude and frequency using MatLab. Also comparison
between SVPWM & SPWM results is given.
Modeling Method and Application in Digital Mockup System towards Mechanical Product
The method of modeling is the key technology for
digital mockup (DMU). Based upon the developing for mechanical
product DMU, the theory, method and approach for virtual
environment (VE) and virtual object (VO) were studied. This paper
has expounded the design goal and architecture of DMU system,
analyzed the method of DMU application, and researched the general
process of physics modeling and behavior modeling.
Process Development of Safe and Ready-to-eat Raw Oyster Meat by Irradiation Technology
White scar oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) is often eaten
raw and being the leading vehicle for foodborne disease, especially
Salmonella Weltevreden which exposed the prominent and most
resistant to radiation. Gamma irradiation at a low dose of 1 kGy was
enough to eliminate S. Weltevreden contaminated in oyster meat at a
level up to 5 log CFU/g while it still retain the raw characteristics and
equivalent sensory quality as the non-irradiated one. Process
development of ready-to-eat chilled oyster meat was conducted by
shucking the meat, individually packed in plastic bags, subjected to 1
kGy gamma radiation at chilled condition and then stored in 4oC
refrigerated temperature. Microbiological determination showed the
absence of S. Weltevreden (5 log CFU/g initial inoculated) along the
whole storage time of 30 days. Sensory evaluation indicated the
decreasing in sensory scores along storage time which determining
the product shelf life to be 18 days compared to 15 days of nonirradiated
one. The most advantage of developed process was to
provide the safe raw oyster to consumers and in addition sensory
quality retained and 3-day extension shelf life also exist.
Non-Isothermal Kinetics of Crystallization and Phase Transformation of SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5-CaO-CaF Glass
The crystallization kinetics and phase transformation
of SiO2.Al2O3.0,56P2O5.1,8CaO.0,56CaF2 glass have been
investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA), x-ray
diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Glass
samples were obtained by melting the glass mixture at 14500С/120
min. in platinum crucibles. The mixture were prepared from
chemically pure reagents: SiO2, Al(OH)3, H3PO4, CaCO3 and CaF2.
The non-isothermal kinetics of crystallization was studied by
applying the DTA measurements carried out at various heating rates.
The activation energies of crystallization and viscous flow were
measured as 348,4 kJ.mol–1 and 479,7 kJ.mol–1 respectively. Value of
Avrami parameter n ≈ 3 correspond to a three dimensional of crystal
growth mechanism. The major crystalline phase determined by XRD
analysis was fluorapatite (Ca(PO4)3F) and as the minor phases –
fluormargarite (CaAl2(Al2SiO2)10F2) and vitlokite (Ca9P6O24). The
resulting glass-ceramic has a homogeneous microstructure, composed
of prismatic crystals, evenly distributed in glass phase.
Investigating Mental Workload of VR Training versus Serious Game Training on Shoot Operation Training
Thanks to VR technology advanced, there are many
researches had used VR technology to develop a training system.
Using VR characteristics can simulate many kinds of situations to
reach our training-s goal. However, a good training system not only
considers real simulation but also considers learner-s learning
motivation. So, there are many researches started to conduct game-s
features into VR training system. We typically called this is a serious
game. It is using game-s features to engage learner-s learning
motivation. However, VR or Serious game has another important
advantage. That is simulating feature. Using this feature can create
any kinds of pressured environments. Because in the real
environment may happen any emergent situations. So, increasing the
trainees- pressure is more important when they are training. Most
pervious researches are investigated serious game-s applications and
learning performance. Seldom researches investigated how to
increase the learner-s mental workload when they are training. So, in
our study, we will introduce a real case study and create two types
training environments. Comparing the learner-s mental workload
between VR training and serious game.
The First Ground Track Maintenance Manoeuvre of THEOS Spacecraft
THEOS is the first earth observation spacecraft of Thailand which was launched on the 1st October 2008 and is currently operated by GISTDA. The transfer phase has been performed by Astrium Flight Dynamics team leading to a hand over to GISTDA teams starting mid-October 2008. The THEOS spacecraft-s orbit is LEO and has the same repetitivity (14+5/26) as the SPOT spacecraft, i.e. the same altitude of 822 km but it has a different mean local solar time (LST). Ground track maintenance manoeuvres are performed to maintain the ground track within a predefined control band around the reference ground track and the band is ±40 km for THEOS spacecraft. This paper presents the first ground track maintenance manoeuvre of THEOS spacecraft and the detailed results. In addition, it also includes one and a half year of operation as seen by GISTDA operators. It finally describes the foreseenable activities for the next orbit control manoeuvre (OCM) preparation.
A Novel Method Based on Monte Carlo for Simulation of Variable Resolution X-ray CT Scanner: Measurement of System Presampling MTF
The purpose of this work is measurement of the
system presampling MTF of a variable resolution x-ray (VRX) CT
scanner. In this paper, we used the parameters of an actual VRX CT
scanner for simulation and study of effect of different focal spot sizes
on system presampling MTF by Monte Carlo method (GATE
simulation software). Focal spot size of 0.6 mm limited the spatial
resolution of the system to 5.5 cy/mm at incident angles of below 17º
for cell#1. By focal spot size of 0.3 mm the spatial resolution
increased up to 11 cy/mm and the limiting effect of focal spot size
appeared at incident angles of below 9º. The focal spot size of 0.3
mm could improve the spatial resolution to some extent but because
of magnification non-uniformity, there is a 10 cy/mm difference
between spatial resolution of cell#1 and cell#256. The focal spot size
of 0.1 mm acted as an ideal point source for this system. The spatial
resolution increased to more than 35 cy/mm and at all incident angles
the spatial resolution was a function of incident angle. By the way
focal spot size of 0.1 mm minimized the effect of magnification nonuniformity.
Numerical Study of Some Coupled PDEs by using Differential Transformation Method
In this paper, the two-dimension differential transformation method (DTM) is employed to obtain the closed form solutions of the three famous coupled partial differential equation with physical interest namely, the coupled Korteweg-de Vries(KdV) equations, the coupled Burgers equations and coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We begin by showing that how the differential transformation method applies to a linear and non-linear part of any PDEs and apply on these coupled PDEs to illustrate the sufficiency of the method for this kind of nonlinear differential equations. The results obtained are in good agreement with the exact solution. These results show that the technique introduced here is accurate and easy to apply.
A Hidden Dimension in Site Planning: Exploring Affective Experience as Part of Sense of Place on the Farm Kromdraai, Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site, South Africa
Uniqueness and distinctiveness of localities (referred to as genius loci or sense of place) are important to ensure people-s identification with their locality. Existing frameworks reveals that the affective dimension of environments is rarely mentioned or explored and limited public participation was used in constructing the frameworks. This research argues that the complexity of sense of place would be recognised and appropriate planning guidelines formulated by exploring and integrating the affective dimension of a site. Aims of the research therefore are to (i) explore relational dimensions between people and a natural rural landscape, (ii) to implement a participatory approach to obtain insight into different relational dimensions, and (ii) to concretise socio-affective relational dimensions into site planning guidelines. A qualitative, interdisciplinary research approach was followed and conducted on the farm Kromdraai, Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site. In essence the first phase of the study reveals various affective responses and projections of personal meanings. The findings in phase 1 informed the second phase, to involve people from various disciplines and different involvement with the area to make visual presentations of appropriate planning and design of the site in order to capture meanings of the interactions between people and their environment. Final site planning and design guidelines were formulated, based on these. This research contributed to provide planners with new possibilities of exploring the dimensions between people and places as well as to develop appropriate methods for participation to obtain insight into the underlying meanings of sites.
Enhancing Visual Basic GUI Applications using VRML Scenes
Rapid Application Development (RAD) enables ever
expanding needs for speedy development of computer application
programs that are sophisticated, reliable, and full-featured. Visual
Basic was the first RAD tool for the Windows operating system, and
too many people say still it is the best. To provide very good
attraction in visual basic 6 applications, this paper directing to use
VRML scenes over the visual basic environment.
The Overall Aspects of E-Leaning Issues, Developments, Opportunities and Challenges
Rapid steps made in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has facilitated the development of teaching and learning methods and prepared them to serve the needs of an assorted educational institution. In other words, the information age has redefined the fundamentals and transformed the institutions and method of services delivery forever. The vision is the articulation of a desire to transform the method of teaching and learning could proceed through e-learning. E-learning is commonly deliberated to use of networked information and communications technology in teaching and learning practice. This paper deals the general aspects of the e-leaning with its issues, developments, opportunities and challenges, which can the higher institutions own.
The Applicability of the Zipper Strut to Seismic Rehabilitation of Steel Structures
Chevron frames (Inverted-V-braced frames or Vbraced
frames) have seismic disadvantages, such as not good exhibit force redistribution capability and compression brace buckles
immediately. Researchers developed new design provisions on
increasing both the ductility and lateral resistance of these structures
in seismic areas. One of these new methods is adding zipper columns, as proposed by Khatib et al. (1988) . Zipper columns are
vertical members connecting the intersection points of the braces
above the first floor. In this paper applicability of the suspended
zipper system to Seismic Rehabilitation of Steel Structures is investigated.
The models are 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-story Inverted-V-braced frames.
In this case, it is assumed that the structures must be rehabilitated. For rehabilitation of structures, zipper column is used. The result of
researches showed that the suspended zipper system is effective in
case of 3-, 6-, and 9-story Inverted-V-braced frames and it would
increase lateral resistance of structure up to life safety level. But in
case of high-rise buildings (such as 12 story frame), it doesn-t show
good performance. For solving this problem, the braced bay can
consist of small “units" over the height of the entire structure, which each of them is a zipper-braced bay with a few stories. By using this
method the lateral resistance of 12 story Inverted-V-braced frames is increased up to safety life level.
A Step-wise Zoom Technique for Exploring Image-based Virtual Reality Applications
Existing image-based virtual reality applications
allow users to view image-based 3D virtual environment in a more
interactive manner. User could “walkthrough"; looks left, right, up
and down and even zoom into objects in these virtual worlds of
images. However what the user sees during a “zoom in" is just a
close-up view of the same image which was taken from a distant.
Thus, this does not give the user an accurate view of the object from
the actual distance. In this paper, a simple technique for zooming in
an object in a virtual scene is presented. The technique is based on
the 'hotspot' concept in existing application. Instead of navigation
between two different locations, the hotspots are used to focus into
an object in the scene. For each object, several hotspots are created.
A different picture is taken for each hotspot. Each consecutive
hotspot created will take the user closer to the object. This will
provide the user with a correct of view of the object based on his
proximity to the object. Implementation issues and the relevance of
this technique in potential application areas are highlighted.