Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 19

19
10008313
Study of Fast Etching of Silicon for the Fabrication of Bulk Micromachined MEMS Structures
Abstract:
The present research reports the investigation of fast etching of silicon for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) structures using silicon wet bulk micromachining. Low concentration tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) are used as main etchant and additive, respectively. The concentration of NH2OH is varied to optimize the composition to achieve best etching characteristics such as high etch rate, significantly high undercutting at convex corner for the fast release of the microstructures from the substrate, and improved etched surface morphology. These etching characteristics are studied on Si{100} and Si{110} wafers as they are most widely used in the fabrication of MEMS structures as wells diode, transistors and integrated circuits.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
18
10006302
Evaluation of Sensor Pattern Noise Estimators for Source Camera Identification
Abstract:
This paper presents a comprehensive survey of recent source camera identification (SCI) systems. Then, the performance of various sensor pattern noise (SPN) estimators was experimentally assessed, under common photo response non-uniformity (PRNU) frameworks. The experiments used 1350 natural and 900 flat-field images, captured by 18 individual cameras. 12 different experiments, grouped into three sets, were conducted. The results were analyzed using the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. The experimental results demonstrated that combining the basic SPN estimator with a wavelet-based filtering scheme provides promising results. However, the phase SPN estimator fits better with both patch-based (BM3D) and anisotropic diffusion (AD) filtering schemes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
17
10004972
A Nonlinear Parabolic Partial Differential Equation Model for Image Enhancement
Authors:
Abstract:
We present a robust nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation (PDE)-based denoising scheme in this article. Our approach is based on a second-order anisotropic diffusion model that is described first. Then, a consistent and explicit numerical approximation algorithm is constructed for this continuous model by using the finite-difference method. Finally, our restoration experiments and method comparison, which prove the effectiveness of this proposed technique, are discussed in this paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
16
17127
Fung’s Model Constants for Intracranial Blood Vessel of Human Using Biaxial Tensile Test Results
Abstract:

Mechanical properties of cerebral arteries are, due to their relationship with cerebrovascular diseases, of clinical worth. To acquire these properties, eight samples were obtained from middle cerebral arteries of human cadavers, whose death were not due to injuries or diseases of cerebral vessels, and tested within twelve hours after resection, by a precise biaxial tensile test device specially developed for the present study considering the dimensions, sensitivity and anisotropic nature of samples. The resulting stress-stretch curve was plotted and subsequently fitted to a hyperelastic three-parameter Fung model. It was found that the arteries were noticeably stiffer in circumferential than in axial direction. It was also demonstrated that the use of multi-parameter hyperelastic constitutive models is useful for mathematical description of behavior of cerebral vessel tissue. The reported material properties are a proper reference for numerical modeling of cerebral arteries and computational analysis of healthy or diseased intracranial arteries.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
15
9794
Influence of Ambiguity Cluster on Quality Improvement in Image Compression
Abstract:
Image coding based on clustering provides immediate access to targeted features of interest in a high quality decoded image. This approach is useful for intelligent devices, as well as for multimedia content-based description standards. The result of image clustering cannot be precise in some positions especially on pixels with edge information which produce ambiguity among the clusters. Even with a good enhancement operator based on PDE, the quality of the decoded image will highly depend on the clustering process. In this paper, we introduce an ambiguity cluster in image coding to represent pixels with vagueness properties. The presence of such cluster allows preserving some details inherent to edges as well for uncertain pixels. It will also be very useful during the decoding phase in which an anisotropic diffusion operator, such as Perona-Malik, enhances the quality of the restored image. This work also offers a comparative study to demonstrate the effectiveness of a fuzzy clustering technique in detecting the ambiguity cluster without losing lot of the essential image information. Several experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the usefulness of ambiguity concept in image compression. The coding results and the performance of the proposed algorithms are discussed in terms of the peak signal-tonoise ratio and the quantity of ambiguous pixels.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
14
3900
Numerical Calculation of Coils Filled With Bianisotropic Media
Abstract:
Recently, bianisotropic media again received increasing importance in electromagnetic theory because of advances in material science which enable the manufacturing of complex bianisotropic materials. By using Maxwell's equations and corresponding boundary conditions, the electromagnetic field distribution in bianisotropic solenoid coils is determined and the influence of the bianisotropic behaviour of coil to the impedance and Q-factor is considered. Bianisotropic media are the largest class of linear media which is able to describe the macroscopic material properties of artificial dielectrics, artificial magnetics, artificial chiral materials, left-handed materials, metamaterials, and other composite materials. Several special cases of coils, filled with complex substance, have been analyzed. Results obtained by using the analytical approach are compared with values calculated by numerical methods, especially by our new hybrid EEM/BEM method and FEM.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
13
766
Mechanical Quadrature Methods and Their Extrapolations for Solving First Kind Boundary Integral Equations of Anisotropic Darcy-s Equation
Abstract:

The mechanical quadrature methods for solving the boundary integral equations of the anisotropic Darcy-s equations with Dirichlet conditions in smooth domains are presented. By applying the collectively compact theory, we prove the convergence and stability of approximate solutions. The asymptotic expansions for the error show that the methods converge with the order O (h3), where h is the mesh size. Based on these analysis, extrapolation methods can be introduced to achieve a higher convergence rate O (h5). An a posterior asymptotic error representation is derived in order to construct self-adaptive algorithms. Finally, the numerical experiments show the efficiency of our methods.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
12
388
Anisotropic Constitutive Model and its Application in Simulation of Thermal Shock Wave Propagation for Cylinder Shell Composite
Abstract:
In this paper, a plane-strain orthotropic elasto-plastic dynamic constitutive model is established, and with this constitutive model, the thermal shock wave induced by intense pulsed X-ray radiation in cylinder shell composite is simulated by the finite element code, then the properties of thermal shock wave propagation are discussed. The results show that the thermal shock wave exhibit different shapes under the radiation of soft and hard X-ray, and while the composite is radiated along different principal axes, great differences exist in some aspects, such as attenuation of the peak stress value, spallation and so on.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
11
4089
A Novel System of Two Coupled Equations for the Longitudinal Components of the Electromagnetic Field in a Waveguide
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel wave equation for electromagnetic waves in a medium having anisotropic permittivity has been derived with the help of Maxwell-s curl equations. The x and y components of the Maxwell-s equations are written with the permittivity () being a 3 × 3 symmetric matrix. These equations are solved for Ex , Ey, Hx, Hy in terms of Ez, Hz, and the partial derivatives. The Z components of the Maxwell-s curl are then used to arrive to the generalized Helmholtz equations for Ez and Hz.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
10
9741
3D Anisotropic Diffusion for Liver Segmentation
Abstract:
Liver segmentation is the first significant process for liver diagnosis of the Computed Tomography. It segments the liver structure from other abdominal organs. Sophisticated filtering techniques are indispensable for a proper segmentation. In this paper, we employ a 3D anisotropic diffusion as a preprocessing step. While removing image noise, this technique preserve the significant parts of the image, typically edges, lines or other details that are important for the interpretation of the image. The segmentation task is done by using thresholding with automatic threshold values selection and finally the false liver region is eliminated using 3D connected component. The result shows that by employing the 3D anisotropic filtering, better liver segmentation results could be achieved eventhough simple segmentation technique is used.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
9
6123
Adaptive Anisotropic Diffusion for Ultrasonic Image Denoising and Edge Enhancement
Abstract:

Utilizing echoic intension and distribution from different organs and local details of human body, ultrasonic image can catch important medical pathological changes, which unfortunately may be affected by ultrasonic speckle noise. A feature preserving ultrasonic image denoising and edge enhancement scheme is put forth, which includes two terms: anisotropic diffusion and edge enhancement, controlled by the optimum smoothing time. In this scheme, the anisotropic diffusion is governed by the local coordinate transformation and the first and the second order normal derivatives of the image, while the edge enhancement is done by the hyperbolic tangent function. Experiments on real ultrasonic images indicate effective preservation of edges, local details and ultrasonic echoic bright strips on denoising by our scheme.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
8
7776
Adaptive Bidirectional Flow for Image Interpolation and Enhancement
Abstract:

Image interpolation is a common problem in imaging applications. However, most interpolation algorithms in existence suffer visually the effects of blurred edges and jagged artifacts in the image to some extent. This paper presents an adaptive feature preserving bidirectional flow process, where an inverse diffusion is performed to sharpen edges along the normal directions to the isophote lines (edges), while a normal diffusion is done to remove artifacts (“jaggies") along the tangent directions. In order to preserve image features such as edges, corners and textures, the nonlinear diffusion coefficients are locally adjusted according to the directional derivatives of the image. Experimental results on synthetic images and nature images demonstrate that our interpolation algorithm substantially improves the subjective quality of the interpolated images over conventional interpolations.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
7
2287
Asymptotic Approach for Rectangular Microstrip Patch antenna With Magnetic Anisotropy and Chiral Substrate
Abstract:
The effect of a chiral bianisotropic substrate on the complex resonant frequency of a rectangular microstrip resonator has been studied on the basis of the integral equation formulation. The analysis is based on numerical resolution of the integral equation using Galerkin procedure for moment method in the spectral domain. This work aim first to study the effect of the chirality of a bianisotopic substrate upon the resonant frequency and the half power bandwidth, second the effect of a magnetic anisotropy via an asymptotic approach for very weak substrate upon the resonant frequency and the half power bandwidth has been investigated. The obtained results are compared with previously published work [11-9], they were in good agreement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
6
3973
An Improved Illumination Normalization based on Anisotropic Smoothing for Face Recognition
Abstract:
Robust face recognition under various illumination environments is very difficult and needs to be accomplished for successful commercialization. In this paper, we propose an improved illumination normalization method for face recognition. Illumination normalization algorithm based on anisotropic smoothing is well known to be effective among illumination normalization methods but deteriorates the intensity contrast of the original image, and incurs less sharp edges. The proposed method in this paper improves the previous anisotropic smoothing-based illumination normalization method so that it increases the intensity contrast and enhances the edges while diminishing the effect of illumination variations. Due to the result of these improvements, face images preprocessed by the proposed illumination normalization method becomes to have more distinctive feature vectors (Gabor feature vectors) for face recognition. Through experiments of face recognition based on Gabor feature vector similarity, the effectiveness of the proposed illumination normalization method is verified.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
5
6992
On the Wave Propagation in Layered Plates of General Anisotropic Media
Authors:
Abstract:
Analysis for the propagation of elastic waves in arbitrary anisotropic plates is investigated, commencing with a formal analysis of waves in a layered plate of an arbitrary anisotropic media, the dispersion relations of elastic waves are obtained by invoking continuity at the interface and boundary of conditions on the surfaces of layered plate. The obtained solutions can be used for material systems of higher symmetry such as monoclinic, orthotropic, transversely isotropic, cubic, and isotropic as it is contained implicitly in the analysis. The cases of free layered plate and layered half space are considered separately. Some special cases have also been deduced and discussed. Finally numerical solution of the frequency equations for an aluminum epoxy is carried out, and the dispersion curves for the few lower modes are presented. The results obtained theoretically have been verified numerically and illustrated graphically.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
4
3226
Thermoelastic Waves in Anisotropic Platesusing Normal Mode Expansion Method with Thermal Relaxation Time
Authors:
Abstract:
Analysis for the generalized thermoelastic Lamb waves, which propagates in anisotropic thin plates in generalized thermoelasticity, is presented employing normal mode expansion method. The displacement and temperature fields are expressed by a summation of the symmetric and antisymmetric thermoelastic modes in the surface thermal stresses and thermal gradient free orthotropic plate, therefore the theory is particularly appropriate for waveform analyses of Lamb waves in thin anisotropic plates. The transient waveforms excited by the thermoelastic expansion are analyzed for an orthotropic thin plate. The obtained results show that the theory provides a quantitative analysis to characterize anisotropic thermoelastic stiffness properties of plates by wave detection. Finally numerical calculations have been presented for a NaF crystal, and the dispersion curves for the lowest modes of the symmetric and antisymmetric vibrations are represented graphically at different values of thermal relaxation time. However, the methods can be used for other materials as well
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3
9443
Scatterer Density in Edge and Coherence Enhancing Nonlinear Anisotropic Diffusion for Medical Ultrasound Speckle Reduction
Abstract:
This paper proposes new enhancement models to the methods of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion to greatly reduce speckle and preserve image features in medical ultrasound images. By incorporating local physical characteristics of the image, in this case scatterer density, in addition to the gradient, into existing tensorbased image diffusion methods, we were able to greatly improve the performance of the existing filtering methods, namely edge enhancing (EE) and coherence enhancing (CE) diffusion. The new enhancement methods were tested using various ultrasound images, including phantom and some clinical images, to determine the amount of speckle reduction, edge, and coherence enhancements. Scatterer density weighted nonlinear anisotropic diffusion (SDWNAD) for ultrasound images consistently outperformed its traditional tensor-based counterparts that use gradient only to weight the diffusivity function. SDWNAD is shown to greatly reduce speckle noise while preserving image features as edges, orientation coherence, and scatterer density. SDWNAD superior performances over nonlinear coherent diffusion (NCD), speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), adaptive weighted median filter (AWMF), wavelet shrinkage (WS), and wavelet shrinkage with contrast enhancement (WSCE), make these methods ideal preprocessing steps for automatic segmentation in ultrasound imaging.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2
12860
Feature Preserving Image Interpolation and Enhancement Using Adaptive Bidirectional Flow
Abstract:

Image interpolation is a common problem in imaging applications. However, most interpolation algorithms in existence suffer visually to some extent the effects of blurred edges and jagged artifacts in the image. This paper presents an adaptive feature preserving bidirectional flow process, where an inverse diffusion is performed to enhance edges along the normal directions to the isophote lines (edges), while a normal diffusion is done to remove artifacts (''jaggies'') along the tangent directions. In order to preserve image features such as edges, angles and textures, the nonlinear diffusion coefficients are locally adjusted according to the first and second order directional derivatives of the image. Experimental results on synthetic images and nature images demonstrate that our interpolation algorithm substantially improves the subjective quality of the interpolated images over conventional interpolations.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1
15953
Feature Preserving Nonlinear Diffusion for Ultrasonic Image Denoising and Edge Enhancement
Abstract:

Utilizing echoic intension and distribution from different organs and local details of human body, ultrasonic image can catch important medical pathological changes, which unfortunately may be affected by ultrasonic speckle noise. A feature preserving ultrasonic image denoising and edge enhancement scheme is put forth, which includes two terms: anisotropic diffusion and edge enhancement, controlled by the optimum smoothing time. In this scheme, the anisotropic diffusion is governed by the local coordinate transformation and the first and the second order normal derivatives of the image, while the edge enhancement is done by the hyperbolic tangent function. Experiments on real ultrasonic images indicate effective preservation of edges, local details and ultrasonic echoic bright strips on denoising by our scheme.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):

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