Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 7

7
10008106
Homogenization of Cocoa Beans Fermentation to Upgrade Quality Using an Original Improved Fermenter
Abstract:

Cocoa beans (Theobroma cocoa L.) are the main components for chocolate manufacturing. The beans must be correctly fermented at first. Traditional process to perform the first fermentation (lactic fermentation) often consists in confining cacao beans using banana leaves or a fermentation basket, both of them leading to a poor product thermal insulation and to an inability to mix the product. Box fermenter reduces this loss by using a wood with large thickness (e>3cm), but mixing to homogenize the product is still hard to perform. Automatic fermenters are not rentable for most of producers. Heat (T>45°C) and acidity produced during the fermentation by microbiology activity of yeasts and bacteria are enabling the emergence of potential flavor and taste of future chocolate. In this study, a cylindro-rotative fermenter (FCR-V1) has been built and coconut fibers were used in its structure to confine heat. An axis of rotation (360°) has been integrated to facilitate the turning and homogenization of beans in the fermenter. This axis permits to put fermenter in a vertical position during the anaerobic alcoholic phase of fermentation, and horizontally during acetic phase to take advantage of the mid height filling. For circulation of air flow during turning in acetic phase, two woven rattan with grid have been made, one for the top and second for the bottom of the fermenter. In order to reduce air flow during acetic phase, two airtight covers are put on each grid cover. The efficiency of the turning by this kind of rotation, coupled with homogenization of the temperature, caused by the horizontal position in the acetic phase of the fermenter, contribute to having a good proportion of well-fermented beans (83.23%). In addition, beans’pH values ranged between 4.5 and 5.5. These values are ideal for enzymatic activity in the production of the aromatic compounds inside beans. The regularity of mass loss during all fermentation makes it possible to predict the drying surface corresponding to the amount being fermented.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
6
10004417
Effects of Sole and Integrated Application of Cocoa Pod Ash and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Leaf Nutrient Composition and Performance of White Yam
Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted during 2013, 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons at Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, southwest Nigeria. The objective of the investigation was to determine the effect of Cocoa Pod Ash (CPA) and Poultry Manure (PM) applied solely and their combined form, as sources of fertilizers on soil properties, leaf nutrient composition, growth and yield of yam. Three soil amendments: CPA, PM (sole forms), CPA and PM (mixture), were applied at 20 t ha-1 with an inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) at 400 kg ha-1 as a reference and a natural soil fertility, NSF (control). The five treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The test soil was slightly acidic, low in organic carbon (OC), N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Results showed that soil amendments significantly increased (p = 0.05) tuber weights and growth of yam, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, soil pH and OC concentrations compared with the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM treatment increased tuber weights of yam by 36%, compared with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and 19%, compared with PM alone. Sole PM increased tuber weight of yam by 15%, compared with NPK. Sole or mixed forms of soil amendments showed remarkable improvement in soil physical properties, nutrient availability, compared with NPK and the NSF (control). Integrated application of CPA at 10 t ha-1 + PM at 10 t ha-1 was the most effective treatment in improving soil physical properties, increasing nutrient availability and yam performance than sole application of any of the fertilizer materials.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
5
10003963
Effect of Cocoa Pod Ash and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Cocoyam Productivity of Nutrient-Depleted Tropical Alfisol
Abstract:

An experiment was carried out for three consecutive years at Owo, southwest Nigeria. The objective of the investigation was to determine the effect of Cocoa Pod Ash (CPA) and Poultry Manure (PM) applied solely and their combined form, as sources of fertilizers on soil properties, leaf nutrient composition, growth and yield of cocoyam. Three soil amendments: CPA, PM (sole forms), CPA and PM (mixture), were applied at 7.5 t ha-1 with an inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) at 400 kg ha-1 as a reference and a natural soil fertility, NSF (control), arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that soil amendments significantly increased (p = 0.05) corm and cormel weights and growth of cocoyam, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, soil pH and organic carbon (OC) concentrations compared with the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM treatment increased corm and cormel weights, plant height and leaf area of cocoyam by 40, 39, 42, and 48%, respectively, compared with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and 13, 12, 15 and 7%, respectively, compared with PM alone. Sole or mixed forms of soil amendments showed remarkable improvement in soil physical properties compared with NPK and the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM applied at 7.5 t ha-1 was the most effective treatment in improving cocoyam yield and growth parameters, soil and leaf nutrient composition.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
4
10003295
Color Characteristics of Dried Cocoa Using Shallow Box Fermentation Technique
Abstract:
Fermentation is well known as an essential process to develop chocolate flavor in dried cocoa beans. Besides developing the precursor of cocoa flavor, it also induces the color changes in the beans. The fermentation process is influenced by various factors such as planting material, preconditioning of cocoa pod and fermentation technique. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate color of Malaysian cocoa beans and how the duration of pods storage and fermentation technique using shallow box will effect on its color characteristics. There are two factors being studied i.e. duration of cocoa pod storage (0, 2, 4 and 6 days) and duration of cocoa fermentation (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days). The experiment is arranged in 4 x 6 factorial designs with 24 treatments and arrangement is in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD). The produced beans are inspected for color changes under artificial light during cut test and divided into four groups of color namely fully brown, purple brown, fully purple and slaty. Cut tests indicated that cocoa beans which are directly dried without undergone fermentation has the highest slaty percentage. However, application of pods storage before fermentation process is found to decrease the slaty percentage. In contrast, the percentages of fully brown beans start to dominate after two days of fermentation, especially from four and six days of pods storage batch. Whereas, almost all batches of cocoa beans have a percentage of fully purple less than 20%. Interestingly, the percentage of purple brown beans are scattered in the entire beans batch regardless any specific trend. Meanwhile, statistical analysis using General Linear Model showed that the pods storage has a significant effect on the color characteristic of the Malaysian dried beans compared to fermentation duration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3
9997968
Static Headspace GC Method for Aldehydes Determination in Different Food Matrices
Abstract:

Aldehydes as secondary lipid oxidation products are highly specific to the oxidative degradation of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids present in foods. Gas chromatographic analysis of those volatile compounds has been widely used for monitoring of the deterioration of food products. Developed static headspace gas chromatography method using flame ionization detector (SHS GC FID) was applied to monitor the aldehydes present in processed foods such as bakery, meat and confectionary products.

Five selected aldehydes were determined in samples without any sample preparation, except grinding for bakery and meat products. SHS–GC analysis allows the separation of propanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal and octanal, within 15min. Aldehydes were quantified in fresh and stored samples, and the obtained range of aldehydes in crackers was 1.62±0.05 – 9.95±0.05mg/kg, in sausages 6.62±0.46 – 39.16±0.39mg/kg; and in cocoa spread cream 0.48±0.01 – 1.13±0.02mg/kg. Referring to the obtained results, the following can be concluded, proposed method is suitable for different types of samples, content of aldehydes varies depending on the type of a sample, and differs in fresh and stored samples of the same type.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2
13890
The Antioxidant Capacity of Beverage Blends Made from Cocoa, Zobo and Ginger
Abstract:

The antioxidant capability of beverage blends made from cocoa, zobo and ginger with standard antioxidant assay procedures was investigated. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) scavenging capacity ranged from 21.2-25.8% in comparison with GSH of 37.1%. The ferric reducing ability was highest in the zobo drink and lowest in ginger. The superoxide scavenging capacity was also highest in the zobo drink followed by the drink with alkalized cocoa. The metal chelating power decreased as the level of zobo in the blends decreases. The chelating power of zobo and ginger were significantly lower than the natural and alkalized cocoa. The 100% zobo drink inhibited linoleic acid till the fifth day while natural and alkalized cocoa as well as the blend with 50% alkalized cocoa inhibited linoleic acid greatly till the sixth day. The finding describes the potential health benefit of the phytochemical antioxidants of cocoa:zobo:ginger beverage blends.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1
11313
Modification of Palm Oil Structure to Cocoa Butter Equivalent by Carica papaya Lipase- Catalyzed Interesterification
Abstract:

Palm oil could be converted to cocoa butter equivalent by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. The objective of this research was to investigate the structure modification of palm oil to cocoa butter equivalent using Carica papaya lipase –catalyzed interesterification. The study showed that the compositions of cocoa butter equivalent were affected by acyl donor sources, substrate ratio, initial water of enzyme, reaction time, reaction temperature and the amount of enzyme. Among three acyl donors tested (methyl stearate, ethyl stearate and stearic acid), methyl stearate appeared to be the best acyl donor for incorporation to palm oil structure. The best reaction conditions for cocoa butter equivalent production were : substrate ratio (palm oil : methyl stearate, mol/mol) at 1 : 4, water activity of enzyme at 0.11, reaction time at 4 h, reaction temperature at 45 ° C and 18% by weight of the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of cocoa butter equivalent were 9.75 ± 0.41% free fatty acid, 44.89 ± 0.84 iodine number, 193.19 ± 0.78 sponification value and melting point at 37-39 °C.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):

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