Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 153

153
6624
A Validity and Reliability Study of Grasha- Riechmann Student Learning Style Scale
Abstract:
The reliability of the tools developed to learn the learning styles is essential to find out students- learning styles trustworthily. For this purpose, the psychometric features of Grasha- Riechman Student Learning Style Inventory developed by Grasha was studied to contribute to this field. The study was carried out on 6th, 7th, and 8th graders of 10 primary education schools in Konya. The inventory was applied twice with an interval of one month, and according to the data of this application, the reliability coefficient numbers of the 6 sub-dimensions pointed in the theory of the inventory was found to be medium. Besides, it was found that the inventory does not have a structure with 6 factors for both Mathematics and English courses as represented in the theory.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
152
10144
A New Approach to Optimal Control Problem Constrained by Canonical Form
Authors:
Abstract:
In this article, it is considered a class of optimal control problems constrained by differential and integral constraints are called canonical form. A modified measure theoretical approach is introduced to solve this class of optimal control problems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
151
4285
Anti-periodic Solutions for Cohen-Grossberg Shunting Inhibitory Neural Networks with Delays
Abstract:

By using the method of coincidence degree theory and constructing suitable Lyapunov functional, several sufficient conditions are established for the existence and global exponential stability of anti-periodic solutions for Cohen-Grossberg shunting inhibitory neural networks with delays. An example is given to illustrate our feasible results.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
150
7767
Surge Protection of Power Supply used for Automation Devices in Power Distribution System
Abstract:
The intent of this essay is to evaluate the effectiveness of surge suppressor aimed at power supply used for automation devices in power distribution system which is consist of MOV and T type low-pass filter. Books, journal articles and e-sources related to surge protection of power supply used for automation devices in power distribution system were consulted, and the useful information was organized, analyzed and developed into five parts: characteristics of surge wave, protection against surge wave, impedance characteristics of target, using Matlab to simulate circuit response after 5kV,1.2/50s surge wave and suggestions for surge protection. The results indicate that various types of load situation have great impact on the effectiveness of surge protective device. Therefore, type and parameters of surge protective device need to be carefully selected, and load matching is also vital to be concerned.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
149
5063
400 kW Six Analytical High Speed Generator Designs for Smart Grid Systems
Abstract:
High Speed PM Generators driven by micro-turbines are widely used in Smart Grid System. So, this paper proposes comparative study among six classical, optimized and genetic analytical design cases for 400 kW output power at tip speed 200 m/s. These six design trials of High Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (HSPMSGs) are: Classical Sizing; Unconstrained optimization for total losses and its minimization; Constrained optimized total mass with bounded constraints are introduced in the problem formulation. Then a genetic algorithm is formulated for obtaining maximum efficiency and minimizing machine size. In the second genetic problem formulation, we attempt to obtain minimum mass, the machine sizing that is constrained by the non-linear constraint function of machine losses. Finally, an optimum torque per ampere genetic sizing is predicted. All results are simulated with MATLAB, Optimization Toolbox and its Genetic Algorithm. Finally, six analytical design examples comparisons are introduced with study of machines waveforms, THD and rotor losses.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
148
2830
Named Entity Recognition using Support Vector Machine: A Language Independent Approach
Abstract:

Named Entity Recognition (NER) aims to classify each word of a document into predefined target named entity classes and is now-a-days considered to be fundamental for many Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as information retrieval, machine translation, information extraction, question answering systems and others. This paper reports about the development of a NER system for Bengali and Hindi using Support Vector Machine (SVM). Though this state of the art machine learning technique has been widely applied to NER in several well-studied languages, the use of this technique to Indian languages (ILs) is very new. The system makes use of the different contextual information of the words along with the variety of features that are helpful in predicting the four different named (NE) classes, such as Person name, Location name, Organization name and Miscellaneous name. We have used the annotated corpora of 122,467 tokens of Bengali and 502,974 tokens of Hindi tagged with the twelve different NE classes 1, defined as part of the IJCNLP-08 NER Shared Task for South and South East Asian Languages (SSEAL) 2. In addition, we have manually annotated 150K wordforms of the Bengali news corpus, developed from the web-archive of a leading Bengali newspaper. We have also developed an unsupervised algorithm in order to generate the lexical context patterns from a part of the unlabeled Bengali news corpus. Lexical patterns have been used as the features of SVM in order to improve the system performance. The NER system has been tested with the gold standard test sets of 35K, and 60K tokens for Bengali, and Hindi, respectively. Evaluation results have demonstrated the recall, precision, and f-score values of 88.61%, 80.12%, and 84.15%, respectively, for Bengali and 80.23%, 74.34%, and 77.17%, respectively, for Hindi. Results show the improvement in the f-score by 5.13% with the use of context patterns. Statistical analysis, ANOVA is also performed to compare the performance of the proposed NER system with that of the existing HMM based system for both the languages.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
147
5918
A Generalised Relational Data Model
Abstract:
A generalised relational data model is formalised for the representation of data with nested structure of arbitrary depth. A recursive algebra for the proposed model is presented. All the operations are formally defined. The proposed model is proved to be a superset of the conventional relational model (CRM). The functionality and validity of the model is shown by a prototype implementation that has been undertaken in the functional programming language Miranda.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
146
6493
Understanding and Designing Situation-Aware Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Systems
Abstract:
Using spatial models as a shared common basis of information about the environment for different kinds of contextaware systems has been a heavily researched topic in the last years. Thereby the research focused on how to create, to update, and to merge spatial models so as to enable highly dynamic, consistent and coherent spatial models at large scale. In this paper however, we want to concentrate on how context-aware applications could use this information so as to adapt their behavior according to the situation they are in. The main idea is to provide the spatial model infrastructure with a situation recognition component based on generic situation templates. A situation template is – as part of a much larger situation template library – an abstract, machinereadable description of a certain basic situation type, which could be used by different applications to evaluate their situation. In this paper, different theoretical and practical issues – technical, ethical and philosophical ones – are discussed important for understanding and developing situation dependent systems based on situation templates. A basic system design is presented which allows for the reasoning with uncertain data using an improved version of a learning algorithm for the automatic adaption of situation templates. Finally, for supporting the development of adaptive applications, we present a new situation-aware adaptation concept based on workflows.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
145
10940
Metoprolol Tartrate-Ethylcellulose Tabletted Microparticles: Development of a Validated Invitro In-vivo Correlation
Abstract:

This study describes the methodology for the development of a validated in-vitro in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) for metoprolol tartrate modified release dosage forms with distinctive release rate characteristics. Modified release dosage forms were formulated by microencapsulation of metoprolol tartrate into different amounts of ethylcellulose by non-solvent addition technique. Then in-vitro and in-vivo studies were conducted to develop and validate level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate. The values of regression co-efficient (R2-values) for IVIVC of T2 and T3 formulations were not significantly (p<0.05) different from 1 while the values of R2 for IVIVC of T1 and Mepressor® were significantly (p<0.05) different from 1. Internal prediction errors of IVIVC, calculated from observed Area under Curve (AUC) and predicted AUC, were less than 10%. This study successfully presents a valid level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate modified dosage forms.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
144
9016
Design of Service-Oriented Pervasive System for Urban Computing in Cali Zoo (OpenZoo)
Abstract:
The increasing popularity of wireless technologies and mobile computing devices has enabled new application areas and research. One of these new areas is pervasive systems in urban environments, because urban environments are characterized by high concentration of these technologies and devices. In this paper we will show the process of pervasive system design in urban environments, using as use case a local zoo in Cali, Colombia. Based on an ethnographic studio, we present the design of a pervasive system for urban computing based on service oriented architecture to controlled environment of Cali Zoo. In this paper, the reader will find a methodological approach for the design of similar systems, using data collection methods, conceptual frameworks for urban environments and considerations of analysis and design of service oriented systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
143
9965
A Study on the Circumstances Affecting Elementary School Students in Their Familyand School Lives and Their Consequential Emotions
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to determine the circumstances affecting elementary school students in their family and school lives and what kind of emotions children may feel because of these circumstances. The study was carried out according to the survey model. Four Turkish elementary schools provided 123 fourth grade students for participation in the study. The study-s data were collected by using worksheets for the activity titled “Important Days in Our Lives", which was part of the Elementary School Social Sciences Course 4th Grade Education Program. Data analysis was carried out according to the content analysis technique used in qualitative research. The study detected that circumstances of their family and school lives caused children to feel emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger, fear and jealousy. The circumstances and the emotions caused by these circumstances were analyzed according to gender and interpreted by presenting them with their frequencies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
142
4853
Spatial Variability in Human Development Patterns in Assiut, Egypt
Abstract:
Given the motivation of maps impact in enhancing the perception of the quality of life in a region, this work examines the use of spatial analytical techniques in exploring the role of space in shaping human development patterns in Assiut governorate. Variations of human development index (HDI) of the governorate-s villages, districts and cities are mapped using geographic information systems (GIS). Global and local spatial autocorrelation measures are employed to assess the levels of spatial dependency in the data and to map clusters of human development. Results show prominent disparities in HDI between regions of Assiut. Strong patterns of spatial association were found proving the presence of clusters on the distribution of HDI. Finally, the study indicates several "hot-spots" in the governorate to be area of more investigations to explore the attributes of such levels of human development. This is very important for accomplishing the development plan of poorest regions currently adopted in Egypt.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
141
8963
Error Rate Probability for Coded MQAM with MRC Diversity in the Presence of Cochannel Interferers over Nakagami-Fading Channels
Abstract:
Exact expressions for bit-error probability (BEP) for coherent square detection of uncoded and coded M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM) using an array of antennas with maximal ratio combining (MRC) in a flat fading channel interference limited system in a Nakagami-m fading environment is derived. The analysis assumes an arbitrary number of independent and identically distributed Nakagami interferers. The results for coded MQAM are computed numerically for the case of (24,12) extended Golay code and compared with uncoded MQAM by plotting error probabilities versus average signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) for various values of order of diversity N, number of distinct symbols M, in order to examine the effect of cochannel interferers on the performance of the digital communication system. The diversity gains and net gains are also presented in tabular form in order to examine the performance of digital communication system in the presence of interferers, as the order of diversity increases. The analytical results presented in this paper are expected to provide useful information needed for design and analysis of digital communication systems with space diversity in wireless fading channels.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
140
5309
Turkish Emerging Adults' Identity Statuses with Respect to Marital and Parental Statuses and SES
Abstract:

Emerging adulthood, between the ages of 18 and 25, as a new developmental stage extending from adolescence to young adulthood. According to Arnett [2004], there are experiments related to identity in three basic fields which are love, work and view of the world in emerging adulthood. When the literature related to identity is examined, it is seen that identity has been studied more with adolescent, and studies were concentrated on the relationship of identity with many demographic variables neglecting important variables such as marital status, parental status and SES. Thus, the main aim of this study is to determine whether identity statuses differenciate with marital status, parental status and SES. A total of 700 emerging adults participated in this study, and the mean age was 22,45 years [SD = 3.76]. The sample was made up of 347 female and 353 male. All participants in the study were students from colleges. Student responses to the Extended Version of the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status [EOM-EIS-2] used to classify students into one of the four identity statuses. SPSS 15.00 program wasa used to analyse data. Percentage, frequency and X2 analysis were used in the analysis of data. When the findings of the study is viewed as a whole, the most frequently observed identity status in the group is found to be moratorium. Also, identity statuses differenciate with marital status, parental status and SES. Findings were discussed in the context of emerging adulthood.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
139
10754
Ideological Tendencies of the Teachers about the Causes of Vandalism in Schools and Solution Proposals
Abstract:
Aggression is a behavior that cannot be approved by the society. Vandalism which is aggression towards objects is an action that tends to damage public or personal property. The behaviors that are described as vandalism can often be observed in the schools as well. According to Zwier and Vaughan (1) previous research about the reasons of and precautionary measures for vandalism in schools can be grouped in three tendency categories: conservative, liberal and radical. In this context, the main aim of this study is to discover which ideological tendency of the reasons of school vandalism is adopted by the teachers and what are their physical, environmental, school system and societal solutions for vandalism. A total of 200 teachers participated in this study, and the mean age was 34.20 years (SD = 6.54). The sample was made up of 109 females and 91 males. For the analysis of the data, SPSS 15.00, frequency, percentage, and t-test were used. The research showed that the teachers have tendencies in the order of conservative, liberal and radical for the reasons of vandalism. The research also showed that the teachers do not have any tendency for eliminating vandalism physically and general solutions on the level of society; on the other hand they mostly adopt a conservative tendency in terms of precautions against vandalism in the school system. Second most, they adopt the liberal tendency in terms of precautions against vandalism in the school system. . It is observed that the findings of this study are comparable to the existing literature on the subject. Future studies should be conducted with multiple variants and bigger sampling.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
138
14244
A Coherent Relationship between EconomicGrowth and Unemployment: An Empirical Evidence from Pakistan
Abstract:
The study is aimed to test causal relationship between growth and unemployment, using time series data for Pakistan from 1972 to 2006. Growth is considered to be a pathway to decrease the level of unemployment. Unemployment is a social and political issue. It is a phenomenon where human resources are wasted leading to deacceleration in growth. Johanson Cointegration shows that there is long run relationship between growth and unemployment. For short run dynamics and causality, the study utilizes Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The results of VECM indicate that there is short and long run causal relation between growth and unemployment including capital, labor and human capital as explanatory variables.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
137
7272
Cost and Productivity Experiences of Pakistan with Aggregate Learning Curve
Abstract:
The principal focus of this study is on the measurement and analysis of labor learnings in Pakistan. The study at the aggregate economy level focus on the labor productivity movements and at large-scale manufacturing level focus on the cost structure, with isolating the contribution of the learning curve. The analysis of S-shaped curve suggests that learnings are only below one half of aggregate learning curve and other half shows the retardation in learning, hence retardation in productivity movements. The study implies the existence of learning economies in term of cost reduction that is input cost per unit produced decreases by 0.51 percent every time the cumulative production output doubles.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
136
5312
Growth, Population, Exports and Wagner's Law: A Case Study of Pakistan (1972-2007)
Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the validity of Wagner-s law and relationship between economic growth, population and export for Pakistan. The ARDL Bounds cointegration and ECM are utilized for long and short run equilibrium for the period of 1972-2007. Population has considerable role in an economy and exports are the main source to raise the GDP. With the increase in GDP, the government expenditures may or may not increase. The empirical results indicate that the Wagner-s Law does hold, as economic growth is significantly and positively correlated with government expenditures. However, population and exports have also significant and positive impact on government expenditures both in short and long run. The significant and negative coefficient of error correction term in ECM indicates that after a shock, the long rum equilibrium will again converge towards equilibrium about 70.82 percent within a year.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
135
10104
Effects of Multimedia-based Instructional Designs for Arabic Language Learning among Pupils of Different Achievement Levels
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of modality principles in instructional software among first grade pupils- achievements in the learning of Arabic Language. Two modes of instructional software were systematically designed and developed, audio with images (AI), and text with images (TI). The quasi-experimental design was used in the study. The sample consisted of 123 male and female pupils from IRBED Education Directorate, Jordan. The pupils were randomly assigned to any one of the two modes. The independent variable comprised the two modes of the instructional software, the students- achievement levels in the Arabic Language class and gender. The dependent variable was the achievements of the pupils in the Arabic Language test. The theoretical framework of this study was based on Mayer-s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. Four hypotheses were postulated and tested. Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) showed that pupils using the (AI) mode performed significantly better than those using (TI) mode. This study concluded that the audio with images mode was an important aid to learning as compared to text with images mode.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
134
9141
Disparity in Socio-Economic Development and Its Implications on Communal Conflicts: A Study on India's North-Eastern Region
Authors:
Abstract:

India-s North-Eastern part, comprising of seven states, is a lowly developed, tribal population dominated region in India. Inspite of the common Mongoloid origin and lifestyle of majority of the population residing here, sharp differences exist in the status of their socio-economic development. The present paper, through a state-wise analysis, makes an attempt to find out the extent of this disparity, especially on the socio-economic front. It illustrates the situations prevailing in health, education, economic and social cohesion sector. Discussion on the implications of such disparity on social stability finds that the causes of frequent insurgency activities, that have been penetrating the region for a long time, thereby creating communal conflicts, can be traced in the economic deprivation and disparity. In the last section, the paper makes policy prescription and suggests how by taking care of disparity and deprivation both poverty and the problem of communal conflicts can be controlled.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
133
8771
A Case Study of Reactive Focus on Form through Negotiation on Spoken Errors: Does It Work for All Learners?
Abstract:
This case study investigates the effects of reactive focus on form through negotiation on the linguistic development of an adult EFL learner in an exclusive private EFL classroom. The findings revealed that in this classroom negotiated feedback occurred significantly more often than non-negotiated feedback. However, it was also found that in the long run the learner was significantly more successful in correcting his own errors when he had received nonnegotiated feedback than negotiated feedback. This study, therefore, argues that although negotiated feedback seems to be effective for some learners in the short run, it is non-negotiated feedback which seems to be more effective in the long run. This long lasting effect might be attributed to the impact of schooling system which is itself indicative of the dominant culture, or to the absence of other interlocutors in the course of interaction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
132
2396
Impact of Foreign Aid and Levels of Education on Democracy in Pakistan
Abstract:
This study examines the relationships between foreign aid, levels of schooling and democracy for Pakistan using the ARDL cointegration approach. The results of study provide strong evidence for fairly robust long run as well as short run relationships among these variables for the period 1973-2008. The results state that foreign aid and primary school enrollments have negative impact on democracy index and high school enrollments have positive impact on democracy index in Pakistan. The study suggests for promotion of education levels and relies on local resources instead of foreign aid for a good quality of political institutions in Pakistan.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
131
14407
Convergence and Divergence in Telephone Conversations: A Case of Persian
Abstract:
People usually have a telephone voice, which means they adjust their speech to fit particular situations and to blend in with other interlocutors. The question is: Do we speak differently to different people? This possibility has been suggested by social psychologists within Accommodation Theory [1]. Converging toward the speech of another person can be regarded as a polite speech strategy while choosing a language not used by the other interlocutor can be considered as the clearest example of speech divergence [2]. The present study sets out to investigate such processes in the course of everyday telephone conversations. Using Joos-s [3] model of formality in spoken English, the researchers try to explore convergence to or divergence from the addressee. The results propound the actuality that lexical choice, and subsequently, patterns of style vary intriguingly in concordance with the person being addressed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
130
2271
Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Performance in the English Language among Middle-School Students in English Language Program in Satri Si Suriyothai School, Bangkok
Abstract:
This study investigated students- perception of self efficacy and anxiety in acquiring English language, and consequently examined the relationship existing among the independent variables, confounding variables and students- performances in the English language. The researcher tested the research hypotheses using a sample group of 318 respondents out of the population size of 400 students. The results obtained revealed that there was a significant moderate negative relationship between English language anxiety and performance in English language, but no significant relationship between self-efficacy and English language performance, among the middle-school students. There was a significant moderate negative relationship between English language anxiety and self-efficacy. It was discovered that general self-efficacy and English language anxiety represented a significantly more powerful set of predictors than the set of confounding variables. Thus, the study concluded that English language anxiety and general self-efficacy were significant predictors of English language performance among middle-school students in Satri Si Suriyothai School.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
129
12771
Technology Readiness Index (TRI) among USM Distance Education Students According to Age
Abstract:
This paper reports the findings of a research conducted to evaluate the ownership and usage of technology devices within Distance Education students- according to their age. This research involved 45 Distance Education students from USM Universiti Sains Malaysia (DEUSM) as its respondents. Data was collected through questionnaire that had been developed by the researchers based on some literature review. The data was analyzed to find out the frequencies of respondents agreements towards ownership of technology devices and the use of technology devices. The findings shows that all respondents own mobile phone and majority of them reveal that they use mobile on regular basis. The student in the age 30-39 has the heist ownership of the technology devices.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
128
10151
Values as a Predictor of Cyber-bullying Among Secondary School Students
Abstract:
The use of new technologies such internet (e-mail, chat rooms) and cell phones has steeply increased in recent years. Especially among children and young people, use of technological tools and equipments is widespread. Although many teachers and administrators now recognize the problem of school bullying, few are aware that students are being harassed through electronic communication. Referred to as electronic bullying, cyber bullying, or online social cruelty, this phenomenon includes bullying through email, instant messaging, in a chat room, on a website, or through digital messages or images sent to a cell phone. Cyber bullying is defined as causing deliberate/intentional harm to others using internet or other digital technologies. It has a quantitative research design nd uses relational survey as its method. The participants consisted of 300 secondary school students in the city of Konya, Turkey. 195 (64.8%) participants were female and 105 (35.2%) were male. 39 (13%) students were at grade 1, 187 (62.1%) were at grade 2 and 74 (24.6%) were at grade 3. The “Cyber Bullying Question List" developed by Ar─▒cak (2009) was given to students. Following questions about demographics, a functional definition of cyber bullying was provided. In order to specify students- human values, “Human Values Scale (HVS)" developed by Dilmaç (2007) for secondary school students was administered. The scale consists of 42 items in six dimensions. Data analysis was conducted by the primary investigator of the study using SPSS 14.00 statistical analysis software. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the analysis of students- cyber bullying behaviour and simple regression analysis was conducted in order to test whether each value in the scale could explain cyber bullying behaviour.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
127
13909
Effects of Computer–Based Instructional Designs among Pupils of Different Music Intelligence Levels
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of computer–based instructional designs, namely modality and redundancy principles on the attitude and learning of music theory among primary pupils of different Music Intelligence levels. The lesson of music theory was developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The independent variables were the three modes of courseware. The moderator variable was music intelligence. The dependent variables were the post test score. ANOVA was used to determine the significant differences of the pretest scores among the three groups. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Post hoc were carried out to examine the main effects as well as the interaction effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables. High music intelligence pupils performed significantly better than low music intelligence pupils in all the three treatment modes. The AI mode was found to help pupils with low music intelligence significantly more than the TI and AIT modes.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
126
13175
Understanding Physical Activity Behavior of Type 2 Diabetics Using the Theory of Planned Behavior and Structural Equation Modeling
Abstract:

Understanding patient factors related to physical activity behavior is important in the management of Type 2 Diabetes. This study applied the Theory of Planned Behavior model to understand physical activity behavior among sampled Type 2 diabetics in Kenya. The study was conducted within the diabetic clinic at Kisii Level 5 Hospital and adopted sequential mixed methods design beginning with qualitative phase and ending with quantitative phase. Qualitative data was analyzed using grounded theory analysis method. Structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood was used to analyze quantitative data. The common fit indices revealed that the theory of planned behavior fitted the data acceptably well among the Type 2 diabetes and within physical activity behavior {¤ç2 = 213, df = 84, n=230, p = .061, ¤ç2/df = 2.53; TLI = .97; CFI =.96; RMSEA (90CI) = .073(.029, .08)}. This theory proved to be useful in understanding physical activity behavior among Type 2 diabetics.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
125
15846
Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Views about Using Flash Animations in Mathematics Lessons
Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to determine secondary prospective mathematics teachers- views related to using flash animations in mathematics lessons and to reveal how the sample presentations towards different mathematical concepts altered their views. This is a case study involving three secondary prospective mathematics teachers from a state university in Turkey. The data gathered from two semi-structural interviews. Findings revealed that these animations help understand mathematics meaningfully, relate mathematics and real world, visualization, and comprehend the importance of mathematics. The analysis of the data indicated that the sample presentations enhanced participants- views about using flash animations in mathematics lessons.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
124
9524
Impact of Government Spending on Private Consumption and on the Economy: The Case of Thailand
Abstract:

Government spending is categorized into consumption spending and capital spending. Three categories of private consumption are used: food consumption, nonfood consumption, and services consumption. The estimated model indicates substitution effects of government consumption spending on budget shares of private nonfood consumption and of government capital spending on budget share of private food consumption. However, the results do not indicate whether the negative effects of changes in the budget shares of the nonfood and the food consumption equates to reduce total private consumption. The concept of aggregate demand comprising consumption, investment, government spending (consumption spending and capital spending), export, and import are used to estimate their relationship by using the Vector Error Correction Mechanism. The study found no effect of government capital spending on either the private consumption or the growth of GDP while the government consumption spending has negative effect on the growth of GDP.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
123
8679
Using a Semantic Self-Organising Web Page-Ranking Mechanism for Public Administration and Education
Abstract:
In the proposed method for Web page-ranking, a novel theoretic model is introduced and tested by examples of order relationships among IP addresses. Ranking is induced using a convexity feature, which is learned according to these examples using a self-organizing procedure. We consider the problem of selforganizing learning from IP data to be represented by a semi-random convex polygon procedure, in which the vertices correspond to IP addresses. Based on recent developments in our regularization theory for convex polygons and corresponding Euclidean distance based methods for classification, we develop an algorithmic framework for learning ranking functions based on a Computational Geometric Theory. We show that our algorithm is generic, and present experimental results explaining the potential of our approach. In addition, we explain the generality of our approach by showing its possible use as a visualization tool for data obtained from diverse domains, such as Public Administration and Education.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
122
7228
Institutional Efficiency of Commonhold Industrial Parks Using a Polynomial Regression Model
Abstract:
Based on assumptions of neo-classical economics and rational choice / public choice theory, this paper investigates the regulation of industrial land use in Taiwan by homeowners associations (HOAs) as opposed to traditional government administration. The comparison, which applies the transaction cost theory and a polynomial regression analysis, manifested that HOAs are superior to conventional government administration in terms of transaction costs and overall efficiency. A case study that compares Taiwan-s commonhold industrial park, NangKang Software Park, to traditional government counterparts using limited data on the costs and returns was analyzed. This empirical study on the relative efficiency of governmental and private institutions justified the important theoretical proposition. Numerical results prove the efficiency of the established model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
121
7260
The Same or Not the Same - On the Variety of Mechanisms of Path Dependence
Authors:
Abstract:
In association with path dependence, researchers often talk of institutional “lock-in", thereby indicating that far-reaching path deviation or path departure are to be regarded as exceptional cases. This article submits the alleged general inclination for stability of path-dependent processes to a critical review. The different reasons for path dependence found in the literature indicate that different continuity-ensuring mechanisms are at work when people talk about path dependence (“increasing returns", complementarity, sequences etc.). As these mechanisms are susceptible to fundamental change in different ways and to different degrees, the path dependence concept alone is of only limited explanatory value. It is therefore indispensable to identify the underlying continuity-ensuring mechanism as well if a statement-s empirical value is to go beyond the trivial, always true “history matters".
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
120
6124
Two-dimensional Differential Transform Method for Solving Linear and Non-linear Goursat Problem
Abstract:
A method for solving linear and non-linear Goursat problem is given by using the two-dimensional differential transform method. The approximate solution of this problem is calculated in the form of a series with easily computable terms and also the exact solutions can be achieved by the known forms of the series solutions. The method can easily be applied to many linear and non-linear problems and is capable of reducing the size of computational work. Several examples are given to demonstrate the reliability and the performance of the presented method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
119
6747
Some Properties of b-Weakly Compact Operators on Banach lattice
Abstract:

We investigate the sufficient condition under which each positive b-weakly compact operator is Dunford-Pettis. We also investigate the necessary condition on which each positive b-weakly compact operator is Dunford-Pettis. Necessary condition on which each positive b-weakly compact operator is weakly compact is also considered. We give the operator that is semi-compact, but it is not bweakly. We present a necessary and sufficient condition under which each positive semi-compact operator is b-weakly compact.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
118
4282
A Nonlinear ODE System for the Unsteady Hydrodynamic Force – A New Approach
Abstract:
We propose a reduced-ordermodel for the instantaneous hydrodynamic force on a cylinder. The model consists of a system of two ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which can be integrated in time to yield very accurate histories of the resultant force and its direction. In contrast to several existing models, the proposed model considers the actual (total) hydrodynamic force rather than its perpendicular or parallel projection (the lift and drag), and captures the complete force rather than the oscillatory part only. We study and provide descriptions of the relationship between the model parameters, evaluated utilizing results from numerical simulations, and the Reynolds number so that the model can be used at any arbitrary value within the considered range of 100 to 500 to provide accurate representation of the force without the need to perform timeconsuming simulations and solving the partial differential equations (PDEs) governing the flow field.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
117
12126
Delay-range-Dependent Exponential Synchronization of Lur-e Systems with Markovian Switching
Abstract:

The problem of delay-range-dependent exponential synchronization is investigated for Lur-e master-slave systems with delay feedback control and Markovian switching. Using Lyapunov- Krasovskii functional and nonsingular M-matrix method, novel delayrange- dependent exponential synchronization in mean square criterions are established. The systems discussed in this paper is advanced system, and takes all the features of interval systems, Itˆo equations, Markovian switching, time-varying delay, as well as the environmental noise, into account. Finally, an example is given to show the validity of the main result.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
116
15455
Mechanism of Damping in Welded Structures using Finite Element Approach
Abstract:
The characterization and modeling of the dynamic behavior of many built-up structures under vibration conditions is still a subject of current research. The present study emphasizes the theoretical investigation of slip damping in layered and jointed welded cantilever structures using finite element approach. Application of finite element method in damping analysis is relatively recent, as such, some problems particularly slip damping analysis has not received enough attention. To validate the finite element model developed, experiments have been conducted on a number of mild steel specimens under different initial conditions of vibration. Finite element model developed affirms that the damping capacity of such structures is influenced by a number of vital parameters such as; pressure distribution, kinematic coefficient of friction and micro-slip at the interfaces, amplitude, frequency of vibration, length and thickness of the specimen. Finite element model developed can be utilized effectively in the design of machine tools, automobiles, aerodynamic and space structures, frames and machine members for enhancing their damping capacity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
115
10134
New Exact Solutions for the (3+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton Equation
Abstract:

In this work, we obtain some analytic solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional breaking soliton after obtaining its Hirota-s bilinear form. Our calculations show that, three-wave method is very easy and straightforward to solve nonlinear partial differential equations.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
114
13675
Effects of Thermal Radiation and Magnetic Field on Unsteady Stretching Permeable Sheet in Presence of Free Stream Velocity
Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to investigate twodimensional unsteady flow of a viscous incompressible fluid about stagnation point on permeable stretching sheet in presence of time dependent free stream velocity. Fluid is considered in the influence of transverse magnetic field in the presence of radiation effect. Rosseland approximation is use to model the radiative heat transfer. Using time-dependent stream function, partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and energy equations are converted into non-linear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained by using Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method with the help of Newton-Raphson shooting technique. In the present work the effect of unsteadiness parameter, magnetic field parameter, radiation parameter, stretching parameter and the Prandtl number on flow and heat transfer characteristics have been discussed. Skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number at the sheet are computed and discussed. The results reported in the paper are in good agreement with published work in literature by other researchers.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
113
15315
Single Frame Supercompression of Still Images,Video, High Definition TV and Digital Cinema
Abstract:
Super-resolution is nowadays used for a high-resolution image produced from several low-resolution noisy frames. In this work, we consider the problem of high-quality interpolation of a single noise-free image. Such images may come from different sources, i.e., they may be frames of videos, individual pictures, etc. On the other hand, in the encoder we apply a downsampling via bidimen-sional interpolation of each frame, and in the decoder we apply a upsampling by which we restore the original size of the image. If the compression ratio is very high, then we use a convolutive mask that restores the edges, eliminating the blur. Finally, both, the encoder and the complete decoder are implemented on General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) cards. In fact, the mentioned mask is coded inside texture memory of a GPGPU.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
112
6450
ANN based Multi Classifier System for Prediction of High Energy Shower Primary Energy and Core Location
Abstract:
Cosmic showers, during the transit through space, produce sub - products as a result of interactions with the intergalactic or interstellar medium which after entering earth generate secondary particles called Extensive Air Shower (EAS). Detection and analysis of High Energy Particle Showers involve a plethora of theoretical and experimental works with a host of constraints resulting in inaccuracies in measurements. Therefore, there exist a necessity to develop a readily available system based on soft-computational approaches which can be used for EAS analysis. This is due to the fact that soft computational tools such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN)s can be trained as classifiers to adapt and learn the surrounding variations. But single classifiers fail to reach optimality of decision making in many situations for which Multiple Classifier System (MCS) are preferred to enhance the ability of the system to make decisions adjusting to finer variations. This work describes the formation of an MCS using Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) with data inputs from correlation mapping Self Organizing Map (SOM) blocks and the output optimized by another SOM. The results show that the setup can be adopted for real time practical applications for prediction of primary energy and location of EAS from density values captured using detectors in a circular grid.
Keywords:
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
111
7538
Peakwise Smoothing of Data Models using Wavelets
Abstract:
Smoothing or filtering of data is first preprocessing step for noise suppression in many applications involving data analysis. Moving average is the most popular method of smoothing the data, generalization of this led to the development of Savitzky-Golay filter. Many window smoothing methods were developed by convolving the data with different window functions for different applications; most widely used window functions are Gaussian or Kaiser. Function approximation of the data by polynomial regression or Fourier expansion or wavelet expansion also gives a smoothed data. Wavelets also smooth the data to great extent by thresholding the wavelet coefficients. Almost all smoothing methods destroys the peaks and flatten them when the support of the window is increased. In certain applications it is desirable to retain peaks while smoothing the data as much as possible. In this paper we present a methodology called as peak-wise smoothing that will smooth the data to any desired level without losing the major peak features.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
110
7592
Free Convection in an Infinite Porous Dusty Medium Induced by Pulsating Point Heat Source
Abstract:

Free convection effects and heat transfer due to a pulsating point heat source embedded in an infinite, fluid saturated, porous dusty medium are studied analytically. Both velocity and temperature fields are discussed in the form of series expansions in the Rayleigh number, for both the fluid and particle phases based on the mean heat generation rate from source and on the permeability of the porous dusty medium. This study is carried out by assuming the Rayleigh number small and the validity of Darcy-s law. Analytical expressions for both phases are obtained for second order mean in both velocity and temperature fields and evolution of different wave patterns are observed in the fluctuating part. It has been observed that, at the vicinity of the origin, the second order mean flow is influenced only by relaxation time of dust particles and not by dust concentration.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
109
6598
Noise Performance of Millimeter-wave Silicon Based Mixed Tunneling Avalanche Transit Time(MITATT) Diode
Abstract:
A generalized method for small-signal simulation of avalanche noise in Mixed Tunneling Avalanche Transit Time (MITATT) device is presented in this paper where the effect of series resistance is taken into account. The method is applied to a millimeter-wave Double Drift Region (DDR) MITATT device based on Silicon to obtain noise spectral density and noise measure as a function of frequency for different values of series resistance. It is found that noise measure of the device at the operating frequency (122 GHz) with input power density of 1010 Watt/m2 is about 35 dB for hypothetical parasitic series resistance of zero ohm (estimated junction temperature = 500 K). Results show that the noise measure increases as the value of parasitic resistance increases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
108
2823
Solution of Optimal Reactive Power Flow using Biogeography-Based Optimization
Abstract:
Optimal reactive power flow is an optimization problem with one or more objective of minimizing the active power losses for fixed generation schedule. The control variables are generator bus voltages, transformer tap settings and reactive power output of the compensating devices placed on different bus bars. Biogeography- Based Optimization (BBO) technique has been applied to solve different kinds of optimal reactive power flow problems subject to operational constraints like power balance constraint, line flow and bus voltages limits etc. BBO searches for the global optimum mainly through two steps: Migration and Mutation. In the present work, BBO has been applied to solve the optimal reactive power flow problems on IEEE 30-bus and standard IEEE 57-bus power systems for minimization of active power loss. The superiority of the proposed method has been demonstrated. Considering the quality of the solution obtained, the proposed method seems to be a promising one for solving these problems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
107
77
Modeling And Analysis of Simple Open Cycle Gas Turbine Using Graph Networks
Abstract:
This paper presents a unified approach based graph theory and system theory postulates for the modeling and analysis of Simple open cycle Gas turbine system. In the present paper, the simple open cycle gas turbine system has been modeled up to its subsystem level and system variables have been identified to develop the process subgraphs. The theorems and algorithms of the graph theory have been used to represent behavioural properties of the system like rate of heat and work transfers rates, pressure drops and temperature drops in the involved processes of the system. The processes have been represented as edges of the process subgraphs and their limits as the vertices of the process subgraphs. The system across variables and through variables has been used to develop terminal equations of the process subgraphs of the system. The set of equations developed for vertices and edges of network graph are used to solve the system for its process variables.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
106
12005
Optimal DG Allocation in Distribution Network
Abstract:
This paper shows the results obtained in the analysis of the impact of distributed generation (DG) on distribution losses and presents a new algorithm to the optimal allocation of distributed generation resources in distribution networks. The optimization is based on a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization (HGAPSO) aiming to optimal DG allocation in distribution network. Through this algorithm a significant improvement in the optimization goal is achieved. With a numerical example the superiority of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated in comparison with the simple genetic algorithm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
105
12241
Modeling and Simulation of PSM DC-DC Buck Converter
Abstract:
A DC-to-DC converter for applications involving a source with widely varying voltage conditions with loads requiring constant voltage from full load down to no load is presented. The switching regulator considered is a Buck converter with Pulse Skipping Modulation control whereby pulses applied to the switch are blocked or released on output voltage crossing a predetermined value. Results of the study on the performance of regulator circuit are presented. The regulator regulates over a wide input voltage range with slightly higher ripple content and good transient response. Input current spectrum indicates a good EMI performance with crowding of components at low frequency range.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
104
13025
Influence of Distributed Generation on Congestion and LMP in Competitive Electricity Market
Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of distributed generation (DG) on congestion and locational marginal price (LMP) in an optimal power flow (OPF) based wholesale electricity market. The problem of optimal placement to manage congestion and reduce LMP is formulated for the objective of social welfare maximization. From competitive electricity market standpoint, DGs have great value when they reduce load in particular locations and at particular times when feeders are heavily loaded. The paper lies on the groundwork that solution to optimal mix of generation and transmission resources can be achieved by addressing congestion and corresponding LMP. Obtained as lagrangian multiplier associated with active power flow equation for each node, LMP gives the short run marginal cost (SRMC) of electricity. Specific grid locations are examined to study the influence of DG penetration on congestion and corresponding shadow prices. The influence of DG on congestion and locational marginal prices has been demonstrated in a modified IEEE 14 bus test system.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
103
9575
Identifications and Monitoring of Power System Dynamics Based on the PMUs and Wavelet Technique
Abstract:
Low frequency power oscillations may be triggered by many events in the system. Most oscillations are damped by the system, but undamped oscillations can lead to system collapse. Oscillations develop as a result of rotor acceleration/deceleration following a change in active power transfer from a generator. Like the operations limits, the monitoring of power system oscillating modes is a relevant aspect of power system operation and control. Unprevented low-frequency power swings can be cause of cascading outages that can rapidly extend effect on wide region. On this regard, a Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control Systems (WAMPCS) help in detecting such phenomena and assess power system dynamics security. The monitoring of power system electromechanical oscillations is very important in the frame of modern power system management and control. In first part, this paper compares the different technique for identification of power system oscillations. Second part analyzes possible identification some power system dynamics behaviors Using Wide Area Monitoring Systems (WAMS) based on Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) and wavelet technique.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
102
2018
Multiobjective Optimal Power Flow Using Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper solves the environmental/ economic dispatch power system problem using the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) and its hybrid with a Convergence Accelerator Operator (CAO), called the NSGA-II/CAO. These multiobjective evolutionary algorithms were applied to the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system. Several optimization runs were carried out on different cases of problem complexity. Different quality measure which compare the performance of the two solution techniques were considered. The results demonstrated that the inclusion of the CAO in the original NSGA-II improves its convergence while preserving the diversity properties of the solution set.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
101
2222
Application of Computational Intelligence Techniques for Economic Load Dispatch
Abstract:

This paper presents the applications of computational intelligence techniques to economic load dispatch problems. The fuel cost equation of a thermal plant is generally expressed as continuous quadratic equation. In real situations the fuel cost equations can be discontinuous. In view of the above, both continuous and discontinuous fuel cost equations are considered in the present paper. First, genetic algorithm optimization technique is applied to a 6- generator 26-bus test system having continuous fuel cost equations. Results are compared to conventional quadratic programming method to show the superiority of the proposed computational intelligence technique. Further, a 10-generator system each with three fuel options distributed in three areas is considered and particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to minimize the cost of generation. To show the superiority of the proposed approach, the results are compared with other published methods.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
100
7855
Multi-Line Power Flow Control using Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) in Power Transmission Systems
Abstract:
The interline power flow controller (IPFC) is one of the latest generation flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) controller used to control power flows of multiple transmission lines. This paper presents a mathematical model of IPFC, termed as power injection model (PIM). This model is incorporated in Newton- Raphson (NR) power flow algorithm to study the power flow control in transmission lines in which IPFC is placed. A program in MATLAB has been written in order to extend conventional NR algorithm based on this model. Numerical results are carried out on a standard 2 machine 5 bus system. The results without and with IPFC are compared in terms of voltages, active and reactive power flows to demonstrate the performance of the IPFC model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
99
15899
A Simple Approach of Three phase Distribution System Modeling for Power Flow Calculations
Abstract:
This paper presents a simple three phase power flow method for solution of three-phase unbalanced radial distribution system (RDN) with voltage dependent loads. It solves a simple algebraic recursive expression of voltage magnitude, and all the data are stored in vector form. The algorithm uses basic principles of circuit theory and can be easily understood. Mutual coupling between the phases has been included in the mathematical model. The proposed algorithm has been tested with several unbalanced radial distribution networks and the results are presented in the article. 8- bus and IEEE 13 bus unbalanced radial distribution system results are in agreements with the literature and show that the proposed model is valid and reliable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
98
9442
Differential Protection for Power Transformer Using Wavelet Transform and PNN
Abstract:
A new approach for protection of power transformer is presented using a time-frequency transform known as Wavelet transform. Different operating conditions such as inrush, Normal, load, External fault and internal fault current are sampled and processed to obtain wavelet coefficients. Different Operating conditions provide variation in wavelet coefficients. Features like energy and Standard deviation are calculated using Parsevals theorem. These features are used as inputs to PNN (Probabilistic neural network) for fault classification. The proposed algorithm provides more accurate results even in the presence of noise inputs and accurately identifies inrush and fault currents. Overall classification accuracy of the proposed method is found to be 96.45%. Simulation of the fault (with and without noise) was done using MATLAB AND SIMULINK software taking 2 cycles of data window (40 m sec) containing 800 samples. The algorithm was evaluated by using 10 % Gaussian white noise.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
97
3875
An Hybrid Approach for Loss Reduction in Distribution Systems using Harmony Search Algorithm
Abstract:
Individually Network reconfiguration or Capacitor control perform well in minimizing power loss and improving voltage profile of the distribution system. But for heavy reactive power loads network reconfiguration and for heavy active power loads capacitor placement can not effectively reduce power loss and enhance voltage profiles in the system. In this paper, an hybrid approach that combine network reconfiguration and capacitor placement using Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) is proposed to minimize power loss reduction and improve voltage profile. The proposed approach is tested on standard IEEE 33 and 16 bus systems. Computational results show that the proposed hybrid approach can minimize losses more efficiently than Network reconfiguration or Capacitor control. The results of proposed method are also compared with results obtained by Simulated Annealing (SA). The proposed method has outperformed in terms of the quality of solution compared to SA.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
96
15512
A PI Controller for Enhancing the Transient Stability of Multi Pulse Inverter Based Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) With Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage(SMES)
Abstract:
The power system network is becoming more complex nowadays and it is very difficult to maintain the stability of the system. Today-s enhancement of technology makes it possible to include new energy storage devices in the electric power system. In addition, with the aid of power electronic devices, it is possible to independently exchange active and reactive power flow with the utility grid. The main purpose of this paper proposes a Proportional – Integral (PI) control based 48 – pulse Inverter based Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) with and without Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) used for enhancing the transient stability and regulating power flow in automatic mode. Using a test power system through the dynamic simulation in Matlab/Simulink platform validates the performance of the proposed SSSC with and without SMES system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
95
7378
PI Control for Positive Output Elementary Super Lift Luo Converter
Abstract:
The object of this paper is to design and analyze a proportional – integral (PI) control for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter (POESLLC), which is the start-of-the-art DC-DC converter. The positive output elementary super lift Luo converter performs the voltage conversion from positive source voltage to positive load voltage. This paper proposes a development of PI control capable of providing the good static and dynamic performance compared to proportional – integralderivative (PID) controller. Using state space average method derives the dynamic equations describing the positive output elementary super lift luo converter and PI control is designed. The simulation model of the positive output elementary super lift Luo converter with its control circuit is implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The PI control for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter is tested for transient region, line changes, load changes, steady state region and also for components variations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
94
9752
Transmission Lines Loading Enhancement Using ADPSO Approach
Abstract:
Discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) is a powerful stochastic evolutionary algorithm that is used to solve the large-scale, discrete and nonlinear optimization problems. However, it has been observed that standard DPSO algorithm has premature convergence when solving a complex optimization problem like transmission expansion planning (TEP). To resolve this problem an advanced discrete particle swarm optimization (ADPSO) is proposed in this paper. The simulation result shows that optimization of lines loading in transmission expansion planning with ADPSO is better than DPSO from precision view point.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
93
360
Automatic Generation Control of an Interconnected Power System with Capacitive Energy Storage
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the application of small rating Capacitive Energy Storage units for the improvement of Automatic Generation Control of a multiunit multiarea power system. Generation Rate Constraints are also considered in the investigations. Integral Squared Error technique is used to obtain the optimal integral gain settings by minimizing a quadratic performance index. Simulation studies reveal that with CES units, the deviations in area frequencies and inter-area tie-power are considerably improved in terms of peak deviations and settling time as compared to that obtained without CES units.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
92
2940
High Speed NP-CMOS and Multi-Output Dynamic Full Adder Cells
Abstract:
In this paper we present two novel 1-bit full adder cells in dynamic logic style. NP-CMOS (Zipper) and Multi-Output structures are used to design the adder blocks. Characteristic of dynamic logic leads to higher speeds than the other standard static full adder cells. Using HSpice and 0.18┬Ám CMOS technology exhibits a significant decrease in the cell delay which can result in a considerable reduction in the power-delay product (PDP). The PDP of Multi-Output design at 1.8v power supply is around 0.15 femto joule that is 5% lower than conventional dynamic full adder cell and at least 21% lower than other static full adders.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
91
16001
Semi-automatic Construction of Ontology-based CBR System for Knowledge Integration
Abstract:
In order to integrate knowledge in heterogeneous case-based reasoning (CBR) systems, ontology-based CBR system has become a hot topic. To solve the facing problems of ontology-based CBR system, for example, its architecture is nonstandard, reusing knowledge in legacy CBR is deficient, ontology construction is difficult, etc, we propose a novel approach for semi-automatically construct ontology-based CBR system whose architecture is based on two-layer ontology. Domain knowledge implied in legacy case bases can be mapped from relational database schema and knowledge items to relevant OWL local ontology automatically by a mapping algorithm with low time-complexity. By concept clustering based on formal concept analysis, computing concept equation measure and concept inclusion measure, some suggestions about enriching or amending concept hierarchy of OWL local ontologies are made automatically that can aid designers to achieve semi-automatic construction of OWL domain ontology. Validation of the approach is done by an application example.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
90
11710
A Reliable FPGA-based Real-time Optical-flow Estimation
Abstract:
Optical flow is a research topic of interest for many years. It has, until recently, been largely inapplicable to real-time applications due to its computationally expensive nature. This paper presents a new reliable flow technique which is combined with a motion detection algorithm, from stationary camera image streams, to allow flow-based analyses of moving entities, such as rigidity, in real-time. The combination of the optical flow analysis with motion detection technique greatly reduces the expensive computation of flow vectors as compared with standard approaches, rendering the method to be applicable in real-time implementation. This paper describes also the hardware implementation of a proposed pipelined system to estimate the flow vectors from image sequences in real time. This design can process 768 x 576 images at a very high frame rate that reaches to 156 fps in a single low cost FPGA chip, which is adequate for most real-time vision applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
89
12504
Applications of Rough Set Decompositions in Information Retrieval
Abstract:
This paper proposes rough set models with three different level knowledge granules in incomplete information system under tolerance relation by similarity between objects according to their attribute values. Through introducing dominance relation on the discourse to decompose similarity classes into three subclasses: little better subclass, little worse subclass and vague subclass, it dismantles lower and upper approximations into three components. By using these components, retrieving information to find naturally hierarchical expansions to queries and constructing answers to elaborative queries can be effective. It illustrates the approach in applying rough set models in the design of information retrieval system to access different granular expanded documents. The proposed method enhances rough set model application in the flexibility of expansions and elaborative queries in information retrieval.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
88
10409
A High-Speed Multiplication Algorithm Using Modified Partial Product Reduction Tree
Authors:
Abstract:
Multiplication algorithms have considerable effect on processors performance. A new high-speed, low-power multiplication algorithm has been presented using modified Dadda tree structure. Three important modifications have been implemented in inner product generation step, inner product reduction step and final addition step. Optimized algorithms have to be used into basic computation components, such as multiplication algorithms. In this paper, we proposed a new algorithm to reduce power, delay, and transistor count of a multiplication algorithm implemented using low power modified counter. This work presents a novel design for Dadda multiplication algorithms. The proposed multiplication algorithm includes structured parts, which have important effect on inner product reduction tree. In this paper, a 1.3V, 64-bit carry hybrid adder is presented for fast, low voltage applications. The new 64-bit adder uses a new circuit to implement the proposed carry hybrid adder. The new adder using 80 nm CMOS technology has been implemented on 700 MHz clock frequency. The proposed multiplication algorithm has achieved 14 percent improvement in transistor count, 13 percent reduction in delay and 12 percent modification in power consumption in compared with conventional designs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
87
14768
Wavelet Transform and Support Vector Machine Approach for Fault Location in Power Transmission Line
Abstract:
This paper presents a wavelet transform and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based algorithm for estimating fault location on transmission lines. The Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used for data pre-processing and this data are used for training and testing SVM. Five types of mother wavelet are used for signal processing to identify a suitable wavelet family that is more appropriate for use in estimating fault location. The results demonstrated the ability of SVM to generalize the situation from the provided patterns and to accurately estimate the location of faults with varying fault resistance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
86
1962
Text-independent Speaker Identification Based on MAP Channel Compensation and Pitch-dependent Features
Abstract:
One major source of performance decline in speaker recognition system is channel mismatch between training and testing. This paper focuses on improving channel robustness of speaker recognition system in two aspects of channel compensation technique and channel robust features. The system is text-independent speaker identification system based on two-stage recognition. In the aspect of channel compensation technique, this paper applies MAP (Maximum A Posterior Probability) channel compensation technique, which was used in speech recognition, to speaker recognition system. In the aspect of channel robust features, this paper introduces pitch-dependent features and pitch-dependent speaker model for the second stage recognition. Based on the first stage recognition to testing speech using GMM (Gaussian Mixture Model), the system uses GMM scores to decide if it needs to be recognized again. If it needs to, the system selects a few speakers from all of the speakers who participate in the first stage recognition for the second stage recognition. For each selected speaker, the system obtains 3 pitch-dependent results from his pitch-dependent speaker model, and then uses ANN (Artificial Neural Network) to unite the 3 pitch-dependent results and 1 GMM score for getting a fused result. The system makes the second stage recognition based on these fused results. The experiments show that the correct rate of two-stage recognition system based on MAP channel compensation technique and pitch-dependent features is 41.7% better than the baseline system for closed-set test.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
85
13530
Hardware Prototyping of an Efficient Encryption Engine
Abstract:
An approach to develop the FPGA of a flexible key RSA encryption engine that can be used as a standard device in the secured communication system is presented. The VHDL modeling of this RSA encryption engine has the unique characteristics of supporting multiple key sizes, thus can easily be fit into the systems that require different levels of security. A simple nested loop addition and subtraction have been used in order to implement the RSA operation. This has made the processing time faster and used comparatively smaller amount of space in the FPGA. The hardware design is targeted on Altera STRATIX II device and determined that the flexible key RSA encryption engine can be best suited in the device named EP2S30F484C3. The RSA encryption implementation has made use of 13,779 units of logic elements and achieved a clock frequency of 17.77MHz. It has been verified that this RSA encryption engine can perform 32-bit, 256-bit and 1024-bit encryption operation in less than 41.585us, 531.515us and 790.61us respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
84
9510
Proactive Detection of DDoS Attacks Utilizing k-NN Classifier in an Anti-DDos Framework
Abstract:
Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks pose a serious threat to network security. There have been a lot of methodologies and tools devised to detect DDoS attacks and reduce the damage they cause. Still, most of the methods cannot simultaneously achieve (1) efficient detection with a small number of false alarms and (2) real-time transfer of packets. Here, we introduce a method for proactive detection of DDoS attacks, by classifying the network status, to be utilized in the detection stage of the proposed anti-DDoS framework. Initially, we analyse the DDoS architecture and obtain details of its phases. Then, we investigate the procedures of DDoS attacks and select variables based on these features. Finally, we apply the k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) method to classify the network status into each phase of DDoS attack. The simulation result showed that each phase of the attack scenario is classified well and we could detect DDoS attack in the early stage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
83
1176
A New Secure Communication Model Based on Synchronization of Coupled Multidelay Feedback Systems
Abstract:
Recent research result has shown that two multidelay feedback systems can synchronize each other under different schemes, i.e. lag, projective-lag, anticipating, or projectiveanticipating synchronization. There, the driving signal is significantly complex due that it is constituted by multiple nonlinear transformations of delayed state variable. In this paper, a secure communication model is proposed based on synchronization of coupled multidelay feedback systems, in which the plain signal is mixed with a complex signal at the transmitter side and it is precisely retrieved at the receiver side. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated and verified in the specific example, where the message signal is masked directly by the complex signal and security is examined under the breaking method of power spectrum analysis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
82
7631
A 1.2-ns16×16-Bit Binary Multiplier Using High Speed Compressors
Abstract:
For higher order multiplications, a huge number of adders or compressors are to be used to perform the partial product addition. We have reduced the number of adders by introducing special kind of adders that are capable to add five/six/seven bits per decade. These adders are called compressors. Binary counter property has been merged with the compressor property to develop high order compressors. Uses of these compressors permit the reduction of the vertical critical paths. A 16×16 bit multiplier has been developed using these compressors. These compressors make the multipliers faster as compared to the conventional design that have been used 4-2 compressors and 3-2 compressors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
81
13816
Statistical Approach to Basis Function Truncation in Digital Interpolation Filters
Abstract:
In this paper an alternative analysis in the time domain is described and the results of the interpolation process are presented by means of functions that are based on the rule of conditional mathematical expectation and the covariance function. A comparison between the interpolation error caused by low order filters and the classic sinc(t) truncated function is also presented. When fewer samples are used, low-order filters have less error. If the number of samples increases, the sinc(t) type functions are a better alternative. Generally speaking there is an optimal filter for each input signal which depends on the filter length and covariance function of the signal. A novel scheme of work for adaptive interpolation filters is also presented.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
80
3962
Basic Tendency Model in Complete Factor Synergetics of Complex Systems
Authors:
Abstract:
The deviation between the target state variable and the practical state variable should be used to form the state tending factor of complex systems, which can reflect the process for the complex system to tend rationalization. Relating to the system of basic equations of complete factor synergetics consisting of twenty nonlinear stochastic differential equations, the two new models are considered to set, which should be called respectively the rationalizing tendency model and the non- rationalizing tendency model. Therefore we can extend the theory of programming with the objective function & constraint condition suitable only for the realm of man-s activities into the new analysis with the tendency function & constraint condition suitable for all the field of complex system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
79
14216
Fundamental Equation of Complete Factor Synergetics of Complex Systems with Normalization of Dimension
Authors:
Abstract:

It is by reason of the unified measure of varieties of resources and the unified processing of the disposal of varieties of resources, that these closely related three of new basic models called the resources assembled node and the disposition integrated node as well as the intelligent organizing node are put forth in this paper; the three closely related quantities of integrative analytical mechanics including the disposal intensity and disposal- weighted intensity as well as the charge of resource charge are set; and then the resources assembled space and the disposition integrated space as well as the intelligent organizing space are put forth. The system of fundamental equations and model of complete factor synergetics is preliminarily approached for the general situation in this paper, to form the analytical base of complete factor synergetics. By the essential variables constituting this system of equations we should set twenty variables respectively with relation to the essential dynamical effect, external synergetic action and internal synergetic action of the system.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
78
5039
Learning and Evaluating Possibilistic Decision Trees using Information Affinity
Abstract:
This paper investigates the issue of building decision trees from data with imprecise class values where imprecision is encoded in the form of possibility distributions. The Information Affinity similarity measure is introduced into the well-known gain ratio criterion in order to assess the homogeneity of a set of possibility distributions representing instances-s classes belonging to a given training partition. For the experimental study, we proposed an information affinity based performance criterion which we have used in order to show the performance of the approach on well-known benchmarks.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
77
15552
Evaluation of Energy-Aware QoS Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:

Many advanced Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks have been implemented for the effective routing of data. Energy awareness is an essential design issue and almost all of these routing protocols are considered as energy efficient and its ultimate objective is to maximize the whole network lifetime. However, the introductions of video and imaging sensors have posed additional challenges. Transmission of video and imaging data requires both energy and QoS aware routing in order to ensure efficient usage of the sensors and effective access to the gathered measurements. In this paper, the performance of the energy-aware QoS routing Protocol are analyzed in different performance metrics like average lifetime of a node, average delay per packet and network throughput. The parameters considered in this study are end-to-end delay, real time data generation/capture rates, packet drop probability and buffer size. The network throughput for realtime and non-realtime data was also has been analyzed. The simulation has been done in NS2 simulation environment and the simulation results were analyzed with respect to different metrics.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
76
2093
A Software-Supported Methodology for Designing General-Purpose Interconnection Networks for Reconfigurable Architectures
Abstract:

Modern applications realized onto FPGAs exhibit high connectivity demands. Throughout this paper we study the routing constraints of Virtex devices and we propose a systematic methodology for designing a novel general-purpose interconnection network targeting to reconfigurable architectures. This network consists of multiple segment wires and SB patterns, appropriately selected and assigned across the device. The goal of our proposed methodology is to maximize the hardware utilization of fabricated routing resources. The derived interconnection scheme is integrated on a Virtex style FPGA. This device is characterized both for its high-performance, as well as for its low-energy requirements. Due to this, the design criterion that guides our architecture selections was the minimal Energy×Delay Product (EDP). The methodology is fully-supported by three new software tools, which belong to MEANDER Design Framework. Using a typical set of MCNC benchmarks, extensive comparison study in terms of several critical parameters proves the effectiveness of the derived interconnection network. More specifically, we achieve average Energy×Delay Product reduction by 63%, performance increase by 26%, reduction in leakage power by 21%, reduction in total energy consumption by 11%, at the expense of increase of channel width by 20%.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
75
6910
Motion Prediction and Motion Vector Cost Reduction during Fast Block Motion Estimation in MCTF
Abstract:
In 3D-wavelet video coding framework temporal filtering is done along the trajectory of motion using Motion Compensated Temporal Filtering (MCTF). Hence computationally efficient motion estimation technique is the need of MCTF. In this paper a predictive technique is proposed in order to reduce the computational complexity of the MCTF framework, by exploiting the high correlation among the frames in a Group Of Picture (GOP). The proposed technique applies coarse and fine searches of any fast block based motion estimation, only to the first pair of frames in a GOP. The generated motion vectors are supplied to the next consecutive frames, even to subsequent temporal levels and only fine search is carried out around those predicted motion vectors. Hence coarse search is skipped for all the motion estimation in a GOP except for the first pair of frames. The technique has been tested for different fast block based motion estimation algorithms over different standard test sequences using MC-EZBC, a state-of-the-art scalable video coder. The simulation result reveals substantial reduction (i.e. 20.75% to 38.24%) in the number of search points during motion estimation, without compromising the quality of the reconstructed video compared to non-predictive techniques. Since the motion vectors of all the pair of frames in a GOP except the first pair will have value ±1 around the motion vectors of the previous pair of frames, the number of bits required for motion vectors is also reduced by 50%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
74
12719
Texture Characterization Based on a Chandrasekhar Fast Adaptive Filter
Abstract:

In the framework of adaptive parametric modelling of images, we propose in this paper a new technique based on the Chandrasekhar fast adaptive filter for texture characterization. An Auto-Regressive (AR) linear model of texture is obtained by scanning the image row by row and modelling this data with an adaptive Chandrasekhar linear filter. The characterization efficiency of the obtained model is compared with the model adapted with the Least Mean Square (LMS) 2-D adaptive algorithm and with the cooccurrence method features. The comparison criteria is based on the computation of a characterization degree using the ratio of "betweenclass" variances with respect to "within-class" variances of the estimated coefficients. Extensive experiments show that the coefficients estimated by the use of Chandrasekhar adaptive filter give better results in texture discrimination than those estimated by other algorithms, even in a noisy context.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
73
14381
3DARModeler: a 3D Modeling System in Augmented Reality Environment
Abstract:
This paper describes a 3D modeling system in Augmented Reality environment, named 3DARModeler. It can be considered a simple version of 3D Studio Max with necessary functions for a modeling system such as creating objects, applying texture, adding animation, estimating real light sources and casting shadows. The 3DARModeler introduces convenient, and effective human-computer interaction to build 3D models by combining both the traditional input method (mouse/keyboard) and the tangible input method (markers). It has the ability to align a new virtual object with the existing parts of a model. The 3DARModeler targets nontechnical users. As such, they do not need much knowledge of computer graphics and modeling techniques. All they have to do is select basic objects, customize their attributes, and put them together to build a 3D model in a simple and intuitive way as if they were doing in the real world. Using the hierarchical modeling technique, the users are able to group several basic objects to manage them as a unified, complex object. The system can also connect with other 3D systems by importing and exporting VRML/3Ds Max files. A module of speech recognition is included in the system to provide flexible user interfaces.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
72
14581
Improved Feature Processing for Iris Biometric Authentication System
Abstract:
Iris-based biometric authentication is gaining importance in recent times. Iris biometric processing however, is a complex process and computationally very expensive. In the overall processing of iris biometric in an iris-based biometric authentication system, feature processing is an important task. In feature processing, we extract iris features, which are ultimately used in matching. Since there is a large number of iris features and computational time increases as the number of features increases, it is therefore a challenge to develop an iris processing system with as few as possible number of features and at the same time without compromising the correctness. In this paper, we address this issue and present an approach to feature extraction and feature matching process. We apply Daubechies D4 wavelet with 4 levels to extract features from iris images. These features are encoded with 2 bits by quantizing into 4 quantization levels. With our proposed approach it is possible to represent an iris template with only 304 bits, whereas existing approaches require as many as 1024 bits. In addition, we assign different weights to different iris region to compare two iris templates which significantly increases the accuracy. Further, we match the iris template based on a weighted similarity measure. Experimental results on several iris databases substantiate the efficacy of our approach.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
71
6295
Testing Object-Oriented Framework Applications Using FIST2 Tool: A Case Study
Abstract:
An application framework provides a reusable design and implementation for a family of software systems. Frameworks are introduced to reduce the cost of a product line (i.e., a family of products that shares the common features). Software testing is a timeconsuming and costly ongoing activity during the application software development process. Generating reusable test cases for the framework applications during the framework development stage, and providing and using the test cases to test part of the framework application whenever the framework is used reduces the application development time and cost considerably. This paper introduces the Framework Interface State Transition Tester (FIST2), a tool for automated unit testing of Java framework applications. During the framework development stage, given the formal descriptions of the framework hooks, the specifications of the methods of the framework-s extensible classes, and the illegal behavior description of the Framework Interface Classes (FICs), FIST2 generates unitlevel test cases for the classes. At the framework application development stage, given the customized method specifications of the implemented FICs, FIST2 automates the use, execution, and evaluation of the already generated test cases to test the implemented FICs. The paper illustrates the use of the FIST2 tool for testing several applications that use the SalesPoint framework.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
70
11814
Geometric Operators in Decision Making with Minimization of Regret
Abstract:
We study different types of aggregation operators and the decision making process with minimization of regret. We analyze the original work developed by Savage and the recent work developed by Yager that generalizes the MMR method creating a parameterized family of minimal regret methods by using the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator. We suggest a new method that uses different types of geometric operators such as the weighted geometric mean or the ordered weighted geometric operator (OWG) to generalize the MMR method obtaining a new parameterized family of minimal regret methods. The main result obtained in this method is that it allows to aggregate negative numbers in the OWG operator. Finally, we give an illustrative example.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
69
11646
Performance Analysis of List Scheduling in Heterogeneous Computing Systems
Authors:
Abstract:
Given a parallel program to be executed on a heterogeneous computing system, the overall execution time of the program is determined by a schedule. In this paper, we analyze the worst-case performance of the list scheduling algorithm for scheduling tasks of a parallel program in a mixed-machine heterogeneous computing system such that the total execution time of the program is minimized. We prove tight lower and upper bounds for the worst-case performance ratio of the list scheduling algorithm. We also examine the average-case performance of the list scheduling algorithm. Our experimental data reveal that the average-case performance of the list scheduling algorithm is much better than the worst-case performance and is very close to optimal, except for large systems with large heterogeneity. Thus, the list scheduling algorithm is very useful in real applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
68
6573
On-line Testing of Software Components for Diagnosis of Embedded Systems
Abstract:
This paper studies the dependability of componentbased applications, especially embedded ones, from the diagnosis point of view. The principle of the diagnosis technique is to implement inter-component tests in order to detect and locate the faulty components without redundancy. The proposed approach for diagnosing faulty components consists of two main aspects. The first one concerns the execution of the inter-component tests which requires integrating test functionality within a component. This is the subject of this paper. The second one is the diagnosis process itself which consists of the analysis of inter-component test results to determine the fault-state of the whole system. Advantage of this diagnosis method when compared to classical redundancy faulttolerant techniques are application autonomy, cost-effectiveness and better usage of system resources. Such advantage is very important for many systems and especially for embedded ones.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
67
9773
Generational PipeLined Genetic Algorithm (PLGA)using Stochastic Selection
Abstract:
In this paper, a pipelined version of genetic algorithm, called PLGA, and a corresponding hardware platform are described. The basic operations of conventional GA (CGA) are made pipelined using an appropriate selection scheme. The selection operator, used here, is stochastic in nature and is called SA-selection. This helps maintaining the basic generational nature of the proposed pipelined GA (PLGA). A number of benchmark problems are used to compare the performances of conventional roulette-wheel selection and the SA-selection. These include unimodal and multimodal functions with dimensionality varying from very small to very large. It is seen that the SA-selection scheme is giving comparable performances with respect to the classical roulette-wheel selection scheme, for all the instances, when quality of solutions and rate of convergence are considered. The speedups obtained by PLGA for different benchmarks are found to be significant. It is shown that a complete hardware pipeline can be developed using the proposed scheme, if parallel evaluation of the fitness expression is possible. In this connection a low-cost but very fast hardware evaluation unit is described. Results of simulation experiments show that in a pipelined hardware environment, PLGA will be much faster than CGA. In terms of efficiency, PLGA is found to outperform parallel GA (PGA) also.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
66
3391
XML Schema Automatic Matching Solution
Abstract:
Schema matching plays a key role in many different applications, such as schema integration, data integration, data warehousing, data transformation, E-commerce, peer-to-peer data management, ontology matching and integration, semantic Web, semantic query processing, etc. Manual matching is expensive and error-prone, so it is therefore important to develop techniques to automate the schema matching process. In this paper, we present a solution for XML schema automated matching problem which produces semantic mappings between corresponding schema elements of given source and target schemas. This solution contributed in solving more comprehensively and efficiently XML schema automated matching problem. Our solution based on combining linguistic similarity, data type compatibility and structural similarity of XML schema elements. After describing our solution, we present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
65
14222
Algebraic Specification of Serializability for Partitioned Transactions
Abstract:
The usual correctness condition for a schedule of concurrent database transactions is some form of serializability of the transactions. For general forms, the problem of deciding whether a schedule is serializable is NP-complete. In those cases other approaches to proving correctness, using proof rules that allow the steps of the proof of serializability to be guided manually, are desirable. Such an approach is possible in the case of conflict serializability which is proved algebraically by deriving serial schedules using commutativity of non-conflicting operations. However, conflict serializability can be an unnecessarily strong form of serializability restricting concurrency and thereby reducing performance. In practice, weaker, more general, forms of serializability for extended models of transactions are used. Currently, there are no known methods using proof rules for proving those general forms of serializability. In this paper, we define serializability for an extended model of partitioned transactions, which we show to be as expressive as serializability for general partitioned transactions. An algebraic method for proving general serializability is obtained by giving an initial-algebra specification of serializable schedules of concurrent transactions in the model. This demonstrates that it is possible to conduct algebraic proofs of correctness of concurrent transactions in general cases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
64
7017
GPU-Based Volume Rendering for Medical Imagery
Abstract:
We present a method for fast volume rendering using graphics hardware (GPU). To our knowledge, it is the first implementation on the GPU. Based on the Shear-Warp algorithm, our GPU-based method provides real-time frame rates and outperforms the CPU-based implementation. When the number of slices is not sufficient, we add in-between slices computed by interpolation. This improves then the quality of the rendered images. We have also implemented the ray marching algorithm on the GPU. The results generated by the three algorithms (CPU-based and GPU-based Shear- Warp, GPU-based Ray Marching) for two test models has proved that the ray marching algorithm outperforms the shear-warp methods in terms of speed up and image quality.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
63
2152
Fast Intra Prediction Algorithm for H.264/AVC Based on Quadratic and Gradient Model
Abstract:
The H.264/AVC standard uses an intra prediction, 9 directional modes for 4x4 luma blocks and 8x8 luma blocks, 4 directional modes for 16x16 macroblock and 8x8 chroma blocks, respectively. It means that, for a macroblock, it has to perform 736 different RDO calculation before a best RDO modes is determined. With this Multiple intra-mode prediction, intra coding of H.264/AVC offers a considerably higher improvement in coding efficiency compared to other compression standards, but computational complexity is increased significantly. This paper presents a fast intra prediction algorithm for H.264/AVC intra prediction based a characteristic of homogeneity information. In this study, the gradient prediction method used to predict the homogeneous area and the quadratic prediction function used to predict the nonhomogeneous area. Based on the correlation between the homogeneity and block size, the smaller block is predicted by gradient prediction and quadratic prediction, so the bigger block is predicted by gradient prediction. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed method reduce the complexity by up to 76.07% maintaining the similar PSNR quality with about 1.94%bit rate increase in average.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
62
2504
Operational- Economics Based Evaluation And Selection of A Power Plant Using Graph Theoretic Approach
Abstract:
This paper presents a methodology for operational and economic characteristics based evaluation and selection of a power plant using Graph theoretic approach. A universal evaluation index on the basis of Operational and economics characteristics of a plant is proposed which evaluates and ranks the various types of power plants. The index thus obtained from the pool of operational characteristics of the power plant attributes Digraph. The Digraph is developed considering Operational and economics attributes of the power plants and their relative importance for their smooth operation, installation and commissioning and prioritizing their selection. The sensitivity analysis of the attributes towards the objective has also been carried out in order to study the impact of attributes over the desired outcome i.e. the universal operational-economics index of the power plant.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
61
4902
Modeling and Analysis of Adaptive Buffer Sharing Scheme for Consecutive Packet Loss Reduction in Broadband Networks
Abstract:
High speed networks provide realtime variable bit rate service with diversified traffic flow characteristics and quality requirements. The variable bit rate traffic has stringent delay and packet loss requirements. The burstiness of the correlated traffic makes dynamic buffer management highly desirable to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. This paper presents an algorithm for optimization of adaptive buffer allocation scheme for traffic based on loss of consecutive packets in data-stream and buffer occupancy level. Buffer is designed to allow the input traffic to be partitioned into different priority classes and based on the input traffic behavior it controls the threshold dynamically. This algorithm allows input packets to enter into buffer if its occupancy level is less than the threshold value for priority of that packet. The threshold is dynamically varied in runtime based on packet loss behavior. The simulation is run for two priority classes of the input traffic – realtime and non-realtime classes. The simulation results show that Adaptive Partial Buffer Sharing (ADPBS) has better performance than Static Partial Buffer Sharing (SPBS) and First In First Out (FIFO) queue under the same traffic conditions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
60
1095
Development of an Intelligent Tool for Planning the Operation
Abstract:
Several optimization algorithms specifically applied to the problem of Operation Planning of Hydrothermal Power Systems have been developed and are used. Although providing solutions to various problems encountered, these algorithms have some weaknesses, difficulties in convergence, simplification of the original formulation of the problem, or owing to the complexity of the objective function. Thus, this paper presents the development of a computational tool for solving optimization problem identified and to provide the User an easy handling. Adopted as intelligent optimization technique, Genetic Algorithms and programming language Java. First made the modeling of the chromosomes, then implemented the function assessment of the problem and the operators involved, and finally the drafting of the graphical interfaces for access to the User. The program has managed to relate a coherent performance in problem resolution without the need for simplification of the calculations together with the ease of manipulating the parameters of simulation and visualization of output results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
59
11431
A Model of Technological Platform for the Knowledge Management Organization
Abstract:
This paper describes an experience of research, development and innovation applied in Industrial Naval at (Science and Technology Corporation for the Development of Shipbuilding Industry, Naval in Colombia (COTECMAR) particularly through processes of research, innovation and technological development, based on theoretical models related to organizational knowledge management, technology management and management of human talent and integration of technology platforms. It seeks ways to facilitate the initial establishment of environments rich in information, knowledge and content-supported collaborative strategies on dynamic processes missionary, seeking further development in the context of research, development and innovation of the Naval Engineering in Colombia, making it a distinct basis for the generation of knowledge assets from COTECMAR. The integration of information and communication technologies, supported on emerging technologies (mobile technologies, wireless, digital content via PDA, and content delivery services on the Web 2.0 and Web 3.0) as a view of the strategic thrusts in any organization facilitates the redefinition of processes for managing information and knowledge, enabling the redesign of workflows, the adaptation of new forms of organization - preferably in networking and support the creation of symbolic-inside-knowledge promotes the development of new skills, knowledge and attitudes of the knowledge worker
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
58
9703
Functionality of Negotiation Agent on Value-based Design Decision
Abstract:
This paper presents functionality of negotiation agent on value-based design decision. The functionality is based on the characteristics of the system and goal specification. A Prometheus Design Tool model was used for developing the system. Group functionality will be the attribute for negotiation agents, which comprises a coordinator agent and decision- maker agent. The results of the testing of the system to a building system selection on valuebased decision environment are also presented.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
57
10125
Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells Under Effect Clamped-Free Boundary Conditions Using Hamilton's Principle
Abstract:

In the present work, study of the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The analysis is carried out using Hamilton's principle. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of clamped-free boundary conditions

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
56
8124
Internal Loading Distribution in Statically Loaded Ball Bearings Subjected to a Centric Thrust Load: Numerical Aspects
Abstract:
A known iterative computational procedure is used for internal normal ball loads calculation in statically loaded single-row, angular-contact ball bearings, subjected to a known thrust load, which is applied in the inner ring at the geometric bearing center line. Numerical aspects of the iterative procedure are discussed. Numerical examples results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature. Twenty figures are presented showing the geometrical features, the behavior of the convergence variables and the following parameters as functions of the thrust load: normal ball loads, contact angle, distance between curvature centers, and normal ball and axial deflections between the raceways.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
55
7662
A Proposal for Federation Technology for Authenticated Information between Terminals
Abstract:
Recently, various services such as television and the Internet have come to be received through various terminals. However, we could gain greater convenience by receiving these services through cellular phone terminals when we go out and then continuing to receive the same services through a large screen digital television after we have come home. However, it is necessary to go through the same authentication processing again when using TVs after we have come home. In this study, we have developed an authentication method that enables users to switch terminals in environments in which the user receives service from a server through a terminal. Specifically, the method simplifies the authentication of the server side when switching from one terminal to another terminal by using previously authenticated information.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
54
548
In silico Simulations for DNA Shuffling Experiments
Abstract:
DNA shuffling is a powerful method used for in vitro evolute molecules with specific functions and has application in areas such as, for example, pharmaceutical, medical and agricultural research. The success of such experiments is dependent on a variety of parameters and conditions that, sometimes, can not be properly pre-established. Here, two computational models predicting DNA shuffling results is presented and their use and results are evaluated against an empirical experiment. The in silico and in vitro results show agreement indicating the importance of these two models and motivating the study and development of new models.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
53
14548
Optimal Estimation of Supporting-Ground Orientation for Multi-Segment Body Based on Otolith-Canal Fusion
Abstract:
This article discusses the problem of estimating the orientation of inclined ground on which a human subject stands based on information provided by the vestibular system consisting of the otolith and semicircular canals. It is assumed that body segments are not necessarily aligned and thus forming an open kinematic chain. The semicircular canals analogues to a technical gyrometer provide a measure of the angular velocity whereas the otolith analogues to a technical accelerometer provide a measure of the translational acceleration. Two solutions are proposed and discussed. The first is based on a stand-alone Kalman filter that optimally fuses the two measurements based on their dynamic characteristics and their noise properties. In this case, no body dynamic model is needed. In the second solution, a central extended disturbance observer that incorporates a body dynamic model (internal model) is employed. The merits of both solutions are discussed and demonstrated by experimental and simulation results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
52
4312
A New Composition Method of Admissible Support Vector Kernel Based on Reproducing Kernel
Abstract:

Kernel function, which allows the formulation of nonlinear variants of any algorithm that can be cast in terms of dot products, makes the Support Vector Machines (SVM) have been successfully applied in many fields, e.g. classification and regression. The importance of kernel has motivated many studies on its composition. It-s well-known that reproducing kernel (R.K) is a useful kernel function which possesses many properties, e.g. positive definiteness, reproducing property and composing complex R.K by simple operation. There are two popular ways to compute the R.K with explicit form. One is to construct and solve a specific differential equation with boundary value whose handicap is incapable of obtaining a unified form of R.K. The other is using a piecewise integral of the Green function associated with a differential operator L. The latter benefits the computation of a R.K with a unified explicit form and theoretical analysis, whereas there are relatively later studies and fewer practical computations. In this paper, a new algorithm for computing a R.K is presented. It can obtain the unified explicit form of R.K in general reproducing kernel Hilbert space. It avoids constructing and solving the complex differential equations manually and benefits an automatic, flexible and rigorous computation for more general RKHS. In order to validate that the R.K computed by the algorithm can be used in SVM well, some illustrative examples and a comparison between R.K and Gaussian kernel (RBF) in support vector regression are presented. The result shows that the performance of R.K is close or slightly superior to that of RBF.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
51
10923
Daemon- Based Distributed Deadlock Detection and Resolution
Abstract:
detecting the deadlock is one of the important problems in distributed systems and different solutions have been proposed for it. Among the many deadlock detection algorithms, Edge-chasing has been the most widely used. In Edge-chasing algorithm, a special message called probe is made and sent along dependency edges. When the initiator of a probe receives the probe back the existence of a deadlock is revealed. But these algorithms are not problem-free. One of the problems associated with them is that they cannot detect some deadlocks and they even identify false deadlocks. A key point not mentioned in the literature is that when the process is waiting to obtain the required resources and its execution has been blocked, how it can actually respond to probe messages in the system. Also the question of 'which process should be victimized in order to achieve a better performance when multiple cycles exist within one single process in the system' has received little attention. In this paper, one of the basic concepts of the operating system - daemon - will be used to solve the problems mentioned. The proposed Algorithm becomes engaged in sending probe messages to the mandatory daemons and collects enough information to effectively identify and resolve multi-cycle deadlocks in distributed systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
50
11969
Lattice Monte Carlo Analyses of Thermal Diffusion in Laminar Flow
Abstract:
Lattice Monte Carlo methods are an excellent choice for the simulation of non-linear thermal diffusion problems. In this paper, and for the first time, Lattice Monte Carlo analysis is performed on thermal diffusion combined with convective heat transfer. Laminar flow of water modeled as an incompressible fluid inside a copper pipe with a constant surface temperature is considered. For the simulation of thermal conduction, the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of the water is accounted for. Using the novel Lattice Monte Carlo approach, temperature distributions and energy fluxes are obtained.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
49
8442
An Application for Web Mining Systems with Services Oriented Architecture
Abstract:
Although the World Wide Web is considered the largest source of information there exists nowadays, due to its inherent dynamic characteristics, the task of finding useful and qualified information can become a very frustrating experience. This study presents a research on the information mining systems in the Web; and proposes an implementation of these systems by means of components that can be built using the technology of Web services. This implies that they can encompass features offered by a services oriented architecture (SOA) and specific components may be used by other tools, independent of platforms or programming languages. Hence, the main objective of this work is to provide an architecture to Web mining systems, divided into stages, where each step is a component that will incorporate the characteristics of SOA. The separation of these steps was designed based upon the existing literature. Interesting results were obtained and are shown here.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
48
13740
A New Self-stabilizing Algorithm for Maximal 2-packing
Authors:
Abstract:
In the self-stabilizing algorithmic paradigm, each node has a local view of the system, in a finite amount of time the system converges to a global state with desired property. In a graph G = (V, E), a subset S C V is a 2-packing if Vi c V: IN[i] n SI
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
47
15376
Comparative Finite Element Simulation of Nonlinear Vibrations and Sensor Output Voltage of Smart Piezolaminated Structures
Abstract:

Two geometrically nonlinear plate theories, based either on first- or third-order transverse shear deformation theory are used for finite element modeling and simulation of the transient response of smart structures incorporating piezoelectric layers. In particular the time histories of nonlinear vibrations and sensor voltage output of a thin beam with a piezoelectric patch bonded to the surface due to an applied step force are studied.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
46
14955
EZW Coding System with Artificial Neural Networks
Abstract:
Image compression plays a vital role in today-s communication. The limitation in allocated bandwidth leads to slower communication. To exchange the rate of transmission in the limited bandwidth the Image data must be compressed before transmission. Basically there are two types of compressions, 1) LOSSY compression and 2) LOSSLESS compression. Lossy compression though gives more compression compared to lossless compression; the accuracy in retrievation is less in case of lossy compression as compared to lossless compression. JPEG, JPEG2000 image compression system follows huffman coding for image compression. JPEG 2000 coding system use wavelet transform, which decompose the image into different levels, where the coefficient in each sub band are uncorrelated from coefficient of other sub bands. Embedded Zero tree wavelet (EZW) coding exploits the multi-resolution properties of the wavelet transform to give a computationally simple algorithm with better performance compared to existing wavelet transforms. For further improvement of compression applications other coding methods were recently been suggested. An ANN base approach is one such method. Artificial Neural Network has been applied to many problems in image processing and has demonstrated their superiority over classical methods when dealing with noisy or incomplete data for image compression applications. The performance analysis of different images is proposed with an analysis of EZW coding system with Error Backpropagation algorithm. The implementation and analysis shows approximately 30% more accuracy in retrieved image compare to the existing EZW coding system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
45
2236
Dynamics of a Vapour Bubble inside a Vertical Rigid Cylinder in the Absence of Buoyancy Forces
Abstract:
In this paper, growth and collapse of a vapour bubble generated due to a local energy input inside a rigid cylinder and in the absence of buoyancy forces is investigated using Boundary Integral Equation Method and Finite Difference Method .The fluid is treated as potential flow and Boundary Integral Equation Method is used to solve Laplace-s equation for velocity potential. Different ratios of the diameter of the rigid cylinder to the maximum radius of the bubble are considered. Results show that during the collapse phase of the bubble inside a vertical rigid cylinder, two liquid micro jets are developed on the top and bottom sides of the vapour bubble and are directed inward. It is found that by increasing the ratio of the cylinder diameter to the maximum radius of the bubble, the rate of the growth and collapse phases of the bubble increases and the life time of the bubble decreases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
44
6864
Dynamics of a Vapour Bubble inside a Vertical Rigid Cylinder with a Deposit Rib
Abstract:
In this paper dynamics of a vapour bubble generated due to a local energy input inside a vertical rigid cylinder and in the absence of buoyancy forces is investigated. Different ratios of the diameter of the rigid cylinder to the maximum radius of the bubble are considered. The Boundary Integral Equation Method is employed for numerical simulation of the problem. Results show that during the collapse phase of the bubble inside a vertical rigid cylinder, two liquid micro jets are developed on the top and bottom sides of the vapour bubble and are directed inward. Results also show that existence of a deposit rib inside the vertical rigid cylinder slightly increases the life time of the bubble. It is found that by increasing the ratio of the cylinder diameter to the maximum radius of the bubble, the rate of the growth and collapse phases of the bubble increases and the life time of the bubble decreases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
43
12129
An Efficient Cache Replacement Strategy for the Hybrid Cache Consistency Approach
Abstract:

Caching was suggested as a solution for reducing bandwidth utilization and minimizing query latency in mobile environments. Over the years, different caching approaches have been proposed, some relying on the server to broadcast reports periodically informing of the updated data while others allowed the clients to request for the data whenever needed. Until recently a hybrid cache consistency scheme Scalable Asynchronous Cache Consistency Scheme SACCS was proposed, which combined the two different approaches benefits- and is proved to be more efficient and scalable. Nevertheless, caching has its limitations too, due to the limited cache size and the limited bandwidth, which makes the implementation of cache replacement strategy an important aspect for improving the cache consistency algorithms. In this thesis, we proposed a new cache replacement strategy, the Least Unified Value strategy (LUV) to replace the Least Recently Used (LRU) that SACCS was based on. This paper studies the advantages and the drawbacks of the new proposed strategy, comparing it with different categories of cache replacement strategies.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
42
5789
3D Face Recognition Using Modified PCA Methods
Abstract:
In this paper we present an approach for 3D face recognition based on extracting principal components of range images by utilizing modified PCA methods namely 2DPCA and bidirectional 2DPCA also known as (2D) 2 PCA.A preprocessing stage was implemented on the images to smooth them using median and Gaussian filtering. In the normalization stage we locate the nose tip to lay it at the center of images then crop each image to a standard size of 100*100. In the face recognition stage we extract the principal component of each image using both 2DPCA and (2D) 2 PCA. Finally, we use Euclidean distance to measure the minimum distance between a given test image to the training images in the database. We also compare the result of using both methods. The best result achieved by experiments on a public face database shows that 83.3 percent is the rate of face recognition for a random facial expression.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
41
10450
An Investigation on the Accuracy of Nonlinear Static Procedures for Seismic Evaluation of Buckling-restrained Braced Frames
Abstract:
Presented herein is an assessment of current nonlinear static procedures (NSPs) for seismic evaluation of bucklingrestrained braced frames (BRBFs) which have become a favorable lateral-force resisting system for earthquake resistant buildings. The bias and accuracy of modal, improved modal pushover analysis (MPA, IMPA) and mass proportional pushover (MPP) procedures are comparatively investigated when they are applied to BRBF buildings subjected to two sets of strong ground motions. The assessment is based on a comparison of seismic displacement demands such as target roof displacements, peak floor/roof displacements and inter-story drifts. The NSP estimates are compared to 'exact' results from nonlinear response history analysis (NLRHA). The response statistics presented show that the MPP procedure tends to significantly overestimate seismic demands of lower stories of tall buildings considered in this study while MPA and IMPA procedures provide reasonably accurate results in estimating maximum inter-story drift over all stories of studied BRBF systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
40
5409
A Multi-Signature Scheme based on Coding Theory
Abstract:
In this paper we propose two first non-generic constructions of multisignature scheme based on coding theory. The first system make use of the CFS signature scheme and is secure in random oracle while the second scheme is based on the KKS construction and is a few times. The security of our construction relies on a difficult problems in coding theory: The Syndrome Decoding problem which has been proved NP-complete [4].
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
39
3585
Wind Load Characteristics in Libya
Abstract:
Recent trends in building constructions in Libya are more toward tall (high-rise) building projects. As a consequence, a better estimation of the lateral loading in the design process is becoming the focal of a safe and cost effective building industry. Byin- large, Libya is not considered a potential earthquake prone zone, making wind is the dominant design lateral loads. Current design practice in the country estimates wind speeds on a mere random bases by considering certain factor of safety to the chosen wind speed. Therefore, a need for a more accurate estimation of wind speeds in Libya was the motivation behind this study. Records of wind speed data were collected from 22 metrological stations in Libya, and were statistically analysed. The analysis of more than four decades of wind speed records suggests that the country can be divided into four zones of distinct wind speeds. A computer “survey" program was manipulated to draw design wind speeds contour map for the state of Libya. The paper presents the statistical analysis of Libya-s recorded wind speed data and proposes design wind speed values for a 50-year return period that covers the entire country.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
38
10988
Artificial Intelligence for Software Quality Improvement
Abstract:
This paper presents a software quality support tool, a Java source code evaluator and a code profiler based on computational intelligence techniques. It is Java prototype software developed by AI Group [1] from the Research Laboratories at Universidad de Palermo: an Intelligent Java Analyzer (in Spanish: Analizador Java Inteligente, AJI). It represents a new approach to evaluate and identify inaccurate source code usage and transitively, the software product itself. The aim of this project is to provide the software development industry with a new tool to increase software quality by extending the value of source code metrics through computational intelligence.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
37
1319
Usability and Affordances: Examinations of Object-Naming and Object-Task Performance in Haptic Interfaces
Authors:
Abstract:

The introduction of haptic elements in a graphic user interfaces are becoming more widespread. Since haptics are being introduced rapidly into computational tools, investigating how these models affect Human-Computer Interaction would help define how to integrate and model new modes of interaction. The interest of this paper is to discuss and investigate the issues surrounding Haptic and Graphic User Interface designs (GUI) as separate systems, as well as understand how these work in tandem. The development of these systems is explored from a psychological perspective, based on how usability is addressed through learning and affordances, defined by J.J. Gibson. Haptic design can be a powerful tool, aiding in intuitive learning. The problems discussed within the text is how can haptic interfaces be integrated within a GUI without the sense of frivolity. Juxtaposing haptics and Graphic user interfaces has issues of motivation; GUI tends to have a performatory process, while Haptic Interfaces use affordances to learn tool use. In a deeper view, it is noted that two modes of perception, foveal and ambient, dictate perception. These two modes were once thought to work in tandem, however it has been discovered that these processes work independently from each other. Foveal modes interpret orientation is space which provide for posture, locomotion, and motor skills with variations of the sensory information, which instructs perceptions of object-task performance. It is contended, here, that object-task performance is a key element in the use of Haptic Interfaces because exploratory learning uses affordances in order to use an object, without meditating an experience cognitively. It is a direct experience that, through iteration, can lead to skill-sets. It is also indicated that object-task performance will not work as efficiently without the use of exploratory or kinesthetic learning practices. Therefore, object-task performance is not as congruently explored in GUI than it is practiced in Haptic interfaces.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
36
14442
Optometric-lab: a Stereophotogrammetry Tool for Eye Movements Records
Abstract:
In this paper as showed a non-invasive 3D eye tracker for optometry clinical applications. Measurements of biomechanical variables in clinical practice have many font of errors associated with traditional procedments such cover test (CT), near point of accommodation (NPC), eye ductions (ED), eye vergences (EG) and, eye versions (ES). Ocular motility should always be tested but all evaluations have a subjective interpretations by practitioners, the results is based in clinical experiences, repeatability and accuracy don-t exist. Optometric-lab is a tool with 3 (tree) analogical video cameras triggered and synchronized in one acquisition board AD. The variables globe rotation angle and velocity can be quantified. Data record frequency was performed with 27Hz, camera calibration was performed in a know volume and image radial distortion adjustments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
35
5772
Risks and Mitigation Measures in Build-Operate-Transfer Projects
Abstract:
Infrastructure investments are important in developing countries, it will not only help to foster the economic growth of a nation, but it will also act as a platform in which new forms of partnership and collaboration can be developed mainly in East Asian countries. Since the last two decades, many infrastructure projects had been completed through build-operate-transfer (BOT) type of procurement. The developments of BOT have attracted participation of local and foreign private sector investor to secure funding and to deliver projects on time, within the budget and to the required specifications. Private sectors are preferred by the government in East Asia to participate in BOT projects due to lack of public funding. The finding has resulted that the private sector or promoter of the BOT projects is exposed to multiple risks which have been discussed in this paper. Effective risk management methods and good managerial skills are required in ensuring the success of the project. The review indicated that mitigation measures should be employed by the promoter throughout the concession period and support from the host government is also required in ensuring the success of the BOT project.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
34
10062
Complexity Analysis of Some Known Graph Coloring Instances
Abstract:
Graph coloring is an important problem in computer science and many algorithms are known for obtaining reasonably good solutions in polynomial time. One method of comparing different algorithms is to test them on a set of standard graphs where the optimal solution is already known. This investigation analyzes a set of 50 well known graph coloring instances according to a set of complexity measures. These instances come from a variety of sources some representing actual applications of graph coloring (register allocation) and others (mycieleski and leighton graphs) that are theoretically designed to be difficult to solve. The size of the graphs ranged from ranged from a low of 11 variables to a high of 864 variables. The method used to solve the coloring problem was the square of the adjacency (i.e., correlation) matrix. The results show that the most difficult graphs to solve were the leighton and the queen graphs. Complexity measures such as density, mobility, deviation from uniform color class size and number of block diagonal zeros are calculated for each graph. The results showed that the most difficult problems have low mobility (in the range of .2-.5) and relatively little deviation from uniform color class size.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
33
10192
Design Neural Network Controller for Mechatronic System
Abstract:

The main goal of the study is to analyze all relevant properties of the electro hydraulic systems and based on that to make a proper choice of the neural network control strategy that may be used for the control of the mechatronic system. A combination of electronic and hydraulic systems is widely used since it combines the advantages of both. Hydraulic systems are widely spread because of their properties as accuracy, flexibility, high horsepower-to-weight ratio, fast starting, stopping and reversal with smoothness and precision, and simplicity of operations. On the other hand, the modern control of hydraulic systems is based on control of the circuit fed to the inductive solenoid that controls the position of the hydraulic valve. Since this circuit may be easily handled by PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) signal with a proper frequency, the combination of electrical and hydraulic systems became very fruitful and usable in specific areas as airplane and military industry. The study shows and discusses the experimental results obtained by the control strategy of neural network control using MATLAB and SIMULINK [1]. Finally, the special attention was paid to the possibility of neuro-controller design and its application to control of electro-hydraulic systems and to make comparative with other kinds of control.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
32
9564
Viability of Bradyrhizobium japanicum on Soybean Seeds Enhanced by Magnetite Nanoparticles during Desiccation
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate whether magnetite nanoparticles affect the viability of Bradyrhizobium japanicum cells residing on the surface of soybean seeds during desiccation. Different concentrations of nanoparticles suspended in liquid medium, mixed with and adhering to Bradyrhizobium japanicum, were investigated at two temperatures, using both soybean seeds and glass beads as surrogates. Statistical design was a complete randomized block (CRB) in a factorial 6×2×2×6 experimental arrangement with four replications. The most important variable was the viability of Bradyrhizobium on the surface of the seeds. The nanoparticles increased Bradyrhizobium viability and inoculated seeds stored at low temperature had greater viability when nanoparticles had been added. At the optimum nanoparticle concentration, 50% bacterium viability on the seeds was retained after 5 days at 4ºC. Possible explanations for the observed effects are proposed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
31
1364
Developing Online Bookstore to Facilitate Manual Process – UTP Case Study
Abstract:
Knowledge sharing enables the information or knowledge to be transmitted from one source to another. This paper demonstrates the needs of having the online book catalogue which can be used to facilitate disseminating information on textbook used in the university. This project is aimed to give access to the students and lecturers to the list of books in the bookstore and at the same time to allow book reviewing without having to visit the bookstore physically. Research is carried out according to the boundaries which accounts to current process of new book purchasing, current system used by the bookstore and current process the lecturers go through for reviewing textbooks. The questionnaire is used to gather the requirements and it is distributed to 100 students and 40 lecturers. This project has enabled the improvement of a manual process to be carried out automatically, through a web based platform. It is shown based on the user acceptance survey carried out that target groups found that this web service is feasible to be implemented in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), and they have shown positive signs of interest in utilizing it in the future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
30
2603
A Combined Practical Approach to Condition Monitoring of Reciprocating Compressors using IAS and Dynamic Pressure
Abstract:
A Comparison and evaluation of the different condition monitoring (CM) techniques was applied experimentally on RC e.g. Dynamic cylinder pressure and crankshaft Instantaneous Angular Speed (IAS), for the detection and diagnosis of valve faults in a two - stage reciprocating compressor for a programme of condition monitoring which can successfully detect and diagnose a fault in machine. Leakage in the valve plate was introduced experimentally into a two-stage reciprocating compressor. The effect of the faults on compressor performance was monitored and the differences with the normal, healthy performance noted as a fault signature been used for the detection and diagnosis of faults. The paper concludes with what is considered to be a unique approach to condition monitoring. First, each of the two most useful techniques is used to produce a Truth Table which details the circumstances in which each method can be used to detect and diagnose a fault. The two Truth Tables are then combined into a single Decision Table to provide a unique and reliable method of detection and diagnosis of each of the individual faults introduced into the compressor. This gives accurate diagnosis of compressor faults.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
29
13606
RF Link Budget Analysis at 915 MHz band for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Wireless sensor network has recently emerged as enablers of several areas. Real applications of WSN are being explored and some of them are yet to come. While the potential of sensor networks has been only beginning to be realized, several challenges still remain. One of them is the experimental evaluation of WSN. Therefore, deploying and operating a testbed to study the real behavior of WSN become more and more important. The main contribution of this work is to analysis the RF link budget behavior of wireless sensor networks in underground mine gallery.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
28
15950
Minimum Fluidization Velocities of Binary-Solid Mixtures: Model Comparison
Authors:
Abstract:
An accurate prediction of the minimum fluidization velocity is a crucial hydrodynamic aspect of the design of fluidized bed reactors. Common approaches for the prediction of the minimum fluidization velocities of binary-solid fluidized beds are first discussed here. The data of our own careful experimental investigation involving a binary-solid pair fluidized with water is presented. The effect of the relative composition of the two solid species comprising the fluidized bed on the bed void fraction at the incipient fluidization condition is reported and its influence on the minimum fluidization velocity is discussed. In this connection, the capability of packing models to predict the bed void fraction is also examined.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
27
13920
Persian Printed Numerals Classification Using Extended Moment Invariants
Abstract:
Classification of Persian printed numeral characters has been considered and a proposed system has been introduced. In representation stage, for the first time in Persian optical character recognition, extended moment invariants has been utilized as characters image descriptor. In classification stage, four different classifiers namely minimum mean distance, nearest neighbor rule, multi layer perceptron, and fuzzy min-max neural network has been used, which first and second are traditional nonparametric statistical classifier. Third is a well-known neural network and forth is a kind of fuzzy neural network that is based on utilizing hyperbox fuzzy sets. Set of different experiments has been done and variety of results has been presented. The results showed that extended moment invariants are qualified as features to classify Persian printed numeral characters.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
26
2667
Optimal Route Policy in Air Traffic Control with Competing Airlines
Abstract:

This work proposes a novel market-based air traffic flow control model considering competitive airlines in air traffic network. In the flow model, an agent based framework for resources (link/time pair) pricing is described. Resource agent and auctioneer for groups of resources are also introduced to simulate the flow management in Air Traffic Control (ATC). Secondly, the distributed group pricing algorithm is introduced, which efficiently reflect the competitive nature of the airline industry. Resources in the system are grouped according to the degree of interaction, and each auctioneer adjust s the price of one group of resources respectively until the excess demand of resources becomes zero when the demand and supply of resources of the system changes. Numerical simulation results show the feasibility of solving the air traffic flow control problem using market mechanism and pricing algorithms on the air traffic network.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
25
8994
Dimensional Modeling of HIV Data Using Open Source
Abstract:
Selecting the data modeling technique for an information system is determined by the objective of the resultant data model. Dimensional modeling is the preferred modeling technique for data destined for data warehouses and data mining, presenting data models that ease analysis and queries which are in contrast with entity relationship modeling. The establishment of data warehouses as components of information system landscapes in many organizations has subsequently led to the development of dimensional modeling. This has been significantly more developed and reported for the commercial database management systems as compared to the open sources thereby making it less affordable for those in resource constrained settings. This paper presents dimensional modeling of HIV patient information using open source modeling tools. It aims to take advantage of the fact that the most affected regions by the HIV virus are also heavily resource constrained (sub-Saharan Africa) whereas having large quantities of HIV data. Two HIV data source systems were studied to identify appropriate dimensions and facts these were then modeled using two open source dimensional modeling tools. Use of open source would reduce the software costs for dimensional modeling and in turn make data warehousing and data mining more feasible even for those in resource constrained settings but with data available.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
24
6626
Homotopy Analysis Method for Hydromagnetic Plane and Axisymmetric Stagnation-point Flow with Velocity Slip
Abstract:
This work is focused on the steady boundary layer flow near the forward stagnation point of plane and axisymmetric bodies towards a stretching sheet. The no slip condition on the solid boundary is replaced by the partial slip condition. The analytical solutions for the velocity distributions are obtained for the various values of the ratio of free stream velocity and stretching velocity, slip parameter, the suction and injection velocity parameter, magnetic parameter and dimensionality index parameter in the series forms with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). Convergence of the series is explicitly discussed. Results show that the flow and the skin friction coefficient depend heavily on the velocity slip factor. In addition, the effects of all the parameters mentioned above were more pronounced for plane flows than for axisymmetric flows.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
23
13501
Bayes Net Classifiers for Prediction of Renal Graft Status and Survival Period
Abstract:
This paper presents the development of a Bayesian belief network classifier for prediction of graft status and survival period in renal transplantation using the patient profile information prior to the transplantation. The objective was to explore feasibility of developing a decision making tool for identifying the most suitable recipient among the candidate pool members. The dataset was compiled from the University of Toledo Medical Center Hospital patients as reported to the United Network Organ Sharing, and had 1228 patient records for the period covering 1987 through 2009. The Bayes net classifiers were developed using the Weka machine learning software workbench. Two separate classifiers were induced from the data set, one to predict the status of the graft as either failed or living, and a second classifier to predict the graft survival period. The classifier for graft status prediction performed very well with a prediction accuracy of 97.8% and true positive values of 0.967 and 0.988 for the living and failed classes, respectively. The second classifier to predict the graft survival period yielded a prediction accuracy of 68.2% and a true positive rate of 0.85 for the class representing those instances with kidneys failing during the first year following transplantation. Simulation results indicated that it is feasible to develop a successful Bayesian belief network classifier for prediction of graft status, but not the graft survival period, using the information in UNOS database.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
22
6572
New DES based on Elliptic Curves
Abstract:
It is known that symmetric encryption algorithms are fast and easy to implement in hardware. Also elliptic curves have proved to be a good choice for building encryption system. Although most of the symmetric systems have been broken, we can create a hybrid system that has the same properties of the symmetric encryption systems and in the same time, it has the strength of elliptic curves in encryption. As DES algorithm is considered the core of all successive symmetric encryption systems, we modified DES using elliptic curves and built a new DES algorithm that is hard to be broken and will be the core for all other symmetric systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
21
10617
Elastic Lateral Features of a New Glass Fiber Reinforced Gypsum Wall
Abstract:

GFRG(Glass Fiber Reinforced Gypsum) wall is a green product which can erect a building fast in prefabricated method, but its application to high-rise residential buildings is limited for its poor lateral stiffness. This paper has proposed a modification to GFRG walls structure to increase its lateral stiffness, which aiming to erect small high-rise residential buildings as load-bearing walls. The elastic finite element analysis to it has shown the lateral deformation feature and the distributions of the axial force and the shear force. The analysis results show that the new GFRG reinforced concrete wall can be used for small high-rise residential buildings.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
20
1442
Validation on 3D Surface Roughness Algorithm for Measuring Roughness of Psoriasis Lesion
Abstract:

Psoriasis is a widespread skin disease affecting up to 2% population with plaque psoriasis accounting to about 80%. It can be identified as a red lesion and for the higher severity the lesion is usually covered with rough scale. Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scoring is the gold standard method for measuring psoriasis severity. Scaliness is one of PASI parameter that needs to be quantified in PASI scoring. Surface roughness of lesion can be used as a scaliness feature, since existing scale on lesion surface makes the lesion rougher. The dermatologist usually assesses the severity through their tactile sense, therefore direct contact between doctor and patient is required. The problem is the doctor may not assess the lesion objectively. In this paper, a digital image analysis technique is developed to objectively determine the scaliness of the psoriasis lesion and provide the PASI scaliness score. Psoriasis lesion is modelled by a rough surface. The rough surface is created by superimposing a smooth average (curve) surface with a triangular waveform. For roughness determination, a polynomial surface fitting is used to estimate average surface followed by a subtraction between rough and average surface to give elevation surface (surface deviations). Roughness index is calculated by using average roughness equation to the height map matrix. The roughness algorithm has been tested to 444 lesion models. From roughness validation result, only 6 models can not be accepted (percentage error is greater than 10%). These errors occur due the scanned image quality. Roughness algorithm is validated for roughness measurement on abrasive papers at flat surface. The Pearson-s correlation coefficient of grade value (G) of abrasive paper and Ra is -0.9488, its shows there is a strong relation between G and Ra. The algorithm needs to be improved by surface filtering, especially to overcome a problem with noisy data.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
19
15041
Objective Assessment of Psoriasis Lesion Thickness for PASI Scoring using 3D Digital Imaging
Abstract:
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition which affects 2-3% of population around the world. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) is a gold standard to assess psoriasis severity as well as the treatment efficacy. Although a gold standard, PASI is rarely used because it is tedious and complex. In practice, PASI score is determined subjectively by dermatologists, therefore inter and intra variations of assessment are possible to happen even among expert dermatologists. This research develops an algorithm to assess psoriasis lesion for PASI scoring objectively. Focus of this research is thickness assessment as one of PASI four parameters beside area, erythema and scaliness. Psoriasis lesion thickness is measured by averaging the total elevation from lesion base to lesion surface. Thickness values of 122 3D images taken from 39 patients are grouped into 4 PASI thickness score using K-means clustering. Validation on lesion base construction is performed using twelve body curvature models and show good result with coefficient of determinant (R2) is equal to 1.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
18
9961
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Sound Radiation by the Boundary Element Method
Abstract:

The modeling of sound radiation is of fundamental importance for understanding the propagation of acoustic waves and, consequently, develop mechanisms for reducing acoustic noise. The propagation of acoustic waves, are involved in various phenomena such as radiation, absorption, transmission and reflection. The radiation is studied through the linear equation of the acoustic wave that is obtained through the equation for the Conservation of Momentum, equation of State and Continuity. From these equations, is the Helmholtz differential equation that describes the problem of acoustic radiation. In this paper we obtained the solution of the Helmholtz differential equation for an infinite cylinder in a pulsating through free and homogeneous. The analytical solution is implemented and the results are compared with the literature. A numerical formulation for this problem is obtained using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). This method has great power for solving certain acoustical problems in open field, compared to differential methods. BEM reduces the size of the problem, thereby simplifying the input data to be worked and reducing the computational time used.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
17
9469
Dual Construction of Stern-based Signature Scheme
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a dual version of the first threshold ring signature scheme based on error-correcting code proposed by Aguilar et. al in [1]. Our scheme uses an improvement of Véron zero-knowledge identification scheme, which provide smaller public and private key sizes and better computation complexity than the Stern one. This scheme is secure in the random oracle model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
16
2786
Statistical Analysis-Driven Risk Assessment of Criteria Air Pollutants: A Sulfur Dioxide Case Study
Authors:
Abstract:
A 7-step method (with 25 sub-steps) to assess risk of air pollutants is introduced. These steps are: pre-considerations, sampling, statistical analysis, exposure matrix and likelihood, doseresponse matrix and likelihood, total risk evaluation, and discussion of findings. All mentioned words and expressions are wellunderstood; however, almost all steps have been modified, improved, and coupled in such a way that a comprehensive method has been prepared. Accordingly, the SADRA (Statistical Analysis-Driven Risk Assessment) emphasizes extensive and ongoing application of analytical statistics in traditional risk assessment models. A Sulfur Dioxide case study validates the claim and provides a good illustration for this method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
15
5652
Attacks Classification in Adaptive Intrusion Detection using Decision Tree
Abstract:
Recently, information security has become a key issue in information technology as the number of computer security breaches are exposed to an increasing number of security threats. A variety of intrusion detection systems (IDS) have been employed for protecting computers and networks from malicious network-based or host-based attacks by using traditional statistical methods to new data mining approaches in last decades. However, today's commercially available intrusion detection systems are signature-based that are not capable of detecting unknown attacks. In this paper, we present a new learning algorithm for anomaly based network intrusion detection system using decision tree algorithm that distinguishes attacks from normal behaviors and identifies different types of intrusions. Experimental results on the KDD99 benchmark network intrusion detection dataset demonstrate that the proposed learning algorithm achieved 98% detection rate (DR) in comparison with other existing methods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
14
14489
A Decision Support System Based on Leprosy Scales
Abstract:
Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, this disease, generally, compromises the neural fibers, leading to the development of disability. Disabilities are changes that limit daily activities or social life of a normal individual. When comes to leprosy, the study of disability considered the functional limitation (physical disabilities), the limitation of activity and social participation, which are measured respectively by the scales: EHF, SALSA and PARTICIPATION SCALE. The objective of this work is to propose an on-line monitoring of leprosy patients, which is based on information scales EHF, SALSA and PARTICIPATION SCALE. It is expected that the proposed system is applied in monitoring the patient during treatment and after healing therapy of the disease. The correlations that the system is between the scales create a variety of information, presented the state of the patient and full of changes or reductions in disability. The system provides reports with information from each of the scales and the relationships that exist between them. This way, health professionals, with access to patient information, can intervene with techniques for the Prevention of Disability. Through the automated scale, the system shows the level of the patient and allows the patient, or the responsible, to take a preventive measure. With an online system, it is possible take the assessments and monitor patients from anywhere.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
13
4716
Evaluating Refactoring with a Quality Index
Abstract:
The aim of every software product is to achieve an appropriate level of software quality. Developers and designers are trying to produce readable, reliable, maintainable, reusable and testable code. To help achieve these goals, several approaches have been utilized. In this paper, refactoring technique was used to evaluate software quality with a quality index. It is composed of different metric sets which describes various quality aspects.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
12
11217
The Overall Aspects of E-Leaning Issues, Developments, Opportunities and Challenges
Abstract:

Rapid steps made in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has facilitated the development of teaching and learning methods and prepared them to serve the needs of an assorted educational institution. In other words, the information age has redefined the fundamentals and transformed the institutions and method of services delivery forever. The vision is the articulation of a desire to transform the method of teaching and learning could proceed through e-learning. E-learning is commonly deliberated to use of networked information and communications technology in teaching and learning practice. This paper deals the general aspects of the e-leaning with its issues, developments, opportunities and challenges, which can the higher institutions own.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
11
15734
Installation Stability of Low Temperature Steel Mesh in LNG Storage
Abstract:

To enhance installation security, a LNG storage in Rudong of Jiangsu province was adopted as a practical work, and it was analyzed by nonlinear finite element method to research overall and local stability performance, as well as the stress and deformation under the action of wind load and self-weight. Results indicate that deformation is tiny when steel mesh maintains as an overall ring, and stress caused by vertical bending moment and tension of bottom tie wire are also in the safe range. However, axial forces of lap reinforcement in adjacent steel mesh exceed the ultimate bearing capacity of tie wire. Hence, tie wires are ruptured; single mesh loses lateral connection and turns into monolithic status as the destruction of overall structure. Further more, monolithic steel mesh is led to collapse by the damage of bottom connection. So, in order to prevent connection failure and enhance installation security, the overlapping parts of steel mesh should be taken more reliable measures.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
10
10121
Markov Chain Monte Carlo Model Composition Search Strategy for Quantitative Trait Loci in a Bayesian Hierarchical Model
Abstract:
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) experiments have yielded important biological and biochemical information necessary for understanding the relationship between genetic markers and quantitative traits. For many years, most QTL algorithms only allowed one observation per genotype. Recently, there has been an increasing demand for QTL algorithms that can accommodate more than one observation per genotypic distribution. The Bayesian hierarchical model is very flexible and can easily incorporate this information into the model. Herein a methodology is presented that uses a Bayesian hierarchical model to capture the complexity of the data. Furthermore, the Markov chain Monte Carlo model composition (MC3) algorithm is used to search and identify important markers. An extensive simulation study illustrates that the method captures the true QTL, even under nonnormal noise and up to 6 QTL.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
9
13466
Effect of Low Frequency Memory on High Power 12W LDMOS Transistors Intermodulation Distortion
Abstract:

The increasing demand for higher data rates in wireless communication systems has led to the more effective and efficient use of all allocated frequency bands. In order to use the whole bandwidth at maximum efficiency, one needs to have RF power amplifiers with a higher linear level and memory-less performance. This is considered to be a major challenge to circuit designers. In this thesis the linearity and memory are studied and examined via the behavior of the intermodulation distortion (IMD). A major source of the in-band distortion can be shown to be influenced by the out-of-band impedances presented at either the input or the output of the device, especially those impedances terminated the low frequency (IF) components. Thus, in order to regulate the in-band distortion, the out of-band distortion must be controllable. These investigations are performed on a 12W LDMOS device characterised at 2.1 GHz within a purpose built, high-power measurement system.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
8
7051
On the Performance of Information Criteria in Latent Segment Models
Abstract:
Nevertheless the widespread application of finite mixture models in segmentation, finite mixture model selection is still an important issue. In fact, the selection of an adequate number of segments is a key issue in deriving latent segments structures and it is desirable that the selection criteria used for this end are effective. In order to select among several information criteria, which may support the selection of the correct number of segments we conduct a simulation study. In particular, this study is intended to determine which information criteria are more appropriate for mixture model selection when considering data sets with only categorical segmentation base variables. The generation of mixtures of multinomial data supports the proposed analysis. As a result, we establish a relationship between the level of measurement of segmentation variables and some (eleven) information criteria-s performance. The criterion AIC3 shows better performance (it indicates the correct number of the simulated segments- structure more often) when referring to mixtures of multinomial segmentation base variables.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
7
12070
A Method for Improving Dental Crown Fit-Increasing the Robustness
Abstract:
The introduction of mass-customization has enabled new ways to treat patients within medicine. However, the introduction of industrialized treatments has also meant new obstacles. The purpose of this study was to introduce and theoretically test a method for improving dental crown fit. The optimization method allocates support points in order to check the final variation for dental crowns. Three different types of geometries were tested and compared. The three geometries were also divided into three sub-geometries: Current method, Optimized method and Feasible method. The Optimized method, using the whole surface for support points, provided the best results. The results support the objective of the study. It also seems that the support optimization method can dramatically improve the robustness of dental crown treatments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
6
13802
A Discriminatory Rewarding Mechanism for Sybil Detection with Applications to Tor
Abstract:
This paper presents an economic game for sybil detection in a distributed computing environment. Cost parameters reflecting impacts of different sybil attacks are introduced in the sybil detection game. The optimal strategies for this game in which both sybil and non-sybil identities are expected to participate are devised. A cost sharing economic mechanism called Discriminatory Rewarding Mechanism for Sybil Detection is proposed based on this game. A detective accepts a security deposit from each active agent, negotiates with the agents and offers rewards to the sybils if the latter disclose their identity. The basic objective of the detective is to determine the optimum reward amount for each sybil which will encourage the maximum possible number of sybils to reveal themselves. Maintaining privacy is an important issue for the mechanism since the participants involved in the negotiation are generally reluctant to share their private information. The mechanism has been applied to Tor by introducing a reputation scoring function.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
5
923
Software Model for a Computer Based Training for an HVDC Control Desk Simulator
Abstract:
With major technological advances and to reduce the cost of training apprentices for real-time critical systems, it was necessary the development of Intelligent Tutoring Systems for training apprentices in these systems. These systems, in general, have interactive features so that the learning is actually more efficient, making the learner more familiar with the mechanism in question. In the home stage of learning, tests are performed to obtain the student's income, a measure on their use. The aim of this paper is to present a framework to model an Intelligent Tutoring Systems using the UML language. The various steps of the analysis are considered the diagrams required to build a general model, whose purpose is to present the different perspectives of its development.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
4
6237
2D Numerical Analysis of Sao Paulo Tunnel
Abstract:
Nonlinear finite element method and Serendipity eight nodes element are used for determining of ground surface settlement due to tunneling. Linear element with elastic behavior is used for modeling of lining. Modified Generalized plasticity model with nonassociated flow rule is applied for analysis of a tunnel in Sao Paulo – Brazil. The tunnel had analyzed by Lades- model with 16 parameters. In this work modified Generalized Plasticity is used with 10 parameters, also Mohr-Coulomb model is used to analysis the tunnel. The results show good agreement with observed results of field data by modified Generalized Plasticity model than other models. The obtained result by Mohr-Coulomb model shows less settlement than other model due to excavation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3
5939
Analysis and Simulation of Automotive Interleaved Buck Converter
Abstract:

This paper will focus on modeling, analysis and simulation of a 42V/14V dc/dc converter based architecture. This architecture is considered to be technically a viable solution for automotive dual-voltage power system for passenger car in the near further. An interleaved dc/dc converter system is chosen for the automotive converter topology due to its advantages regarding filter reduction, dynamic response, and power management. Presented herein, is a model based on one kilowatt interleaved six-phase buck converter designed to operate in a Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). The control strategy of the converter is based on a voltagemode- controlled Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) with a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID). The effectiveness of the interleaved step-down converter is verified through simulation results using control-oriented simulator, MatLab/Simulink.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2
2814
Implementation of Generalized Plasticity in Load-Deformation Behavior of Foundation with Emphasis on Localization Problem
Abstract:
Nonlinear finite element method with eight noded isoparametric quadrilateral element is used for prediction of loaddeformation behavior including bearing capacity of foundations. Modified generalized plasticity model with non-associated flow rule is applied for analysis of soil-footing system. Also Von Mises and Tresca criterions are used for simulation of soil behavior. Modified generalized plasticity model is able to simulate load-deformation including softening behavior. Localization phenomena are considered by different meshes. Localization phenomena have not been seen in the examples. Predictions by modified generalized plasticity model show good agreement with laboratory data and theoretical prediction in comparison the other models.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1
269
Molecular Characteristics of Phosphoric Acid Treated Soils
Abstract:
The expansive nature of soils containing high amounts of clay minerals can be altered through chemical stabilization, resulting in a material suitable for construction purposes. The primary objective of this investigation was to study the changes induced in the molecular structure of phosphoric acid stabilized bentonite and lateritic soil using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Based on the obtained data, it was found that a surface alteration mechanism was the main reason responsible for the improvement of treated soils. Furthermore, the results indicated that the Al present in the octahedral layer of clay minerals were more amenable to chemical attacks and also partly responsible for the formation of new products.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
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