Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48505

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

1346
84230
Antioxidants' Effects on Sperm Parameter in Varicocelized Male Rat
Abstract:
Varicocele is one of the common causes of infertility in 30-50% of married men which occurs within the spermatic cord. It can be considered as an abnormal dilatation and stasis of veins of the pampiniform plexus that drain the testis. It occurs in 15-20% of the male population. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity has been frequently reported in varicose veins. Several studies have considered the relationship between varicocele and semen NO concentrations. NOS isoforms have been shown to regulate a number of functions, e.g., sperm motility and maturation and germ cell apoptosis in the testes. In adult patients with varicocele, the amount of NO levels in the varicose veins are 25 times higher than in serum of peripheral veins. The aim of this study was to review the effect of different antioxidant that we applied so far on sperm parameters as well as sperm DNA fragmentation. The findings of this study suggest that antioxidants improve sperm parameters which are associated with infertility in varicocelized rats, and treatment can reduce damage to sperm DNA and increase the chance of fertility.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1345
84036
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Small Scale Farmers on Organic Agriculture in a Rural Community in Ifugao, Philippines
Abstract:
A survey was conducted to describe knowledge, attitude, practices, information needs, and information seeking behavior of small-scale farmers on Organic Agriculture Production (OAP) in a rural community in Ifugao, Philippines. Respondents’ age ranged from 23-67 years old. Most of them are male, married, and have reached high school level. The major source of income is farming with an average monthly income of less than Php 5,000 for a household size of seven. More than fifty percent of the respondents are members of a farmer’s organization. Farm size is less than one hectare. Majority of them own their farms and have been farming for more than twenty years. Very few attended training on Organic Agriculture Production (OAP). Most of them are not aware of any OAP program in their community. Hence, their farming practices are mostly conventional. The overall level of knowledge on OAP among all respondents was below the average. On attitude, most of the respondents agreed that organic farming would decrease production costs by reducing input purchases. They believe it benefits both the consumer and the producer. In fact, they are aware of the many benefits of organic farming, especially on health. Likewise, many of them agreed on the benefits of organic farming to soil fertility, to the environment, and to increase the income of farmers. Many of them, however, see organic farming as troublesome and difficult in terms of time and effort, obtaining organic inputs, limited production, and marketing aspects. They also have heavy reliance on pesticides and herbicides to control pests and diseases. On practices, majority of the respondents stated that they practiced crop rotation, manual weeding, and the use of animal manure. Most of them desired to do organic farming but needed information such as production techniques, costs, and marketing opportunities. Their most preferred communication channel is through extension agents and contact farmers. Their most preferred communication method is through trainings and seminars as well as through farm demonstrations. Results of this study will serve as a basis for developing appropriate communication strategies to improve knowledge, attitude, and practices of respondents on organic agriculture as well as enhance the promotion of organic agriculture production in the community.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1344
83586
Geochemical Composition of Deep and Highly Weathered Soils Leyte and Samar Islands Philippines
Abstract:
Geochemical composition of soils provides vital information about their origin and development. Highly weathered soils are widespread in the islands of Leyte and Samar but limited data have been published in terms of their nature, characteristics and nutrient status. This study evaluated the total elemental composition, properties and nutrient status of eight (8) deep and highly weathered soils in various parts of Leyte and Samar. Sampling was done down to 3 to 4 meters deep. Total amounts of Al₂O₃, As₂O₃, CaO, CdO, Cr₂O₃, CuO, Fe₂O₃, K₂O, MgO, MnO, Na₂O, NiO, P₂O₅, PbO, SO₃, SiO₂, TiO₂, ZnO and ZrO₂ were analyzed using an X-ray analytical microscope for eight soil profiles. Most of the deep and highly weathered soils have probably developed from homogenous parent materials based on the regular distribution with depth of TiO₂ and ZrO₂. Two of the soils indicated high variability with depth of TiO₂ and ZrO₂ suggesting that these soils developed from heterogeneous parent material. Most soils have K₂O and CaO values below those of MgO and Na₂O. This suggests more losses of K₂O and CaO have occurred since they are more mobile in the weathering environment. Most of the soils contain low amounts of other elements such as CuO, ZnO, PbO, NiO, CrO and SO₂. Basic elements such as K₂O and CaO are more mobile in the weathering environment than MgO and Na₂O resulting in higher losses of the former than the latter. Other elements also show small amounts in all soil profile. Thus, this study is very useful for sustainable crop production and environmental conservation in the study area specifically for highly weathered soils which are widespread in the Philippines.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1343
83555
Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Rutin in Cheddar Cheese
Abstract:
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Rutin in cheddar cheese. The study was conducted by adding the Rutin in the cheddar cheese in different concentrations according to experimental design, i.e., T1 (20 ppm Rutin), T2 (40 ppm Rutin), T3 (60 ppm Rutin), T4 (80 ppm Rutin). BHT was taken as a positive control at a concentration of 200 ppm, and negative control had neither Rutin nor BHT. The ripening time for cheeses was 90 days at a temperature of 8°C. The results of the various antioxidants assays (Total phenolic contents (TPC) and Antioxidant activity (AA), with storage stability tests (Anisidine value (AV) and Thiobarbituric acid value (TBARS)) performed during different storage intervals 0, 30, 60 and 90 days exhibited that AA in linoleic acid and TPC were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by the addition of rutin to cheese at all concentrations. Moreover, significant reduction in the TBARS values was also observed during the storage period. Rutin also showed a good potential to inhibit the microbial proliferation in the treated samples of cheese. There was a significant decreasing trend seen in total plate count and yeasts and molds count. The sensorial attributes i.e., color, flavor, odor and overall acceptability were increased after adding Rutin to cheddar cheese.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1342
83281
Drivers of Adoption Intensity of Certified Maize Varieties in Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria: A Triple Hurdle Model Approach
Abstract:
A number of technologies expected to increase maize productivity have been introduced by several research programs at national and international level. To this end, the study sought to identify the factors influencing adoption intensity of certified maize varieties. The data used were obtained from a sample household survey of 406 maize farmers, conducted in the northern guinea savannah of Nigeria through multistage stratified sampling, structured questionnaire. A triple hurdle model was adopted to estimate the determinants of adoption intensity; considering awareness, adoption, and intensity as three separate stages. The result showed that the drivers of farmers’ awareness, adoption, and intensity of usage may not necessarily be the same, and where they are, not of the same magnitude and direction. However, factors which were found to be statistically significant were age, education, membership of association and frequency of extension advice. In addition, awareness and adoption of the technologies were likely to be increased with male respondents. Farmers that were members of either community organizations or cooperative organizations had a higher tendency of being aware and adopting certified maize seed varieties. It was also discovered that though some of the farmers were fully aware of the existence of some certified maize varieties, majority lacked detailed knowledge and technical know-how. There is a need for creation of awareness through an excellent trained extension and restructuring of the educational sector to improve on the adoption process as well as improve maize productivity in the country.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1341
83184
Participatory Action Research for Sustainability with Special Focus on Student Initiatives
Authors:
Abstract:
Sustainable environmental stress is a major concern which needs immediate attention. This paper is an attempt to present participatory action research for sustainable agriculture. Being first and best culture, agriculture protects and improves the natural environment, the social and economic conditions of people, and safeguards the health and welfare of all groups. During course of time agriculture turned to agribusiness, then the values are not safeguarded. Moreover, in today’s busy life many are not taking efforts to take part in agriculture production. Then children are not getting the opportunity to understand agriculture and farming practices. So student initiatives are vital to make them aware. Here the programmes structured by the researcher come under the auspicious of National Service Scheme, a student-centered educational programme, organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs, Government of India. The twin objectives of the study are to examine the role of student initiatives for sustainable agriculture and the role of participatory action research in student initiatives. SWOT analysis is made to study strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities. The Methodology adopted is Participatory Action Research. The method is participatory in a sense there is collaboration through participation. The method is action, there is lab land experiences which is real. The method is research that there is documented lessons and creation of new knowledge. Plan of action cover measures adopted and strategies taken i.e., bhavana – kalpana – yojana – sadhana. Through the team effort, the team was successful in converting more than 10 hectares of barren land into cultivable land within and outside the campus. Team efforts of students saved a huge amount of labour cost and produced a huge quantity of organic output and the team was also successful in creating 1000 rain pits in the premises of College for rainwater harvesting. The findings include conveyance of the Message: Food Production is superior to Food donation. Moreover, the study fostered good work ethic and social responsibility among students. Students undertake innovative programmes underlying social and environmental issues and participants got increased opportunities to interact with local and less privileged and acquired increased awareness about real-life experiences which make them confident to interact with people and it resulted in the strengthening of social capital- cooperation, team spirit, social commitment among students. Participants promoted sustainable domestic efforts and ultimately environmental protection is ensured. Finally, there is recognition to the team, institution and the researcher at the university level, state level and at the national level. The learned lessons are, if the approach is good, the response is good and success generates success. Participatory action research is empowering experience for practitioners, focusing the combined time, energy and creativity of a committed group we should lead so many programmes which makes the institution centre of excellence. Authorities should take necessary steps for the Inclusion of community development activities in the curriculum. Action research is problem, client and action centered. So, we must adapt and adopt, coordinates and correlates measures which preserve and conserve the environment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1340
83022
Analyzing the Impact of Spatio-Temporal Climate Variations on the Rice Crop Calendar in Pakistan
Abstract:
The present study investigates the space-time impact of climate change on the rice crop calendar in tropical Gujranwala, Pakistan. The climate change impact was quantified through the climatic variables, whereas the existing calendar of the rice crop was compared with the phonological stages of the crop, depicted through the time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat data for the decade 2005-2015. Local maxima were applied on the time series of NDVI to compute the rice phonological stages. Panel models with fixed and cross-section fixed effects were used to establish relation between the climatic parameters and the time-series of NDVI across villages and across rice growing periods. Results show that the climatic parameters have significant impact on the rice crop calendar. Moreover, fixed effect model is a significant improvement over cross-sectional fixed effect models (R-squared equal to 0.673 Vs 0.0338). We conclude that high inter-annual variability of climatic variables cause high variability of NDVI, and thus a shift in the rice crop calendar. Moreover, inter-annual (temporal) variability of the rice crop calendar is high compared to the inter-village (spatial) variability. We suggest the local rice farmers to adapt this change in the rice crop calendar.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1339
82978
A Case Study on the Groundwater Resources Management in the Canal Command Area of Lower Bari Doab
Abstract:
There is an increasing awareness in the world that water is a limited resource. Many countries in the arid and semi-arid zones do not have sufficient water resources to meet agricultural, industrial, domestic and environmental needs. Pakistan is also one of these countries which face severe scarcity of water resources, especially, for the last half of the decade. Proper management of ground water resources can contribute for a solution of these problems. An innovative approach has been explored to identify water management options in irrigated agriculture considering the constraints of water availability and heterogeneity of irrigation system properties. In this work, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of cropping practices on water balance variables, e.g., recharge, evapotranspiration, crop water requirement, demand and supply in irrigated area of Bari Doab, i.e., LBDC, Okara, Punjab, Pakistan during 2011-12 and 2012-13 (Rabi and Kharif seasons). The results of the study showed that there was a big gap between water demand and supply during the Rabi 2011-12 and 2012-13. There was around 50% groundwater contribution to meet the water requirements of the existing cropping pattern in Rabi season, while it was 60% during the Kharif season 2012. The major groundwater recharge is due to low irrigation application, followed by the water courses. Results obtained so far revealed that there is increasing trend towards the use of groundwater without knowing the consequence of using low-quality water. There is a lot potential to improve the existing/traditional practices for making safe use of existing quality groundwater. Optimal canal operation under the available water supplies can help to reduce the groundwater use.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1338
82915
Examinations of Sustainable Protection Possibilities against Granary Weevil (Sitophilus granarius L.) on Stored Products
Abstract:
Granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Col.: Curculionidae) is a typical cosmopolitan pest. It can cause significant damage to stored grains, and can drastically decrease yields. Damaged grain has reduced nutritional and market value, weaker germination, and reduced weight. The commonly used protectants against stored-product pests in Europe are residual insecticides, applied directly to the product. Unfortunately, these pesticides can be toxic to mammals, the residues can accumulate in the treated products, and many pest species could become resistant to the protectants. During recent years, alternative solutions of grain protection have received increased attention. These solutions are considered as the most promising alternatives to residual insecticides. The aims of our comparative study were to obtain information about the efficacies of the 1. diatomaceous earth, 2. sterile insect technology and 3. herbal oils against the S. granarius on grain (foremost maize), and to evaluate the influence of the dose rate on weevil mortality and progeny. The main results of our laboratory experiments are the followings: 1. Diatomaceous earth was especially efficacious against S. granarius, but its insecticidal properties depend on exposure time and applied dose. The efficacy on barley was better than on maize. Mortality value of the highest dose was 85% on the 21st day in the case of barley. It can be ascertained that complete elimination of progeny was evidenced on both gain types. To summarize, a satisfactory efficacy level was obtained only on barley at a rate of 4g/kg. Alteration of efficacy between grain types can be explained with differences in grain surface. 2. The mortality consequences of Roentgen irradiation on the S. granarius was highly influenced by the exposure time, and the dose applied. At doses of 50 and 70Gy, the efficacy accepted in plant protection (mortality: 95%) was recorded only on the 21st day. During the application of 100 and 200Gy doses, high mortality values (83.5% and 97.5%) were observed on the 14th day. Our results confirmed the complete sterilizing effect of the doses of 70Gy and above. The autocide effect of 50 and 70Gy doses were demonstrated when irradiated specimens were mixed into groups of fertile specimens. Consequently, these doses might be successfully applied to put sterile insect technique (SIT) into practice. 3. The results revealed that both studied essential oils (Callendula officinalis, Hippophae rhamnoides) exerted strong toxic effect on S. granarius, but C. officinalis triggered higher mortality. The efficacy (94.62 ± 2.63%) was reached after a 48 hours exposure to H. rhamnoides oil at 2ml/kg while the application of 2ml/kg of C. officinalis oil for 24 hours produced 98.94 ± 1.00% mortality rate. Mortality was 100% at 5 ml/kg of H. rhamnoides after 24 hours duration of its application, while with C. officinalis the same value could be reached after a 12 hour-exposure to the oil. Both essential oils applied were eliminated the progeny.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1337
82885
Time of Release of Larval Parasitoid, Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) on Parasitization of Plutella xylostella L. on Cabbage
Abstract:
Cotesia plutellae is a locally available larval parasitoid of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, which can be used to manage P. xylostella in the field in an integrated pest management strategy. A study was undertaken to find out the best time of releasing C. plutellae for effective management of P. xylostella using three release times; 2, 3 and 4 weeks after transplanting of cabbage in farmer’s fields at Marassana in Kandy District, Sri Lanka, during Yala 2014 and 2015 seasons. Results revealed that the percentage mean values of parasitization in Yala 2015, was significantly high; 69.47 and 43.85, when introduced at 2 and 3 weeks after transplanting respectively and significantly low 23.31, when released at 4 weeks after transplanting. It is therefore evident that the parasitoid release should be done before 3 weeks, preferably at 2 weeks after transplanting of cabbage in the field. The highest percentage parasitism achieved was 83.90 at 2 weeks after transplanting in Yala 2015 and the lowest being 18.85 and 12.00% at 4 weeks after transplanting in Yala 2014 and 2015 respectively. Unparasitized larvae were able to maintain high P. xylostella populations up to harvest. Even though there is no yield advantage by using parasitoids for P. xylostella management, the cost incurred for insect pest management was greatly reduced compared to use of synthetic chemicals.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1336
82719
Effect of Different Spacings on Growth Yield and Fruit Quality of Peach in the Sub-Tropics of India
Abstract:
Peach is primarily a temperate fruit, but its low chilling cultivars are grown quite successfully in the sub-tropical climate as well. The area under peach cultivation is picking up rapidly in the sub tropics of northern India due to higher return on a unit area basis, availability of suitable peach cultivar and their production technology. Information on the use of different training systems on peach in the sub tropics is inadequate. In this investigation, conducted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), India, the trees of the Shan-i-Punjab peach were planted at four different spacings i.e. 6.0x3.0m, 6.0x2.5m, 4.5x3.0m and 4.5x2.5m and were trained to central leader system. The total radiation interception and penetration in the upper and lower canopy parts were higher in 6x3.0m and 6x2.5m planted trees as compared to other spacings. Average radiation interception was maximum in the upper part of the tree canopy, and it decreased significantly with the depth of the canopy in all the spacings. Tree planted at wider spacings produced more vegetative (tree height, tree girth, tree spread and canopy volume) and reproductive growth (flower bud density, number of fruits and fruit yield) per tree but productivity was maximum in the closely planted trees. Fruits harvested from the wider spaced trees were superior in fruit quality (size, weight, colour, TSS and acidity) and matured earlier than those harvested from closed spaced trees.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1335
82668
Comparison of Live Weight of Pure and Mixed Races Tizpar 30-Day Squabs
Abstract:
This study is to evaluate and compare live weight of pure and mixed races Tizpar 30-day pigeons to investigate about their sex, race, and some auxiliary variables. In this paper, 70 pieces of pigeons as 35 male and female pairs with equal age are studied randomly. A natural incubation was done from each pair. All produced chickens were weighted at 30 days age before and after hunger by a scale with one gram precision. A covariance analysis was used since there were many auxiliary variables and unequal observations. SAS software was used for statistical analysis. Mean weight of live in pure race (Tizpar-Tizpar) with 12 records, 182.3±60.9 gr and mixed races of Tizpar-Kabood, Tizpar-Parvazy, Tizpar-Namebar, Kabood-Tizpar, Namebar-Tizpar, and Parvazy-Tizpar with 10, 10, 8, 6, 12, and 12 records were 114.3±71.6, 210.6±71.7, 353.2±86, 520.8±81.5, 288.3±65.6, and 382.6±70.4 gr, respectively. Effects of sex, race and some auxiliary variables were also significant in 1% level (P < 0.01). Difference live weight of 30-day of Tizpar-Tizpar race with Tizpar-Namebar and Parvazi-Tizpar mixed races was significant in 5% level (P < 0.05) and with Kabood-Tizpar mixed races was significant in 1% level (P < 0.01) but with Tizpar-Kabood, Nmaebar-Tizpar and Tizpar-Parvazy mixed races was not significant. The results showed that most and least weights of live belonged to Kabood-Tizpar and Tizpar-Kabood.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1334
82666
Comparison of Chest Weight of Pure and Mixed Races Kabood 30-Day Squab
Abstract:
This study is to evaluate and compare chest weight of pure and mixed races Kabood 30-day Pigeons to investigate about their sex, race, and some auxiliary variables. In this paper, 62 pieces of pigeons as 31 male and female pairs with equal age are studied randomly. A natural incubation was done from each pair. All produced chickens were slaughtered at 30 days age after 12 hours hunger. Then their chests were weighted by a scale with one gram precision. A covariance analysis was used since there were many auxiliary variables and unequal observations. SAS software was used for statistical analysis. Mean weight of chests in pure race (Kabood-Kabood) with 8 records, 123.8±32.3g and mixed races of Kabood-Namebar, Kabood-Parvazy, Kabood-Tizpar, Namebar-Kabood, Tizpar-Kabood, and Parvazi-Kabood with 8, 8, 6, 12, 10, and 10 records were 139.4±23.5, 7/122±23.8, 124.7±30.1, 50.3±29.3, 51.4±26.4, and 137±28.6 gr, respectively. Mean weight of 30-day chests in male and female sex were 87.3±2.5 and 82.7±2.6g, respectively. Difference chest weight of 30-day chests of Kabood-Kabood race with Kabood-Namebar, Kabood-Parvazi, Tizpar-Kabood, Kabood-Tizpar, Namebar-Kabood and Parvazi-Kabood mixed races was not significant. Effect of sex was also significant in 5% level (P< 0.05), but mutual effect of sex and race was not significant. Auxiliary variable of father weight was significant in 1% level (p < 0.01), but auxiliary variable of mother weight was not significant. The results showed that most and least weights belonged to Kabood-Namebar and Namebar-Kabood.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1333
82631
Hairy Beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.-Asteraceae) Control in Sunflower Fields Using Pre-Emergence Herbicides
Abstract:
One of the most damaging species in sunflower crops in Brazil is the hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.). A large number of seeds, the various vegetative cycles during the year, the staggered germination and the scarcity of selective and effective herbicides to control this weed in sunflower are some of the attributes that hinder the effectiveness in controlling hairy beggarticks populations. The experiment was carried out with the objectives of evaluating the control of hairy beggarticks plants in sunflower crops, and to assess sunflower tolerance to residual herbicides. The treatments were as follows: S-metolachlor (1,200 and 2,400 g ai ha⁻¹), flumioxazin (60 and 120 g ai ha⁻¹), sulfentrazone (150 and 300 g ai ha⁻¹) and two controls (weedy and weed-free check). It was evaluated the percentage of phytotoxicity on sunflower plants, percentage of control and density of hairy beggarticks plants, sunflower stand and plant height, head diameter, oil content and sunflower yield. The herbicides flumioxazin and sulfentrazone were the most efficient in hairy beggarticks control. S-metolachlor provided acceptable control levels. S-metolachlor (1,200 g ha⁻¹), flumioxazin (60 g ha⁻¹) and sulfentrazone (150 g ha⁻¹) were the most selective doses for sunflower crop.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1332
82614
Proximate and Chemical Evaluations of Ocimum Gratissimum Plant Raised with Different Manure
Abstract:
The proximate, minerals and phytochemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum plant (OGP) grew with different manure were investigated. OG seeds were planted in experimental plots in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) laid out in Oyo State College of Agriculture, Igboora with three replicates having plot size 3m x 3m of four treatments namely; Treatment A-No fertilizer or manure -(control), B- Poultry manure, C- N:P:K 15:15:15 and D-Compost manure respectively. Other parameters studied were plant height, leave areas, number of leaves and plant girth. The pre-soil test carried out indicated that the soil had organic matter (OM) content of 1.56%, total N 0.11% and available P 16.92 mg/Kg. This low level of nutrients justified the need for fertilizer application for maximum production. It could be concluded that there was significant (p < 0.05) differences in other parameters considered from 3 to 9 Weeks After Planting (WAP) on all the agronomic characters. Furthermore, the proximate and minerals of the OGP went in favour of compost raised OG plant with highest values of significance followed by poultry manure plant while N: P: K and No-manure treatments had the least (p > 0.05) values respectively. The phytochemicals of the OGP which include alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, and others were also high (p < 0.05) in values on compost and poultry manure and the least value were observed in N. P. K and control plants.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1331
82609
Quality of So-Called Organic Fertilizers in Vietnam's Market
Abstract:
Organic farming is gaining interest in Vietnam. However, organic fertilizer production is not sufficiently regulated, resulting in unknown quality. This study investigated characteristics of so-called organic fertilizers in the Vietnam’s market and their mineralization in soil-plant system. We collected 15 commercial products (11 domestic and 4 imported) which labelled 'organic fertilizer' in the market to analyze nutrients composition. A 20 day-incubation experiment was carried on with 80 g sandy-textured soil, amended with the fertilizer at a rate of 109.4 mgN.kg⁻¹soil in 150 mL glass bottle at 25℃. We categorized them according to nutrients content and mineralization rate, and then selected 8 samples for cultivation experiment. The experiment was conducted by growing Komatsuna (Brassica campestris) in sandy-textured soil using an automatic watering apparatus in a greenhouse. The fertilizers were applied to the top one-third of the soil stratum at a rate of 200 mgN.kg⁻¹ soil. Our study also analyzed material flow of coffee husk compost in Central Highland of Vietnam. Total N, P, K, Ca, Mg and C: N ratio varied greatly cross the domestic products, whereas they were quite similar among the imported materials. The proportion of inorganic-N to T-N of domestic products was higher than 25% in 8 of 11 samples. These indicate that N concentration increased dramatically in most domestic products compared with their raw materials. Additionally, most domestic products contained less P, and their proportions of Truog-P to T-P were greatly different. These imply that some manufactures were interested in adjusting P concentration, but some ones were not. Furthermore, the compost was made by mixing with chemical substances to increase nutrients content (N, P), and also added construction surplus soil to gain weight before packing product to sell in the market as 'organic fertilizer'. There was a negative correlation between C:N ratio and mineralization rate of the fertilizers. There was a significant difference in N efficiency among the fertilizer treatments. N efficiency of most domestic products was higher than chemical fertilizer and imported organic fertilizers. These results suggest regulations on organic fertilizers production needed to support organic farming that is based on internationally accepted standards in Vietnam.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1330
82600
Carbon Sequestration under Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Agroforestry and Adjacent Land Uses in the Vicinity of Black Sea, Trabzon, Turkey
Abstract:
The current study has addressed the effect of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry on carbon sequestration. Eight sample plots were collected from Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry using random sampling method. The diameter of all trees in each plot with ≥ 2cm at 1.3m DBH was measured by using a calliper. Average diameter, aboveground biomass, and carbon stock were calculated for each plot. Comparative data for natural forestland was used for C was taken from KTU, and the soil C was converted from the biomass conversion equation. Biomass carbon was significantly higher in the Natural forest (68.02Mgha⁻¹) than in the Hazelnut agroforestry (16.89Mgha⁻¹). SOC in Hazelnut agroforestry, Natural forest, and arable agricultural land were 7.70, 385.85, and 0.00 Mgha⁻¹ respectively. Biomass C, on average accounts for only 0.00% of the total C in arable agriculture, and 11.02% for the Hazelnut agroforestry while 88.05% for Natural forest. The result shows that the conversion of arable crop field to Hazelnut agroforestry can sequester a large amount of C in the soil as well as in the biomass than Arable agricultural lands.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1329
82479
Comparative Analysis of Short and Long Term Salt Stress on the Photosynthetic Apparatus and Chloroplast Ultrastructure of Thellungiella Salsuginea
Abstract:
Salinity is one of the most important abiotic affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Photosynthesis, together with cell growth, is among the primary processes to be affected by salinity. Here, we report the effects of salinity stress on the primary processes of photosynthesis in a model halophyte Thellungiella Salsuginea. Plants were cultivated in hydroponic system with different NaCl concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 400 mM) during 2 weeks. The obtained results showed an obvious change in the photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem I (PSI) and phostosytem II (PSII), related to NaCl concentration supplemented to the medium and the stress duration considered. With moderate salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCl), no significant variation was observed in photosynthetic parameters of PSI and PSII and Chl fluorescence whatever the time of stress application. Also, the photosynthesis apparatus Fo, Fm and Fv fluorescence, as well as Fv/Fm were not affected by salt stress. While a significant decrease was observed on quantum yields Y(I), Y(II) and electron transport rate ETR(I), ETR(II) under high salt treatment (400 mM NaCl) with prolonged period (15 days). This reduction is quantitatively compensated by a corresponding increase of energy dissipation Y(NPQ) and a progressive decrease in Fv/Fm under salt treatment. The intensity of the OJIP fluorescence transient decreased with increase in NaCl concentration, with a major effect observed during prolonged period of salt stress. Ultrastructural analysis with Light Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy of T. salsuginea chloroplasts showed some cellular changes, such as the shape of the mesophyll cells and number of chloroplast/cell only under higher NaCl concentration. Salt-stress caused the swelling of thylakoids in T. Salsuginea mesophyll with more accumulation of starch as compared to control plant.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1328
82470
Evaluation of Buckwheat Genotypes to Different Planting Geometries and Fertility Levels in Northern Transition Zone of Karnataka, India
Abstract:
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an annual crop belongs to family Poligonaceae and genus Fagopyrum. It pronounces as wheat but it does not belong to the wheat family. It is a native of Central Asia. The cultivated buckwheat species are notable for their exceptional nutritive values. Buckwheat grain is having 52% starch, 12-13% protein, 2.2% oil, 10.3% fiber. It is an important source of macro and microelements such as K, Ca, Mg, Na and Mn, Zn, Se, and Cu. It also contains rutin, flavonoids, riboflavin, pyridoxine and amino acids which have beneficial effects on human health, including lowering both blood lipid and sugar levels. Rutin, quercetin and some other polyphenols are potent carcinogens against colon and other cancers. Buckwheat is cultivated in Russia, China, Ukraine, Poland, USA, Brazil, and Japan. The area and production of buckwheat is maximum in Russia. Whereas, productivity is highest in Brazil (1259kg/ha). In India, buckwheat is cultivated mainly in Himalayan regions of North and Eastern India, having an area of 60,000 ha with a production of 35,000 tonnes and productivity is 580kg/ha. Looking for its nutritive value and multifarious uses and it is not known crop in south India especially in Karnataka, a study was planned with an objective to know the performance of genotypes to different fertility levels and planting geometries. Field experiment was conducted at Main Agriculture Research Station, University of Agriculture Sciences, Dharwad, during 2017 Kharif (June-Sept) with annual average rainfall of 750mm. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications having three planting geometries as main plots, two genotypes as subplots and three fertility levels as sub-subplot treatments. The soil of the experimental site is vertisols. The standard procedures are followed to record the observations. In the present investigation, among the planting geometries, planting geometry of 30*10cm recorded significantly higher (890kg/ha) grain yield compared to other planting geometries (40*10cm and 20*10cm, 820 and 740kg/ha respectively). The yield increase was due to better utilization of growth resources which resulted in better growth and yield parameters. The economic indices like net returns, cost benefit ratio followed as that of grain yield. Genotypes play an important role in deciding the economic returns of the crop. In the present study, the genotype IP-79147 obtained significantly higher grain yield (940kg/ha) compared to PRB-I (690kg/ha). The genotype IP-79147 is a short duration (around 70days) with higher harvest index. Economic indices followed a similar trend as that of yield. To get maximum returns from any genotype under given conditions, fertility is most important growth resources. In the present experimentation, significantly higher grain yield (850kg/ha) recorded with fertility level of 60:30kgNP/ha compared to 20:10kgNP/ha (790 kg/ha) and 40:20kgNP/ha (810kg/ha). The increased grain yield with higher fertility level was due to higher growth and yield parameters. Economic indices were followed as of grain yield. With present investigation, it is concluded that genotype IP-79147 having planting geometry of 30*10cm with fertility level of 60:30kgNP/ha recorded higher grain yield (870 kg/ha) and economic indices compared to other treatment combinations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1327
82468
Yield Loss in Maize Due to Stem Borers and Their Integrated Management
Abstract:
Maize (Zea mays L.) an important cereal crop in the world has diversified uses including human consumption, animal feed, and industrial uses. A major constraint in low productivity of maize in India is undoubtedly insect pests particularly two species of stem borers, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Sesamia inferens (Walker). The stem borers cause varying level of yield losses in different agro-climate regions (25.7 to 80.4%) resulting in a huge economic loss to the farmers. Although these pests are rather difficult to manage, efforts have been made to combat the menace by using effective insecticides. However, efforts have been made in the present study to integrate various possible approaches for sustainable management of these borers. Two field experiments were conducted separately during 2016-17 at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. In the first experiment, six treatments were randomized in RBD. The insect eggs at pinhead stage (@ 40 eggs/plant) were stapled to the under surface of leaves covering 15-20 % of plants in each plot after 15 days of sowing. The second experiment was planned with nine treatments replicated thrice. The border crop with NB -21 grass was planted all around the plots in the specific treatments while, cowpea intercrop (@6:1-row proportion) was sown along with the main crop and later, the insecticidal spray with chlorantraniliprole and nimbecidine was taken upon need basis in the specific treatments. The results indicated that the leaf injury and dead heart incidence were relatively more in the treatments T₂ and T₄ wherein, no insect control measures were made after the insect release (58.30 & 40.0 % leaf injury and 33.42 and 25.74% dead heart). On the contrary, these treatments recorded higher stem tunneling (32.4 and 24.8%) and resulted in lower grain yield (17.49 and 26.79 q/ha) compared to 29.04, 32.68, 40.93 and 46.38 q/ha recorded in T₁, T₃, T₅ and T₆ treatments, respectively. A maximum yield loss of 28.89 percent was noticed in T₂ followed by 19.59 percent in T₄ where no sprays were imposed. The data on integrated management trial revealed the lowest stem borer damage (19.28% leaf injury and 1.21% dead heart) in T₅ (seed treatment with thiamethoxam 70FS @ 8ml/kg seed + cow intercrop along with nimbecidine 0.03EC @ 5.0 ml/l and chlorantraniliprole 18.5SC spray @ 0.2 ml/l). The next best treatment was T₆ (ST+ NB-21 borer with nimbecidine and chlorantraniliprole spray) with 21.3 and 1.99 percent leaf injury and dead heart incidence, respectively. These treatments resulted in highest grain yield (77.71 and 75.53 q/ha in T₅ and T₆, respectively) compared to the standard check, T₁ (ST+ chlorantraniliprole spray) wherein, 27.63 percent leaf injury and 3.68 percent dead heart were noticed with 60.14 q/ha grain yield. The stem borers can cause yield loss up to 25-30 percent in maize which can be well tackled by seed treatment with thiamethoxam 70FS @ 8ml/kg seed and sowing the crop along with cowpea as intercrop (6:1 row proportion) or NB-21 grass as border crop followed by application of nimbecidine 0.03EC @ 5.0 ml/l and chlorantraniliprole 18.5SC @ 0.2 ml/l on need basis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1326
82438
Optimization for Guide RNA and CRISPR/Cas9 System Nanoparticle Mediated Delivery into Plant Cell for Genome Editing
Abstract:
Due to its simplicity, CRISPR/Cas9 has become widely used and capable of inducing mutations in the genes of organisms of various kingdoms. The aim of this work was to develop applications for the efficient modification of DNA coding sequences of phytoene desaturase (PDS), coilin and vacuolar invertase (Solanum tuberosum) genes, and to develop a new nanoparticles carrier efficient technology to deliver the CRISPR/Cas9 system for editing the plant genome. For each of the genes - coilin, PDS and vacuolar invertase, five single RNA guide (sgRNAs) were synthesized. To determine the most suitable nanoplatform, two types of NP platforms were used: magnetic NPs (MNPS) and gold NPs (AuNPs). To test the penetration efficiency, they were functionalized with fluorescent agents - BSA * FITS and GFP, as well as labeled Cy3 small-sized RNA. To measure the efficiency, a fluorescence and confocal microscopy were used. It was shown that the best of these options were AuNP - both in the case of proteins and in the case of RNA. The next step was to check the possibility of delivering components of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to plant cells for editing target genes. AuNPs were functionalized with a ribonucleoprotein complex consisting of Cas9 and corresponding to target genes sgRNAs, and they were biolistically bombarded to axillary buds and apical meristems of potato plants. After the treatment by the best NP carrier, potato meristems were grown to adult plants. DNA isolated from this plants was sent to a preliminary fragment of the analysis to screen out the non-transformed samples, and then to the NGS. The present work was carried out with the financial support from the Russian Science Foundation (grant No. 16-16-04019).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1325
82436
Quantifying the Effects of Canopy Cover and Cover Crop Species on Water Use Partitioning in Micro-Sprinkler Irrigated Orchards in South Africa
Abstract:
South Africa is a dry country and yet it is ranked as the 8th largest exporter of fresh apples (Malus Domestica) globally. Prime apple producing regions are in the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces of the country where all the fruit is grown under irrigation. Climate change models predict increasingly drier future conditions in these regions and the frequency and severity of droughts is expected to increase. For the sustainability and growth of the fruit industry it is important to minimize non-beneficial water losses from the orchard floor. The aims of this study were firstly to compare the water use of cover crop species used in South African orchards for which there is currently no information. The second aim was to investigate how orchard water use (evapotranspiration) was partitioned into beneficial (tree transpiration) and non-beneficial (orchard floor evaporation) water uses for micro-sprinkler irrigated orchards with different canopy covers. This information is important in order to explore opportunities to minimize non-beneficial water losses. Six cover crop species (four exotic and two indigenous) were grown in 2 L pots in a greenhouse. Cover crop transpiration was measured using the gravimetric method on clear days. To establish how water use was partitioned in orchards, evapotranspiration (ET) was measured using an open path eddy covariance system, while tree transpiration was measured hourly throughout the season (October to June) on six trees per orchard using the heat ratio sap flow method. On selected clear days, soil evaporation was measured hourly from sunrise to sunset using six micro-lysimeters situated at different wet/dry and sun/shade positions on the orchard floor. Transpiration of cover crops was measured using miniature (2 mm Ø) stem heat balance sap flow gauges. The greenhouse study showed that exotic cover crops had significantly higher (p < 0.01) average transpiration rates (~3.7 L/m2/d) than the indigenous species (~ 2.2 L/m²/d). In young non-bearing orchards, orchard floor evaporative fluxes accounted for more than 60% of orchard ET while this ranged from 10 to 30% in mature orchards with a high canopy cover. While exotic cover crops are preferred by most farmers, this study shows that they use larger quantities of water than indigenous species. This in turn contributes to a larger orchard floor evaporation flux. In young orchards non-beneficial losses can be minimized by adopting drip or short range micro-sprinkler methods that reduce the wetted soil fraction thereby conserving water.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1324
82267
Effects of Mulching Depths on Mulching Oil Palm Fronds Using Tractor Mounted Mulcher Blades
Abstract:
Trimming and other field upkeep practices (mostly after harvesting) generate large amount of oil palm fronds (OPFs) waste. High propagation of rhinoceros beetles, the most severe pest in immature and young mature palms and severe crop loss in the first year of harvest due to beetle damage incidence and available forestry Mulchers are expensive and damage estate infrastructures during mulching and replanting operations. A tractor mounted mulcher was design and produced by Howard Company but has not been evaluated and farmers were complaining on the mulcher performance. Three different blades were design using Solid Works based on different geometry and tilt angles and compare with the original blade in terms of mulching depth. Data acquisition were done at the Universiti Putra Malaysia oil palm plantation under the same operating conditions by four different tilt angle types of blade (60o, 90o, 120o, and 150o), two Tractor PTO speed (540 and 1000 rpm) and three Tractor forward speeds (1, 3, and 5 km/h). The statistical analysis based on ANOVA test of significance was in Completely Randomized Blocked Design (CRBD) - model and showed significance at (P< 0.05). Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) test was used to determine significant between the means (P< 0.05). Results showed that Blade types is highly significant (P< 0.05) for effect of depth of mulching for oil palm fronds, three factors interactions also shows highly significant (P< 0.05). According to the analysis of multiple linear regression on the effect of relationship of Blade types, Tractor forward speeds and PTO speed on mulching depth, the results were significant, p = 0.0435, R2 = 0.5792 indicating that the models was significant. The linear prediction equation is reliable model to test various factors on depth of mulching. Based on the interaction between Blade types and Tractor forward speeds on mulching depth shows that the best mulching depth was obtained by blade 120o at 5km/h Tractor forward speeds and 1000 rpm with a mean value of 14 cm and the worst blade is 150o at 5km/h and 540 rpm PTO speed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1323
82091
Evaluation of Molasses and Sucrose as Cabohydrate Sources for Biofloc System on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Performances
Abstract:
Performances of mixed-sex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings (11.33 ± 1.78 g /fish) reared under biofloc system developed by molasses and sucrose as carbon sources in indoor fiberglass tanks were evaluated. Six indoor fiberglass tanks (1m 3 each filled with 1000 l of underground fresh water), each was stocked with 2kg fish were used for 14 weeks experimental period. Three experimental groups were designed (each group 2 tanks) as following: 1-control: 20% daily without biofloc, 2-zero water exchange rate with biofloc (molasses as C source) and 3-zero water exchange rate with biofloc (sucrose as C source). Fish in all aquariums were fed on floating feed pellets (30% crude protein, 3 mm in diameter) at a rate of 3% of the actual live fish body, 3 times daily and 6 days a week. Carbohydrate supplementations were applied daily to each tank two hrs, after feeding to maintain the carbon: nitrogen ratio (C: N) ratio 20:1. Fish were reared under continuous aeration by pumping air into the water in the tank bottom using two sandy diffusers and constant temperature between 27.0-28.0 ºC by using electrical heaters for 10 weeks. Criteria's for assessment of water quality parameters, biofloc production and fish growth performances were collected and evaluated. The results showed that total ammonia nitrogen in control group was higher than biofloc groups. The biofloc volumes were 19.13 mg/l and 13.96 mg/l for sucrose and molasses, respectively. Biofloc protein (%), ether extract (%) and gross energy (kcal/100g DM), they were higher in biofloc molasses group than biofloc sucrose group. Tilapia growth performances were significantly higher (P < 0.05) with molasses group than in sucrose and control groups, respectively. The highest feed and nutrient utilization values for protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein productive (PPV%) and energy utilization (EU, %) were higher in molasses group followed by sucrose group and control group respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1322
82068
The Effect of the Spinacia Oleracea Extract on the Control of the Green Mold 'Penilillium Digitatum' at the Post Harvested Citrus
Abstract:
Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of citrus green mold, is responsible for 90% of post-harvest losses. Chemical fungicides remain the most used products for protection against this pathogen but are also responsible for damage to human health and the environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of Spinacia oleracea extract to serve as biological control agents, an alternative to harmful synthetic fungicides, against orange decay for storing fruit caused by P. digitatum. In this study, we studied the implication of a crude extract of a green plant, Spinacia oleracea, in the protection of oranges against P. digitatum. Thus, in vivo antifungal tests as well as adhesion test were done. For in vivo antifungal test, oranges were pulverized with the prepared crude extracts at different concentrations ranged from 25 g L⁻¹ to 200 g L⁻¹, contaminated by the fungus and then observed during 8 weeks for their macroscopic changes at 24°C. For adhesion test, the adhesion index is defined as the number of Penicillium digitatum spores fixed per orange cell. An index greater than 25 is the indicator of a strong adhesion, whereas for an index less than 10, the adhesion is low. Ten orange cells were examined in triplicate for each extract, and the averages of adherent cells were calculated. Obtained results showed an inhibitory activity of the Penicillium development with the aqueous extract of dry Spinacia oleracea with a concentration of 50 g L⁻¹ considered as the minimal protective concentration. The prepared extracts showed a greater inhibition of the development of P. digitatum up to 10 weeks, even greater than the fungicide control Nystatin. Adhesion test’s results showed that the adhesion of P. digitatum spores to the epidermal cells of oranges in the presence of the crude spinach leaves extract is weak; the mean of the obtained adhesion index was estimated to 2.7. However, a high adhesion was observed with water used a negative control. In conclusion, all these results confirm that the use of this green plant highly rich in chlorophyll having several phytotherapeutic activities, could be employed as a great treatment for protection of oranges against mold and also as an alternative for chemical fungicides.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1321
82033
Application of Metarhizium anisopliae against Meloidogyne javanica in Soil Amended with Oak Debris
Abstract:
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most popular, widely grown and the second most important vegetable crop, after potatoes. Nematodes have been identified as one of the major pests affecting tomato production throughout the world. The most destructive nematodes are the genus Meloidogyne. Most widespread and devastating species of this genus are M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria. These species can cause complete crop loss under adverse growing conditions. There are several potential methods for management of the root knot nematodes. Although the chemicals are widely used against the phytonematodes, because of hazardous effects of these compounds on non-target organisms and on the environment, there is a need to develop other control strategies. Nowadays, non-chemical measures are widely used to control the plant parasitic nematodes. Biocontrol of phytonematodes is an important method among environment-friendly measures of nematode management. There are some soil-inhabiting fungi that have biocontrol potential on phytonematodes, which can be used in nematode management program. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, originally is an entomopathogenic bioagent. Biocontrol potential of this fungus on some phytonematodes has been reported earlier. Recently, use of organic soil amendments as well as the use of bioagents is under special attention in sustainable agriculture. This research aimed to reduce the pesticide use in control of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in tomato. The effects of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and different levels of oak tree debris on M. javanica were determined. The combination effect of the fungus as well as the different rates of soil amendments was determined. Pots were filled with steam pasteurized soil mixture and the six leaf tomato seedlings were inoculated with 3000 second stage larvae of M. javanica/kg of soil. After eight weeks, plant growth parameters and nematode reproduction factors were compared. Based on the results of our experiment, combination of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and oak debris caused more than 90% reduction in reproduction factor of nematode, at the rates of 100 and 150g/kg soil (P ≤ 0.05). As compared to control, the reduction in number of galls was 76%. It was 86% for nematode reproduction factor, showing the significance of combined effect of both tested agents. Our results showed that plant debris can increase the biological activity of the tested bioagent. It was also proved that there was no adverse effect of oak debris, which potentially has antimicrobial activity, on antagonistic power of applied bioagent.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1320
82022
Prevelance of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae) in District Jacobabad, Sindh, Pakistran
Abstract:
Jacobabad district has a hot desert climate with very hot summers and insignificant winters. The highest recorded temperature is 53.8 °C (127.0 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature is −4.9 °C (25.0 °F). Rainfall is short and mostly occurs in the monsoon season (July–September). Agriculture point of view Jacobabad district is very important district of Sindh Pakistan in which many types of crop and vegetables are cultivated annually such as Wheat, Rice, and Brassica, Cabbage, Spinach, Chili etc. which are badly attacked by many crops pest. Insects are very tiny, sensitive and most attractive mortal and most important collection of animal wildlife they play important role in biological control agent, biodiversity & agroecosystem. The brassica crop extremely infested by many different types of pest such as Aphids, Whitefly, Jassids, Thrips, Mealybug, scale insect pink worm, bollworm and borers Mealy bug, scale insect etc. These pests destroy many crops. The present study was carried out from Jacobabad district from January 2017 to April 2017.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1319
81905
Antibacterial Effects of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Pear Orchards
Abstract:
Bacterial diseases are very destructive and cause economic losses on pears. Promising plant extracts for the management of plant diseases are environmentally safe, long-lasting and extracts of certain plants contain alkaloids, tannins, quinones, coumarins, phenolic compounds, and phytoalexins. In this study, bacteria were isolated from different parts of pear exhibiting characteristic symptoms of bacterial diseases from the Central Anatolia, Turkey. Pathogenic bacteria were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular methods as fire blight (Erwinia amylovora (39%)), bacterial blossom blast and blister bark (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (22%)), crown gall (Rhizobium radiobacter (1%)) from different pear cultivars, and determined virulence levels of the pathogens with pathogenicity tests. The air-dried 25 plant material was ground into fine powder and extraction was performed at room temperature by maceration with 80% (v/v) methanol/distilled water. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by using modified disc diffusion method at five different concentrations and streptomycin sulphate was used as control chemical. Bacterial suspensions were prepared as 108 CFU ml⁻¹ densities and 100 µl bacterial suspensions were spread to TSA medium. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zones in reference to the test organisms. Among the tested plants, Origanum vulgare, Hedera helix, Satureja hortensis, Rhus coriaria, Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, Cuminum cyminum and Thymus vulgaris showed a good antibacterial activity and they inhibited the growth of the pathogens with inhibition zone diameter ranging from 7 to 27 mm at 20% (w/v) in absolute methanol in vitro conditions. In vivo, the highest efficacy was determined as 27% on reducing tumor formation of R. radiobacter, and 48% and 41% on reducing shoot blight of E. amylovora and P. s. pv. syringae on pear seedlings, respectively. Obtaining data indicated that some plant extracts may be used against the bacterial diseases on pome fruits within sustainable and organic management programs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1318
81841
Conjunctive Use of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation Purpose: The Case of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia
Abstract:
Irrigation suitability of shallow groundwater (SGW) was investigated by taking thirty groundwater samples from piezometers and hand-dug wells in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate (WSSE) (Ethiopia). Many physicochemical parameters (Mg²⁺, Na⁺, Ca²⁺, K⁺, CO₃-, SO4²⁻, HCO₃⁻, Cl⁻, TH, EC, TDS and pH) were analyzed following standard procedures. Different irrigation indices (MAR, SSP, SAR, RSC, KR, and PI) were also used for SGW suitability assessment. If all SGW are blended and used for irrigation, the salinity problem would be slight to moderate, and 100% of potential sugarcane yield could be obtained. The infiltration and sodium ion toxicity problems of the blended water would be none to moderate, and slight to moderate, respectively. As sugarcane is semi-tolerant to sodium toxicity, no significant sodium toxicity problem would be expected from the use of blended water. Blending SGW would also reduce each chloride and boron ion toxicity to none. In general, the rating of SGW was good to excellent for irrigation in terms of average EC (salinity), and excellent in terms of average SAR (infiltration). The SGW of the WSSE was categorized under C3S1 (high salinity and low sodium hazard). In conclusion, the conjunctive use of groundwater for irrigation would help to reduce the potential effect of waterlogging and salinization and their associated problems on soil and sugarcane production and productivity. However, a high value of SSP and RSC indicate a high possibility of infiltration problem. Hence, it is advisable to use the SGW for irrigation after blending with surface water. In this case, the optimum blending ratio of the surface to SGW sources has to be determined for sustainable sugarcane productivity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1317
81774
Identification and Classification of Fiber-Fortified Semolina by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR)
Abstract:
Food fortification is the intentional addition of a nutrient in a food matrix and has been widely used to overcome the lack of nutrients in the diet or increasing the nutritional value of food. Fortified food must meet the demand of the population, taking into account their habits and risks that these foods may cause. Wheat and its by-products, such as semolina, has been strongly indicated to be used as a food vehicle since it is widely consumed and used in the production of other foods. These products have been strategically used to add some nutrients, such as fibers. Methods of analysis and quantification of these kinds of components are destructive and require lengthy sample preparation and analysis. Therefore, the industry has searched for faster and less invasive methods, such as Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). NIR is a rapid and cost-effective method, however, it is based on indirect measurements, yielding high amount of data. Therefore, NIR spectroscopy requires calibration with mathematical and statistical tools (Chemometrics) to extract analytical information from the corresponding spectra, as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). PCA is well suited for NIR, once it can handle many spectra at a time and be used for non-supervised classification. Advantages of the PCA, which is also a data reduction technique, is that it reduces the data spectra to a smaller number of latent variables for further interpretation. On the other hand, LDA is a supervised method that searches the Canonical Variables (CV) with the maximum separation among different categories. In LDA, the first CV is the direction of maximum ratio between inter and intra-class variances. The present work used a portable infrared spectrometer (NIR) for identification and classification of pure and fiber-fortified semolina samples. The fiber was added to semolina in two different concentrations, and after the spectra acquisition, the data was used for PCA and LDA to identify and discriminate the samples. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy associate to PCA was very effective in identifying pure and fiber-fortified semolina. Additionally, the classification range of the samples using LDA was between 78.3% and 95% for calibration and 75% and 95% for cross-validation. Thus, after the multivariate analysis such as PCA and LDA, it was possible to verify that NIR associated to chemometric methods is able to identify and classify the different samples in a fast and non-destructive way.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):