Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48555

Bioengineering and Life Sciences

1395
81413
Collagen/Hydroxyapatite Compositions Doped with Transitional Metals for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications
Abstract:
In the last years, scientists struggled hardly to mimic bone structures to develop implants and biostructures which present higher biocompatibility and reduced rejection rate. One way to obtain this goal is to use similar materials as that of bone, namely collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials. However, it is very important to tailor both compositions but also the microstructure of the bone that would ensure both the optimal osteointegartion and the mechanical properties required by the application. In this study, new collagen/hydroxyapatites composite materials doped with Cu, Li, Mn, Zn were successfully prepared. The synthesis method is described below: weight the Ca(OH)₂ mass, i.e., 7,3067g, and ZnCl₂ (0.134g), CuSO₄ (0.159g), LiCO₃ (0.133g), MnCl₂.4H₂O (0.1971g), and suspend in 100ml distilled water under magnetic stirring. The solution thus obtained is added a solution of NaH₂PO₄*H2O (8.247g dissolved in 50ml distilled water) under slow dropping of 1 ml/min followed by adjusting the pH to 9.5 with HCl and finally filter and wash until neutral pH. The as-obtained slurry was dried in the oven at 80°C and then calcined at 600°C in order to ensure a proper purification of the final product of organic phases, also inducing a proper sterilization of the mixture before insertion into the collagen matrix. The collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials are tailored from morphological point of view to optimize their biocompatibility and bio-integration against mechanical properties whereas the addition of the dopants is aimed to improve the biological activity of the samples. The addition of transitional metals can improve the biocompatibility and especially the osteoblasts adhesion (Mn²⁺) or to induce slightly better osteoblast differentiation of the osteoblast, Zn²⁺ being a cofactor for many enzymes including those responsible for cell differentiation. If the amount is too high, the final material can become toxic and lose all of its biocompatibility. In order to achieve a good biocompatibility and not reach the cytotoxic effect, the amount of transitional metals added has to be maintained at low levels (0.5% molar). The amount of transitional metals entering into the elemental cell of HA will be verified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometric system. This highly sensitive technique is necessary, because, at such low levels of transitional metals, the difference between biocompatible and cytotoxic is a very thin line, thus requiring proper and thorough investigation using a precise technique. In order to determine the structure and morphology of the obtained composite materials, IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS) were used. Acknowledgment: The present work was possible due to the EU-funding grant POSCCE-A2O2.2.1-2013-1, Project No. 638/12.03.2014, code SMIS-CSNR 48652. The financial contribution received from the national project “Biomimetic porous structures obtained by 3D printing developed for bone tissue engineering (BIOGRAFTPRINT), No. 127PED/2017 is also highly acknowledged.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1394
80561
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1393
79565
Ectoine: A Compatible Solute in Radio-Halophilic Stenotrophomonas sp. WMA-LM19 Strain to Prevent Ultraviolet-Induced Protein Damage
Abstract:
Aim: This study aims to investigate the possible radiation protective role of a compatible solute in the tolerance of radio-halophilic bacterium against stresses, like desiccation and exposure to ionizing radiation. Methods and Results: Nine different radio-resistant bacteria were isolated from desert soil, where strain WMA-LM19 was chosen for detailed studies on the basis of its high tolerance for ultraviolet radiation among all these isolates. 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the bacterium was closely related to Stenotrophomonas sp. (KT008383). A bacterial milking strategy was applied for extraction of intracellular compatible solutes in 70% (v/v) ethanol, which were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compound was characterized as ectoine by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrometry (MS). Ectoine demonstrated more efficient preventive activity (54.80%) to erythrocyte membranes and also inhibited oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in comparison to the standard ascorbic acid. Furthermore, a high level of ectoine-mediated protection of bovine serum albumin against ionizing radiation (1500-2000 Jm-2) was observed, as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Conclusion: The results indicated that ectoine can be used as a potential mitigator and radio-protective agent to overcome radiation- and salinity-mediated oxidative damage in extreme environments. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study shows that ectoine from radio-halophiles can be used as a potential source in topical creams as sunscreen. The investigation of ectoine as UV protectant also changes the prospective that radiation resistance is specific only to molecular adaptation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1392
79492
Comparative Demography of Lady Beetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with Respect to Different Aphid Species
Abstract:
Comparative demography of Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was studied with respect to four host aphid species viz; Rhopalosiphum padi, Rhopalosiphum maidis, Sitobion avenae, and Shizaphis graminum under laboratory conditions using Two-sex Age-stage life table instead of traditional age specific life table which considers only female. Results revealed that developmental period from egg to adult of C. septempunctata were shorter on R. padi (16.49 days) whereas longer on R. maidis (22.83 days). Net reproductive rate varied from 110.01 offspring on R. maidis to 288.78 offspring on R. padi. Mean generation time (T) ranged from 29.02 d on R. padi to 39.788 d on R. maidis. Highest to lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase (rm) were recorded on R. padi, S. graminum, S. avenae, and R. maidis (0.194, 0.143, 0.140 and 0.117 d⁻¹, respectively). Highest finite rate of increase was observed on R. padi (1.214 d⁻¹) followed by S. graminum (1.154 d⁻¹) whereas lowest values were obtained on R. maidis and S. avenae (1.124 and 1.150 d⁻¹, respectively). In this study, the data on the life table of both predator and prey provide useful information in the mass rearing and practical application of a natural agent to biological control systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1391
79480
Identification of Microbial Community in an Anaerobic Reactor Treating Brewery Wastewater
Abstract:
The study of microbial ecology and their function in anaerobic digestion processes are essential to control the biological processes. This is to know the symbiotic relationship between the microorganisms that are involved in the conversion of complex organic matter in the industrial wastewater to simple molecules. In this study, diversity and quantity of bacterial community in the granular sludge taken from the different compartments of a full-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastewater was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The phylogenetic analysis showed three major eubacteria phyla that belong to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi in the full-scale UASB reactor, with different groups populating different compartment. The result of qPCR assay showed high amount of eubacteria with increase in concentration along the reactor’s compartment. This study extends our understanding on the diverse, topological distribution and shifts in concentration of microbial communities in the different compartments of a full-scale UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater. The colonization and the trophic interactions among these microbial populations in reducing and transforming complex organic matter within the UASB reactors were established.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1390
79228
Effect of Silicon on Tritrophic Interaction of Cotton, Whitefly and Chrysoperla carnea
Abstract:
The present experiment was carried out to examine the effects of silicon dioxide on tritrophic interaction of cotton, whitefly, and the predator Chrysoperla carnea. Population of whitefly was maintained on silicon treated and non-treated cotton for two generations in greenhouse net cages exposed to outside temperature and luminosity. The cotton was treated with silicon dioxide twice after 15 days intervals with 200 ppm concentration. A stock rearing of the natural predator was developed in the laboratory conditions. In the bioassay eggs of the predator all at the same age were individualized in glass petri plates that will be pierced with a pin to allow aeration and maintained in an incubator at 28 ± 2°C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 12h photo phase. Population of whitefly stayed on silicon treated, and non-treated cotton were offered to newly hatched chrysopid larvae until the end of the larval stage, assuring a permanent supply. Feeding preference of C. carnea along with longevity, survival of each instar larvae, pupation, adult emergence, and fecundity was checked. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the feeding preference of C. carnea among both treatments. Durations of 1st and 2nd larval instar were also at par in both treatments. However overall longevity and adult emergence were a bit lower in silicon treated whitefly treatment. This may be due to the fact that silicon reduces the nutritional quality of host because of reduced whitefly feeding on silicon treated cotton. No significant difference in 1st and 2nd larval instars and then increased larval duration in later instars suggested that the effect of silicon treated host should be checked on more than 1 generation of C. carnea to get better findings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1389
79071
Evaluation of Neonicotinoids Against Sucking Insect Pests of Cotton in Laboratory and Field Conditions
Abstract:
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) universally known as silver fiber and is one of the most important cash crop of Pakistan. A wide array of pests constraints cotton production among which sucking insect pests cause serious losses. Mostly new chemistry insecticides used to control a wide variety of insect pests including sucking insect pests. In the present study efficacy of different neonicotinoids was evaluated against sucking insect pests of cotton in the field and in laboratory for red and dusky cotton bug. The experiment was conducted at Entomology Research Station, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Confidence Ultra (Imidacloprid) 70% SL, Confidor (Imidacloprid) 20% SL, Kendo (Lambda cyhalothrin) 24.7 SC, Actara (Thiamethoxam) 25% WG, Forcast (Tebufenozide+ Emamectin benzoate) 8.8 EW and Timer (Emamectin benzoate) 1.9 EC at their recommended doses. The data was collected on per leaf basis of thrips, aphid, jassid and whitefly before 24 hours of spray. The post treatment data was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 hours. The fresh, non-infested and untreated cotton leaves was collected from the field and brought to the laboratory to assess the efficacy of neonicotinoids against red and dusky cotton bug. After data analysis all the insecticides were found effective against sucking pests. Confidence Ultra was highly effective against the aphid, jassid, and whitefly and gave maximum mortality, while showed non-significant results against thrips. In case of aphid plot which was treated with Kando 24.7 SC showed significant mortality after 72 hours of pesticide application. Similar trends were found in laboratory conditions with all these treatments by making different concentrations and had significant impact on dusky cotton bug and red cotton bug population after 24, 48 and 72 hours after application.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1388
79070
Impact of ‎Foliar ‎Formulations of Macro and Micro Nutrients on ‎the ‎Tritrophic Association of Wheat Aphid ‎and Entomophagous Insects
Abstract:
In Pakistan, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is seriously attacked by the wheat ‎aphid. Naturally, bio control agents play an important role in managing wheat aphid. However, association ‎among pest, natural enemies and host plant is highly affected by food resource ‎concentration and predator/parasitoid factor of any ecosystem. The present ‎study was conducted to estimate the effect of different dose levels of macro ‎and micronutrients on the aphid population and its entomophagous insect ‎on wheat and their tri-trophic association. The experiment was laid out in ‎RCBD with six different combinations of macro and micronutrients and a control treatment. The data was initiated from the second week of ‎the February till the maturity of the crop. Data regarding aphid population and ‎coccinellids counts were collected on weekly basis and subjected to analysis of ‎variance and mean comparison. The data revealed that aphid ‎population was at peak in the last week of March. Coccinellids population ‎increased side by side with aphid population and declined after second week of ‎April. Aphid parasitism was maximum 25% on recommended dose of Double and ‎Flasher and minimum 8.67% on control treatment. Maximum aphid population was observed on first April with 687.2 specimens. However, this maximum population was shown against the application of Double + Flasher treatment. The minimum aphid population was recorded after the application of HiK Gold + Flasher recommended dose on 15th April. The coccinellids population was at peak level at on 8th April and against the treatment double recommended dose of HiK gold + Flasher. Amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium percentage dry leaves ‎components was maximum (2.33, 0.18 and 2.62 % dry leaves. respectively) in ‎plots treated with recommended double dose mixture of Double + Flasher and ‎Hi-K Gold + Flasher while it was minimum (1.43, 0.12 and 1.77 dry leaves ‎respectively) in plots where no nutrients applied. The result revealed that maximum parasitism was at recommended level of micro and macro nutrients application.‎ Maximum micro nutrients zinc, copper, manganese, iron and boron found with values 46.67 ppm, 21.81 ppm, 62.35 ppm, 152.69 ppm and 36.78 respectively. The result also showed that Over application of macro and micro nutrients should be avoided because it do not help in pest control, conversely it may cause stress on plant. The treatment Double and Flasher recommended dose ratio is almost comparable with recommended dose and present studies confirm its usefulness on wheat.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1387
78640
Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes from Mycelial Fungi
Abstract:
Multiple repeated soil-climatic zones in Georgia determines the diversity of microorganisms. Hundreds of microscopic fungi of different genera have been isolated from different ecological niches, including some extreme environments. Biosynthetic ability of microscopic fungi has been studied. Trichoderma ressei, representative of the Ascomycetes secrete cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes that act in synergy to hydrolyze polysaccharide polymers to glucose, xylose and arabinose, which can be fermented to biofuels. The other mesophilic strains producing cellulases are Allesheria terrestris, Chaetomium thermophile, Fusarium oxysporium, Piptoporus betulinus, Penicillium echinulatum, P. purpurogenum, Aspergillus niger, A. wentii, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus etc. In the majority of the cases the cellulases produced by strains of genus Aspergillus usually have high β-glucosidase activity and average endoglucanases levels (with some exceptions), whereas strains representing Trichoderma have high endo enzyme and low β-glucosidase, and hence has limited efficiency in cellulose hydrolysis. Six producers of stable cellulases and xylanases from mesophilic and thermophilic fungi have been selected. By optimization of submerged cultivation conditions, high activities of cellulases and xylanases were obtained. For enzymes purification, their sedimentation by organic solvents such as ethyl alcohol, acetone, isopropanol and by ammonium sulphate in different ratios have been carried out. Best results were obtained with precipitation by ethyl alcohol (1:3.5) and ammonium sulphate. The yields of enzyme according to cellulase activities were 80-85% in both cases. Cellulase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Trichoderma viride X 33 is 126 U/g, from the strain Penicillium canescence D 85–185U/g and from the strain Sporotrichum pulverulentum T 5-0 110 U/g. Cellulase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Aspergillus sp. Av10 is 120 U/g, xylanase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Aspergillus niger A 7-5–1155U/g and from the strain Aspergillus niger Aj 38-1250 U/g. Optimum pH and temperature of operation and thermostability, of the enzyme preparations, were established. The efficiency of hydrolyses of different agricultural residues by the microscopic fungi cellulases has been studied. The glucose yield from the residues as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis is highly determined by the ratio of enzyme to substrate, pH, temperature, and duration of the process. Hydrolysis efficiency was significantly increased as a result of different pretreatment of the residues by different methods. Acknowledgement: The Study was supported by the ISTC project G-2117, funded by Korea.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1386
78605
Impact of Climate Variability on Dispersal and Distribution of Airborne Pollen and Fungal Spores in Nsukka, South-East Nigeria: Implication on Public Health
Abstract:
Airborne pollen and fungal spores are major triggers of allergies, and their abundance and seasonality depend on plant responses to climatic and meteorological variables. A survey of seasonal prevalence of airborne pollen and fungal spores in Nsukka, Enugu, South- East Nigeria and relationship to climatic variables were carried out from Jan-June, 2017. The aim of the study was to access climate change and variability over time in the area and their accrued influence on modern pollen and spores rain. Decadal change in climate was accessed from variables collected from meteorological centre in the study area. Airborne samples were collected monthly using a modified Tauber-like pollen samplers raised 5 ft above ground level. Aerosamples collected were subjected to acetolysis. Dominant pollen recorded were those of Poaceae, Elaeis guinensis Jacq. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. Change in weather brought by onset of rainfall evoked sporulation and dispersal of diverse spores into ambient air especially potent allergenic spores with the spores of Ovularia, Bispora, Curvularia, Nigrospora, Helminthosporium preponderant; these 'hydrophilic fungi' were abundant in the rainy season though in varying quantities. Total fungal spores correlated positively with monthly rainfall and humidity but negatively with temperature. There was a negative though not significant correlation between total pollen count and rainfall. The study revealed a strong influence of climatic variables on abundance and spatial distribution of pollen and fungal spores in the ambient atmosphere.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1385
78595
In vitro Evaluation of the Synergistic Antiviral Activity of Amantadine Coupled with Magnesium Lithospermate B against Enterovirus 71 Infection
Abstract:
It is well known that enterovirus 71(EV71) causes recurring outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease and encephalitis leading to complications or death in young children. And, several enterovirus 71 (EV71) of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) with high mortalities occurred in Asia country, such as Hong Kung (1985), Malaysia (1997), Taiwan (1998) and China (2008) that EV71 results in severe neurological complications and sudden death in infants and young children. However, there are still no effective drugs and vaccines to reduce and inhibit EV71 infection. Therefore, the development of specific and effective antiviral strategies against EV71 has become an urgent issue for the protection of children from the hazards of the HFMD. As reported, amantadine is effective in prophylaxis and treatment of the EV71 infections. Thus, the aim of this study was to further evaluate the synergistic antiviral activity of amantadine coupled with magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) against enterovirus 71 infection. In a preliminary test, it is shown that the infected RD cells were treated with amantadine after virus absorption, at concentrations of 3 and 5µM of amantadine suppressed EV71-induced CPE to 13% and 23%, respectively at MOI of 3. Alternatively, at concentrations of 5µg/ml of MLB combined with 3 and 5 µM of amantadine apparently suppressed EV71-induced CPE to 45% and 63%, respectively at MOI of 3. Thus, amantadine coupled with MLB may have the potential for further study to development as the chemopreventive reagents against EV71 infection.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1384
78541
Interaction of Phytochemicals Present in Green Tea, Honey and Cinnamon to Human Melanocortin 4 Receptor
Abstract:
Human Melanocortin 4 Receptor (HMC4R) is one of the most potential drug targets for the treatment of obesity which controls the appetite. A deletion of the residues 88-92 in HMC4R is sometimes the cause of severe obesity in the humans. In this study, two homology models are constructed for the normal as well as mutated HMC4Rs and some phytochemicals present in Green Tea, Honey and Cinnamon have been docked to them to study their differential binding to the normal and mutated HMC4R as compared to the natural agonist α- MSH. Two homology models have been constructed for the normal as well as mutated HMC4Rs using the Modeller9v7. Some of the phytochemicals present in Green Tea, Honey, and Cinnamon, which have appetite suppressant activities are constructed, minimized and docked to these normal and mutated HMC4R models using ArgusLab 4.0.1. The mode of binding of the phytochemicals with the Normal and Mutated HMC4Rs have been compared. Further, the mode of binding of these phytochemicals with that of the natural agonist α- Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone(α-MSH) to both normal and mutated HMC4Rs have also been studied. It is observed that the phytochemicals Kaempherol, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) present in Green Tea and Honey, Isorhamnetin, Chlorogenic acid, Chrysin, Galangin, Pinocambrin present in Honey, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamyl acetate and Cinnamyl alcohol present in Cinnamon have capacity to form more stable complexes with the Mutated HMC4R as compared to α- MSH. So they may be potential agonists of HMC4R to suppress the appetite.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1383
78395
Alterations in Esterases and Phosphatases of Three Economically Important Stored Grain Insect Pests Exposed to Botanical Extracts, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus
Abstract:
Natural extracts of two medicinal plants Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus were tested for their toxic and enzyme inhibition effects against three insects species of stored grains Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium and Sitophilus granarius. Responses of insects varied with exposure periods and dilution levels of acetone extracts of plants. Both plant extracts were lethal to insects but the crude leaf extract of N. tabacum evidenced strong toxic action against three tested insect species. Maximum mortality 36.30% in S. granarius, 25.96% in T. castaneum, and 21.88% in T. granarium were found at 20% dilution level, after 10 days exposure to botanical extract of N. tabacum. The impact of N. tabacum and E. globulus on the activity of esterases; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), α-carboxylesterase (α-CE), β-carboxylesterase (β-CE) and phosphatses; acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AlP) of three stored grain insect species were also studied in the survivors of toxicity assay. Whole body homogenates of insects were used for enzyme determination and consumption of high dose rate N. tabacum extract containing diet resulted in maximum 55.33% inhibition of AChE and 26.17% AlP inhibition in T. castaneum, while 44.17% of α-CE and 31.67% inhibition of β-CE activity were noted in S. granarius. Maximum inhibition 23.44% of AcP activity was found in T. granarium exposed to diet treated with the extract of E. globulus. The findings indicate that acetone extracts of N. tabacum and E. globulus are naturally occurring pesticide and facts of the enzyme inhibition relations specify that their effect changes with the insect species.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1382
78333
Assessment of Platelet and Lymphocyte Interaction in Autoimmune Hyperthyroidism
Abstract:
Background: Graves’ disease is a frequent organ-specific autoimmune thyroid disease, which characterized by the presence of different kind autoantibodies, that, in most cases, act as agonists of the thyrotropin receptor, leading to hyperthyroidism. Role of platelets and lymphocytes can be modulated in the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases. Interference in the physiology of platelets can lead to enhanced activity of these cells. Activated platelets can bind to circulating lymphocytes and to affect lymphocyte adhesion. Platelets and lymphocytes can regulate mutual functions. Therefore, the activation of T lymphocytes, as well as blood platelets, is associated with the development of inflammation and oxidative stress within the target tissue. The present study was performed to investigate a platelet-lymphocyte relation by assessing the degree of their mutual aggregation in whole blood of patients with Graves’ disease. Also, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of platelet interaction on lymphocyte migration capacity. Methods: 30 patients with Graves’ disease were recruited in the study. The matched 30 healthy subjects were served as the control group. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes was carried out by flow cytometry method. A CytoSelect™ Cell Migration Assay Kit was used to evaluate lymphocyte migration and adhesion to blood platelets. Visual assessment of lymphocyte-platelet aggregate morphology was done using confocal microscope after magnetic cell isolation by Miltenyi Biotec. Results: The migration and functional responses of lymphocytes to blood platelets were greater in the group of Graves’ disease patients compared with healthy controls. The group of Graves’ disease patients exhibited a reduced T lymphocyte and a higher B cell count compared with controls. Based on microscopic analysis, more platelet-lymphocyte aggregates were found in patients than in control. Conclusions: Studies have shown that in Graves' disease, lymphocytes show increased platelet affinity, more strongly migrating toward them, and forming mutual cellular conglomerates. This may be due to the increased activation of blood platelets in this disease.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1381
78322
Isolation of Nitrosoguanidine Induced NaCl Tolerant Mutant of Spirulina platensis with Improved Growth and Phycocyanin Production
Abstract:
Spirulina spp., as a promising source of many commercially valuable products, is grown photo autotrophically in open ponds and raceways on a large scale. However, the economic exploitation in an open system seems to have been limited because of lack of multiple stress-tolerant strains. The present study aims to isolate a stable stress tolerant mutant of Spirulina platensis with improved growth rate and enhanced potential to produce its commercially valuable bioactive compounds. N-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) at 250 μg/mL (concentration permitted 1% survival) was employed for chemical mutagenesis to generate random mutants and screened against NaCl. In a preliminary experiment, wild type S. platensis was treated with NaCl concentrations from 0.5-1.5 M to calculate its LC₅₀. Mutagenized colonies were then screened for tolerance at 0.8 M NaCl (LC₅₀), and the surviving colonies were designated as NaCl tolerant mutants of S. platensis. The mutant cells exhibited 1.5 times improved growth against NaCl stress as compared to the wild type strain in control conditions. This might be due to the ability of the mutant cells to protect its metabolic machinery against inhibitory effects of salt stress. Salt stress is known to adversely affect the rate of photosynthesis in cyanobacteria by causing degradation of the pigments. Interestingly, the mutant cells were able to protect its photosynthetic machinery and exhibited 4.23 and 1.72 times enhanced accumulation of Chl a and phycobiliproteins, respectively, which resulted in enhanced rate of photosynthesis (2.43 times) and respiration (1.38 times) against salt stress. Phycocyanin production in mutant cells was observed to enhance by 1.63 fold. Nitrogen metabolism plays a vital role in conferring halotolerance to cyanobacterial cells by influx of nitrate and efflux of Na+ ions from the cell. The NaCl tolerant mutant cells took up 2.29 times more nitrate as compared to the wild type and efficiently reduce it. Nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activity in the mutant cells also improved by 2.45 and 2.31 times, respectively against salt stress. From these preliminary results, it could be deduced that enhanced nitrogen uptake and its efficient reduction might be a reason for adaptive and halotolerant behavior of the S. platensis mutant cells. Also, the NaCl tolerant mutant of S. platensis with significant improved growth and phycocyanin accumulation compared to the wild type can be commercially promising.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1380
78218
Bio-Efficacy of Newer Insecticides against Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L. ) in Cabbage
Abstract:
The investigation was conducted during January 2016 on Farmer’s field at Nandur Madhyameshwar, Tq. Niphad, Dist. Nashik (Maharashtra: India) on bio-efficacy of newer insecticides against Plutella xylostella L. infesting cabbage. The cabbage crop (var. Saint) was raised according to package of practices except for plant protection measures. Six newer insecticides along with two conventional insecticides and one synthetic pyrethroid were applied twice at 30 and 55 days after transplanting. Insecticidal solutions were diluted in water (375-500 L ha-1) and applied using knapsack sprayer (16L) with hollow cone nozzle. Treatments included indoxacarb @ 40 g a.i.ha-1, spinosad @ 17.5 g a.i.ha-1, flubendiamide @18.24 g a.i. ha-1, diafenthiuron @ 300 g a. i. ha-1, emamectin benzoate @ 10 g a. i. ha-1, chlorantraniliprole @ 10 g a. i. ha-1, quinalphos @ 250 g a. i. ha-1, triazophos @ 500 g a. i. ha-1, bifenthrin @ 50 g a.i. ha-1 and untreated control. The larvae were counted on head and outside the head. Observations were recorded one day before spray (Precount) and 1,3,7,14 days after spray. Results revealed that all the insecticidal treatments were significantly superior over untreated control by recording lower larval count. Among the insecticidal treatments, significantly lowest number of larvae of diamondback moth was recorded in chlorantraniliprole @ 10 g a.i.ha-1 (1.00 larvae plant-1) followed by spinosad @ 17.5 g a.i. ha-1 (1.45 larvae plant-1 and flubendiamide 18.24 g a.i. ha-1(1.53 larvae plant-1). The efficacy of insecticides reflected on yield of marketable cabbage heads by recording 242.27 qt ha-1 (1:33.38) in the treatment of chlorantraniliprole @ 10 g a.i.ha-1. It was followed by spinosad @ 17.5 g a.i. ha-1 with 236.91 qt ha-1 (1:24.92) and flubendiamide 18.24 g a.i. ha-1 with 228.49 qt ha-1 (1:30.43).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1379
78211
Studies on Efficacy of Some Acaricidal Molecules against Mites in Polyhouse Capsicum
Abstract:
The experiment was conducted during Kharif 2016 at Hingoni, Ahmednagar (dist.), Maharashtra (India) to evaluate the novel molecules of acaricides against mites in polyhouse capsicum. The study was planned with randomized block design (RBD) and included nine treatments replicated thrice with 30 m² each plot size. The crop (var. Bachata) was raised according to the standard package of practices except plant protection measures. The molecules viz., spiromesifen 22.9SC (95 gm a.i. ha⁻¹), fenpyroximate 5EC (15 gm a.i. ha⁻¹), hexythiazox 5.45EC (15 gm a.i. ha⁻¹), diafenthiuron 50WP (300 gm a.i. ha⁻¹), chlorfenapyr 10SC (75 gm a.i. ha⁻¹) were compared with a standard acaricide, dicofol 18.5EC (500 gm a.i. ha⁻¹) and biopesticides like Verticillium lecanii (2 g/l), Metarhizium anisopliae (2 g/l) and Neem oil 10,000ppm (2ml/l). In total three sprays were given after 30, 50 and 70 days after transplanting (DAT) at an interval of 20 days. The insecticidal solutions were prepared in water by diluting required concentration of chemical and applied using knapsack sprayer with hollow cone nozzle @ 500L of solution per hectare. The mites were counted per 4 cm² in three leaves from randomly selected five plants in each plot at 1 day before treatment (precount) and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after treatment. The results revealed that fenpyroximate 5EC found best by recording significantly least mite population (2.72/4 cm² leaf area) followed by hexythiazox 5.45EC and spiromesifen 22.9SC (3.78 and 3.82 per 4 cm² leaf area, respectively) and followed by remaining treatments chlorfenapyr 10SC (4.13/4 cm² leaf area), diafenthiuron 50WP (4.32/4 cm² leaf area), and dicofol 18.5EC (4.48/4 cm² leaf area). Among the biopesticides tested Neem oil and Verticillium lecanii were found to be superior to Metarhizium anisopliae. Overall, newer molecules like fenpyroximate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, diafenthiuron, and Chlorfenapyr can be used for the effective management of mites under polyhouse capsicum.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1378
78206
Persistent Toxicity of Imidacloprid to Aphis gossypii Glover and Amarasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on Okra
Abstract:
Investigations were carried out to evaluate the persistent toxicity of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and dimethoate to Aphis gossypii and Amrasca biguttula biguttula under laboratory condition during 2012. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications in the glass house of department of Entomology M. P. K. V. Rahuri. Okra plants were raised in glass house following all recommended agronomic practices. The 21 days old plants were used for assessing the effect of insecticides on aphids and jassids. The insecticides were diluted with distilled water to make desired concentrations and used for foliar application. The insecticides included in the study were imidacloprid 17.8 SL, imidacloprid 70 WG, thiamethoxam 25 WG and dimethoate 30 EC. Untreated check was maintained by spraying with distilled water. The mortality of aphids and jassids on treated leaf were recorded at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 21, and 25 days after spray till zero per cent mortality observed for each treatment. Treated leaves from the glasshouse were brought to laboratory and were put in tube with moist cotton swab at the bottom of leaf and sucking apparatus was fit to the tube. Ten jassids were sucked in each tube from the plants in the field. Evaluated insecticides differed in their persistence and index of persistence toxicity against both insects of different treatments. Recommended dose of imidacloprid (25 g a.i/ha) persisted for 21 days against both aphids and jassids. However dimethoate, a conventional insecticide persisted for 11 days.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1377
78176
Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Cicer arietinum Heavy Metal Toxicity
Abstract:
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an annual, self-pollinating, diploid (2n = 2x = 16) pulse crop that ranks second in world legume production after common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). ICC 4958 flowers approximately 39 days after sowing under peninsular Indian conditions and the crop matures in less than 90 days in rained environments. The estimated collective yield losses due to abiotic stresses (6.4 million t) have been significantly higher than for biotic stresses (4.8 million t). Most legumes are known to be salt sensitive, and therefore, it is becoming increasingly important to produce cultivars tolerant to high-salinity in addition to other abiotic and biotic stresses for sustainable chickpea production. Our aim was to identify the genes that are involved in the defence mechanism against heavy metal toxicity in chickpea and establish the biological network of heavy metal toxicity in chickpea. ICC4958 variety of chick pea was taken and grown in normal condition and 150µM concentration of different heavy metal salt like CdCl₂, K₂Cr2O₇, NaAsO₂. At 15th day leave samples were collected and stored in RNA Later solution microarray was performed for checking out differential gene expression pattern. Our studies revealed that 111 common genes that involved in defense mechanism were up regulated and 41 genes were commonly down regulated during treatment of 150µM concentration of CdCl₂, K₂Cr₂O₇, and NaAsO₂. Biological network study shows that the genes which are differentially expressed are highly connected and having high betweenness and centrality.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1376
78079
Optimized Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Natural Dye and Counter Electrode from Robusta Coffee Beans Peel Waste
Abstract:
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is one type of solar cell, where solar cells function to convert light energy become the electrical energy. DSSC has two important parts of dye and counter electrode. Anthocyanin compounds in the coffee beans peel can be potential as natural dye and also counter electrodes as activated carbon in the DSSC system. The purpose of this research is to find out how to isolate Anthocyanin, manufacture of counter electrode, and to know the efficiency of counter electrode produced from the coffee pulp waste in DSSC prototype. In this research we used 2 x 2 cm FTO glass coated carbon paste with a thickness variation of 100 μL, 200 μL and 300 μL as counter electrode and other FTO glass coated with TiO₂ paste as work electrode, then two FTO glasses are connected to form a sandwich-liked structure and add Triiodide electrolyte solution in its gap, thus forming a DSSC prototype. The results showed that coffee pulp waste contains anthocyanin of 12.23 mL/80gr and it can produce activated carbon. The characterization performed shows that the UV-Vis Anthocyanin result is at wavelength of ultra violet area that is 219,50 nm with absorbance value equal to 1,469, and maximum wavelength at visible area is 720,00 nm with absorbance value equal to 0,013. The functional groups contained in the anthocyanin are O-H groups at wave numbers 3385.60 cm⁻¹, C = O groups at wave numbers 1618.63 cm⁻¹, and C-O-C groups at 1065.40 cm⁻¹ wave numbers. Morphological characterization using the SEM shows the activated carbon surface area becomes larger and evenly distributed. Voltage obtained on Counter Electrode 100 μL variation of 395mV, 200 μL of 334mV 100 μL of 254mV.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1375
77889
A Potential Bio-Pesticidal Molecule Derived from Indian Traditional Plant
Abstract:
Natural sources for new pesticidal compounds hold promise in view of their eco-friendly nature, selectivity and mammalian safety. Despite a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity and diversity of natural chemistry with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer classes of insecticides have eluded discovery. Artemisia vulgaris, known as Mugwort, is a universal herb used for folk medicine and religious purposes throughout the ancient world. In India, the essential oils of Artemisia vulgaris are used for its insecticidal, anti parasiticidal and antimicrobial properties. Traditionally, the dried leaves of Artemisia vulgaris are used to repel insects as well as rats in and around the granaries in the North-East India. Artemisia vulgaris collected during November from different ecological sites were studied for the bio-pesticidal utility against the stored grain pests. The insecticidal activities were found in the crude extracts of n-hexane and methanol from the samples collected in Sikkim and Manipur respectively. Using silica gel column chromatography protocol, we have isolated one novel bioactive molecule from the aerial parts of Artemisia vulgaris L based on various physical-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass). The novel bioactive molecule is highly toxic and very low concentration (4.35 µg/l) is needed to control the stored product insects. In additional experiment results clearly showed the involvement of sodium pumps inhibition in the insecticidal action of purified compound in the Sitophilus oryzae. The knockdown activity of the purified compound is concomitant with the in vivo inhibition of Na+/ K+- ATPase. Further, our study showed insignificant differences in the seed germination of control and the treated grains. The lack of adverse effect of the novel bioactive molecule on the seed germination is highly desirable for seed/grain protectant and showing the potential to be developed as possible natural fumigants for the control of stored grain pests. The novel bioactive molecule is selective insecticide with a high margin of safety to mammals and showed promise as novel biopesticide candidate for grain protection. It is believed that Bio-pesticides can serve as the most important pest management tools as far as global safety is concerned.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1374
77861
Molecular Identification and Evolutionary Status of Lucilia bufonivora: An Obligate Parasite of Amphibians in Europe
Abstract:
Lucilia bufonivora Moniez, is an obligate parasite of toads and frogs widely distributed in Europe. Its sister taxon Lucilia silvarum Meigen behaves mainly as a carrion breeder in Europe, however it has been reported as a facultative parasite of amphibians. These two closely related species are morphologically almost identical, which has led to misidentification, and in fact, it has been suggested that the amphibian myiasis cases by L. silvarum reported in Europe should be attributed to L. bufonivora. Both species remain poorly studied and their taxonomic relationships are still unclear. The identification of the larval specimens involved in amphibian myiasis with molecular tools and phylogenetic analysis of these two closely related species may resolve this problem. In this work seventeen unidentified larval specimens extracted from toad myiasis cases of the UK, the Netherlands and Switzerland were obtained, their COX1 (mtDNA) and EF1-α (Nuclear DNA) gene regions were amplified and then sequenced. The 17 larval samples were identified with both molecular markers as L. bufonivora. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out with 10 other blowfly species, including L. silvarum samples from the UK and USA. Bayesian Inference trees of COX1 and a combined-gene dataset suggested that L. silvarum and L. bufonivora are separate sister species. However, the nuclear gene EF1-α does not appear to resolve their relationships, suggesting that the rates of evolution of the mtDNA are much faster than those of the nuclear DNA. This work provides the molecular evidence for successful identification of L. bufonivora and a molecular analysis of the populations of this obligate parasite from different locations across Europe. The relationships with L. silvarum are discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1373
77828
Biochemical Efficacy, Molecular Docking and Inhibitory Effect of 2,3-Dimethylmaleic Anhydride on Acetylcholinesterases
Abstract:
Evolution has caused many insects to develop resistance to several synthetic insecticides. This problem along with the persisting concern regarding the health and environmental safety issues of the existing synthetic insecticides has urged the scientific fraternity to look for a new plant-based natural insecticide with inherent eco-friendly nature. Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae family) is widely grown throughout the South- East Asian Countries for its edible corms and leaves. Various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass) were used for the isolation and characterization of isolated bioactive molecule named 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione). This compound was found to be highly toxic, even at low concentration, against several storage grain pests when used as biofumigant. Experimental studies on the mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride revealed that the biofumigant act as inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in cockroach and stored grain insects. The knockdown activity of bioactive compound is concurrent with in vivo inhibition of AChE; at KD99 dosage of bioactive molecule showed more than 90% inhibition of AChE activity in test insects. The molecule proved to affect the antioxidant enzyme system; superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and also found to decrease reduced glutathione (GSH) level in the treated insects. The above results indicate involvement of inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance as the potential mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride. In addition, the study reveals computational docking programs elaborate the possible interaction of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride with enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of Periplaneta americana. Finally, the results represent that toxicity of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride might be associated with inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1372
77630
Study of Circulatory MiR-122 and MiR-130a Expression among Chronic Hepatitis C Egyptian Patients
Abstract:
The stability of microRNA (miR) in the circulation can show a great progress toward the discovery of non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in many diseases. In the present study, circulatory miR-122 and miR-130a were analysed in chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients in predicting the clinical outcome of interferon treatment. In addition, their expression levels were correlated to viral RNA levels, necro-inflammatory markers (AST, ALT) and to each other. This study was conducted on 51 subjects where 36 were chronic HCV patients in which they were divided into naive and interferon treated HCV patients (responders and non-responders) and 15 matched healthy controls. Serum quantification of miR-122 and miR-130a were performed by quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed a significant upregulation of miR-122 in non-responder patients (P=0.049). By receiver operating characteristic analysis curve, miR-122 revealed 65% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity in predicting non-responsiveness of patients to IFN treatment, while miR-130a showed a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 53.85%. Remarkably, there was a significant positive correlation between miR-122 and miR-130a in naive HCV patients (r=0.714, p=0.003). However, there was no significant correlation between serum miR-122, miR-130a expression levels and necro-inflammatory markers (AST, ALT). To conclude, miR-122 and miR-130a have a significant association with viral RNA levels and accordingly, they may have a synergistic power in promoting viral replication. Interestingly, miR-122 and miR-130a have a predictive power in predicting clinical outcome of IFN treatment which can be further studied in currently used drugs in order to reduce the socio-economic burden of potentially non-responders.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1371
77604
Selection of a Potential Starter Culture for Milk Fermentation
Abstract:
The ability of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to grow and survive in milk is being exploited in industrial and biotechnological applications. Although considerable studies have been reported on the fermentation of milk, however, not so much work has been documented on the selection of LAB strains from milk of the Nigerian local cattle breeds for their starter culture potentials. A total of 110 LAB were isolated from raw milk of Sokoto gudali cattle breed. The isolates were screened for their proteolytic activities on skimmed milk media with isolates A07, F06 and A01 showing the highest zone of clearance of 18.5mm, 18.5mm, and 18.0mm respectively and were selected for the studies of their growth in different constituents of milk. A01, F06, and A07 were identified as Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Leuconostoc mesenteriodes respectively using cultural, biochemical, physiological and molecular characterization techniques. Leuconostoc mesenteriodes showed the highest growth in all the milk components that were used in this study. The three LAB species selected showed a growth range of 6.46 log cfu/ml to 10.91 log cfu/ml in lactose with Leuconostoc mesenteriodes showing the highest growth of 10.91 log cfu/ml while Pediococcus acidilactici recorded the lowest growth of 9.78 log cfu/ml. In medium containing leucine as the only amino acid, the viable counts of Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactococcus raffinolactis and Leuconostoc mesenteriodes in log cfu/ml at zero hour were 6.39, 6.36 and 6.38 respectively which increased to 9.31 log cfu/ml, 9.21 log cfu/ml, 9.92 log cfu/ml respectively after 24 hours. Similarly, in all other substrates (casein, lysine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid ) tested in this study, Leuconostoc mesenteriodes showed the highest growth. It was observed that the highest quantity of lactic acid (15.31mg/ml) was produced by Leuconostoc mesenteriodes. The same trend was also observed in the production of diacetyl and hydrogen peroxide by the three tested microorganisms. Due to its ability to grow maximally in milk components, Leuconostoc mesenteriodes shows potential as starter culture for milk fermentation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1370
77430
Identification of Odorant Receptors through the Antennal Transcriptome of the Grapevine Pest, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Abstract:
In agriculture, grape production has great economic importance at global level, considering that in 2013 it reached 7.4 million hectares (ha) covered by plantations of this fruit worldwide. Chile is the number one exporter in the world with 800,000 tons. However, these values have been threatened by the attack of the grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), since its detection in 2008. Nowadays, the use of semiochemicals, in particular the major component of the sex pheromone, (E,Z)-7.9-dodecadienil acetate, are part of mating disruption methods to control L. botrana. How insect pests can recognize these molecules, is being part of huge efforts to deorphanize their olfactory mechanism at molecular level. Thus, an interesting group of proteins has been identified in the antennae of insects, where odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are known by transporting molecules to odorant receptors (ORs) and a co-receptor (ORCO) causing a behavioral change in the insect. Other proteins such as chemosensory proteins (CSPs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), odorant degrading enzymes (ODEs) and sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) seem to be involved, but few studies have been performed so far. The above has led to an increasing interest in insect communication at a molecular level, which has contributed to both a better understanding of the olfaction process and the design of new pest management strategies. To date, it has been reported that the ORs can detect one or a small group of odorants in a specific way. Therefore, the objective of this study is the identification of genes that encode these ORs using the antennal transcriptome of L. botrana. Total RNA was extracted for females and males of L. botrana, and the antennal transcriptome sequenced by Next Generation Sequencing service using an Illumina HiSeq2500 platform with 50 million reads per sample. Unigenes were assembled using Trinity v2.4.0 package and transcript abundance was obtained using edgeR. Genes were identified using BLASTN and BLASTX locally installed in a Unix system and based on our own Tortricidae database. Those Unigenes related to ORs were characterized using ORFfinder and protein Blastp server. Finally, a phylogenetic analysis was performed with the candidate amino acid sequences for LbotORs including amino acid sequences of other moths ORs, such as Bombyx mori, Cydia pomonella, among others. Our findings suggest 61 genes encoding ORs and one gene encoding an ORCO in both sexes, where the greatest difference was found in the OR6 because of the transcript abundance according to the value of FPKM in females and males was 1.48 versus 324.00. In addition, according to phylogenetic analysis OR6 is closely related to OR1 in Cydia pomonella and OR6, OR7 in Epiphyas postvittana, which have been described as pheromonal receptors (PRs). These results represent the first evidence of ORs present in the antennae of L. botrana and a suitable starting point for further functional studies with selected ORs, such as OR6, which is potentially related to pheromonal recognition.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1369
77202
Structural Investigation of the GAF Domain Protein BPSL2418 from Burkholderia pseudomallei
Abstract:
A new family of methionine-sulfoxide reductase (Msr) was recently discovered and was named free methionine sulfoxide reductase (fRMsr). This family includes enzymes with a reductase activity toward the free R isomer of a methionine sulfoxide substrate. The fRMsrs have a GAF domain topology, a domain, which was previously identified as having in some cases a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity. The classification of fRMsrs as GAF domains revealed a new function can be added to the GAF domain family. Interestingly the four members identified in the fRMsr family share the GAF domain structure and the presence of three conserved cysteines in the active site with free R methionine sulfoxide substrate specificity. This thesis presents the crystal structures of reduced, free Met-SO substrate-bound and MES-bound forms of a new fRMsr from Burkholderia pseudomallei (BPSL2418). BPSL2418 was cloned, overexpressed and purified to enable protein crystallization. The crystallization trials for reduced, Met-SO-bound and MES-bound forms of BPSL2418 were prepared and reasonable crystals of each form were produced. The crystal structures of BPSL2418MES, BPSL2418Met-SO and BPSL2418Reduced were solved at 1.18, 1.4 and 2.0Å, respectively by molecular replacement. The BPSL2418MES crystal belongs to space group P 21 21 21 while BPSL2418Met-SO and BPSL2418Reduced crystals belong to space group P 1 21 1. All three forms share the GAF domain structure of six antiparallel β-strands and four α-helices with connecting loops. The antiparallel β-strands (β1, β2, β5 and β6) are located in the center of the BPSL2418 structure flanked on one side by a three α-helices (α1, α2 and α4) and on the other side by a (loop1, β3, loop2, α3, β4 loop4) unit where loop4 forms a capping flap and covers the active site. The structural comparison of the three forms of BPSL2418 indicates that the catalytically important cysteine is CYS109, where the resolving cysteine is CYS75, which forms a disulfide bond with CYS109. They also suggest that the third conserved cysteine in the active site, CYS85, which is located in α3, is a non-essential cysteine for the catalytic function but it may play a role in the binding of the substrate. The structural comparison of the three forms reveals that conformational changes appear in the active site particularly involving loop4 and CYS109 during catalysis. The 3D structure of BPSL2418 shows strong structure similarity to fRMsrs enzymes, which further suggests that BPSL2418 acts as a free Met-R-SO reductase and shares the catalytic mechanism of fRMsr family.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1368
77184
Bioefficacy of Novel Insecticide Flupyradifurone Sl 200 against Leaf Hoppers, Aphids and Whitefly in Cotton
Abstract:
Field experiments were conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India for two seasons during 2011-13 to evaluate the efficacy of flupyradifurone SL 200 a new class of insecticide in butenolide group against leaf hoppers, aphids and whitefly in Cotton. The test insecticide flupyradifurone 200 was evaluated at three doses @ 150, 200 and 250 g ai/ha ha along with imidacloprid 200 SL @ 20g ai/ha, acetamiprid 20 SP @ 20g ai/ha, thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 25g ai/ha and monocrotophos 36 SL @ 360 g ai/ha as standards. Flupyradifurone SL 200 even at lower dose of 150g ai/ha exhibited superior efficacy against cotton leafhopper, Amrasca devastans than the neonicotinoids which are widely used for control of sucking pests in cotton. Against cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii. Flupyradifurone SL 200 @ 200 and 250 g ai/ha ha was proved to be effective and the lower dose @ 150g ai/ha performed better than some of the neonicotinoids. The effect of flupyradifurone SL 200 on cotton against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci was evident at higher doses of 200 and 250 g ai/ha and superior to all standard treatments, however, the lower dose is at par with neonicotinoids. The seed cotton yield of flupyradifurone 200 SL at all the doses tested was superior than imidacloprid 200 SL @ 20g ai/ha and acetamiprid 20 SP @ 20g ai/ha. There is no significant difference among the insecticidal treatments with regards to natural enemies. The results clearly suggest that flupyradifurone is a new tool to combat sucking pest problems in cotton and can well fit in IRM strategies in light of wide spread insecticide resistance in cotton sucking pests.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1367
76948
Palladium/Platinum Complexes of Tridentate 4-Acylpyrazolone Thiosemicarbazone with Antioxidant Properties
Abstract:
The need for the development of new sustainable bioactive compounds with unique properties that can become potential replacement for commonly used medicinal drugs has continued to gain tremendous research concerns because of the problems of disease resistant to these medicinal drugs and their toxicity effects. NOS-donor heterocycles are particularly of interest as they have showed good pharmacological activities in the midst of their interesting chelating properties towards metal ions, an important characteristic for transition metal based drugs design. These new compounds have also gained application as dye sensitizers in solar cell panels for the generation of renewable solar energy, as greener water purification polymer for supply and management of clean water and as catalysts which are used to reduce the amount of pollutants from industrial reaction processes amongst others, because of their versatile properties. Di-ketone acylpyrazolones and their azomethine schiff bases have been employed as pharmaceuticals as well as analytical reagents, and their application as transition metal complexes have being well established. In this research work, a new 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one-thiosemicarbazone was synthesized from the reaction of 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one and thiosemicarbazide in methanol. The pure isolate of the thiosemicarbazone was further reacted with aqueous solutions of palladium and platinum salts to obtain their metal complexes, in an effort towards the discovery of transition metal based synthetic drugs. These compounds were characterized by means of analytical, spectroscopic, thermogravimetric analysis TGA, as well as x-ray crystallography. 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one thiosemicarbazone crystallizes in a triclinic crystal system with a P-1 (No. 2) space group according to x-ray crystallography. The tridentate NOS ligand formed a tetrahedral geometry on coordinating with metal ions. Reported compounds showed varying antioxidant free radical scavenging activities against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 µg/ml concentrations. The platinum complex have shown a very good antioxidant property against DPPH with an IC50 of 76.03 µg/ml compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 of 74.66 µg/ml) and as such have been identified as a potential anticancer candidate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1366
76765
An Algorithm of Regulation Glucose-Insulin Concentration in the Blood
Abstract:
The pancreas is an elongated organ that extends across the abdomen, below the stomach. In addition, it secretes certain enzymes that aid in food digestion. The pancreas also manufactures hormones responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. In the present paper, we propose a mathematical model to study the homeostasis of glucose and insulin in healthy human, and a simulation of this model will be represented in ordinary humans, that depicts the physiological events that happen after a meal. The aim of this paper is to design an algorithm which regulates the level of glucose in the blood. The algorithm applied the concept of expert system for performing an algorithm control in the form of an 'active' used to prescribe the rate of insulin infusion. By decomposing the system into subsystems, we have developed parametric models of each subsystem by using a forcing function strategy. The results showed a performance of the control system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):