Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48522

Chemical and Materials Engineering

81
83573
Lanthanide-Mediated Aggregation of Glutathione-Capped Gold Nanoclusters Exhibiting Strong Luminescence and Fluorescence Turn-on for Sensing Alkaline Phosphatase
Abstract:
Herein, this study represents a synthetic route for producing highly luminescent AuNCs based on the integration of two concepts, including thiol-induced luminescence enhancement of ligand-insufficient GSH-AuNCs and Ce3+-induced aggregation of GSH-AuNCs. The synthesis of GSH-AuNCs was conducted by modifying the previously reported procedure. To produce more Au(I)-GSH complexes on the surface of ligand-insufficient GSH-AuNCs, the extra GSH is added to attach onto the AuNC surface. The formed ligand-sufficient GSH-AuNCs (LS-GSH-AuNCs) emit relatively strong luminescence. The luminescence of LS-GSH-AuNCs is further enhanced by the coordination of two carboxylic groups (pKa1 = 2 and pKa2 = 3.5) of GSH and lanthanide ions, which induce the self-assembly of LS-GSH-AuNCs. As a result, the quantum yield of the self-assembled LS-GSH-AuNCs (SA-AuNCs) was improved to be 13%. Interestingly, the SA-AuNCs were dissembled into LS-GSH-AuNCs in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) because of the formation of the ATP- lanthanide ion complexes. Our assay was employed to detect alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity over the range of 0.1−10 U/mL with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.03 U/mL.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
80
83255
Modeling of Ductile Fracture Using Stress- Modified Critical Strain Criterion for Typical Pressure Vessel Steel
Abstract:
Ductile fracture occurs by the mechanism of void nucleation, void growth and coalescence. Potential sites for initiation are second phase particles or non-metallic inclusions. Modelling of ductile damage at the microscopic level is very difficult and complex task for engineers. Therefore, conservative predictions of ductile failure using simple models are necessary during the design and optimization of critical structures like pressure vessels and pipelines. Nowadays, it is well known that the initiation phase is strongly influenced by the stress triaxiality and plastic deformation at the microscopic level. Thus, a simple model used to study the ductile failure under multiaxial stress condition is the Stress Modified Critical Strain (SMCS) approach. Ductile rupture has been study for a structural steel under different stress triaxiality conditions using the SMCS method. Experimental tests are carried out to characterize the relation between stress triaxiality and equivalent plastic strain by notched round bars. After calibration of the plasticity and damage properties, predictions are made for low constraint bending specimens with and without side grooves. Stress/strain fields evolution are compared between the different geometries. Advantages and disadvantages of the SMCS methodology are discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
79
83242
Application of Nitric Acid Modified Cocos Nucifera, Pennisetum Glaucum and Sorghum Bicolor Activated Carbon for Adsorption of H₂S Gas
Abstract:
The potency of modified and unmodified activated carbons prepared from shells of Cocos nucifera (coconut shell), straws of Pennisetum glaucum (millet) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) for adsorption of hydrogen sulphide gas were investigated using an adsorption apparatus (stainless steel cylinder) at constant temperature (ambient temperature). The adsorption equilibria states were obtained when the pressure indicated on the pressure gauge remained constant. After modification with nitric acid, results of the scanning electron microscopy of the unmodified and modified activated carbons showed that HNO3 greatly improved the formation of micropores and mesopores on the activated carbon surface. The adsorption of H2S gas was found to be highest in modified Cocos nucifera activated carbon with maximum monolayer coverage of 28.17 mg/g, and the adsorption processes were both physical and chemical with the physical process being predominant. The adsorption data were well fitted into the Langmuir isotherm model with the adsorption capacities of the activated carbons in the order modified Cocos nucifera > modified Pennisetum glaucum > modified Sorghum bicolor > unmodified Cocos nucifera > unmodified Pennisetum glaucum > unmodified Sorghum bicolour.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
78
83031
Crack Initiation Assessment during Fracture of Heat Treated Duplex Stainless Steels
Abstract:
Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are widely employed in industry for apparatus working with sea water in petroleum, refineries and in chemical plants. Fracture of DSS takes place by cleavage of the ferrite phase and the austenite phase ductile tear off. Pop-in is an important feature takes place during fracture of DSS. The procedure of Pop-ins assessment plays an important role in fracture toughness studies. In present work, Zeron100 DSS specimens were heat treated at different temperatures, cooled and pulled to failure to assess the pop-ins criterion in crack initiation prediction. The outcome results were compared to the British Standard (BS 7448) and the ASTEM standard (E1290) for Crack-Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness measurement. Pop-in took place during specimens loading specially for those specimens heat treated at higher temperatures. The standard BS7448 was followed to check specimen validity for fractured toughness assessment by direct determination of KIC. In most cases, specimens were invalid for KIC measurement. The two procedures were equivalent only when single pop-ins were assessed. A considerable contrast in fracture toughness value between was observed where multiple pop-ins were assessed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
77
82747
An Acyclic Zincgermylene: Rapid H₂ Activation
Authors:
Abstract:
Probably no other field of inorganic chemistry has undergone such a rapid development in the past two decades than the low oxidation state chemistry of main group elements. This rapid development has only been possible by the development of new bulky ligands. In case of our research group, super-bulky monodentate amido ligands and β-diketiminate ligands have been used to a great success. We first synthesized the unprecedented magnesium(I) dimer [ᴹᵉˢNacnacMg]₂ (ᴹᵉˢNacnac = [(ᴹᵉˢNCMe)₂CH]-; Mes = mesityl, which has since been used both as reducing agent and also for the synthesis of new metal-magnesium bonds. In case of the zinc bromide precursor [L*ZnBr] (L*=(N(Ar*)(SiPri₃); (Ar* = C₆H₂{C(H)Ph₂}₂Me-2,6,4, the reduction with [ᴹᵉˢNacnacMg]₂ led to such a metal-magnesium bond. This [L*ZnMg(ᴹᵉˢNacnac)] compound can be seen as an ‘inorganic Grignard reagent’, which can be used to transfer the metal fragment onto other functional groups or other metal centers; just like the conventional Grignard reagent. By simple addition of (TBoN)GeCl (TBoN = N(SiMe₃){B(DipNCH)₂) to the aforesaid compound, we were able to transfer the amido-zinc fragment to the Ge center of the germylene starting material and to synthesize the first example of a germanium(II)-zinc bond: [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)]. While these reactions typically led to complex product mixture, [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)] could be isolated as dark blue crystals in a good yield. This new compound shows interesting reactivity towards small molecules, especially dihydrogen gas. This is of special interest as dihydrogen is one of the more difficult small molecules to activate, due to its strong (BDE = 108 kcal/mol) and non-polar bond. In this context, the interaction between H₂ σ-bond with the tetrelylene p-Orbital (LUMO), with concomitant donation of the tetrelylene lone pair (HOMO) into the H₂ σ* orbital are responsible for the activation of dihydrogen gas. Accordingly, the narrower the HOMO-LUMO gap of tertelylene, the more reactivity towards H₂ it typically is. The aim of a narrow HOMO-LUMO gap was reached by transferring electropositive substituents respectively metal substituents with relatively low Pauling electronegativity (zinc: 1.65) onto the Ge center (here: the zinc-amido fragment). In consideration of the unprecedented reactivity of [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)], a computational examination of its frontier orbital energies was undertaken. The energy separation between the HOMO, which has significant Ge lone pair character, and the LUMO, which has predominantly Ge p-orbital character, is narrow (40.8 kcal/mol; cf.∆S-T= 24.8 kcal/mol), and comparable to the HOMO-LUMO gaps calculated for other literature known complexes). The calculated very narrow HOMO-LUMO gap for the [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)] complex is consistent with its high reactivity, and is remarkable considering that it incorporates a π-basic amide ligand, which are known to raise the LUMO of germylenes considerably.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
76
81650
Techno-Economic Assessments of Promising Chemicals from a Sugar Mill Based Biorefinery
Abstract:
Lignocellulose can be converted to a range of biochemicals and biofuels. Where this is derived from agricultural waste, issues of competition with food are virtually eliminated. One such source of lignocellulose is the South African sugar industry. Lignocellulose could be accessed by changes to the current farming practices and investments in more efficient boilers. The South African sugar industry is struggling due to falling sugar prices and increasing costs and it is proposed that annexing a biorefinery to a sugar mill will broaden the product range and improve viability. Process simulations of the selected chemicals were generated using Aspen Plus®. It was envisaged that a biorefinery would be annexed to a typical South African sugar mill. Bagasse would be diverted from the existing boilers to the biorefinery and mixed with harvest residues. This biomass would provide the feedstock for the biorefinery and the process energy for the biorefinery and sugar mill. Thus, in all scenarios a portion of the biomass was diverted to a new efficient combined heat and power plant (CHP). The Aspen Plus® simulations provided the mass and energy balance data to carry out an economic assessment of each scenarios. The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and minimum selling price (MSP) was calculated for each scenario. As a starting point scenarios were generated to investigate the production of ethanol, ethanol and lactic acid, ethanol and furfural, butanol, methanol, and Fischer-Tropsch syncrude. The bypass to the CHP plant is a useful indicator of the energy demands of the chemical processes. An iterative approach was used to identify a suitable bypass because increasing this value had the combined effect of increasing the amount of energy available and reducing the capacity of the chemical plant. Bypass values ranged from 30% for syncrude production to 50% for combined ethanol and furfural production. A hurdle rate of 15.7% was selected for the IRR. The butanol, combined ethanol and furfural, or the Fischer-Tropsch syncrude scenarios are unsuitable for investment with IRRs of 4.8%, 7.5% and 11.5% respectively. This provides valuable insights into research opportunities. For example furfural from sugarcane bagasse is an established process although the integration of furfural production with ethanol is less well understood. The IRR for the ethanol scenario was 14.7%, which is below the investment criteria, but given the technological maturity it may still be considered for investment. The scenarios which met the investment criteria were the combined ethanol and lactic acid, and the methanol scenarios with IRRs of 20.5% and 16.7%, respectively. These assessments show that the production of biochemicals from lignocellulose can be commercially viable. In addition, this assessment have provided valuable insights for research to improve the commercial viability of additional chemicals and scenarios. This has led to further assessments of the production of itaconic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, xylitol, polyhydroxybutyrate, polyethylene, glucaric acid and glutamic acid.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
75
81221
Investigation on the Properties of Particulate Reinforced AA2014 Metal Matrix Composite Materials Produced by Vacuum Infiltration Method
Abstract:
Particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites have gained more importance in automotive, aeronautical and defense industries due to their specific properties like as low density, high strength and stiffness, good fatigue strength, dimensional stability at high temperature and acceptable tribological properties. In this study, 2014 Aluminium alloy used as a matrix material and B₄C and SiC were selected as reinforcements components. For production of composites materials, vacuum infiltration method was used. In the experimental studies, the reinforcement volume ratios were defined by mixing as totally 10% B₄C and SiC. Aging treatment (T6) was applied to the specimens. The effect of T6 treatment on hardness was determined by using Brinell hardness test method. The effects of the aging treatment on microstructure and chemical structure were analysed by making XRD, SEM and EDS analysis on the specimens.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
74
80176
Treatment of Low-Grade Iron Ore Using Two Stage Wet High-Intensity Magnetic Separation Technique
Abstract:
This study investigates the removal of silica, alumina, and phosphorus as impurities from Sanje iron ore using wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Sanje iron ore is the low-grade hematite ore found in Nampundwe area of Zambia from which Iron is to be used as the feed in the steelmaking process. The chemical composition analysis using X-ray Florence spectrometer showed that Sanje ore contains 48.90 mass% of hematite (Fe₂O₃) with 34.18 mass% as iron grade. The ore also contains silica and alumina of 31.10 mass% and 7.65 mass% respectively. The mineralogical analysis using X-ray diffraction spectrometer showed hematite and silica as the major mineral components of the ore while magnetite and aluminates were indicated by fewer mineral phases. Mineral particle distribution analysis was done using scanning electron microscope with an X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry (SEM-EDS), and images showed that the average mineral size distribution of alumina-silicate gauge is in order of 100 μm and exists as iron bearing interlocked particles. Magnetic Separation was done using series L model 4 Magnetic Separator. The effect of various magnetic separation parameters such as magnetic flux density, particle size, pulp density of the feed was studied during magnetic separation experiments. The ore with average particle size of 25 µm and pulp density of 2.5% was concentrated using pulp flow of 7 L/min. The results showed that 10 T was optimal magnetic flux density which enhanced the recovery of 96.77% of iron with 53.22 mass% grade. The gauge mineral particles containing 12 mass% Silica and 3.94 mass% Alumna remained in the concentrate; therefore the concentrate was further treated in the second stage wet high-intensity magnetic separation using the same parameters as from the first stage. The second stage process recovered 98.85% of iron with 67.07 mass% grade. Silica was reduced to 2.14 mass% and alumina to 1.30 mass% with phosphorus just a percentage fraction of 0.02 mass% remaining in the concentrate. Therefore, the two-stage magnetic separation process was established using these results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
73
76828
Characterization of Penicillin V Acid and Its Related Compounds by HPLC
Abstract:
Background: Phenoxymethyl penicillin 'Penicillin V' is a narrow, bactericidal antibiotic of the betalactamin family of the naturally occurring penicillin group. It is limited to infections due to the germs defined as sensitive. Our present work deals with the identification and characterization of the active pharmaceutical ingredient Penicillin V acid and its related substances by HPLC. Methods: Penicillin V acid was identified by an infrared absorption using Spectrum One FTIR spectrometer. The organoleptic characteristics, pH, and determination of water content by the Karl Fischer method were also studied. The determination of its purity, identification and the dosage of related substances of Penicillin were carried out using a Waters HPLC, equipped with a UV detector at 254 nm and Discovery HS C18 column (250 mm X 4.6 mm X 5 µm) which is maintained at room temperature. The flow rate was about 1 ml per min. A mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (65:35:01) was used as mobile phase for phenoxyacetic acid ‘impurity B” and a mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (650:150:5.75) for the assay and 4-hydroxypenicillin V 'impurity D'. Results: The identification of Penicillin V acid active substance and the evaluation of its chemical quality showed conformity with USP 35th edition. The percentage content of Penicillin V acid calculated was about 1692.22 UI/mg. The percentage content of phenoxyacetic acid and 4-hydroxypenicillin V was respectively: 0.035% and 0.323%. Conclusion: Our drug substance is therefore consistent with the standards required by the US pharmacopeia, reflecting its good physicochemical quality.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
72
70312
Effect of Particle Size Variations on the Tribological Properties of Porcelain Waste Added Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
Epoxy based materials have advantages in tribological applications due to their unique properties such as light weight, self-lubrication capacity and wear resistance. On the other hand, their usage is often limited by their low load bearing capacity and low thermal conductivity values. In this study, it is aimed to improve tribological and also mechanical properties of epoxy by reinforcing with ceramic based porcelain waste. It is well-known that the reuse or recycling of waste materials leads to reduction in production costs, ease of manufacturing, saving energy, etc. From this perspective, epoxy and epoxy matrix composites containing 60wt% porcelain waste with different particle size in the range of below 90µm and 150-250µm were fabricated, and the effect of filler particle size on the mechanical and tribological properties was investigated. The microstructural characterization was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and phase analysis was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Archimedes principle was used to measure the density and porosity of the samples. The hardness values were measured using Shore-D hardness, and bending tests were performed. Microstructural investigations indicated that porcelain particles were homogeneously distributed and no agglomerations were encountered in the epoxy resin. Mechanical test results showed that the hardness and bending strength were increased with increasing particle size related to low porosity content and well embedding to the matrix. Tribological behavior of these composites was evaluated in terms of friction, wear rates and wear mechanisms by ball-on-disk contact with dry and rotational sliding at room temperature against WC ball with a diameter of 3mm. Wear tests were carried out at room temperature (23–25°C) with a humidity of 40 ± 5% under dry-sliding conditions. The contact radius of cycles was set to 5 mm at linear speed of 30 cm/s for the geometry used in this study. In all the experiments, 3N of constant test load was applied at a frequency of 8 Hz and prolonged to 400m wear distance. The friction coefficient of samples was recorded online by the variation in the tangential force. The steady-state CoFs were changed in between 0,29-0,32. The dimensions of the wear tracks (depth and width) were measured as two-dimensional profiles by a stylus profilometer. The wear volumes were calculated by integrating these 2D surface areas over the diameter. Specific wear rates were computed by dividing the wear volume by the applied load and sliding distance. According to the experimental results, the use of porcelain waste in the fabrication of epoxy resin composites can be suggested to be potential materials due to allowing improved mechanical and tribological properties and also providing reduction in production cost.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
71
68756
Free Radical Scavenging Potency of Guava (Psidiumguajava) Fruit from District Khairpur Mir’S
Abstract:
The district Khairpur Mir’s, Pakistan was focus of our research and two stages (i.e. semi ripening and post ripening stages) of guava (Psidiumguajava) fruits were selected from each area on the basis of their variable genotype in terms of size, color and ripening stage. After the vigorous sample collection, physical parameters (weight, length, diameter, volume, density and moisture content of the fruit) were calculated and tabulated comprehensively and all the physical parameters were found to be least for semi ripening stage compared to post ripening stage. The pH values obtained for semi ripening stages were more acidic than post ripening stages which stated that pH increased from semi to post ripening stage of guava fruit. A total of six (06) extracts were made by using different solvents (water, methanol and water:methanol). The qualitative analysis were performed to examine different class of compounds i.e. anthroquinone, flavonoids, phenols, steriods and Tri-terpenoids presents. The free radical scavenging potency of all the extracts was determined by using DPPH and hydroxyl method using ascorbic acid as standard. In general the IC50 values calculated by DPPH assay were found to be less than that of hydroxyl method. It has been found that all the extracts had impressive antioxidant potency, but between them semi ripening stage of guava fruit revealed greater extent of potency to pair up free radicals by using DPPH assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
70
68754
Fabrication of Zeolite Modified Cu Doped ZnO Films and Their Response towards Nitrogen Monoxide
Abstract:
Breath analysis represents a promising non-invasive, fast and cost-effective alternative to well-established diagnostic and monitoring techniques such as blood analysis, endoscopy, ultrasonic and tomographic monitoring. Portable, non-invasive, and low-cost breath analysis devices are becoming increasingly desirable for monitoring different diseases, especially asthma. Beacuse of this, NO gas sensing at low concentrations has attracted progressive attention for clinical analysis in asthma. Recently, nanomaterials based sensors are considered to be a promising clinical and laboratory diagnostic tool, because its large surface–to–volume ratio, controllable structure, easily tailored chemical and physical properties, which bring high sensitivity, fast dynamic processand even the increasing specificity. Among various nanomaterials, semiconducting metal oxides are extensively studied gas-sensing materials and are potential sensing elements for breathanalyzer due to their high sensitivity, simple design, low cost and good stability.The sensitivities of metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors can be enhanced by adding noble metals. Doping contents, distribution, and size of metallic or metal oxide catalysts are key parameters for enhancing gas selectivity as well as sensitivity. By manufacturing doping MOS structures, it is possible to develop more efficient sensor sensing layers. Zeolites are perhaps the most widely employed group of silicon-based nanoporous solids. Their well-defined pores of sub nanometric size have earned them the name of molecular sieves, meaning that operation in the size exclusion regime is possible by selecting, among over 170 structures available, the zeolite whose pores allow the pass of the desired molecule, while keeping larger molecules outside.In fact it is selective adsorption, rather than molecular sieving, the mechanism that explains most of the successful gas separations achieved with zeolite membranes. In view of their molecular sieving and selective adsorption properties, it is not surprising that zeolites have found use in a number of works dealing with gas sensing devices. In this study, the Cu doped ZnO nanostructure film was produced by SILAR method and investigated the NO gas sensing properties. To obtain the selectivity of the sample, the gases including CO,NH3,H2 and CH4 were detected to compare with NO. The maximum response is obtained at 85 C for 20 ppb NO gas. The sensor shows high response to NO gas. However, acceptable responses are calculated for CO and NH3 gases. Therefore, there are no responses obtain for H2 and CH4 gases. Enhanced to selectivity, Cu doped ZnO nanostructure film was coated with zeolite A thin film. It is found that the sample possess an acceptable response towards NO hardly respond to CO, NH3, H2 and CH4 at room temperature. This difference in the response can be expressed in terms of differences in the molecular structure, the dipole moment, strength of the electrostatic interaction and the dielectric constant. The as-synthesized thin film is considered to be one of the extremely promising candidate materials in electronic nose applications. This work is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBİTAK) under Project No, 115M658 and Gazi University Scientific Research Fund under project no 05/2016-21.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
69
68217
Determining the Electrospinning Parameters of Poly(ε-Caprolactone)
Abstract:
Electrospinning is a versatile way to occur fibers at nano-scale and polycaprolactone is a biomedical material which has a wide usage in cartilage defects and tissue regeneration. PCL is biocompatible and durable material which can be used in bio-implants. Therefore, electrospinning process was chosen as a fabrication method to get PCL fibers in an effective way because of its significant adjustments. In this research study, electrospinning parameters was evaluated during the producing of polymer tissue scaffolds. Polycaprolactone’s molecular weight was 80.000 Da and was employed as a tissue material in the electrospinning process. PCL was decomposed in dimethylformamid(DMF) and chloroform(CF) with the weight ratio of 1:1. Different compositions (1%, 3%, 5%, 10% and 20 %) of PCL was prepared in the laboratory conditions. All solvents with different percentages of PCL have been taken into the syringe and loaded into the electrospinning system. In electrospinning dozens of trial were applied to get homogeneously uniform scaffold samples. Taylor cone which is crucial point for electrospinning characteristic was occurred and changed in different voltages up to the material compositions’ conductivity. While the PCL percentages were increasing in the electrospinning, structure started to arise with droplets, which was an expressive problem for tissue scaffold. The vertical and horizontal layouts were applied to produce non-woven structures at all.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
68
68215
Reducing the Chemical Activity of Ceramic Casting Molds for Producing Decorated Glass Moulds
Abstract:
Ceramic molding can produce castings with fine detail, smooth surface and high degree of dimensional accuracy. All these features are the key factors for producing decorated glass moulds. In the ceramic mold casting process, the fundamental parameters affecting the mold-metal reactions are the composition and the properties of the refractory materials used in the production of ceramic mold. As a result of the reactions taking place between the liquid metal and mold surface, it is not possible to achieve a perfect surface quality, a fine surface detail and maintain a high standard dimensional tolerances. The present research examines the effects of the binder composition on the structural and physical properties of the zircon ceramic mold. In the experiment, the ceramic slurry was prepared by mixing the refractory powders (zircon(ZrSiO4), mullit(3Al2O32SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3)) with the low alkaline silica (ethyl silicate (C8H20O4Si)) and acidic type gelling material suitable binder and gelling agent. This was followed by pouring that ceramic slurry on to a silicon pattern. After being gelled, the mold was removed from the silicon pattern and dried. Then, the ceramic mold was subjected to the reaction sintering at 1600°C for 2 hours in the furnace. The stainless steel (SS) was cast into the sintered ceramic mold. At the end of this process it was observed that the surface quality of decorated glass mold.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
67
66999
Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste
Abstract:
The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g-1 and 10.7 mg.g-1, respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and could be also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
66
64776
Ni-W-P Alloy Coating as an Alternate to Electroplated Hard Cr Coating
Abstract:
Electroplated hard chromium is widely known in coatings and surface finishing, automobile and aerospace industries because of its excellent hardness, wear resistance and corrosion properties. However, its precursor, Cr+6 is highly carcinogenic in nature and a consensus has been adopted internationally to eradicate this coating technology with an alternative one. The search for alternate coatings to electroplated hard chrome is continuing worldwide. Various alloys and nanocomposites like Co-W alloys, Ni-Graphene, Ni-diamond nanocomposites etc. have already shown promising results in this regard. Basically, in this study, electroless Ni-P alloys with excellent corrosion resistance was taken as the base matrix and incorporation of tungsten as third alloying element was considered to improve the hardness and wear resistance of the resultant alloy coating. The present work is focused on the preparation of Ni–W–P coatings by electrodeposition with different content of phosphorous and its effect on the electrochemical, mechanical and tribological performances. The results were also compared with Ni-W alloys. Composition analysis by EDS showed deposition of Ni-32.85 wt% W-3.84 wt% P (designated as Ni-W-LP) and Ni-18.55 wt% W-8.73 wt% P (designated as Ni-W-HP) alloy coatings from electrolytes containing of 0.006 and 0.01M sodium hypophosphite respectively. Inhibition of tungsten deposition in the presence of phosphorous was noted. SEM investigation showed cauliflower like growth along with few microcracks. The as-deposited Ni-W-P alloy coating was amorphous in nature as confirmed by XRD investigation and step-wise crystallization was noticed upon annealing at higher temperatures. For all the coatings, the nanohardness was found to increase after heat-treatment and typical nanonahardness values obtained for 400°C annealed samples were 18.65±0.20 GPa, 20.03±0.25 GPa, and 19.17±0.25 for alloy coatings Ni-W, Ni-W-LP and Ni-W-HP respectively. Therefore, the nanohardness data show very promising results. Wear and coefficient of friction data were recorded by applying a different normal load in reciprocating motion using a ball on plate geometry. Post experiment, the wear mechanism was established by detail investigation of wear-scar morphology. Potentiodynamic measurements showed coating with a high content of phosphorous was most corrosion resistant in 3.5wt% NaCl solution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
65
64389
Reorientation of Anisotropic Particles in Free Liquid Microjets
Abstract:
Thin liquid jets on micrometer scale play an important role in processing such as in fiber fabrication, inkjet printing, but also for sample delivery in modern synchrotron X-ray devices. In all these cases the liquid jets contain solvents and dissolved materials such as polymers, nanoparticles, fibers pigments or proteins. As liquid flow in liquid jets differs significantly from flow in capillaries and microchannels, particle localization and orientation will also be different. This is of critical importance for applications, which depend on well-defined homogeneous particle and fiber distribution and orientation in liquid jets. Investigations of particle orientation in liquid microjets of diluted solutions have been rare, despite their importance. With the arise of micro-focused X-ray beams it has become possible to scan across samples with micrometer resolution to locally analyse structure and orientation of the samples. In the present work, we used this method to scan across liquid microjets to determine the local distribution and orientation of anisotropic particles. The compromise wormlike block copolymer micelles as an example of long flexible fibrous structures, hectorite materials as a model of extended nanosheet structures, and gold nanorods as an illustration of short stiff cylinders to comprise all relevant anisotropic geometries. We find that due to the different velocity profile in the liquid jet, which resembles plug flow, the orientation of the particles which was generated in the capillary is lost or changed into non-oriented or bi-axially orientations depending on the geometrical shape of the particle.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
64
62892
Liquid Phase Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Powder Metallurgy Stainless Steel
Abstract:
Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a feasible means for decreasing the porosity of powder metallurgy (PM) Fe-based material without substantially increase the production cost. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 0.6 wt% boron on the densification of PM 304L stainless steel by LPS. The results indicated that the increase in the sintered density of 304L+0.6B steel is obvious after 1250 ºC sintering, and eutectic structures with borides are observed at the interfaces of the raw steel powders. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show that liquid is generated at 1244ºC during sintering. The boride in the eutectic structure is rich in boron and chromium atoms and is deficient in nickel atoms, as identified by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Furthermore, the sintered densities of 304L and 304L+0.6B steels sintered at 1300 ºC are 6.99 g/cm3 and 7.69 g/cm3, respectively, indicating that boron is a suitable alloying element for facilitating LPS of PM 304L stainless steel.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
63
58770
Separation of Copper(II) and Iron(III) by Solvent Extraction and Membrane Processes with Ionic Liquids as Carriers
Abstract:
Separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions is important as well as difficult process in hydrometallurgical technology. This process is necessary for obtaining of clean metals. Solvent extraction and membrane processes are well known as separation methods. Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) are very often applied and studied as extractants and carriers of metal ions from aqueous solutions due to their good extractability properties for various metals. This work discusses a method to separate copper(II) and iron(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by solvent extraction and transport across polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) with the selected ionic liquids as extractants/ion carriers. Cyphos IL 101 (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride), Cyphos IL 104 (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4 trimethylpentyl)phosphi-nate), trioctylmethylammonium thiosalicylate [A336][TS] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium thiosalicylate [PR4][TS] were used for the investigations. Effect of different parameters such as hydrochloric acid concentration in aqueous phase on iron(III) and copper(II) extraction has been investigated. Cellulose triacetate membranes with the selected ionic liquids as carriers have been prepared and applied for transport of iron(IIII) and copper(II) from hydrochloric acid solutions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
62
57911
Recycling the Lanthanides from Permanent Magnets by Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquid
Abstract:
Thanks to their high magnetization and low mass, permanent magnets (NdFeB and SmCo) have quickly became essential for new energies (wind turbines, electrical vehicles…). They contain large quantities of neodymium, samarium and dysprosium, that have been recently classified as critical elements and that therefore need to be recycled. Electrochemical processes including electrodissolution followed by electrodeposition are an elegant and environmentally friendly solution for the recycling of such lanthanides contained in permanent magnets. However, electrochemistry of the lanthanides is a real challenge as their standard potentials are highly negative (around -2.5V vs ENH). Consequently, non-aqueous solvents are required. Ionic liquids (IL) are novel electrolytes exhibiting physico-chemical properties that fulfill many requirements of the sustainable chemistry principles, such as extremely low volatility and non-flammability. Furthermore, their chemical and electrochemical properties (solvation of metallic ions, large electrochemical windows, etc.) render them very attractive media to implement alternative and sustainable processes in view of integrated processes. All experiments that will be presented were carried out using butyl-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. Linear sweep, cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic electrochemical techniques were used. The reliability of electrochemical experiments, performed without glove box, for the classic three electrodes cell used in this study has been assessed. Deposits were obtained by chronoamperometry and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The IL cathodic behavior under different constraints (argon, nitrogen, oxygen atmosphere or water content) and using several electrode materials (Pt, Au, GC) shows that with argon gas flow and gold as a working electrode, the cathodic potential can reach the maximum value of -3V vs Fc+/Fc; thus allowing a possible reduction of lanthanides. On a gold working electrode, the reduction potential of samarium and neodymium was found to be -1.8V vs Fc+/Fc while that of dysprosium was -2.1V vs Fc+/Fc. The individual deposits obtained were found to be porous and presented some significant amounts of C, N, F, S and O atoms. Selective deposition of neodymium in presence of dysprosium was also studied and will be discussed. Next, metallic Sm, Nd and Dy electrodes were used in replacement of Au, which induced changes in the reduction potential values and the deposit structures of lanthanides. The individual corrosion potentials were also measured in order to determine the parameters influencing the electrodissolution of these metals. Finally, a full recycling process was investigated. Electrodissolution of a real permanent magnet sample was monitored kinetically. Then, the sequential electrodeposition of all lanthanides contained in the IL was investigated. Yields, quality of the deposits and consumption of chemicals will be discussed in depth, in view of the industrial feasibility of this process for real permanent magnets recycling.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
61
57906
Li2S Nanoparticles Impact on the First Charge of Li-ion/Sulfur Batteries: An Operando XAS/XES Coupled With XRD Analysis
Abstract:
With their high theoretical energy density (~2600 Wh.kg-1), lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries are highly promising, but these systems are still poorly understood due to the complex mechanisms/equilibria involved. Replacing S8 by Li2S as the active material allows the use of safer negative electrodes, like silicon, instead of lithium metal. S8 and Li2S have different conductivity and solubility properties, resulting in a profoundly changed activation process during the first cycle. Particularly, during the first charge a high polarization and a lack of reproducibility between tests are observed. Differences observed between raw Li2S material (micron-sized) and that electrochemically produced in a battery (nano-sized) may indicate that the electrochemical process depends on the particle size. Then the major focus of the presented work is to deepen the understanding of the Li2S material charge mechanism, and more precisely to characterize the effect of the initial Li2S particle size both on the mechanism and the electrode preparation process. To do so, Li2S nanoparticles were synthetized according to two ways: a liquid path synthesis and a dissolution in ethanol, allowing Li2S nanoparticles/carbon composites to be made. Preliminary chemical and electrochemical tests show that starting with Li2S nanoparticles could effectively suppress the high initial polarization but also influence the electrode slurry preparation. Indeed, it has been shown that classical formulation process - a slurry composed of Polyvinylidone Fluoride polymer dissolved in N-methyle-2-pyrrolidone - cannot be used with Li2S nanoparticles. This reveals a complete different Li2S material behavior regarding polymers and organic solvents when going at the nanometric scale. Then the coupling between two operando characterizations such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy (XAS/XES) have been carried out in order to interpret the poorly understood first charge. This study discloses that initial particle size of the active material has a great impact on the working mechanism and particularly on the different equilibria involved during the first charge of the Li2S based Li-ion batteries. These results explain the electrochemical differences and particularly the polarization differences observed during the first charge between micrometric and nanometric Li2S-based electrodes. Finally, this work could lead to a better active material design and so to more efficient Li2S-based batteries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
60
43558
Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity by Non-Destructive Method of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Abstract:
Plain, unreinforced concrete is a brittle material, with a low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. In order to improve the inherent tensile strength of concrete there is a need of multi directional and closely spaced reinforcement, which can be provided in the form of randomly distributed fibers. Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is a composite material consisting of cement, sand, coarse aggregate, water and fibers. In this composite material, short discrete fibers are randomly distributed throughout the concrete mass. The behavioral efficiency of this composite material is far superior to that of plain concrete and many other construction materials of equal cost. The present experimental study considers the effect of steel fibers and polypropylene fiber on the modulus of elasticity of concrete. Hook end steel fibers of length 5 cm and 3 cm at volume fraction of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.% were used. Also polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm at volume fraction 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 % were used. Fifteen mixtures has been prepared to evaluate the effect of fiber on modulus of elasticity of concrete. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and resonant frequency methods which are two non-destructive testing techniques have been used to measure the elastic properties of fiber reinforced concrete. This study found that ultrasonic wave propagation is the most reliable, easy and cost effective testing technique to use in the determination of the elastic properties of the FRC mix used in this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
59
41603
Magnetic Solvent Extraction Using Nanoparticles Coated by Oleic Acid
Abstract:
In solvent extraction operations, large sedimentation areas in the mixer-settler are required when the disengagement of the aqueous and the organic phases is slow and/or difficult. The use of a magnetic organic liquid (also known as ferrofluid), consisting of magnetite nanoparticles coated by oleic acid dispersed in the organic diluent, has proven successful to speed up phase disengagement. The method, however, has never been used industrially; therefore, the aim of this study is to raise its main limitations. Tests were carried out using a ferrofluid containing 30 g/l of magnetite dissolved in commercial aliphatic kerosene Exxsol D80. The efficiency of cobalt extraction ([Co] = 1 g/l) with 10% v/v Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) at changing pH of the aqueous phase (2 to 7) was found unaffected in the conditions studied. However, the chemical resistance of the ferrofluid in contact with deionized water at changing acidity (from 10-7 to 2 mol/l) revealed that the nanoparticles are not resistant when contacted to aqueous solutions with a pH ≤ 2. Such result represents a serious limitation to the applicability of the method mainly to hydrometallurgical systems because solvent extraction operations are normally done in acid conditions, therefore more effective strategies to coat the particles are required.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
58
41602
Selective Solvent Extraction of Calcium and Magnesium from Concentrate Nickel Solutions Using Mixtures of Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA
Abstract:
The performance of organophosphorus extractants Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA on the purification of concentrate nickel sulfate solutions was evaluated. Batch scale tests were carried out at pH range of 2 to 7 using a laboratory solution simulating concentrate nickel liquors as those typically obtained when sulfate intermediates from nickel laterite are re-leached and treated for the selective removal of cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper with Cyanex 272 ([Ca] = 0.57 g/L, [Mg] = 3.2 g/L, and [Ni] = 88 g/L). The increase on the concentration of D2EHPA favored the calcium extraction. The extraction of magnesium is dependent on the pH and of ratio of extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 in the organic phase. The composition of the investigated organic phase did not affect nickel extraction. The number of stages is dependent on the magnesium extraction. The most favorable operating condition to selectively remove calcium and magnesium was determined.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
57
37077
Recovery of Zn from Different Çinkur Leach Residues by Acidic Leaching
Abstract:
Çinkur is the only plant in Turkey that produces zinc from primary ore containing zinc carbonate from its establishment until 1997. After this year, zinc concentrate coming from Iran was used in this plant. Therefore, there are two different leach residues namely Turkish leach residue (TLR) and Iranian leach residue (ILR), in Çinkur stock piles. This paper describes zinc recovery by sulphuric acid (H2SO4) treatment for each leach residue and includes comparison of blended of TLR and ILR. Before leach experiments; chemical, mineralogical and thermal analysis of three different leach residues was carried out by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), respectively. Leaching experiments were conducted at optimum conditions; 100 oC, 150 g/L H2SO4 and 2 hours. In the experiments, stirring rate was kept constant at 600 r/min which ensures complete mixing in leaching solution. Results show that zinc recovery for Iranian LR was higher than Turkish LR due to having different chemical composition from each other.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
56
35968
Optical and Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Co-Ni Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films
Abstract:
We investigate the structural, optical and magnetic properties of TiO2, Co-doped TiO2, Ni-doped TiO2 and Co-Ni co-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip coating method. Fully anatase phase was obtained by adding metal ions without any detectable impurity phase or oxide formed. AFM and SEM micrographs clearly confirm that the addition of Co-Ni affects the shape of anatase nanoparticles. The crystallite sizes and surface roughness of TiO2 films increase with Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping, respectively. The refractive index, thickness and optical band gap values of the films were obtained by means of optical transmittance spectra measurements. The band gap of TiO2 sample was decreased by Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping TiO2 films. Both undoped and Co-Ni co-doped films were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature may due to the presence of oxygen vacancy defect and the probable formation of metal clusters Co-Ni.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
55
35911
An Experimental Analysis of Squeeze Casting Parameters for 2017 a Wrought Al Alloy
Abstract:
A Taguchi design investigation has been made into the relationship between the ductility and process variables in a squeeze cast 2017A wrought aluminium alloy. The considered process parameters were: squeeze pressure, melt temperature and die preheating temperature. An orthogonal array (OA), main effect, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to analyze the effect of casting parameters. The results have shown that the selected parameters significantly affect the ductility of 2017A wrought Al alloy castings. Optimal squeeze cast process parameters were provided to illustrate the proposed approach and the results were proven to be trustworthy through practical experiments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
54
33980
Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Applications for Textile
Authors:
Abstract:
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are different from other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond and fullerene. Replacement of metals in flexible textiles has an advantage. Particularly in the last decade, both their electrical and mechanical properties have become an area of interest for Li-ion battery applications where the conductivity has a major importance. While carbon nanotubes are conductive, they are also less in weight compared to convectional conductive materials. Carbon nanotubes can be used inside the fiber so they can offer to create 3-D structures. In this review, you can find some examples of how carbon nanotubes adapted to textile products.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
53
29049
Correlation of Material Mechanical Characteristics Obtained by Means of Standardized and Miniature Test Specimens
Abstract:
New methods of mechanical testing were developed recently that are based on making use of miniature test specimens (e.g. Small Punch Test). The most important advantage of these method is the nearly non-destructive withdrawal of test material and small size of test specimen what is interesting in cases of remaining lifetime assessment when a sufficient volume of the representative material cannot be withdrawn of the component in question. In opposite, the most important disadvantage of such methods stems from the necessity to correlate test results with the results of standardised test procedures and to build up a database of material data in service. The correlations among the miniature test specimen data and the results of standardised tests are necessary. The paper describes the results of fatigue tests performed on miniature tests specimens in comparison with traditional fatigue tests for several steels applied in power producing industry. Special miniature test specimens fixtures were designed and manufactured for the purposes of fatigue testing at the Zwick/Roell 10HPF5100 testing machine. The miniature test specimens were produced of the traditional test specimens. Seven different steels were fatigue loaded (R = 0.1) at room temperature.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
52
28202
Effect of Boric Acid Content on the Structural and Optical Properties of In2O3 Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique
Abstract:
Boron doped of In2O3 films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique at 350 °C substrate temperature, which is a low cost and large area technique to be well-suited for the manufacture of solar cells, using boric acid (H3BO3) as dopant source, and their properties were investigated as a function of doping concentration. X-ray analysis showed that the films were polycrystalline fitting well with a hexagonal structure and have preferred orientation in (220) direction. The changes observed in the energy band gap and structural properties of the films related to the boric acid concentration are discussed in detail.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):