Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48505

Educational and Pedagogical Sciences

1719
84462
A Chronological and Comparative Examination of Traditional American Post-Secondary Institutions of Higher Learning Delivery of Instruction for College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Abstract:
Post-secondary schools that provide specialized instruction for college students with special needs have been in existence for some time in the United States of America. Whether students experience learning disabilities, visual impairments, physical limitations, Autism Spectrum Disorders or any other issue that impacts their learning are able to attend universities that intentionally cater to their needs. While this selection of post-secondary education may be preferred by some students, other have sought a different experience. Over the last ten years, the number of students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) attending traditional universities in the United States of America has increased significantly. Students with ASD tend to select smaller, private institutions that appear to offer more personal attention and services. This paper will examine how traditional American universities are preparing for this relatively new group of students in their college classrooms. This paper will provide a brief historical timeline of access to university instruction for students with Autism Spectrum Disorders, and how and if students with ASD are received in colleges around the globe, and best research supported practices for success.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1718
84185
The Role of Professional Teacher Development in Introducing Trilingual Education into the Secondary School Curriculum: Lessons from Kazakhstan, Central Asia
Abstract:
Kazakhstan, a post-Soviet economy located in the Central Asia, is making great efforts to internationalize its national system of education. The country is very ambitious in making the national economy internationally competitive and education has become one of the main pillars of the nation’s strategic development plan for 2030. This paper discusses the role of professional teacher development in upgrading the secondary education curriculum with the introduction of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in grades 10-11 grades. Having Kazakh as the state language and Russian as the official language, English bears a status of foreign language in the country. The development of trilingual education is very high on the agenda of the Ministry of Education and Science. It is planned that by 2019 STEM-related subjects – Biology, Chemistry, Computing and Physics – will be taught in EMI. Introducing English-medium education appears to be a very drastic reform and the teaching cadre is the key driver here. At the same time, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the teaching profession is still struggling to become attractive in the eyes of the local youth. Moreover, the quality of Kazakhstan’s secondary education is put in question by OECD national review reports. The paper presents a case study of the nation-wide professional development programme arranged for 5 010 school teachers so that they could be able to teach their content subjects in English starting from 2019 onwards. The study is based on the mixed methods research involving the data derived from the surveys and semi-structured interviews held with the programme participants, i.e. school teachers. The findings of the study imply the significance of the school teachers’ attitudes towards the top-down reform of trilingual education. The qualitative research data reveal the teachers’ beliefs about advantages and disadvantages of having their content subjects (e.g. Biology or Chemistry) taught in EMI. The study highlights teachers’ concerns about their professional readiness to implement the top-down reform of English-medium education and discusses possible risks of academic underperforming on the part of students whose English language proficiency is not advanced. This paper argues that for the effective implementation of the English-medium education in secondary schools, the state should adopt a comprehensive approach to upgrading the national academic system where teachers’ attitudes and beliefs play the key role in making the trilingual education policy effective. The study presents lessons for other national academic systems considering to transfer its secondary education to English as a medium of instruction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1717
84166
Significance of Personnel Recruitment in Implementation of Computer Aided Design Curriculum of Architecture Schools
Abstract:
The inclusion of relevant content in curricula of architecture schools is vital for attainment of Computer Aided Design (CAD) proficiency by graduates. Implementing this content involves, among other variables, the presence of competent tutors. Consequently, this study sought to investigate the importance of personnel recruitment for inclusion of content vital to the implementation of CAD in the curriculum for architecture education. This was with a view to developing a framework for appropriate implementation of CAD curriculum. It was focused on departments of architecture in universities in south-east Nigeria which have been accredited by National Universities Commission. Survey research design was employed. Data were obtained from sources within the study area using questionnaires, personal interviews, physical observation/enumeration and examination of institutional documents. A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was adopted. The first stage of stratification involved random sampling by balloting of the departments. The second stage involved obtaining respondents’ population from the number of staff and students of sample population. Chi Square analysis tool for nominal variables and Pearson’s product moment correlation test for interval variables were used for data analysis. With ρ < 0.5, the study found significant correlation between the number of CAD literate academic staff and use of CAD in design studio/assignments; that increase in the overall number of teaching staff significantly affected total CAD credit units in the curriculum of the department. The implications of these findings were that for successful implementation leading to attainment of CAD proficiency to occur, CAD-literacy should be a factor in the recruitment of staff and a policy of in-house training should be pursued.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1716
84003
Factors Influencing the Roles and Responsibilities of Middle Leaders in Saudi and English Primary Schools: A Comparative Critical Study
Abstract:
The role of middle leaders, especially in primary schools, is a multi-faced role that has been subject to changes in nature over recent decades, with claims for more distributed leadership practices. This research examines the way 18 middle leaders in Saudi and English primary schools conceptualise their roles and responsibilities, and different factors influencing those roles and responsibilities. It begins from the premise that both the power of the role and the values of middle leaders are grounded in cultural and political bases, a belief held by the researcher as an 'insider' within the Saudi educational leadership context. The study consisted of a comparative analysis of the role and the responsibilities of middle leaders in Saudi primary schools and their equivalents in English primary schools. A purely qualitative methodological stance was adopted, using in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Middle leaders were asked to reflect deeply on their perceptions and understanding of their roles and explain what they thought influenced their daily practices and responsibilities. The findings suggest that the concept of middle leadership has been influenced by power imposed from above by political authority, via internal and external hierarchical structures, which shapes the nature of the role of the middle leaders and forces them to comply. Middle leaders seem to believe they have the power to make decisions and promote change, but these findings suggest that this is illusory. The power that keeps middle leaders performing is the power of their cultural and religious values. Those values are the resource to which they turn in their search for more energy when they lack support and are short of time taken. Middle leaders in Saudi, just like their equivalents in English schools must comply with the requirements of their role. However, Saudi middle leaders are given no leeway to make decisions or implement change, neither do they have the culture of collegiality that seems to give middle leaders in England more power over their resources and decisions. However, in neither educational setting have middle leaders been given the power to lead, so they remain managers rather than leaders. The findings of this research suggest that there are more similarities between the educational settings of Saudi and England than differences; and in the light of different factors identified in the study, suggest the establishment of a framework for middle leadership, in the hope of enhancing the way the role is practiced.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1715
83759
The Engagement of Students with Learning Disabilities in Regular Public Primary School in Indonesia
Abstract:
Learning Disabilities (LDs) are less understood by the Indonesia’s educational practitioners. As a result, students with LDs are at risk of being outcast from the learning process that requires participation, which potentially disconnects them academically and socially. Its objective is to raise the voice of students with LDs regarding their engagement in the classroom. This research is conducted in two urban regular public primary schools in Indonesia. The study uses an ethnographic case study research design, which explores the views and experiences of four (4) students with LDs. The data were collected using participant observations and interviews. The preliminary findings highlighted two areas: 1) the stigmatization about LDs; and 2) perceived membership. Having LDs was a barrier to fully engage in the academic and social life. Interestingly, they were more likely dependent on each other for support as limited assistance was offered by teachers and peers. Their peers did not take a keen interest in helping them when they found difficulties with the assignments. Furthermore, due to their low academic performance, they were not in favor of being nominated as a group member. In a situation that required them to do a group assignment, they were not expected to give a contribution, positioning themselves as incompatible. These findings indicated that such practices legitimate the hegemony of the superior over those who are powerless and left behind.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1714
83637
Educational Experience and the Investigation Results: Creation of New Healthy Products
Abstract:
In the last decades, teaching in particular engineering subjects is going through a significative problem. A quick evaluation of the entrepreneurial surroundings makes it more difficult for students to identify the course contents with real situations related with their future professions. Proposing teaching through challenges or problem-based projects, and real-life situations is turning into an important challenge for any university-level educator. The objective of this work is to present the educational experience and the investigation results taken through the Project Viability course, done by a group of professors and students from the Technologic of Monterrey. Currently, in Mexico, the orange peels are considered a dispose and they are not being utilized as an alternative to create subproducts. However, there is a great opportunity in its use as a raw material with the goal to originate the waste from the local citric firms or business. The project challenge consisted in the development of edible products from the orange peel with the intention to generate new healthy products. With this project, apart from the obtainment of the original results, the accomplishment consisted in creating a learning atmosphere, where students together with the professors were able to plan, evaluate, and implement the project related with the creative, innovative, and sustainable processes with the goal to apply it in the development of local solutions. In the present article, the pedagogic methodologies that allowed to carry out this project will be discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1713
83551
Building the Professional Readiness of Graduates from Day One: An Empirical Approach to Curriculum Continuous Improvement
Abstract:
Industry employers require new graduates to bring with them a range of knowledge, skills, and abilities which mean these new employees can immediately make valuable work contributions. These will be a combination of discipline and professional knowledge, skills and abilities which give graduates the technical capabilities to solve practical problems whilst interacting with a range of stakeholders. Underpinning the development of these discipline and professional knowledge, skills, and abilities, are 'enabling' knowledge, skills, and abilities which assist students to engage in learning. These are academic and learning skills which are essential common starting points for both the learning process of students entering the course as well as forming the foundation for the fully developed graduate knowledge, skills, and abilities. This paper reports on a project created to introduce and strengthen these enabling skills into the first semester of a Bachelor of Information Technology degree in an Australian polytechnic. The project uses an action research approach in the context of ongoing continuous improvement for the course to enhance the overall learning experience, learning sequencing, graduate outcomes, and most importantly, in the first semester, student engagement and retention. The focus of this is implementing the new curriculum in first semester subjects of the course with the aim of developing the 'enabling' learning skills, such as literacy, research, and numeracy based knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs). The approach used for the introduction and embedding of these KSAs, (as both enablers of learning and to underpin graduate attribute development), is presented. Building on previous publications which reported different aspects of this longitudinal study, this paper recaps on the rationale for the curriculum redevelopment and then presents the quantitative findings of entering students’ reading literacy and numeracy knowledge and skills degree as well as their perceived research ability. The paper presents the methodology and findings for this stage of the research. Overall, the cohort exhibits mixed KSA levels in these areas, with a relatively low aggregated score. In addition, the paper describes the considerations for adjusting the design and delivery of the new subjects with a targeted learning experience, in response to the feedback gained through continuous monitoring. Such a strategy aimed at accommodating the changing learning needs of the students serves to support them towards achieving the enabling learning goals starting from their day one of their higher education studies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1712
83485
Relativity in Toddlers' Understanding of the Physical World as Key to Misconceptions in the Science Classroom
Authors:
Abstract:
Within their first year, infants can differentiate between objects based on their weight. By at least 5 years children hold consistent weight-related misconceptions about the physical world, such as that heavy things fall faster than lighter ones because of their weight. Such misconceptions are seen as a challenge for science education since they are often highly resistant to change through instruction. Understanding the time point of emergence of such ideas could, therefore, be crucial for early science pedagogy. The paper thus discusses two studies that jointly address the issue by examining young children’s search behaviour in hidden displacement tasks under consideration of relative object weight. In both studies, they were tested with a heavy or a light ball, and they either had information about one of the balls only or both. In Study 1, 88 toddlers aged 2 to 3½ years watched a ball being dropped into a curved tube and were then allowed to search for the ball in three locations – one straight beneath the tube entrance, one where the curved tube lead to, and one that corresponded to neither of the previous outcomes. Success and failure at the task were not impacted by weight of the balls alone in any particular way. However, from around 3 years onwards, relative lightness, gained through having tactile experience of both balls beforehand, enhanced search success. Conversely, relative heaviness increased search errors such that children increasingly searched in the location immediately beneath the tube entry – known as the gravity bias. In Study 2, 60 toddlers aged 2, 2½ and 3 years watched a ball roll down a ramp and behind a screen with four doors, with a barrier placed along the ramp after one of four doors. Toddlers were allowed to open the doors to find the ball. While search accuracy generally increased with age, relative weight did not play a role in 2-year-olds’ search behaviour. Relative lightness improved 2½-year-olds’ searches. At 3 years, both relative lightness and relative heaviness had a significant impact, with the former improving search accuracy and the latter reducing it. Taken together, both studies suggest that between 2 and 3 years of age, relative object weight is increasingly taken into consideration in navigating naïve physical concepts. In particular, it appears to contribute to the early emergence of misconceptions relating to object weight. This insight from developmental psychology research may have consequences for early science education and related pedagogy towards early conceptual change.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1711
83435
Psychological Factors Influencing Adolescent Career Choices in Southern Nigeria
Abstract:
Adolescence is a transition period from childhood to adulthood and one of the challenges of this period to the adolescent is the choice of a career. Choosing a career can be influenced by various factors some of which could be psychological. The study, therefore, investigated the psychological factors that influence adolescents’ choice of career in the southern part of Nigeria. Adolescents from selected secondary schools were drawn for the study using multi-stage sampling techniques. Motivating factors for adolescent career choice questionnaire (MFACC) was used for the study. The instrument was validated by experts in test and measurement. A reliability coefficient of 0.79 was obtained for the instrument using Pearson Product moment after a test-retest. The findings revealed that students’ occupational needs, interest, self-concept and societal values motivated adolescents career choices. Based on these findings, recommendations were made chief among which was the need for society to place more emphasis on acceptable and beneficial values as this would influence career decisions adolescents make. They also influence the occupational needs and interests of the adolescents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1710
83420
The Benefits of Full-Day Kindergarten vs. Half-Day Kindergarten
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of full-day vs. half-day kindergarten. Research suggests that there is a common trend among full-day kindergarten programs. Academic, social, and emotional benefits are evident, as well as preferential trends among the parents and teachers. The review began by identifying 20 references of literature on full-day kindergarten published in the last two decades (1997-2017). Of these, 20 passed an initial screening designed to identify research reports that examined academic, social, and emotional outcomes of full-day kindergarten programs as compared with half-day programs. Studies indicated that children who attend full-day kindergarten are positively related to high performance through their schools. There is much evidence to support a full-day program for children. Results indicated that full-day programs have obvious benefits for children; however, they may not be the best program for all children.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1709
83409
Designing for Wearable Interactions-Exploring Care Design for Design Anthropology and Participatory Design
Abstract:
This research examines wearable interaction design to mediate the design anthropology and participatory design found in technology and fashion. We will discuss the principles of design anthropology and participatory design using a wearable and fashion product process to transmit the ‘people-situation-reason-object’ method and analyze five sense applied examples that provide new thinking for designers engaged in future industry. Design anthropology and Participatory Design attempt to engage physiological and psychological design through technology-function, meaning-form and fashion aesthetics to achieve cognition between user and environment. The wearable interaction provides technological characteristics and semantic ideas transmitted to craft-cultural, collective, cheerful and creative performance. It is more confident and innovative attempt, that is able to achieve a joyful, fundamental interface. This study takes two directions for cultural thinking as the basis to establish a set of life-craft designs with interactive experience objects by users that assist designers in examining the sensual feelings to initiate a new lifestyle value.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1708
83397
CoP-Networks: Virtual Spaces for New Faculty’s Professional Development in the 21st Higher Education
Abstract:
The 21st Century higher education and globalization challenge new faculty members to build effective professional networks and partnership with industry in order to accelerate their growth and success. This creates the need for community of practice (CoP)_oriented development approaches that focus on cognitive apprenticeship while considering individual predisposition and future career needs. This work adopts data mining, clustering analysis, and social networking technologies to present the CoP-Network as a virtual space that connects together similar career-aspiration individuals who are socially influenced to join and engage in a process for domain-related knowledge and practice acquisitions. The CoP-Network model can be integrated into higher education to extend traditional graduate and professional development programs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1707
83380
Teaching, Learning and Evaluation Enhancement of Information Communication Technology Education in Schools through Pedagogical and E-Learning Techniques in the Sri Lankan Context
Abstract:
This study uses a researchable framework to improve the quality of ICT education and the Teaching Learning Assessment/ Evaluation (TLA/TLE) process. It utilizes existing resources while improving the methodologies along with pedagogical techniques and e-Learning approaches used in the secondary schools of Sri Lanka. The study was carried out in two phases. Phase I focused on investigating the factors which affect the quality of ICT education. Based on the key factors of phase I, the Phase II focused on the design of an Experimental Application Model with 6 activity levels. Each Level in the Activity Model covers one or more levels in the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. Towards further enhancement of activity levels, other pedagogical techniques (activity based learning, e-learning techniques, problem solving activities and peer discussions etc.) were incorporated to each level in the activity model as appropriate. The application model was validated by a panel of teachers including a domain expert and was tested in the school environment too. The validity of performance was proved using 6 hypotheses testing and other methodologies. The analysis shows that student performance with problem solving activities increased by 19.5% due to the different treatment levels used. Compared to existing process it was also proved that the embedded techniques (mixture of traditional and modern pedagogical methods and their applications) are more effective with skills development of teachers and students.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1706
83338
Immersing Socio-Affective Instruction within the Constructs of the Academic Curriculum: A Study of Gifted and Talented Programs
Abstract:
The first phase of this mixed-methods longitudinal research study examined more than 500 gifted and talented students enrolled in various gifted and talented programs in a large southeastern United States metropolitan area (creative arts, urban charters, suburban public schools) for socio-affective psychological development and whether a particular curriculum encourages developmental growth. The second phase unifies models in cognitive-developmental, psychoanalytic, and behavioral theoretical fields merging first phase results to determine whether a comprehensive curricular approach encourages growth of all psychological developmental areas simultaneously. Both phases of this study incorporate pre-, mid-, and post-tests for socio-affective development and curriculum artifacts and stakeholder interviews. The spotlight on violence by bright individuals questions why some gifted and talented adolescents fail to fulfill their potential despite advanced IQ scores and creative abilities. In performance-driven school culture, the focus has shifted away from nonintellectual curriculum, which inevitability leads to uneven psychological development. However, if schools are to be emotionally, socially and physically safe places, it is important to examine gifted and talented curricula models for impacts on adolescent socio-affective development. Although many gifted adolescents are successful in school, some struggle due to intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental problems. An extensive body of literature establishes the social and emotional needs of gifted youth. It is estimated that 25% of gifted adolescents have severe social and emotional difficulties, which is more than double the percentage in the general population of students. Additionally, gifted adolescents experience greater levels of stress and disaffection than non-gifted peers due to their advanced abilities. Their cognitive, psychological, social, and emotional development occurs in multidimensional layers at different rates and unevenly across ability levels. This asynchronous development exacerbates their emotional intensity, sensitivity to expectations, motivation and achievement issues, and lack of peers and isolation. Therefore, it is important to examine the long-term effects of various curricula on the socio-affective development of gifted and talented adolescents. Socio-affective domains include moral development; empathy development; interpersonal relations; social behaviors; development and regulation of emotions; and personal and gender identity construction. Various frameworks and models purporting to encourage the different socio-affective branches of development have been debated in curriculum theory and design; however, research is inconclusive on the effectiveness of these curricula. This study examined students receiving distinctive gifted and talented curricula (creative arts, arts-integrated, and academic acceleration) for (1) socio-affective development levels and (2) whether a particular curriculum encourages developmental growth. Research questions guiding the study: (1) How do academically and artistically gifted 10th and 11th grade students perform on psychological scales of social and emotional intelligence and moral judgment? (2) Do adolescents receiving distinctive gifted and talented curriculum differ in their socio-affective developmental profiles? Students’ performances on psychometric instruments were compared over time and by curriculum type. Over the course of an academic year, participants took pre-, mid-, and post-tests assessing moral judgment (DIT-2) and socio-emotional intelligence (BarOn EQ-I: YV). Differences in growth on these psychological scales (individuals and programs) were examined. Program artifacts and stakeholder interviews provided insight for curriculum correlation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1705
83294
Qatari Licensure System as Perceived by Teachers and School Leaders
Abstract:
The past 20 years have seen a proliferation of empirical research into various licensure systems. Extensive quantitative work investigates these systems of appraisal from different countries, but there is far less research on the implementation of the Qatari licensure system and the adoption of professional standards. In this paper, we provided a quantitatively and qualitatively descriptive look at the process that moves educators from their point of entry into the profession through their certification as accomplished professionals. Specifically, we focused on the perceptions of teachers and school leaders on the licensure system currently adopted by Ministry of Education and Higher Education in Qatar. The paper aims to inform progress towards a system of reliable, valid, and nationally appropriate teacher and school leader evaluation procedures. Such a system can support decision-making based on a common, comprehensive set of standards that ensures the placement of only the most effective educators in Qatari schools. This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # (NPRP7-1224-5-178) from the Qatar national research fund (a member of Qatar foundation) to Abdullah M. Abu-Tineh. The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the author.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1704
83227
Effects of School Culture and Curriculum on Gifted Adolescent Moral, social, and Emotional Development: A Longitudinal Study of Urban Charter Gifted and Talented Programs
Abstract:
Using two psychometric instruments, this study examined social and emotional intelligence and moral judgment levels of more than 300 gifted and talented high school students enrolled in arts-integrated, academic acceleration, and creative arts charter schools in an ethnically diverse large city in the southeastern United States. Gifted and talented individuals possess distinguishable characteristics; these frequently appear as strengths, but often serious problems accompany them. Although many gifted adolescents thrive in their environments, some struggle in their school and community due to emotional intensity, motivation and achievement issues, lack of peers and isolation, identification problems, sensitivity to expectations and feelings, perfectionism, and other difficulties. These gifted students endure and survive in school rather than flourish. Gifted adolescents face special intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental problems. Furthermore, they experience greater levels of stress, disaffection, and isolation than non-gifted individuals due to their advanced cognitive abilities. Therefore, it is important to examine the long-term effects of participation in various gifted and talented programs on the socio-affective development of these adolescents. Numerous studies have researched moral, social, and emotional development in the areas of cognitive-developmental, psychoanalytic, and behavioral learning; however, in almost all cases, these three facets have been studied separately leading to many divergent theories. Additionally, various frameworks and models purporting to encourage the different socio-affective branches of development have been debated in curriculum theory, yet research is inconclusive on the effectiveness of these programs. Most often studied is the socio-affective domain, which includes development and regulation of emotions; empathy development; interpersonal relations and social behaviors; personal and gender identity construction; and moral development, thinking, and judgment. Examining development in these domains can provide insight into why some gifted and talented adolescents are not always successful in adulthood despite advanced IQ scores. Particularly whether emotional, social and moral capabilities of gifted and talented individuals are as advanced as their intellectual abilities and how these are related to each other. This mixed methods longitudinal study examined students in urban gifted and talented charter schools for (1) socio-affective development levels and (2) whether a particular environment encourages developmental growth. Research questions guiding the study: (1) How do academically and artistically gifted 10th and 11th grade students perform on psychological scales of social and emotional intelligence and moral judgment? Do they differ from the normative sample? Do gender differences exist among gifted students? (2) Do adolescents who attend distinctive gifted charter schools differ in developmental profiles? Students’ performances on psychometric instruments were compared over time and by program type. Assessing moral judgment (DIT-2) and socio-emotional intelligence (BarOn EQ-I: YV), participants took pre-, mid-, and post-tests during one academic school year. Quantitative differences in growth on these psychological scales (individuals and school-wide) were examined. If a school showed change, qualitative artifacts (culture, curricula, instructional methodology, stakeholder interviews) provided insight for environmental correlation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1703
83190
A Literature Review of How Cognitive Disability Is Represented in Higher Education Research in the African Academy
Abstract:
The conversation about diversity in the African academy focuses on the need for an international and ethnically diverse population of scholars and students. Operationalising the concept of cognitive diversity offers us an opportunity to broaden our conception of who can know and who can proclaim knowledge by availing new understandings of what knowledge is and how it is made. Limited attention is paid to the value of diversity generated by cognitive disabilities in the African academy. The inclusion of persons with minds labelled disabled in African academia requires an epistemology of disability to reform the still dominant notion of the expert and scholar as an able-bodied and hyper-rational in African academia. This review wants to explore how cognitive disabilities have been represented in higher education research in Africa or has the African academy reinforced ignorance by promoting an able-bodied academia. The review aims to tackle its exploratory objective by using Malcom Tights framework. The main questions this paper would focus on are: (I)What are the major disability themes and concerns discussed in the disability-related articles? (II)What are the major methods or methodologies used to address the topic in the papers? (III)What are the levels of analysis the papers focus on? (IV)How do higher education researchers define and represent cognitive disabilities in higher education research in Africa? To answer the exploratory questions that are aimed at mapping the disability-related higher education research landscape, Malcolm Tights’ framework is seen as most appropriate. In addition to a thematic categorization, that shall be made after reviewing of published empirical studies on disability in African higher education from the period 2010 – 2017. A synthesis of the findings and implications of African disability studies relating to students with cognitive disabilities in the African Academy will be provided using the categories suggested by Tight as a benchmark. Data for the proposed work shall be taken from well-reputed higher education journals between 2010 and 2017.Using the keyword ‘Disability’ in the titles, abstracts and keywords section of journal articles, a selection of disability-focused higher education articles shall be compiled for analysis regarding cognitive disability. It has to be noted as a limitation that the word Disability might not be sufficient to investigate the topic for there can be many more specific disabilities concerns the researchers would discuss. Therefore, the paper is only intended to give a bird’s eye view of cognitive disability in higher education research and therefore is not comprehensive. The paper is expected to shed some light for me, as a beginning researcher, and other researchers like myself as to what has been the focus of higher education researchers about cognitive disability in the African academy. Keywords: Cognitive diversity, cognitive disability, disability, higher education.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1702
83181
Media Coverage of Cervical Cancer in Malawi: A National Sample of Newspapers and a Radio Station
Abstract:
Cancer of the cervix remains one of the high causes of death among Malawian women. Despite the government introduction of free screening services throughout the country, patronage still remains low and lack of knowledge high. Given the critical role mass media plays in relaying different information to the public including health and its influence on health behaviours, the study sought to analyse Malawi media coverage of the disease and its effectiveness. The findings of the study will help inform media advocacy directed at changing any coverage impeding the effective dissemination of cervical cancer message which consequently will help increase awareness and accessing of screening behaviours among women. A content analysis of 29 newspapers and promotional messages on cervical from a local radio station was conducted for the period from 2012 to 2015. Overall the results showed media coverage in terms of content and frequency increased for the four-year period. However, of concern was the quality of information both media presented to the public. The lapse in information provided means there is little education taking place through the media which could be contributing to the knowledge gap the women have thereby affecting their decision to screen. Also lack of adequate funding to media institutions and lack of collaboration between media institutions and stakeholders involved in the fight against the disease were noted as other contributing factors to low coverage of the disease. Designing messages that are not only informative and educative but also innovative may help increase awareness; improve the knowledge gap and potential adoption of preventive screening behaviour by Malawian women. Conversely, good communication between the media institutions and researchers involved in the fight against the disease through the channelling of new findings back to the public as well as increasing funding towards similar cause should be considered.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1701
83172
Examining the Skills of Establishing Number and Space Relations of Science Students with the 'Integrative Perception Test'
Abstract:
The ability of correlation the number and space relations, one of the basic scientific process skills, is being used in the transformation of a two-dimensional object into a three-dimensional image or in the expression of symmetry axes of the object. With this research, it is aimed to determine the ability of science students to establish number and space relations. The research was carried out with a total of 90 students studying in the first semester of the Science Education program of a state university located in the Turkey’s Black Sea Region in the fall semester of 2017-2018 academic year. An ‘Integrative Perception Test (IPT)’ was designed by the researchers to collect the data. Within the scope of IPT, the courses and workbooks specific to the field of science were scanned and the ones without symmetrical structure from the visual items belonging to the ‘Physics - Chemistry – Biology’ sub-fields were selected and listed. During the application, it was expected that students would imagine and draw images of the missing half of the visual items that were given incomplete in the first place. The data obtained from the test in which there are 30 images or pictures in total (f Physics = 10, f Chemistry = 10, f Biology = 10) were analyzed descriptively based on the drawings created by the students as ‘complete (2 points), incomplete/wrong (1 point), empty (0 point)’. For the teaching of new concepts in small aged groups, images or pictures showing symmetrical structures and similar applications can also be used.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1700
83143
Educational Impact of Participatory Theater Based Intervention on Gender Equality Attitudes, Youth in Serbia
Abstract:
Young people in Serbia, have grown up in turbulent times during the Balkan wars, in a cultural and economic isolation without adequate education on (ethnic, gender, social,..) equality. They often have very strong patriarchal gender stereotypes. The perception of gender in Serbia is still heavily influenced by traditional worldview and young people have little opportunity in traditional educational system to challenge it, receiving no formal sex education. Educational policies have addressed achieving gender equality as one of the goals, supporting all young people to gain better educational opportunities, but there are obvious shortcomings of the official education system in implementation of those goals. Therefore new approaches should be implemented. We evaluate the impact of non traditional approach, such as participatory theatre performance with strong transformative potential, especially in relation to gender issues. Theatre based intervention (TBI) was created to provoke the young people to become aware of their gender constructs. Engaging young people in modern form of education such as transformative gender intervention through participatory theatre could have positive impact on their sex knowledge and understanding gender roles. The transformative process in TBI happens on two levels – the affective and the cognitive. The founding agency of the project and evaluation is IPPF. The most important aim of this survey is evaluation of the transformative TBI, as a new educational approach related to better understanding gender as social construct. To reach this goal, we have measured attitude change in three indicators: a) gender identity/ perception of feminine identity, perception of masculine identity, importance of gender for personal identity, b) gender roles on the labor market, c) Gender equality in partnership & sexual behavior. Our main hypothesis is that participatory theatre-based intervention can have a transformational potential in challenging traditional gender knowledge and attitudes among youth in Serbia. To evaluate the impact of TB intervention, we implement: online baseline and end-line survey with nonparticipants of the TBI on the representative sample in targeted towns (control group). Additionally we conducted testing the experimental group twice: pretest at the beginning of each TBI and post testing of participants after the play. A sample of 500 respondents aged 18-30 years, from 9 towns in Serbia responded to online questionnaire in September 2017, in a baseline research. Pre and post measurement of all tested variables among participants in nine towns would be performed. End-line survey with 500 respondents would be conducted at the end of the project (early year 2018). After the first TBI (60 participants) no impact was detected on measured indicators: perception of desirable characteristics of man F(1,59)= 1.291, p=.260; perception of desirable characteristics of women F(1,55)=1.386, p= .244; gender identity importance F(1,63)= .050, p=.824; sex related behavior F(1,61)=1,145, p=.289; gender equality on labor market F(1,63)=.076, p=.783; gender equality in partnership F(1,61)=.201, p=.656; However, we hope that following intervention would bring more data showing that participatory theatre intervention explaining gender as a social construct could have additional positive impact in traditional educational system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1699
83122
Using Peer Instruction in Physics of Waves for Pre-Service Science Teacher
Abstract:
In this study, it was aimed to investigate Physics achievement of the pre-service science teacher studying in general science program at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. The program has provided the new curriculum that focuses on 21st-century skills development. Active learning approaches are used to teach in all subjects. One of the active learning approaches Peer Instruction, or PI was used in this study to teach physics of waves as a compulsory course. It was conducted in the second semester from January to May of 2017. The concept test was given to evaluate pre-service science teachers’ understanding in concept of waves. Problem-solving assessment form was used to evaluate their problem-solving skill. The results indicated that after they had learned through Peer Instruction in physics of waves course, their concepts in physics of waves was significantly higher at 0.05 confident levels. Their problem-solving skill from the whole class was at the highest level. Based on the group interview on the opinions of using Peer Instruction in Physics class, they mostly felt that it was very useful and helping them understand more about physics, especially for female students.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1698
83060
The Reflection on Pre-Service Teacher Training Program in Science Education
Abstract:
The pre-service teacher training program at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bankgok Thailand has been provided for undergraduate students for more than 80 years. It was established as the first teacher college in the country. The pre-service teacher program in science education is considered as one of the new training programs to prepare pre-service teacher to teach science in secondary school level. The need of program assessment is strongly important. Therefore, this study was conducted to gain the opinions and recommendations from the principals, in-service teachers, and mentoring teachers from the partnership schools of Bangkok. The invited 120 participants for the annual meeting was hold in May 2017. The focus group discussion and questionnaires were used to collect the data during the reflection session. The content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The results showed that the pre-service teacher training program in science education should improve students’ creative thinking skill, service mind, personality, and attitudes toward teaching science career. Also, the future science teachers must be able to teach in English to have more opportunities to teach science in Southeast Asian countries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1697
82794
Lunch Hour Concerts as a Strategy for Strengthening Student Performance Skills: University of Port Harcourt Experience
Abstract:
This article reports on an evaluation of lunch hour concert and its effectiveness in improving undergraduate performance ability. In particular, it examines the aptitude of students in classroom applied music and their reaction/responses to true life concert situations. It further investigated factors affecting students’ confidence during performances, the relationship between stage fright and confidence building in regular concert participation. The Department of Music, University of Port Harcourt runs monthly lunch our concerts which are coordinated by undergraduates for the university community. Forty music students who have participated in or coordinated lunch hour concerts were chosen for this survey. Eight music lecturers who have supervised the monthly lunch hour concert were also chosen for this study. The attitude and view on the effectiveness of lunch hour concert in enhancing students’ performance skills were gotten through questionnaires survey, in-depth interview and participant observation to determine if classroom based applied music alone is as successful in grooming performance genius as the lunch hour concert. Result indicated that students’ participation in lunch hour concert did indeed broaden and strengthened their performance experiences. This observation led to a recommendation that regular community based concerts be considered as a standard for performance practices in the university curriculum since it serves as a preparatory platform for acquiring professional performance skills before graduation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1696
82789
Project Work with Design Thinking and Blended Learning: A Practical Report from Teaching in Higher Education
Authors:
Abstract:
Change processes such as individualization and digitalization have an impact on higher education. Graduates are expected to cooperate in creative work processes in their professional life. During their studies, they need to be prepared accordingly. This includes modern learning scenarios that integrate the benefits of digital media. Therefore, design thinking and blended learning have been combined in the project-based seminar conception introduced here. The presented seminar conception has been realized and evaluated with students of information sciences since September 2017. Within the seminar, the students learn to work on a project. They apply the methods in a problem-based learning scenario. Task of the case study is to arrange a conference on the topic gaming in libraries. In order to collaborative develop creative possibilities of realization within the group of students the design thinking method has been chosen. Design thinking is a method, used to create user-centric, problem-solving and need-driven innovation through creative collaboration in multidisciplinary teams. Central characteristics are the openness of this approach to work results and the visualization of ideas. This approach is now also accepted in the field of higher education. Especially in problem-based learning scenarios, the method offers clearly defined process steps for creative ideas and their realization. The creative process can be supported by digital media, such as search engines and tools for the documentation of brainstorming, creation of mind maps, project management etc. Because the students have to do two-thirds of the workload in their private study, design thinking has been combined with a blended learning approach. This supports students’ preparation and follow-up of the joint work in workshops (flipped classroom scenario) as well as the communication and collaboration during the entire project work phase. For this purpose, learning materials are provided on a Moodle-based learning platform as well as various tools that supported the design thinking process as described above. In this paper, the seminar conception with a combination of design thinking and blended learning is described and the potentials and limitations of the chosen strategy for the development of a course with a multimedia approach in higher education are reflected.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1695
82784
In Search of Sustainable Science Education at the Basic Level of Education in Ghana: The Unintended Consequences of Enacting Science Curriculum Reforms in Junior High Schools
Abstract:
This paper documents an ongoing investigation which seeks to explore the consequences of repeated science curriculum reforms at basic level of education in Ghana. Drawing upon data collected through document analysis, semi-structured interviews and classroom observations linked with a study of teaching practices in Junior High Schools of educational districts that are well served with teachers and yet, produce poor students’ achievements in science in the national Basic Education Certificate Examinations. The results emanating from the investigation highlight that the repeated science curriculum reforms at the basic level of education have led to the displacement of scientific knowledge in junior high schools in Ghana, a very critical level of education where the foundation for further science education to the highest level is laid. Furthermore, the results indicate that the enactment of centralised curriculum reforms in Ghana has produced some unpleasant repercussions. For instance, how the teachers interpret and implement the curriculum is directly related to their own values and practices as well as students feedback. This is contrary to the perception that external impetus received from donor agencies holds the key to strengthening reforms made. Thus, it is argued that without the right of localised management, curriculum reforms themselves are inadequate to ensure the realisation of the desired effects. This paper, therefore, draws the attention of stakeholders to the fact that the enactment of School Science Curriculum reform goes beyond just simple implementation to more complex dynamics which may change the original reform intents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1694
82769
Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Core Skills of High School Students in a Project-Based Learning Classroom Instruction: A Teacher's Perceptual View
Abstract:
In the teaching and learning process, educators need to determine better pedagogical techniques and strategies in the best delivery of classroom instruction. This is always one of the multi-faceted challenges teachers are faced with in their day-to-day teaching profession besides transference of quality instruction in the classroom. Another important concern that teachers have to deal with is the development of some intervention to improve motivation in learning among students in class. This study utilized a descriptive-correlational research design which tried to examine the relationship between the high school students’ level of intrinsic motivation and the identified academic core skills in a PBL classroom instruction among teachers in the selected National High Schools. Survey questionnaires and informal interview were the researcher’s instruments used to generate salient information. Data were analyzed and treated statistically utilizing weighted mean for levels of intrinsic motivation and academic core skills while frequency count for the common PBL activities usually conducted in the class while Pearson Moment Coefficient Correlation or Pearson's r was utilized to determine relationship of variables of the study. Findings revealed that the most commonly implemented and utilized Project-Based Learning activity is portfolio crafting or development. Students found it challenging and cultivate their artistic skill while expressing their ideas. It was also clearly manifested that the respondents’ level of intrinsic motivation is just moderate like that of their academic core skills. Although of the five groups of respondents, two were categorized to have high intrinsic motivation and three others had moderate intrinsic motivation level, on the whole, the entire respondents were considered to have a moderate intrinsic motivation level. Moreover, among the seven identified academic core skills, it is intercultural understanding that ranked first while computer and communication technology took the last rank. It gave an idea that as they were more exposed to varied PBL activities and collaborated more, they develop that sense of deeper understanding of their classmates’ individual differences and uniqueness as perceived by the teacher-respondents. Further, they believed that their students shared their ideas more and established a natural and spontaneous communication because they felt that became some were more considerate with their classmates’ shortcomings and differences. Furthermore, it was found that both intrinsic motivation and their academic core skills are positively correlated. It clearly implies that the more students are motivated, the better their academic core skills, thus, an improved and better academic performance can also be expected.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1693
82742
The Risk of Prioritizing Management over Education at Japanese Universities
Abstract:
Due to the decline of the 18-year-old population, Japanese universities have a tendency to convert their form of employment from tenured positions to fixed-term positions for newly hired teachers. The advantage of this is that universities can be more flexible in their employment plans in case they fail to fill the enrollment of quotas of prospective students or they need to supplement teachers who can engage in other academic fields or research areas where new demand is expected. The most serious disadvantage of this, however, is that if secure positions cannot be provided to faculty members, there is the possibility that coherence of education and continuity of research supported by the university cannot be achieved. Therefore, the question of this presentation is as follows: Are universities aiming to give first priority to management, or are they trying to prioritize educational and research rather than management? To answer this question, the author examined the number of job offerings for college foreign language teachers posted on the JREC-IN (Japan Research Career Information Network, which is run by Japan Science and Technology Agency) website from April 2012 to October 2015. The results show that there were 1,002 and 1,056 job offerings for tenured positions and fixed-term contracts respectively, suggesting that, overall, today’s Japanese universities show a tendency to give first priority to management. More detailed examinations of the data, however, show that the tendency slightly varies depending on the types of universities. National universities which are supported by the central government and state universities which are supported by local governments posted more job offerings for tenured positions than for fixed-term contracts: national universities posted 285 and 257 job offerings for tenured positions and fixed-term contracts respectively, and state universities posted 106 and 86 job offerings for tenured positions and fixed-term contracts respectively. Yet the difference in number between the two types of employment status at national and state universities is marginal. As for private universities, they posted 713 job offerings for fixed-term contracts and 616 offerings for tenured positions. Moreover, 73% of the fixed-term contracts were offered for low rank positions including associate professors, lectures, and so forth. Generally speaking, those positions are offered to younger teachers. Therefore, this result indicates that private universities attempt to cut their budgets yet expect the same educational effect by hiring younger teachers. Although the results have shown that there are some differences in personal strategies among the three types of universities, the author argues that all three types of universities may lose important human resources that will take a pivotal role at their universities in the future unless they urgently review their employment strategies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1692
82646
Education for Sustainable Development Pedagogies: Examining the Influences of Context on South African Natural Sciences and Technology Teaching and Learning
Authors:
Abstract:
Post-Apartheid South African education system had witnessed waves of curriculum reforms. Accordingly, there have been evidences of responsiveness towards local and global challenges of sustainable development over the past decade. In other words, the curriculum shows sensitivity towards issues of Sustainable Development (SD). Moreover, the paradigm of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), was introduced by the UNESCO in year 2015. The SDGs paradigm is essentially a vision towards actualizing sustainability in all aspects of the global society. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in retrospect entails teaching and learning to actualize the intended UNESCO 2030 SDGs. This paper explores how teaching and learning of ESD can be improved, by drawing from local context of the South African schooling system. Preservice natural sciences and technology teachers in their 2nd to 4th years of study at a university’s college of education in South Africa, were contacted as participants of the study. Using qualitative case study research design, the study drew from the views and experiences of five (5) purposively selected participants from a broader study, aiming to closely understating how ESD is implemented pedagogically in teaching and learning. The inquiry employed questionnaires and a focus group discussion as qualitative data generation tools. A qualitative data analysis of generated data, was carried out using content and thematic analysis, underpinned by interpretive paradigm. The result of analyzed data, suggests that ESD pedagogy at the location where this research was conducted is largely influenced by contextual factors. Furthermore, the result of the study shows that there is a critical need to employ/adopt local experiences or occurrences while teaching sustainable development. Certain pedagogical approaches such as the use of videos relative to local context, should also be considered in order to achieve a more realistic application. The paper recommends that educational institutions through teaching and learning, should implement ESD by drawing on local contexts and problems, thereby foregrounding constructivism, appreciating and fostering students’ prior knowledge and lived experiences.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1691
82630
Owning (up to) the 'Art of the Insane': Re-Claiming Personhood through Copyright Law
Abstract:
From Schumann to Van Gogh, Frida Kahlo, and Ray Charles, the stories narrating the careers of artists with physical or mental disabilities are becoming increasingly popular. From the emergence of ‘pathography’ at the end of 18th century to cinematographic portrayals, the work and lives of differently-abled creative individuals continue to fascinate readers, spectators and researchers. The achievements of those artists form the tip of the iceberg composed of complex politico-cultural movements which continue to advocate for wider recognition of disabled artists’ contribution to western culture. This paper envisages copyright law as a potential tool to such end. It investigates the array of rights available to artists with intellectual disabilities to assert their position as authors of their artwork in the twenty-first-century looking at international and national copyright laws (UK and US). Put simply, this paper questions whether an artist’s intellectual disability could be a barrier to assert their intellectual property rights over their creation. From a legal perspective, basic principles of non-discrimination would contradict the representation of artists’ disability as an obstacle to authorship as granted by intellectual property laws. Yet empirical studies reveal that artists with intellectual disabilities are often denied the opportunity to exercise their intellectual property rights or any form of agency over their work. In practice, it appears that, unlike other non-disabled artists, the prospect for differently-abled creators to make use of their right is contingent to the context in which the creative process takes place. Often will the management of such rights rest with the institution, art therapist or mediator involved in the artists’ work as the latter will have necessitated greater support than their non-disabled peers for a variety of reasons, either medical or practical. Moreover, the financial setbacks suffered by medical institutions and private therapy practices have renewed administrators’ and physicians’ interest in monetising the artworks produced under their supervision. Adding to those economic incentives, the rise of criminal and civil litigation in psychiatric cases has also encouraged the retention of patients’ work by therapists who feel compelled to keep comprehensive medical records to shield themselves from liability in the event of a lawsuit. Unspoken transactions, contracts, implied agreements and consent forms have thus progressively made their way into the relationship between those artists and their therapists or assistants, disregarding any notions of copyright. The question of artists’ authorship finds itself caught in an unusually multi-faceted web of issues formed by tightening purse strings, ethical concerns and the fear of civil or criminal liability. Whilst those issues are playing out behind closed doors, the popularity of what was once called the ‘Art of the Insane’ continues to grow and open new commercial avenues. This socio-economic context exacerbates the need to devise a legal framework able to help practitioners, artists and their advocates navigate through those issues in such a way that neither this minority nor our cultural heritage suffers from the fragmentation of the legal protection available to them.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1690
82621
Guided Visual Vocabulary Practice and Translating Concrete Spanish Nouns to English: A Grade-Level Analysis of Impact
Abstract:
Inclusion of students with learning disabilities in foreign language courses in the United States has been marked by limitations in both policy and instructional practice. A preliminary study investigated the impact of an explicit strategy called Guided Visual Vocabulary Practice (GVVP) on participants’ (n=8) success at recalling the English meanings of 84 concrete Spanish nouns. The 10-week study employed a single-subject design, in which traditional flashcards were used in the baseline condition. In total, GVVP was determined to have a moderate effect (Cohen’s d = 0.54) when contrasted with instruction relying on flashcards. The sample (n=8) included students from primary grade levels (n=2), intermediate grade levels (n=3), and secondary grade levels (n=3). When comparing across these three groups, the impact of GVVP was found to be highest for participants at the intermediate grade levels. The impact of GVVP and flashcards was basically equivalent for participants at the elementary and secondary levels, though the participants at the secondary level were able to recall and translate a higher number of concrete Spanish nouns to English. Implications for future research included the need for replication studies involving a larger sample of participants from the intermediate grades, as well as the need to develop and test other evidence-based practices to better meet the needs of students with learning disabilities studying Spanish at the elementary and secondary grade levels.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):