Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48534

Electronics and Communication Engineering

851
82300
Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Positive and Negative Resistor Based on Complementary Regulated Cascode Topology with Cross Coupled Regulated Transistor
Abstract:
Three types of floating active resistors are presented based on complementary regulated cascode topology with cross coupled regulated transistors. Small signal input resistance of the floating resistor is derived. Three graphs of input current versus input voltage with different aspect ratio are designed and plotted with Cadence Spectre 0.18 micron Rohm semiconductor process. Total harmonic distortion graphs are plotted with three different aspect ratios, different input voltage amplitudes and different input frequencies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
850
80068
MCERTL: Mutation-Based Correction Engine for Register-Transfer Level Designs
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, we present MCERTL (mutation-based correction engine for RTL designs) as an automatic error correction technique based on mutation analysis. A mutation-based correction methodology is proposed to automatically fix the erroneous RTL designs. The proposed strategy combines the processes of mutation and assertion-based localization. The erroneous statements are mutated to produce possible fixes for the failed RTL code. A concurrent mutation engine is proposed to mitigate the computational cost of running sequential mutants operators. The proposed methodology is evaluated against some benchmarks. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method enables us to automatically locate and correct multiple bugs at reasonable time.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
849
79688
Enhancement of Primary User Detection in Cognitive Radio by Scattering Transform
Abstract:
The detecting of an occupied frequency band is a major issue in cognitive radio systems. The detection process becomes difficult if the signal occupying the band of interest has faded amplitude due to multipath effects. These effects make it hard for an occupying user to be detected. This work mitigates the missed-detection problem in the context of cognitive radio in frequency-selective fading channel by proposing blind channel estimation method that is based on scattering transform. By initially applying conventional energy detection, the missed-detection probability is evaluated, and if it is greater than or equal to 50%, channel estimation is applied on the received signal followed by channel equalization to reduce the channel effects. In the proposed channel estimator, we modify the Morlet wavelet by using its first derivative for better frequency resolution. A mathematical description of the modified function and its frequency resolution is formulated in this work. The improved frequency resolution is required to follow the spectral variation of the channel. The channel estimation error is evaluated in the mean-square sense for different channel settings, and energy detection is applied to the equalized received signal. The simulation results show improvement in reducing the missed-detection probability as compared to the detection based on principal component analysis. This improvement is achieved at the expense of increased estimator complexity, which depends on the number of wavelet filters as related to the channel taps. Also, the detection performance shows an improvement in detection probability for low signal-to-noise scenarios over principal component analysis- based energy detection.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
848
79041
A CMOS-Integrated Hall Plate with High Sensitivity
Abstract:
An improved cross-shaped hall plate with high sensitivity is described in this paper. Among different geometries that have been simulated and measured using Helmholtz coil. The paper describes the physical hall plate design and implementation in a 0.18-µm CMOS technology. In this paper, the biasing is a constant voltage mode. In the voltage mode, magnetic field is converted into an output voltage. The output voltage is typically in the order of micro- to millivolt and therefore, it must be amplified before being transmitted to the outside world. The study, design and performance optimization of hall plate has been carried out with the COMSOL Multiphysics. It is used to estimate the voltage distribution in the hall plate with and without magnetic field and to optimize the geometry. The simulation uses the nominal bias current of 1mA. The applied magnetic field is in the range from 0 mT to 20 mT. Measured results of the one structure over the 10 available samples show for the best sensitivity of 2.5 %/T at 20mT.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
847
78578
A Real-Time Moving Object Detection and Tracking Scheme and Its Implementation for Video Surveillance System
Abstract:
Detection and tracking of moving objects are very important in many application contexts such as detection and recognition of people, visual surveillance and automatic generation of video effect and so on. However, the task of detecting a real shape of an object in motion becomes tricky due to various challenges like dynamic scene changes, presence of shadow, and illumination variations due to light switch. For such systems, once the moving object is detected, tracking is also a crucial step for those applications that used in military defense, video surveillance, human computer interaction, and medical diagnostics as well as in commercial fields such as video games. In this paper, an object presents in dynamic background is detected using adaptive mixture of Gaussian based analysis of the video sequences. Then the detected moving object is tracked using the region based moving object tracking and inter-frame differential mechanisms to address the partial overlapping and occlusion problems. Firstly, the detection algorithm effectively detects and extracts the moving object target by enhancing and post processing morphological operations. Secondly, the extracted object uses region based moving object tracking and inter-frame difference to improve the tracking speed of real-time moving objects in different video frames. Finally, the plotting method was applied to detect the moving objects effectively and describes the object’s motion being tracked. The experiment has been performed on image sequences acquired both indoor and outdoor environments and one stationary and web camera has been used.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
846
78288
Spectroscopic Investigations of Nd³⁺ Doped Lithium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for 1.06μM Laser Applications
Abstract:
Neodymium doped lithium lead alumino borate glasses were synthesized with the molar composition 10Li₂O – 10PbO – (10-x) Al₂O₃ – 70B₂O₃ – xNd₂O₃ (where, x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol %) via conventional melt quenching technique to understand their lasing potentiality. From the absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters along with various spectroscopic parameters have been estimated. The emission spectra recorded for the as-prepared glasses under investigation exhibit two emission transitions, ⁴F₃/₂→⁴I₁₁/₂ (1063 nm) and ⁴F₃/₂→⁴I₉/₂ (1350 nm) for which radiative parameters have been evaluated. The emission intensity increases with increase in Nd³⁺ ion concentration up to 1 mol %, and beyond concentration quenching took place. The decay profile shows single exponential nature for lower Nd³⁺ ions concentration and non-exponential for higher concentration. To elucidate the nature of energy transfer process, non-exponential decay curves were well fitted to Inokuti-Hirayama model. The relatively high values of emission cross-section, branching ratio, lifetimes and quantum efficiency suggest that 1.0 mol% of Nd³⁺ in LiPbAlB glasses is aptly suitable to generate lasing action in NIR region at 1063 nm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
845
78192
Power Supply Rejection Ratio Enhanced Low Dropout Regulator Using Noise Sensing Circuit
Abstract:
In this paper, we proposed the LDO (low-dropout) regulator which enhanced the PSRR by applying the constant current source generation technique through the BGR(Band Gap Reference) to form the noise sensing circuit. The current source through the BGR has a constant current value even if the applied voltage varies. Then, the noise sensing circuit, which is composed of the current source through the BGR, operated between the error amplifier and the pass transistor gate of the LDO regulator. As a result, the proposed LDO regulator has a PSRR of -68.2dB at 1kHz, -45.85dB at 1MHz and -45dB at 10MHz. The other performance as the conventional LDO regulator was maintained.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
844
77745
Interference Management in Long Term Evolution-Advanced System
Abstract:
Incorporating Home eNodeB (HeNB) in cellular networks, e.g. Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A), is beneficial for extending coverage and enhancing capacity at low price especially within the non-line-of sight (NLOS) environments such as homes. HeNB or femtocell is a small low powered base station which provides radio coverage to the mobile users in an indoor environment. This deployment results in a heterogeneous network where the available spectrum becomes shared between two layers. Therefore, a problem of Inter Cell Interference (ICI) appears. This issue is the main challenge in LTE-A. To deal with this challenge, various techniques based on frequency, time and power control are proposed. This paper deals with the impact of carrier aggregation and higher order MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) schemes on the LTE-Advanced performance. Simulation results show the advantages of these schemes on the system capacity (4.109 b/s/Hz when bandwidth B=100 MHz and when applying MIMO 8x8 for SINR=30 dB), maximum theoretical peak data rate (more than 4 Gbps for B=100 MHz and when MIMO 8x8 is used) and spectral efficiency (15 b/s/Hz and 30b/s/Hz when MIMO 4x4 and MIMO 8x8 are applying respectively for SINR=30 dB).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
843
76975
Non-Contact Digital Music Instrument Using Light Sensing Technology
Abstract:
A Non-Contact Digital Music System has been conceptualized and implemented to create a new era of digital music. This system replaces the strings of a traditional stringed instrument with laser beams to avoid bruising of the user’s hand. The system consists of seven laser modules, detector modules and distance sensors that form the basic hardware blocks of this instrument. Arduino ATmega2560 microcontroller is used as the primary interface between the hardware and the software. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is used as the protocol to establish communication between the instrument and the virtual synthesizer software.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
842
76690
Automatic Extraction of Arbitrarily Shaped Buildings from a Very High Resolution Satellite Imagery
Abstract:
Satellite imagery is one of the emerging technologies which is extensively utilized in various applications such as detection/extraction of man-made structures, monitoring of sensitive areas, creating graphic maps etc. The main approach here is the automated detection of buildings from very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite images. Initially, the shadow and the building region are investigated and building extraction is mainly focused. Once all the landscape is collected, a trimming process is done so as to eliminate the landscapes that may occur due to non-building objects. Finally, the label method is used to extract the building regions. The label method may be altered for efficient building extraction. The images used for the analysis are the ones which are extracted from the sensors having resolution less than 1 meter (VHR). This method provides an efficient way to produce good results. The additional overhead of mid processing is eliminated without compromising the quality of the output to ease out processing steps required and time consumed in the same.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
841
76451
Review of Dielectric Permittivity Measurement Techniques
Abstract:
The prime objective of this manuscript is to provide intensive review of the techniques used for permittivity measurements. The measurement techniques, relevant for any desired application, rely on the nature of the measured dielectric material, both electrically and physically, the degree of accuracy required, and the frequency of interest. Regardless of the way that distinctive sorts of instruments can be utilized, measuring devices that provide reliable determinations of the required electrical properties including the obscure material in the frequency range of interest can be considered. The challenge in making precise dielectric property or permittivity measurements is in designing of the material specimen holder for those measurements (RF and MW frequency ranges) and adequately modeling the circuit for reliable computation of the permittivity from the electrical measurements. If the RF circuit parameters such as the impedance or admittance are estimated appropriately at a certain frequency, the material’s permittivity at this frequency can be estimated by the equations which relate the way in which the dielectric properties of the material affect on the parameters of the circuit.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
840
76115
Optimized Weight Selection of Control Data Based on Quotient Space of Multi-Geometric Features
Authors:
Abstract:
The geometric processing of multi-source remote sensing data using control data of different scale and different accuracy is an important research direction of multi-platform system for earth observation. In the existing block bundle adjustment methods, as the controlling information in the adjustment system, the approach using single observation scale and precision is unable to screen out the control information and to give reasonable and effective corresponding weights, which reduces the convergence and adjustment reliability of the results. Referring to the relevant theory and technology of quotient space, in this project, several subjects are researched. Multi-layer quotient space of multi-geometric features is constructed to describe and filter control data. Normalized granularity merging mechanism of multi-layer control information is studied and based on the normalized scale factor, the strategy to optimize the weight selection of control data which is less relevant to the adjustment system can be realized. At the same time, geometric positioning experiment is conducted using multi-source remote sensing data, aerial images, and multiclass control data to verify the theoretical research results. This research is expected to break through the cliché of the single scale and single accuracy control data in the adjustment process and expand the theory and technology of photogrammetry. Thus the problem to process multi-source remote sensing data will be solved both theoretically and practically.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
839
76112
A Study of ZY3 Satellite Digital Elevation Model Verification and Refinement with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission
Authors:
Abstract:
As the first high-resolution civil optical satellite, ZY-3 satellite is able to obtain high-resolution multi-view images with three linear array sensors. The images can be used to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEM) through dense matching of stereo images. However, due to the clouds, forest, water and buildings covered on the images, there are some problems in the dense matching results such as outliers and areas failed to be matched (matching holes). This paper introduced an algorithm to verify the accuracy of DEM that generated by ZY-3 satellite with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Since the accuracy of SRTM (Internal accuracy: 5 m; External accuracy: 15 m) is relatively uniform in the worldwide, it may be used to improve the accuracy of ZY-3 DEM. Based on the analysis of mass DEM and SRTM data, the processing can be divided into two aspects. The registration of ZY-3 DEM and SRTM can be firstly performed using the conjugate line features and area features matched between these two datasets. Then the ZY-3 DEM can be refined by eliminating the matching outliers and filling the matching holes. The matching outliers can be eliminated based on the statistics on Local Vector Binning (LVB). The matching holes can be filled by the elevation interpolated from SRTM. Some works are also conducted for the accuracy statistics of the ZY-3 DEM.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
838
75933
2.4 GHz 0.13µM Multi Biased Cascode Power Amplifier for ISM Band Wireless Applications
Abstract:
An ISM band power amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier used to convert a low-power radio-frequency signal into a larger signal of significant power, typically used for driving the antenna of a transmitter. Due to drastic changes in telecommunication generations may lead to the requirements of improvements. Rapid changes in communication lead to the wide implementation of WLAN technology for its excellent characteristics, such as high transmission speed, long communication distance, and high reliability. Many applications such as WLAN, Bluetooth, and ZigBee, etc. were evolved with 2.4GHz to 5 GHz ISM Band, in which the power amplifier (PA) is a key building block of RF transmitters. There are many manufacturing processes available to manufacture a power amplifier for desired power output, but the major problem they have faced is about the power it consumed for its proper working, as many of them are fabricated on the GaN HEMT, Bi COMS process. In this paper we present a CMOS Base two stage cascode design of power amplifier working on 2.4GHz ISM frequency band. To lower the costs and allow full integration of a complete System-on-Chip (SoC) we have chosen 0.13µm low power CMOS technology for design. While designing a power amplifier, it is a real task to achieve higher power efficiency with minimum resources. This design showcase the Multi biased Cascode methodology to implement a two-stage CMOS power amplifier using ADS and LTSpice simulating tool. Main source is maximum of 2.4V which is internally distributed into different biasing point VB driving and VB driven as required for distinct stages of two stage RF power amplifier. It shows maximum power added efficiency near about 70.195% whereas its Power added efficiency calculated at 1 dB compression point is 44.669 %. Biased MOSFET is used to reduce total dc current as this circuit is designed for different wireless applications comes under 2.4GHz ISM Band.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
837
75851
Li-Fi Technology: Data Transmission through Visible Light
Abstract:
People are always in search of Wi-Fi hotspots because Internet is a major demand nowadays. But like all other technologies, there is still room for improvement in the Wi-Fi technology with regards to the speed and quality of connectivity. In order to address these aspects, Harald Haas, a professor at the University of Edinburgh, proposed what we know as the Li-Fi (Light Fidelity). Li-Fi is a new technology in the field of wireless communication to provide connectivity within a network environment. It is a two-way mode of wireless communication using light. Basically, the data is transmitted through Light Emitting Diodes which can vary the intensity of light very fast, even faster than the blink of an eye. From the research and experiments conducted so far, it can be said that Li-Fi can increase the speed and reliability of the transfer of data. This paper pays particular attention on the assessment of the performance of this technology. In other words, it is a 5G technology which uses LED as the medium of data transfer. For coverage within the buildings, Wi-Fi is good but Li-Fi can be considered favorable in situations where large amounts of data are to be transferred in areas with electromagnetic interferences. It brings a lot of data related qualities such as efficiency, security as well as large throughputs to the table of wireless communication. All in all, it can be said that Li-Fi is going to be a future phenomenon where the presence of light will mean access to the Internet as well as speedy data transfer.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
836
75744
Encapsulation of Flexible OLED with an Auxiliary Sealing Line
Abstract:
Flexible OLED is an important technology for the next generation display over various kinds of applications. However, the organic materials of OLEDs degrade rapidly under the invasion of oxygen and water moisture. The degradation causes the formation of non-emitting areas which gradually suppress the device brightness, ultimately the lifetime of the device decreasing rapidly. Until now, the most suitable sealing process of the flexible OLED devices is a thin film encapsulation (TFE). However, TFE consists of a multilayer thin-film structure with organic-inorganic materials, so the cost is expensive and the process time is long. Another problem is that the blocking characteristics from the moisture and oxygen are not perfect. Therefore, the encapsulation of the flexible OLED device is a still key technical issue for the successful market entry. In this study, we are to introduce an auxiliary sealing line between the two flexible substrates. The electrode lines were formed on the substrates which have a SiNx barrier coating layer. To induce the solid phase diffusion process between the SiNx layer and the electrode lines, the electrode materials were determined as Al-Si composition. Thermal energy was supplied for both the SiNx layer and Al-Si electrode lines within the furnace to induce the interfacial bonding through the solid phase diffusion of Si. We printed a test pattern for the edge of the flexible PET substrate of 3cm*3cm size. Experimental conditions such as heating temperature, heating time were optimized to get enough adhesion strength which was estimated through the competitive bending test. Finally, OLED devices with flexible PET substrate of 3cm*3cm size were manufactured to investigate the blocking characteristics as an encapsulation layer.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
835
75035
Electromagnetic Source Direction of Arrival Estimation via Virtual Antenna Array
Abstract:
Nowadays, due to diverse electric products and complex electromagnetic environment, the localization and troubleshooting of the electromagnetic radiation source is urgent and necessary especially on the condition of far field. However, based on the existing DOA positioning method, the system or devices are complex, bulky and expensive. To address this issue, this paper proposes a single antenna radiation source localization method. A single antenna moves to form a virtual antenna array combined with DOA and MUSIC algorithm to position accurately, meanwhile reducing the cost and simplify the equipment. As shown in the results of simulations and experiments, the virtual antenna array DOA estimation modeling is correct and its positioning is credible.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
834
74979
An Image Segmentation Algorithm for Gradient Target Based on Mean-Shift and Dictionary Learning
Abstract:
In electromagnetic imaging, because of the diffraction limited system, the pixel values could change slowly near the edge of the image targets and they also change with the location in the same target. Using traditional digital image segmentation methods to segment electromagnetic gradient images could result in lots of errors because of this change in pixel values. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel image segmentation and extraction algorithm based on Mean-Shift and dictionary learning. Firstly, the preliminary segmentation results from adaptive bandwidth Mean-Shift algorithm are expanded, merged and extracted. Then the overlap rate of the extracted image block is detected before determining a segmentation region with a single complete target. Last, the gradient edge of the extracted targets is recovered and reconstructed by using a dictionary-learning algorithm, while the final segmentation results are obtained which are very close to the gradient target in the original image. Both the experimental results and the simulated results show that the segmentation results are very accurate. The Dice coefficients are improved by 70% to 80% compared with the Mean-Shift only method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
833
74672
Design, Simulation and Construction of 2.4GHz Microstrip Patch Antenna for Improved Wi-Fi Reception
Abstract:
This project seeks to improve Wi-Fi reception by utilizing the properties of directional microstrip patch antennae. Where there is a dense population of Wi-Fi signal, several signal sources transmitting on the same frequency band and indeed channel constitutes interference to each other. The time it takes for request to be received, resolved and response given between a user and the resource provider is increased considerably. By deploying a directional patch antenna with a narrow bandwidth, the range of frequency received is reduced and should help in limiting the reception of signal from unwanted sources. A rectangular microstrip patch antenna (RMPA) is designed to operate at the Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band (2.4GHz) commonly used in Wi-Fi network deployment. The dimensions of the antenna are calculated and these dimensions are used to generate a model on Advanced Design System (ADS), a microwave simulator. Simulation results are then analyzed and necessary optimization is carried out to further enhance the radiation quality so as to achieve desired results. Impedance matching at 50Ω is also obtained by using the inset feed method. Final antenna dimensions obtained after simulation and optimization are then used to implement practical construction on an FR-4 double sided copper clad printed circuit board (PCB) through a chemical etching process using ferric chloride (Fe2Cl). Simulation results show an RMPA operating at a centre frequency of 2.4GHz with a bandwidth of 40MHz. A voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of 1.0725 is recorded on a return loss of -29.112dB at input port showing an appreciable match in impedance to a source of 50Ω. In addition, a gain of 3.23dBi and directivity of 6.4dBi is observed during far-field analysis. On deployment, signal reception from wireless devices is improved due to antenna gain. A test source with a received signal strength indication (RSSI) of -80dBm without antenna installed on the receiver was improved to an RSSI of -61dBm. In addition, the directional radiation property of the RMPA prioritizes signals by pointing in the direction of a preferred signal source thus, reducing interference from undesired signal sources. This was observed during testing as rotation of the antenna on its axis resulted to the gain of signal in-front of the patch and fading of signals away from the front.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
832
74407
Molecular Communication Noise Effect Analysis of Diffusion-Based Channel for Considering Minimum-Shift Keying and Molecular Shift Keying Modulations
Abstract:
One of the unaddressed and open challenges in the nano-networking is the characteristics of noise. The previous analysis, however, has concentrated on end-to-end communication model with no separate modelings for propagation channel and noise. By considering a separate signal propagation and noise model, the design and implementation of an optimum receiver will be much easier. In this paper, we justify consideration of a separate additive Gaussian noise model of a nano-communication system based on the molecular communication channel for which are applicable for MSK and MOSK modulation schemes. The presented noise analysis is based on the Brownian motion process, and advection molecular statistics, where the received random signal has a probability density function whose mean is equal to the mean number of the received molecules. Finally, the justification of received signal magnitude being uncorrelated with additive non-stationary white noise is provided.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
831
74102
Voice over IP Quality of Service Evaluation for Mobile Ad Hoc Network in an Indoor Environment for Different Voice Codecs
Abstract:
In this paper, the performance and quality of Voice over IP (VoIP) calls carried over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) which has a number of SIP nodes registered on a SIP Proxy are analyzed. The testing campaigns are carried out in an indoor corridor structure having a well-defined channel’s characteristics and model for the different voice codecs, G.711, G.727 and G.723.1. These voice codecs are commonly used in VoIP technology. The calls’ quality are evaluated using four Quality of Service (QoS) metrics, namely, mean opinion score (MOS), jitter, delay, and packet loss. The relationship between the wireless channel’s parameters and the optimum codec is well-established. According to the experimental results, the voice codec G.711 has the best performance for the proposed MANET topology
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
830
73754
Performance Analysis of ERA Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network
Abstract:
In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the main limitation is generally inimitable energy consumption during processing of the sensor nodes. Cluster head (CH) election is one of the main issues that can reduce the energy consumption. Therefore, discovering energy saving routing protocol is the focused area for research. In this paper, fuzzy-based energy aware routing protocol is presented, which enhances the stability and network lifetime of the network. Fuzzy logic ensures the well-organized selection of CH by taking four linguistic variables that are concentration, energy, centrality, and distance to base station (BS). The results show that the proposed protocol shows better results in requisites of stability and throughput of the network.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
829
73747
Performance Analysis of Deterministic Stable Election Protocol Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network
Abstract:
In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the sensor containing motes (nodes) incorporate batteries that can lament at some extent. To upgrade the energy utilization, clustering is one of the prototypical approaches for split sensor motes into a number of clusters where one mote (also called as node) proceeds as a Cluster Head (CH). CH selection is one of the optimization techniques for enlarging stability and network lifespan. Deterministic Stable Election Protocol (DSEP) is an effectual clustering protocol that makes use of three kinds of nodes with dissimilar residual energy for CH election. Fuzzy Logic technology is used to expand energy level of DSEP protocol by using fuzzy inference system. This paper presents protocol DSEP using Fuzzy Logic (DSEP-FL) CH by taking into account four linguistic variables such as energy, concentration, centrality and distance to base station. Simulation results show that our proposed method gives more effective results in term of a lifespan of network and stability as compared to the performance of other clustering protocols.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
828
73251
Radio-Frequency Technologies for Sensing and Imaging
Authors:
Abstract:
Rapid, accurate, and safe sensing and imaging of physical quantities or structures finds many applications and is of significant interest to society. Sensing and imaging using radio-frequency (RF) techniques, particularly, has gone through significant development and subsequently established itself as a unique territory in the sensing world. RF sensing and imaging has played a critical role in providing us many sensing and imaging abilities beyond our human capabilities, benefiting both civilian and military applications - for example, from sensing abnormal conditions underneath some structures’ surfaces to detection and classification of concealed items, hidden activities, and buried objects. We present the developments of several sensing and imaging systems implementing RF technologies like ultra-wide band (UWB), synthetic-pulse, and interferometry. These systems are fabricated completely using RF integrated circuits. The UWB impulse system operates over multiple pulse durations from 450 to 1170 ps with 5.5-GHz RF bandwidth. It performs well through tests of various samples, demonstrating its usefulness for subsurface sensing. The synthetic-pulse system operating from 0.6 to 5.6 GHz can assess accurately subsurface structures. The synthetic-pulse system operating from 29.72-37.7 GHz demonstrates abilities for various surface and near-surface sensing such as profile mapping, liquid-level monitoring, and anti-personnel mine locating. The interferometric system operating at 35.6 GHz demonstrates its multi-functional capability for measurement of displacements and slow velocities. These RF sensors are attractive and useful for various surface and subsurface sensing applications. This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # 6-241-2-102 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
827
73214
Objectives of the Standardization of Technical Terminology Nowadays in Albanian
Authors:
Abstract:
In the conditions of the rapid development of technics and technology in recent years, the cooperation of the scientific-technical language with the standard Albanian language is continuing with a higher intensity than before. We notice a vigor of enrichment in the vocabulary of technical terminology, due to the birth and formation of new fields and subfields of technics, technology, as computing, mechatronics, telemetry, a multitude of concepts many of which, on the one hand, are marked with names of the languages they come from, mainly from English, but on the other hand, they meet their needs with the lexical mother tongue composition (by common words being raised to terms) and with the activation of other layers, such as compound word terms. Thus, for example, in the field of computing, we notice in it the inclusion of the ordinary vocabulary for reproductive reasons, like mi, dritare, flamur, adresë, skedar (Engl: mouse, window, flag, address, file), and along with them, the compound word terms, serving to differentiate relevant concepts, like, adresë e hiperlidhjes, adresë e uebit, adresë relative, adresë virtuale (Engl. address hyperlink, web address, relative address, virtual address) etc.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
826
72905
Video-On-Demand QoE Evaluation across Different Age-Groups and Its Significance for Network Capacity
Abstract:
Quality of Experience (QoE) drives churn in the broadband networks industry, and good QoE plays a large part in the retention of customers. QoE is known to be affected by the Quality of Service (QoS) factors packet loss probability (PLP), delay and delay jitter caused by the network. Earlier results have shown that the relationship between these QoS factors and QoE is non-linear, and may vary from application to application. We use the network emulator Netem as the basis for experimentation, and evaluate how QoE varies as we change the emulated QoS metrics. Focusing on Video-on-Demand, we discovered that the reported QoE may differ widely for users of different age groups, and that the most demanding age group (the youngest) can require an order of magnitude lower PLP to achieve the same QoE than is required by the most widely studied age group of users. We then used a bottleneck TCP model to evaluate the capacity cost of achieving an order of magnitude decrease in PLP, and found it be (almost always) a 3-fold increase in link capacity that was required.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
825
72788
Comparison of Extended Kalman Filter and Unscented Kalman Filter for Autonomous Orbit Determination of Lagrangian Navigation Constellation
Abstract:
The history of satellite navigation can be dated back to the 1960s. From the U.S. Transit system and the Russian Tsikada system to the modern Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS), performance of satellite navigation has been greatly improved. Nowadays, the navigation accuracy and coverage of these existing systems have already fully fulfilled the requirement of near-Earth users, but these systems are still beyond the reach of deep space targets. Due to the renewed interest in space exploration, a novel high-precision satellite navigation system is becoming even more important. The increasing demand for such a deep space navigation system has contributed to the emergence of a variety of new constellation architectures, such as the Lunar Global Positioning System. Apart from a Walker constellation which is similar to the one adopted by GPS on Earth, a novel constellation architecture which consists of libration point satellites in the Earth-Moon system is also available to construct the lunar navigation system, which can be called accordingly, the libration point satellite navigation system. The concept of using Earth-Moon libration point satellites for lunar navigation was first proposed by Farquhar and then followed by many other researchers. Moreover, due to the special characteristics of Libration point orbits, an autonomous orbit determination technique, which is called ‘Liaison navigation’, can be adopted by the libration point satellites. Using only scalar satellite-to-satellite tracking data, both the orbits of the user and libration point satellites can be determined autonomously. In this way, the extensive Earth-based tracking measurement can be eliminated, and an autonomous satellite navigation system can be developed for future space exploration missions. The method of state estimate is an unnegligible factor which impacts on the orbit determination accuracy besides type of orbit, initial state accuracy and measurement accuracy. We apply the extended Kalman filter(EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter(UKF) to determinate the orbits of Lagrangian navigation satellites. The autonomous orbit determination errors are compared. The simulation results illustrate that UKF can improve the accuracy and z-axis convergence to some extent.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
824
72516
Enhancement of Performance Utilizing Low Complexity Switched Beam Antenna
Abstract:
To manage the demand of wireless communication that has been dramatically increased, switched beam antenna in smart antenna system is focused. Implementation of switched beam antennas at mobile terminals such as notebook or mobile handset is a preferable choice to increase the performance of the wireless communication systems. This paper proposes the low complexity switched beam antenna using single element of antenna which is suitable to implement at mobile terminal. Main beam direction is switched by changing the positions of short circuit on the radiating patch. There are four cases of switching that provide four different directions of main beam. Moreover, the performance in terms of Signal to Interference Ratio when utilizing the proposed antenna is compared with the one using omni-directional antenna to confirm the performance improvable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
823
72514
Field-Programmable Gate Array-Based Baseband Signals Generator of X-Band Transmitter for Micro Satellite/CubeSat
Abstract:
This paper introduces a FPGA-based baseband signals generator (BSG) of X-band transmitter developed by National Space Organization (NSPO), Taiwan, for earth observation. In order to gain more flexibility for various applications, a number of modulation schemes, QPSK, DeQPSK and 8PSK 4D-TCM are included. For micro satellite scenario, the maximum symbol rate is up to 150Mbsps, and the EVM is as low as 1.9%. For CubeSat scenario, the maximum symbol rate is up to 60Mbsps, and the EVM is less than 1.7%. The maximum data rates are 412.5Mbps and 165Mbps, respectively. Besides, triple modular redundancy (TMR) scheme is implemented in order to reduce single event effect (SEE) induced by radiation. Finally, the theoretical error performance is provided based on comprehensive analysis, especially when BER is lower and much lower than 10⁻⁶ due to low error bit requirement of modern high-resolution earth remote-sensing instruments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
822
72448
An Agent-Based Modelling Simulation Approach to Calculate Processing Delay of GEO Satellite Payload
Abstract:
The global coverage of broadband multimedia and internet-based services in terrestrial-satellite networks demand particular interests for satellite providers in order to enhance services with low latencies and high signal quality to diverse users. In particular, the delay of on-board processing is an inherent source of latency in a satellite communication that sometimes is discarded for the end-to-end delay of the satellite link. The frame work for this paper includes modelling of an on-orbit satellite payload using an agent model that can reproduce the properties of processing delays. In essence, a comparison of different spatial interpolation methods is carried out to evaluate physical data obtained by an GEO satellite in order to define a discretization function for determining that delay. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed agent and the development of a delay discretization function are together validated by simulating an hybrid satellite and terrestrial network. Simulation results show high accuracy according to the characteristics of initial data points of processing delay for Ku bands.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):