Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48534

Environmental and Ecological Engineering

2200
82641
Assessment of the Effect of Wind Turbulence on the Aero-Hydrodynamic Behavior of Offshore Wind Turbines
Authors:
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to investigate the amount of wind turbulence on the aero hydrodynamic behavior of offshore wind turbines with a monopile holder platform. Since in the sea, the wind turbine structures are under water and structures interactions, the dynamic analysis has been conducted under combined wind and wave loading. The offshore wind turbines have been investigated undertow models of normal and severe wind turbulence, and the results of this study show that the amplitude of fluctuation of dynamic response of structures including thrust force and base shear force of structures is increased with increasing the amount of wind turbulence, and this increase is not necessarily observed in the mean values of responses. Therefore, conducting the dynamic analysis is inevitable in order to observe the effect of wind turbulence on the structures' response.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2199
82308
Application of Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model for Forecasting Monthly Flows in Waterval River, South Africa
Abstract:
Reliable future river flow information is basic for planning and management of any river systems. For data scarce river system having only a river flow records like the Waterval River, a univariate time series models are appropriate for river flow forecasting. In this study, a univariate Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model was applied for forecasting Waterval River flow using GRETL statistical software. Mean monthly river flows from 1960 to 2016 were used for modeling. Different unit root tests and Mann-Kendall trend analysis were performed to test the stationarity of the observed flow time series. The time series was differenced to remove the seasonality. Using the correlogram of seasonally differenced time series, different SARIMA models were identified, their parameters were estimated, and diagnostic check-up of model forecasts was performed using white noise and heteroscedasticity tests. Finally, based on minimum Akaike Information (AIc) and Hannan-Quinn (HQc) criteria, SARIMA (3, 0, 2) x (3, 1, 3)12 was selected as the best model for Waterval River flow forecasting. Therefore, this model can be used to generate future river information for water resources development and management in Waterval River system. SARIMA model can also be used for forecasting other similar univariate time series with seasonality characteristics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2198
81840
A Milky-White Stream Water Suitability for Drinking Purpose
Abstract:
Drinking water suitability study was conducted for a milky-white stream in remote areas of Ethiopia in order to understand its effect on human health. Water samples were taken from the water source and physicochemical properties were analyzed based on standard methods. The mean values of pH, total dissolved solids, sodium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, chloride, boron, and fluoride were within maximum permissible limits set for health. Whereas turbidity, calcium, irons, hardness, alkalinity, nitrate, and sulfate contents were above the limits. The water is very hard water due to high calcium content. High sulfate content can cause noticeable taste and a laxative (gastrointestinal) effect. The nitrate content was very high and can cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) which is a temporary blood disorder in the bottle fed infants. Hence, parents should be advised not to give this water to infants. In conclusion, all physicochemical parameters except for nitrate are safe for health but may affect the appearance and taste, and wear water infrastructures. A high value of turbidity due to suspended minerals is the cause for milky-white colour. However, a mineralogical analysis of suspended sediments is required to identify the exact cause for white colour, and a study on sediment source was recommended.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2197
81118
Impacts on Atmospheric Mercury from Changes in Climate, Land Use, Land Cover, and Wildfires
Abstract:
There have been increasing concerns on atmospheric mercury as a toxic and bioaccumulative pollutant in the global environment. Global change, including changes in climate change, land use, land cover and wildfires activities can all have significant impacts on atmospheric mercury. In this study, we use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to examine the potential impacts from global change on atmospheric mercury. All of these factors in the context of global change are found to have significant impacts on the long-term evolution of atmospheric mercury and can substantially alter the global source-receptor relationships for mercury. We also estimate the global Hg emissions from wildfires for present-day and the potential impacts from the 2000-2050 changes in climate, land use and land cover and Hg anthropogenic emissions by combining statistical analysis with global data on vegetation type and coverage as well as fire activities. Present global Hg wildfire emissions are estimated to be 612 Mg year-1. Africa is the dominant source region (43.8% of global emissions), followed by Eurasia (31%) and South America (16.6%). We find significant perturbations to wildfire emissions of Hg in the context of global change, driven by the projected changes in climate, land use and land cover and Hg anthropogenic emissions. 2000-2050 climate change could increase Hg emissions by 14% globally. Projected changes in land use by 2050 could decrease the global Hg emissions from wildfires by 13% mainly driven by a decline in African emissions due to significant agricultural land expansion. Future land cover changes could lead to significant increases in Hg emissions over some regions (+32% North America, +14% Africa, +13% Eurasia). Potential enrichment of terrestrial ecosystems in 2050 in response to changes in Hg anthropogenic emissions could increase Hg wildfire emissions both globally (+28%) and regionally. Our results indicate that the future evolution of climate, land use and land cover and Hg anthropogenic emissions are all important factors affecting Hg wildfire emissions in the coming decades.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2196
80847
Optimization of Synergism Extraction of Toxic Metals (Lead, Copper) from Chlorides Solutions with Mixture of Cationic and Solvating Extractants
Abstract:
In recent years, environmental contamination by toxic metals such as Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn ... has become a worldwide crucial problem, particularly in some areas where the population depends on groundwater for drinking daily consumption. Thus, the sources of metal ions come from the metal manufacturing industry, fertilizers, batteries, paints, pigments and so on. Solvent extraction of metal ions has given an important role in the development of metal purification processes such as the synergistic extraction of some divalent cations metals ( M²⁺), the ions metals from various sources. This work consists of a water purification technique that involves the lead and copper systems: Pb²⁺, H₃O+, Cl⁻ and Cu²⁺, H₃O⁺, Cl⁻ for diluted solutions by a mixture of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or Tri-n-butylphosphate(TBP) and di (2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) dissolved in kerosene. The study of the fundamental parameters influencing the extraction synergism: cation exchange/extraction solvent have been examined.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2195
80722
Fluvial Stage-Discharge Rating of a Selected Reach of Jamuna River
Abstract:
A study has been undertaken to develop a fluvial stage-discharge rating curve for Jamuna River. Past Cross-sectional survey of Jamuna River reach within Sirajgonj and Tangail has been analyzed. The analysis includes the estimation of discharge carrying capacity, possible maximum scour depth and sediment transport capacity of the selected reaches. To predict the discharge and sediment carrying capacity, stream flow data which include cross-sectional area, top width, water surface slope and median diameter of the bed material of selected stations have been collected and some are calculated from reduced level data. A well-known resistance equation has been adopted and modified to a simple form in order to be used in the present analysis. The modified resistance equation has been used to calculate the mean velocity through the channel sections. In addition, a sediment transport equation has been applied for the prediction of transport capacity of the various sections. Results show that the existing drainage sections of Jamuna channel reach under study have adequate carrying capacity under existing bank-full conditions, but these reaches are subject to bed erosion even in low flow situations. Regarding sediment transport rate, it can be estimated that the channel flow has a relatively high range of bed material concentration. Finally, stage­ discharge curves for various sections have been developed. Based on stage-discharge rating data of various sections, water surface profile and sediment-rating curve of Jamuna River have been developed and also the flooding conditions have been analyzed from predicted water surface profile.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2194
80448
The Issues of Irrigation and Drainage in Kebbi State and Their Effective Solution for a Sustainable Agriculture in Kebbi State, Nigeria
Abstract:
Kebbi State, located in the Nort-West of Nigeria, is rich in water resources as the major rivers viz. Niger and Rima irrigate a vast majority of land. Besides, there is significant amount of groundwater, which farmers use for agriculture purpose. The groundwater is also a major source of agricultural and domestic water as wells are installed in almost all parts of the region. Although Kebbi State is rich in water, however, there are some pertinent issues which are hampering its agricultural productivity. The low lands (locally called Fadama), has spread out to a vast area. It is inundated every year during the rainy season which lasts from June to September every year. The farmers grow rice during the rainy season when water is standing. They cannot do further agricultural activity for almost two months due to high standing water. This has resulted in widespread waterlogging problem. Besides, the impact of climate change is resulting in rapid variation in river/stream flows. The information about water bodies regarding the availability of water for agricultural and other uses and the behavior of rivers at different flows is seldom available. Furthermore, sediment load (suspended and bedload) is not measured due to which land erosion cannot be countered effectively. This study, carried out in seven different irrigation regions of Kebbi state, found that diversion structures need to be constructed at some strategic locations for the supply of surface water to the farmers. The water table needs to be lowered through an effective drainage system. The monitoring of water bodies is crucial for sound data to help efficient regulation and management of water. Construction of embankments is necessary to control frequent floods in the rivers of Niger and Rima. Furthermore, farmers need capacity and awareness for participatory irrigation management.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2193
79873
Growing Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) on Contaminated Soils with Heavy Metals in Bulgaria
Abstract:
A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.5, 3.5, and 15 km) from the source of pollution. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in vetiver (roots and leaves) were determined. Correlations between the content of the heavy metal mobile forms extracted with DTPA and their content in the roots and leaves of the Vetiver have been established. The Vetiver is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals. Plants are characterized by low ability to absorb and accumulate Pb, Cd, and Zn and have no signs of toxicity (chlorosis and necrosis) at 36.8 mg/kg Cd, 1158.8 mg/kg Pb and 1526.2 mg/kg Zn in the soil. Vetiver plants can be classified as Pb, Cd and Zn excluder, therefore, this plant has the suitable potential for the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated soils. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Bulgarian National Science Fund (Project DFNI 04/9).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2192
79626
Impact of Fire on Bird Diversity in Oil Palm Plantation: Case Study in South Sumatra Province
Abstract:
Fires occur annually in oil palm plantations. The objective of the study was to identify the impact of fire on bird diversity in oil palm plantations. Data of bird diversity were collected using the line transect method. Data were collected from February to March 2017. To estimate species richness, we used the Margalef index, to determine the evenness of species richness between site, we used an Evenness index, and to estimate the similarity of bird communities between different habitat, we used the Sørensen index. The result showed that the number of bird species and species richness in the post burned area was higher than those in unburned area. Different results were found for the Evenness Index, where the value was higher in unburned area that was in post burned area. These results indicate that fires did not decrease bird diversity as alleged by many parties whom stated that fires caused species extinction. Fire trigger the emerging of belowground plant and population of insects as a sources of food for the bird community. This result is consistent with several research findings in the United States and Australia that used controlled fires as one of regional management tools.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2191
79625
Impact of Private Oil Palm Expansion on Indonesia Tropical Forest Deforestation Rate: Case Study in the Province of Riau
Abstract:
A variety of negative allegations have criticized the Indonesian oil palm plantations as being environmentally unfriendly. One of the important allegations thus must be verified is that expansion of Indonesian oil palm plantation has increased the deforestation rate of primary tropical forest. In relation to this, a research was conducted to study the origin or history of the status and land use of 8 private oil palm plantations (with a total of 46,372.38 ha) located in Riau Province. Several methods were employed: (1) conducting analysis of overlay maps between oil palm plantation studied with the 1986 Forest Map Governance Agreement (TGHK) and the 1994 and 2014 Riau Provincial Spatial Plans(RTRWP); (2) studying the Cultivation Right on Land (HGU) documents including the Forestry Ministerial Decree on the release of forest area and (3) interpretation of lands at imagery of bands 542, covering 3 years before and after the oil palm industries operated. In addition, field cross-checked, and interviews were conducted with National Land Agency, Plantation and Forestry Office and community figures. The results indicated that as much as 1.95% of the oil palm plantations under study were converted from production forest, 30.34% from limited production forest and 67.70% from area for other usage /conversion production forest. One year prior to the establishment of the plantations, the land cover types comprised of rubber plantations (49.96%), secondary forest (35.99%), bare land (10.17%), shrubs (3.03%) and mixed dryland farming-shrubs (0.84%), whereas the land use types comprised of 35.99% forest concession areas, 14.04% migrants dryland farms, and 49.96% Cultivation Right on Land of other companies. These results indicated that most of the private oil palm plantations under study, resulted from the conversion of production forests and the previous land use were not primary forest but rubber plantations and secondary forests.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2190
79622
Impacts of Oil Palm Plantation on Mammal and Herpetofauna Diversity: A Case Study in Riau Province, Indonesia
Abstract:
Expansion of Indonesia oil palm plantations has contributed significantly to the national revenue annually and has been able to absorb millions of workers. Behind all these positive contributions, such expansion was accused as the cause of the decline in wildlife populations such as mammal and herpetofauna. Research was carried out in 8 oil palm plantations in Riau Province of Indonesia from March to April 2016, to determine the impacts of oil palm plantations on mammal and herpetofauna biodiversity. Direct observation was conducted simultaneously equipped with camera traps placed (for mammal) on various land cover types. For mammals' survey, line transect method was used, and for herpetofauna, Visual Encounter Survey (VES) method was used. Landsat imagery was used to interpret land cover types 3 years prior to the establishment of the oil palm plantations. The study revealed that one year before the oil palm plantations was established, most the land covers were comprised of 49.96% rubber plantations, 35.99% secondary forest, 10.17% bare land, 3.03% shrubs and 0.84% mixed dryland farming-shrubs. Based on the number of species found, it was identified that on the average, mammal diversity in 4 of 8 oil palm plantations, showed a decrease by 14.29%-100%, whereas 2 plantations did not experienced any changes in the number of species and one plantation showed an increased in the number of mammal species. The plantations that experienced a reduction in the number of mammal’s diversity were previously dominated covered by secondary forest (40%) and rubber plantation (40%), while those experiencing no changes in the number of species were also dominated by secondary forest. The area with an increased number of mammal species was historically dominated by rubber plantation. On the contrary, significant results were shown for herpetofauna, where all study sites showed a sharp increase in the number of herpetofauna species, by 100%-225.00%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2189
79601
Conservation Importance of Independent Smallholdings in Safeguarding Biodiversity in Oil Palm Plantations
Abstract:
The expansions of independent smallholdings in Indonesia are feared to increase the negative ecological impacts of oil palm plantation on biodiversity. Hence, research is required to identify the conservation importance of independent smallholder oil palm plantations on biodiversity. This paper discussed the role of independent smallholdings in the conservation of biodiversity in oil palm plantations and to compare it with High Conservation Value Forest as a conservation standard of RSPO. The research was conducted from March to April 2016. Data on biodiversity were collected on 16 plantations and 8 private oil palm plantations in the Districts of Kampar, Pelalawan, Kuantan, Singingi and Siak of Riau Province, Indonesia. In addition, data on community environmental perceptions of both smallholder plantation and High Conservation Value (HCV) Forest were also collected. Species that were observed were birds and earthworms. Data on birds were collected using transect method, while identification of earthworm was determine by taking some soil samples and counting the number of individual earthworm found for each worm species. The research used direct interview with oil palm owners and community members, as well as direct observation to examine the environmental conditions of each plantation. In general, field observation and measurement have found that birds species richness was higher in the forested HCV Forest. Nevertheless, if compared to non-forested HCV, bird’s species richness was higher in the independent smallholdings. On the other hand, different results were observed for earthworm, where the density was higher in the independent smallholdings than in the HCV. It can be concluded from this research that managing independent smallholder oil palm plantations and forested HCV forest could enhance biodiversity conservation. The results of this study justified the importance of retaining forested area to safeguard biodiversity in oil palm plantation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2188
79495
The Review and Contribution of Taiwan Government Policies on Environmental Impact Assessment to Water Recycling
Abstract:
Because of inborn natural conditions and man-made sabotage, the water resources insufficient phenomenon in Taiwan is a very important issue needed to face immediately. The regulations and law of water resources protection and recycling are gradually completed now but still lack of specific water recycling effectiveness checking method. The research focused on the industrial parks that already had been certificated with EIA to establish a professional checking system, carry through and forge ahead to contribute one’s bit in water resources sustainable usage. Taiwan Government Policies of Environmental Impact Assessment established in 1994, some development projects were requested to set certain water recycling ratio for water resources effective usage. The water covers and contains everything because all-inclusive companies enter and be stationed. For control the execution status of industrial park water and waste water recycling ratio about EIA commitment effectively, we invited experts and scholars in this filed to discuss with related organs to formulate the policy and audit plan. Besides, call a meeting to set public version water equilibrium diagrams and recycles parameter. We selected nine industrial parks that were requested set certain water recycling ratio in EIA examination stage and then according to the water usage quantity, we audited 340 factories in these industrial parks with spot and documents examination and got fruitful results – the average water usage of unit area per year of all these examined industrial parks is 31,000 tons/hectare/year, the value is just half of Taiwan industries average. It is obvious that the industrial parks with EIA commitment can decrease the water resources consumption effectively. Taiwan government policies of Environmental Impact Assessment took follow though tracking function into consideration at the beginning. The results of this research verify the importance of the implementing with water recycling to save water resources in EIA commitment. Inducing development units to follow EIA commitment to get the balance between environmental protection and economic development is one of the important EIA value.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2187
79409
Implication to Environmental Education of Indigenous Knowledge and the Ecosystem of Upland Farmers in Aklan, Philippines
Abstract:
This paper defined the association between the indigenous knowledge, cultural practices and the ecosystem its implication to the environmental education to the farmers. Farmers recognize the need for sustainability of the ecosystem they inhabit. The cultural practices of farmers on use of indigenous pest control, use of insect-repellant plants, soil management practices that suppress diseases and harmful pests and conserve soil moisture are deemed to be ecologically-friendly. Indigenous plant materials that were more drought- and pest-resistant were grown. Crop rotation was implemented with various crop seeds to increase their disease resistance. Multi-cropping, planting of perennial crops, categorization of soil and planting of appropriate crops, planting of appropriate and leguminous crops, alloting land as watershed, and preserving traditional palay seed varieties were found to be beneficial in preserving the environment. The study also found that indigenous knowledge about crops are still relevant and useful to the current generation. This ensured the sustainability of our environment and incumbent on policy makers and educators to support and preserve for generations yet to come.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2186
79222
The Location Problem of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations: A Case Study of Istanbul
Abstract:
Growing concerns about the increasing consumption of fossil energy and the improved recognition of environmental protection require sustainable road transportation technology. Electric vehicles (EVs) can contribute to improve environmental sustainability and to solve the energy problem with the right infrastructure. The problem of where to locate electric vehicle charging station can be grouped as decision-making problems because of including many criteria and alternatives that have to be considered simultaneously. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrated AHP and TOPSIS model to rank the optimal sites of EVs charging station in Istanbul, Turkey. Ten different candidate points and three decision criteria are identified. The performances of each candidate points with respect to criteria are obtained according to AHP calculations. These performances are used as an input for TOPSIS method to rank the candidate points. It is obtained accurate and robust results by integrating AHP and TOPSIS methods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2185
79182
Analyzing Impacts of Road Network on Vegetation Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Techniques
Abstract:
Road transport has become increasingly common in the world; people rely on road networks for transportation purpose on a daily basis. However, environmental impact of roads on surrounding landscapes extends their potential effects even further. This study investigates the impact of road network on natural vegetation. The study will provide baseline knowledge regarding roadside vegetation and would be helpful in future for conservation of biodiversity along the road verges and improvements of road verges. The general hypothesis of this study is that the amount and condition of road side vegetation could be explained by road network conditions. Remote sensing techniques were used to analyze vegetation conditions. Landsat 8 OLI image was used to assess vegetation cover condition. NDVI image was generated and used as a base from which land cover classes were extracted, comprising four categories viz. healthy vegetation, degraded vegetation, bare surface, and water. The classification of the image was achieved using the supervised classification technique. Road networks were digitized from Google Earth. For observed data, transect based quadrats of 50*50 m were conducted next to road segments for vegetation assessment. Vegetation condition was related to road network, with the multinomial logistic regression confirming a significant relationship between vegetation condition and road network. The null hypothesis formulated was that 'there is no variation in vegetation condition as we move away from the road.' Analysis of vegetation condition revealed degraded vegetation within close proximity of a road segment and healthy vegetation as the distance increase away from the road. The Chi Squared value was compared with critical value of 3.84, at the significance level of 0.05 to determine the significance of relationship. Given that the Chi squared value was 395, 5004, the null hypothesis was therefore rejected; there is significant variation in vegetation the distance increases away from the road. The conclusion is that the road network plays an important role in the condition of vegetation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2184
78643
Spatio-Temporal Variability and Trends in Frost-Free Season Parameters in Finland: Influence of Climate Teleconnections
Abstract:
Variability and changes in thermal conditions play a crucial role in functioning of human society, particularly over cold climate regions like Finland. Accordingly, the frost-free season (FFS) parameters in terms of start (FFSS), end (FFSE) and length (FFSL) have substantial effects not only on natural environment (e.g. flora and fauna), but also on human requirements (e.g. agriculture, forestry and energy generation). Applying the 0°C threshold of minimum temperature (Tmin), the FFS was defined as the period between the last spring frost as FFSS and the first fall frost as FFSE. For this study, gridded (10 x 10 km2) daily minimum temperature datasets throughout Finland during 1961-2011 was used to investigate recent spatio-temporal variations and trends in frost-free season (FFS) parameters and their relationships with the well-known large-scale climate teleconnections (CTs). The FFS in Finland naturally increases from north (~60 days) to south (~190 days), in association with earlier FFSS (~24 April) and later FFSE (~30 October). Statistically significant (p< 0.05) trends in FFSL were all positive (increasing) ranged between 0 and 13.5 (days/decade) and mainly observed in the east, upper west, centre and upper north of Finland. Such lengthening trends in FFS were attributable to both earlier FFSS and later FFSE mostly over central and upper northern Finland, while only to later FFSE in eastern and upper western parts. Variations in both FFSL and FFSS were significantly associated with the Polar (POL) pattern over northern Finland, while with the East Atlantic (EA) pattern over eastern and upper western areas. However, the POL and Scandinavia (SCA) patterns were most influential CTs for FFSE variability over northern Finland.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2183
78204
Tests and Comparison of Two Mobile Industrial Analytical Systems for Mercury Speciation in Flue Gas
Abstract:
Combustion of solid fuels is one of the main sources of mercury in the environment. To reduce the amount of mercury emitted to the atmosphere, it is necessary to modify or optimize old purification technologies or introduce the new ones. Effective reduction of mercury level in the flue gas requires the use of speciation systems for mercury form determination. This paper describes tests and provides comparison of two industrial portable and continuous systems for mercury speciation in the flue gas: Durag HM-1400 TRX with a speciation module and the Portable Continuous Mercury Speciation System based on the SGM-8 mercury speciation set, made by Nippon Instruments Corporation. Additionally, the paper describes a few analytical problems that were encountered during a two-year period of using the systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2182
78163
Experimental Study on Floating Breakwater Anchored by Piles
Abstract:
Coastline is vulnerable to coastal erosion which damage infrastructure and buildings. Floating breakwaters are applied in order to minimize material cost but still can reduce wave height. In this paper, we investigated floating breakwater anchored by piles based on experimental study in the laboratory with model scale 1:8. Two type of floating model were tested with several combination wave height, wave period and surface water elevation to determined transmission coefficient. This experimental study proved that floating breakwater with piles can prevent wave height up to 27 cm. The physical model shows that ratio of depth to wave length is less than 0.6 and ratio of model width to wave length is less than 0.3. It is confirmed that if those ratio are less than those value, the transmission coefficient is 0.5. The result also showed that the first type model of floating breakwater can reduce wave height by 60.4 % while the second one can reduce up to 55.56 %.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2181
77910
Plants as Alternative Covers at Contaminated Sites
Abstract:
Evapotranspiration (ET) covers are an alternative cover system that utilizes water balance approach to maximize the ET process to reduce the contaminants leaching through the soil profile. Microcosm tests allow to identify in a short time the most suitable plant species to be used as alternative covers, their survival capacity, and simultaneously the transpiration and evaporation rate of the cover in a specific contaminated soil. This work shows the soil characterization and ET results of microcosm tests carried out on two contaminated soils by using Triticum durum and Helianthus annuus species. The data indicated that transpiration was higher than evaporation, supporting the use of plants as alternative cover at this contaminated site.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2180
77818
Variation in Water Utilization of Typical Desert Shrubs in a Desert-Oasis Ecotone
Abstract:
Water is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth and development in desert ecosystems. In order to understand how desert shrubs cope with variation in water sources over time, it is important to understand plant–water relations in desert-oasis ecotone. We selected the typical desert shrubs: Nitraria sibirica, Calligonum mongolicum and Haloxylon ammodendron of 5-, 10-, 20- and 40-year old as the research species, to study the seasonal variation of plant water sources and response to precipitation in the desert-oasis ecotone of Linze, Northwestern China. We examined stable isotopic ratios of oxygen (δ18O) in stem water of desert shrubs as well as in precipitation, groundwater, and soil water in different soil layers and seasons to determine water sources for the shrubs. We found that the N. sibirica and H. ammodendron of 5-, 10-year old showed significant seasonal variation characteristics of δ18O value of stem water and water sources. However, the C. mongolicum and 20- and 40-year H. ammodendron main water sources were from deep soil water and groundwater, and less response to precipitation pulse. After 22.4 mm precipitation, the contribution of shallow soil water (0-50cm) to the use of N. sibirica increased from 6.7% to 36.5%; the C. mongolicum rarely use precipitation that were about 58.29% and 23.51%, absorbed from the deep soil water and groundwater; the contribution of precipitation to use of H. ammodendron had significantly differences among the four ages. The H. ammodendron of 5- and 10-year old about 86.3% and 42.5% water sources absorbed from the shallow soil water after precipitation. However, the contribution to 20- and 40-year old plant was less than 15%. So, the precipitation was one of the main water sources for desert shrubs, but the species showed different water utilization. We conclude that the main water source of the N. sibirica and H. ammodendron of 5-, 10-year was soil water recharged by precipitation, but the deeply rooted H. ammodendron of 20‐ and 40‐year‐old and the C. mongolicum have the ability to exploit a deep and reliable water source.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2179
77778
Vehicular Emission Estimation of Islamabad by Using Copert-5 Model
Abstract:
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan with the population of 1.365 million people and with a vehicular fleet size of 0.75 million. The vehicular fleet size is growing annually by the rate of 11%. Vehicular emissions are major source of Black carbon (BC). In developing countries like Pakistan, most of the vehicles consume conventional fuels like Petrol, Diesel, and CNG. These fuels are the major emitters of pollutants like CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, VOCs, and particulate matter (PM10). Carbon dioxide and methane are the leading contributor to the global warming with a global share of 9-26% and 4-9% respectively. NOx is the precursor of nitrates which ultimately form aerosols that are noxious to human health. In this study, COPERT (Computer program to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport) was used for vehicular emission estimation in Islamabad. COPERT is a windows based program which is developed for the calculation of emissions from the road transport sector. The emissions were calculated for the year of 2016 include pollutants like CO, NOx, VOC, and PM and energy consumption. The different variable was input to the model for emission estimation including meteorological parameters, average vehicular trip length and respective time duration, fleet configuration, activity data, degradation factor, and fuel effect. The estimated emissions for CO, CH4, CO2, NOx, and PM10 were found to be 9814.2, 44.9, 279196.7, 3744.2 and 304.5 tons respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2178
77775
Adaptive Strategies of Clonal Shrub to Sand Dune Environment in Desert-Oasis Transitional Zone
Abstract:
Plants growth in desert often suffered from stresses like water deficit, wind erosion and sand burial. Thus, plants in desert always have unique strategies to adapt these stresses. However, data regarding how clonal shrubs withstand wind erosion and sand burial in natural habitats remain relatively scarce. Therefore, we selected a common clonal shrub Calligonum arborescens to study the adaptive strategies of clonal plants to sand dune environment in a transitional zone of desert and Hexi Oasis of China. Our results show that sand burial is one of the essential prerequisites for the survival of C. arborescens rhizome fragments. Both the time and degrees of sand burial and wind erosion had significantly effects on clonal reproduction and growth of C. arborescens. With increasing burial depth, the number of ramets and biomass production significantly decreased. There is same change trend in severe erosion treatments. However, the number of ramets and biomass production significantly increased in moderate erosion treatments. Rhizome severed greatly decreased ramet number and biomass production under both sand burial and severe erosion treatments. That indicated that both sand burial and severe erosion had negative effects on the clonal growth of C. arborescens, but moderate wind erosion had positive effects. And rhizome connections alleviated the negative effects of sand burial and of severe erosion on the growth and performance of C. arborescens. Most fragments of C. arborescens grew in the directions of northeastern and southwestern. Ramet number and biomass, rhizome length and biomass in these two directions were significantly higher than those found in other directions. Interestingly, these directions were perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Distribution of C. arborescens differed in different habitats. The total number of individuals was significantly higher in inter-dune areas and on windward slopes than on the top and leeward slopes of dunes; more clonal ramets were produced on the top of dunes than elsewhere, and a few were found on leeward slopes. The mainly reason is that ramets on windward and top of dunes can easily suffered with moderated wind erosion which promoted clonal growth and reproduction of C. arborescens. These results indicated that C. arborescens adapted sand dune environment through directional growth and patchy distribution, and sand-burial and wind erosion were the key factors which led to the directional growth and patchiness of C. arborescens.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2177
77523
The Effect of Gas Flare on the Health of Schoolchildren in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria
Abstract:
The proximity of schools to gas flaring sites and the use of simple ventilation systems in school buildings with currently no regulation or laid down blueprint during design and construction in an environment prone to adverse environmental hazards caused by the continuous exploration of oil in the Niger Delta is worrisome. Although a wide health implication has been associated with inhalation of poor air, its effect on the performance of schoolchildren and staffs is poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this research is to explore from professionals around the region the issues surrounding the provision of clean air indoors even though, most developed and developing world are advancing in newer systems and technologies for clean indoor air. This study adopts both qualitative and quantitative approach using both open-ended and semi- structured interview techniques. This paper finds that indoor air quality is not considered during design, selection, and construction of schools. Analysis showed that rather than consider the health effect associated with the inhalation of ambient air by schoolchildren who spend 80% of their active time in schools due to the use of simple open windows and doors as source of breathable air. Advanced ventilation systems were therefore recommended to ensure supplying clean air for school buildings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2176
77395
Improving Indoor Air Quality by Increasing Bio-Based Negative Air Ion Release
Abstract:
Indoor air quality could be improved through traditional air purifiers. However, they may not be environmental products. Here, a bio-based method was employed to improve indoor air quality by increasing negative air ion (NAI) release from ornamental plants. A total of 60 plant species has been screened by evaluating their ability to release NAIs, from which four candidates were selected to further study. All of them are from the Dracaena or fabids clade. These four candidates were then subjected to survey their ability to reduce the concentration of particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 or 10 microns (PM2.5 and PM10) in the growth chamber. High concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were artificially generated by burning a stick of incense for 2 minutes in the closed growth chamber (80cm length × 80cm width × 80cm height), in which the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration were generally around 500 µg/m3 and 1500 µg/m3, respectively. Both PM2.5 and PM10 were naturally reduced to 410 and 670, respectively after two hours in case that no plants were placed inside the chamber. Interestingly, these two sizes of particulars were reduced to 170 µg/m3 and 210 µg/m3, respectively after two hours when plants were placed to the chamber. It took 4 hours for the plants to reduce particular concentration to acceptable level at less than 55 µg/m3 for both PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. However, the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration were still above 200 µg/m3 and 300 µg/m3, respectively after 4 hours in the growth chamber without any plants. These results suggest the contribution of plants to the particulate deposition. However, all of these data are preliminary and the results may be updated by further studies. In addition, the roles of plants in absorbing indoor formaldehyde have also been explored and their absorbing ability is being improved by optimizing their growth conditions and treating with various exogenous agents. Thus, our preliminary studies provide an alternative strategy to improve indoor air quality.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2175
77383
Biogas Production from Zebra Manure and Winery Waste Co-Digestion
Abstract:
Currently, the rising energy demand as a result of an increase in the world’s population and the sustainable use of abundant natural resources are key issues facing many developed and developing countries including South Africa. Most of the energy to meet this growing demand comes from fossil fuel. Use of fossil fuels has led to environmental problems such air pollution, climate change, and acid rain. In addition, fossil fuels are facing continual depletion, which has led to the rise in oil prices, leading to the global economies melt down. Hence development of alternative clean and renewable energy source is a global priority. Renewable biomass from forest products, agricultural crops, and residues, as well as animal and municipal waste are promising alternatives. South Africa is one of the leading wine producers in the world; leading to a lot of winery waste (ww) being produced which can be used in anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. Biogas was produced from batch anaerobic digestion of zebra manure (zm) and batch anaerobic co-digestion of winery waste (ww) and zebra manure through water displacement. The batch digester with slurry of winery waste and zebra manure in the weight ratio of 1:2 was operated in a 1L container at 37°C for 30days. Co-digestion of winery waste and zebra manure produced higher amount of biogas as compared to zebra manure alone and winery waste alone. No biogas was produced by batch anaerobic digestion of winery waste alone. Chemical analysis of C/N ratio and total solids (TS) of zebra manure was 21.89 and 25.2 respectively. These values of C/N ratio and TS were quite high compared to values of other studied manures. Zebra manure also revealed unusually high concentration of Fe reaching 3600pm compared to other studies of manure. PCR with communal DNA of the digestate gave a positive hit for the presence of archaea species using standard archea primers; suggesting the presence of methanogens. Methanogens are key microbes in the production of biogas. Therefore, this study demonstrated the potential of zebra manure as an inoculum in the production of biogas.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2174
77330
Deep Groundwater Potential and Chemical Analysis Based on Well Logging Analysis at Kapuk-Cengkareng, West Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia
Abstract:
Jakarta Capital Special Region is the province that densely populated with rapidly growing infrastructure but less attention for the environmental condition. This makes some social problem happened like lack of clean water supply. Shallow groundwater and river water condition that has contaminated make the layer of deep water carrier (aquifer) should be done. This research aims to provide the people insight about deep groundwater potential and to determine the depth, location, and quality where the aquifer can be found in Jakarta’s area, particularly Kapuk-Cengkareng’s people. This research was conducted by geophysical method namely Well Logging Analysis. Well Logging is the geophysical method to know the subsurface lithology with the physical characteristic. The observation in this research area was conducted with several well devices that is Spontaneous Potential Log (SP Log), Resistivity Log, and Gamma Ray Log (GR Log). The first devices well is SP log which is work by comprising the electrical potential difference between the electrodes on the surface with the electrodes that is contained in the borehole and rock formations. The second is Resistivity Log, used to determine both the hydrocarbon and water zone based on their porosity and permeability properties. The last is GR Log, work by identifying radioactivity levels of rocks which is containing elements of thorium, uranium, or potassium. The observation result is curve-shaped which describes the type of lithological coating in subsurface. The result from the research can be interpreted that there are four of the deep groundwater layer zone with different quality. The good groundwater layer can be found in layers with good porosity and permeability. By analyzing the curves, it can be known that most of the layers which were found in this wellbore are clay stone with low resistivity and high gamma radiation. The resistivity value of the clay stone layers is about 2-4 ohm-meter with 65-80 Cps gamma radiation. There are several layers with high resistivity value and low gamma radiation (sand stone) that can be potential for being an aquifer. This is reinforced by the sand layer with a right-leaning SP log curve proving that this layer is permeable. These layers have 4-9 ohm-meter resistivity value with 40-65 Cps gamma radiation. These are mostly found as fresh water aquifer.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2173
77171
The Advancement of Environmental Impact Assessment for 5th Transmission Natural Gas Pipeline Project in Thailand
Abstract:
PTT Public Company Limited or simply PTT has played an important role in strengthening national energy security of the Kingdom of Thailand by transporting natural gas to customers in power, industrial and commercial sectors since 1981. PTT has been constructing and operating natural gas pipeline system of over 4,500-km network length both onshore and offshore laid through different area classifications i.e., marine, forest, agriculture, rural, urban, and city areas. During project development phase, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is conducted and submitted to the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) for approval before project construction commencement. Knowledge and experiences gained and revealed from EIA in the past projects definitely are developed to further advance EIA study process for newly 5th Transmission Natural Gas Pipeline Project (5TP) with approximately 415 kilometers length. The preferred pipeline route is selected and justified by SMARTi map, an advance digital one-map platform with consists of multiple layers geographic and environmental information. Sensitive area impact focus (SAIF) is a practicable impact assessment methodology which appropriate for a particular long distance infrastructure project such as 5TP. An environmental modeling simulation is adopted into SAIF methodology for impact quantified in all sensitive areas whereas other area along pipeline right-of-ways is typically assessed as an impact representative. Resulting time and cost deduction is beneficial to project for early start.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2172
76910
Field Studies of 2017 in the Water Catch Basin in the River Vere to Safeguard the Population of Tbilisi against the Erosive-Mudflow Processes and Its Evaluation
Abstract:
From April through June of 2017, the field-scientific studies to ensure the safety of the population of Tbilisi were accomplished in the water catch basin of the river Vere, in the water catch basin of the river Jakhana dry gully. 5 sensitive sites were identified, and areas, 20x20 m each, were marked around them, with their locations fixed with GPS coordinates. The gained areas were plotted on a digital map, and the state of the surface was explored by considering the evaluation of erosive processes. Aiming at evaluating the soils and grounds of the sensitive areas, the ground samples were taken, and average diameter was identified, with its value changing to D0 = 4,67-15,48 mm, and integral curves of the grain size were drafted. By using the obtained data, the transporting capability of mudflow can be identified at the next stage to use to calculate mudflow peak discharges of different provisions in developing the new designs of mudflow-protection structures with the goal of ensuring the safety of Tbilisi population. The studies were accomplished under the financing of Young Scientists’ Grant of Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation 'The study of erosive-mudflow processes in the water catch basin in the river Vere to ensure the safety of the population of Tbilisi and their consideration in developing new environmental protection plans' (YS15_2.1.5_8)
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2171
76811
Different Sampling Schemes for Semi-Parametric Frailty Model
Abstract:
Frailty model is a survival model that takes into account the unobserved heterogeneity for exploring the relationship between the survival of an individual and several covariates. In the recent years, proposed survival models become more complex and this feature causes convergence problems especially in large data sets. Therefore selection of sample from these big data sets is very important for estimation of parameters. In sampling literature, some authors have defined new sampling schemes to predict the parameters correctly. For this aim, we try to see the effect of sampling design in semi-parametric frailty model. We conducted a simulation study in R programme to estimate the parameters of semi-parametric frailty model for different sample sizes, censoring rates under classical simple random sampling and ranked set sampling schemes. In the simulation study, we used data set recording 17260 male Civil Servants aged 40–64 years with complete 10-year follow-up as population. Time to death from coronary heart disease is treated as a survival-time and age, systolic blood pressure are used as covariates. We select the 1000 samples from population using different sampling schemes and estimate the parameters. From the simulation study, we concluded that ranked set sampling design performs better than simple random sampling for each scenario.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):