Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48505

Geological and Environmental Engineering

718
83584
Modeling and Estimating Reserve of the Ali Javad Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposit, East Azerbaijan, Iran
Abstract:
The study area is located in East Azerbaijan province, north of Ahar city, and 1/100000 geological map of Varzgan. This region is located in the middle of Iran zone. Ali Javad Porphyry copper-gold ore deposit has been created in a magmatic complex containing intrusive masses, combining Granodiorite and quartz Monzonite that penetrates into the Eocene volcanic aggregate. The most important mineralization includes primary oxides minerals (magnetite), sulfide (pyrite, chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, Bornite, Chalcocite, Covollite), secondary oxide or hydroxide minerals (hematite, goethite, limonite), and carbonate (malachite and Azurite). The mineralization forms into the vein-veinlets and scattered system. The alterations observed in the region include intermediate Argillic, advanced Argillic, Phyllic, silica, Propylitic, chlorite and Potassic. The 3D model of mineralization of the Alijavad is provided by Data DATAMINE software and based on the study of 700 polished sections of 32 drilled boreholes in the region. This model is completely compatible with the model provided by Lowell and Gilbert for the mineralization of porphyry copper deposits of quartz Monzonite type. The estimated cumulative residual value of copper for Ali Javad deposit is 81.5 million tons with 0.75 percent of copper, and for gold is 8.37 million tons with 1.8 ppm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
717
83418
Inhibiting Effects of Zwitterionic Surfactant on the Erosion-Corrosion of API X52 Steel in Oil Sands Slurry
Authors:
Abstract:
The effect of zwitterionic surfactant (ZS) on erosion-corrosion of API X52 steel in oil sands slurry was studied using Tafel polarization and anodic polarization measurements. The surface morphology of API X52 steel was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ZS inhibited the erosion-corrosion of API X52 steel in oil sands' slurry, and the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing ZS concentration but decreased with increasing temperature. Polarization curves indicate that ZS act as a mixed type of inhibitor. Inhibition efficiencies of ZS in the dynamic condition are not as effective as that obtained in the static condition.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
716
83259
Fragility Analysis of a Soft First-Story Building in Mexico City
Abstract:
On 09/19/2017, a Mw = 7.1 intraslab earthquake occurred in Mexico causing the collapse of about 40 buildings. Many of these were 5- or 6-story buildings with soft first story; so, it is desirable to perform a structural fragility analysis of typical structures representative of those buildings and to propose a reliable structural solution. Here, a typical 5-story building constituted by regular R/C moment-resisting frames in the first story and confined masonry walls in the upper levels, similar to the collapsed structures on the 09/19/2017 Mexico earthquake, is analyzed. Three different structural solutions of the 5-story building are considered: S1) it is designed in accordance with the Mexico City Building Code-2004; S2) then, the column dimensions of the first story corresponding to S1 are reduced, and S3) viscous dampers are added at the first story of solution S2. A number of dynamic incremental analyses are performed for each structural solution, using a 3D structural model. The hysteretic behavior model of the masonry was calibrated with experiments performed at the Laboratory of Structures at UNAM. Ten seismic ground motions are used to excite the structures; they correspond to ground motions recorded in intermediate soil of Mexico City with a dominant period around 1s, where the structures are located. The fragility curves of the buildings are obtained for different values of the maximum inter-story drift demands. Results show that solutions S1 and S3 give place to similar probabilities of exceedance of a given value of inter-story drift for the same seismic intensity, and that solution S2 presents a higher probability of exceedance for the same seismic intensity and inter-story drift demand. Therefore, it is concluded that solution S3 (which corresponds to the building with soft first story and energy dissipation devices) can be a reliable solution from the structural point of view.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
715
83199
Ductility Reduction Factors for Displacement Spectra Corresponding to Soft Soil Zone of the Valley of Mexico
Abstract:
A simplified mathematical expression to estimate ductility reduction factors of the displacement spectra corresponding to the soft soil zone of Mexico City is proposed. The aim is to allow a better characterization of the displacement spectra and provide a simple expression to be used in displacement based design (DBD). Emphasis is on the Mexico City Building Code. The study is based on the analysis of single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems with elasto-plastic hysteretic behavior. Several seismic ground motions corresponding to subduction events with magnitudes equal to or greater than 6 and recorded in different stations of Mexico City are used. The proposed expression involves the ratio of elastic and inelastic pseudo-aceleration spectra, and depends on factors such the ductility demand and the vibration period of the structural system. The resulting ductility reduction factors obtained in this study are compared with others existing in the literature, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
714
83169
Direct-Displacement Based Design for Buildings with Non-Linear Viscous Dampers
Abstract:
An approach is proposed for the design of regular buildings equipped with non-linear viscous dissipating devices. The approach is based on a direct-displacement seismic design method which satisfies seismic performance objectives. The global system involved is formed by structural regular moment frames capable of supporting gravity and lateral loads with elastic response behavior plus a set of non-linear viscous dissipating devices which reduce the structural seismic response. The dampers are characterized by two design parameters: (1) a positive real exponent α which represents the non-linearity of the damper, and (2) the damping coefficient C of the device, whose constitutive force-velocity law is given by F=Cvᵃ, where v is the velocity between the ends of the damper. The procedure is carried out using a substitute structure. Two limits states are verified: serviceability and near collapse. The reduction of the spectral ordinates by the additional damping assumed in the design process and introduced to the structure by the viscous non-linear dampers is performed according to a damping reduction factor. For the design of the non-linear damper system, the real velocity is considered instead of the pseudo-velocity. The proposed design methodology is applied to an 8-story steel moment frame building equipped with non-linear viscous dampers, located in intermediate soil zone of Mexico City, with a dominant period Tₛ = 1s. In order to validate the approach, nonlinear static analyses and nonlinear time history analyses are performed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
713
83119
Identification of Paleogeomorphology at Kedulan Temple, Sleman, Yogyakarta
Abstract:
Kedulan Temple is located in Dusun Kedulan, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia at coordinates S 07o 44’ 57’, E 110o 28’ 17’. Kedulan Temple is a trace of the relics of life in the 3 century AD. The Kedulan Temple including exhumed landforms, which the primordial landform is first surface topography, then buried under cover mass and exposed or re-inscribed. Recognized by the existence of ancient soil (paleosoil) and ancient objects. Seen from the type of soil that closes the temple, there are 13 layers of lava type, so it is estimated that the lava that buried the temple came from 13 times the eruption of Mount Merapi. The material that buries the base of this temple is the pyroclastic surge deposits in 3 layers, each of which is limited by a thin layer of paleosol, the sediments are 1445+/-50 yBP, 1175+/-50 yBP, and 1060+/-40 yBP. This temple is buried and dug again at 940+/-100 yBP. Furthermore, the temple affected by earthquake, so the floor and foundation becomes bumpy and most of the temple stone are thrown. The temple is left alone, until exposed to hot clouds at 1285 M (740+/-50yBP). Next, repeatedly buried lava in 4 periods, in 1587 M (360+/-50 yBP, 240+/-50 yBP, 200+/-50 yBP and unknown date). From studying this temple, can be known paleogeomorphology process that occurred in Yogyakarta, especially related to the volcanic activity of Mount Merapi. Until now, the water is still flowing around the temple so there is a fluvial process that began to take a role in the temple.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
712
82945
Paleobathymetry and Biostratigraphy of Sambipitu Formation and Its Relation with the Presence of Ichnofossil in Geoheritage Site Ngalang River Yogyakartaa
Abstract:
The location of this research is a part of Geoheritage that located in Nglipar, Gunung Kidul Regency, Yogyakarta Special Region. Whereas in this location, the carbonate sandstone of Sambipitu Formation (early-middle Miocene) is well exposed along Ngalang River, also there are ichnofossil presence which causes this formation to be interesting. The determination of paleobathymetry is particularly important in determining paleoenvironment and paleogeographic. Paleobathymetry can be determined by identifying the presence of Foraminifera bentonik fossil and parasequence emerge. The methods that used in this study are spatial method of field observation with systematic sampling, descriptive method of paleontology, biostratigraphy analysis, geometrical analysis of Ichnofossil, and study literature. The result obtained that paleobathymetry of this location is bathyal zone with maximum regression known by Bulliminoides williamsonianus showing depth 17 fathoms at the age of N3-N5 (Oligocenne-Early Miocene) and the maximum transgression is known by Cibicides pseudoungarianus showing depth 862 fathoms at the age of N8-N9 (Early-Middle Miocene). Where the obtained paleobathymetry supported of the presence and formed the pattern of ichnofossil that found in the study area.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
711
82929
Survey of Hawke's Bay Tourism Based Businesses: Tsunami Understanding and Preparation
Authors:
Abstract:
The loss of life and livelihood experienced after the magnitude 9.3 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami on 26 December 2004 and magnitude 9 earthquake and tsunami in northeastern Japan on 11 March 2011, has raised global awareness and brought tsunami phenomenology, nomenclature, and representation into sharp focus. At the same time, travel and tourism continue to increase, contributing around 1 in 11 jobs worldwide. This increase in tourism is especially true for coastal zones, placing pressure on decision-makers to downplay tsunami risks and at the same time provide adequate tsunami warning so that holidaymakers will feel confident enough to visit places of high tsunami risk. This study investigates how well tsunami preparedness messages are getting through for tourist-based businesses in Hawke’s Bay New Zealand, a region of frequent seismic activity and a high probability of experiencing a nearshore tsunami. The aim of this study is to investigate whether tourists based businesses are well informed about tsunamis, how well they understand that information and to what extent their clients are included in awareness raising and evacuation processes. In high-risk tsunami zones, such as Hawke’s Bay, tourism based businesses face competitive tension between short term business profitability and longer term reputational issues related to preventable loss of life from natural hazards, such as tsunamis. This study will address ways to accommodate culturally and linguistically relevant tourist awareness measures without discouraging tourists or being too costly to implement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
710
82925
The History of Sambipitu Formation Temperature during the Early Miocene Epooch at Kali Ngalang, Nglipar, Gunung Kidul Regency
Abstract:
Understanding of temperatures in the past, present, and future temperatures can be possible to do by analysis abundance of fossil foraminifera. This research was conducted in Sambipitu Formation, Ngalang River, Nglipar, Gunung Kidul Regency. The research method is divided into 3 stages: 1) study of literature, research based on previous researchers, 2) spatial, observation and sampling every 5-10 meters, 3) descriptive, analyzing samples consisting of a 10-gram sample weight, washing sample using 30% peroxide, biostratigraphy analysis, paleotemperature analysis using abundance of fossil, diversity analysis using Simpson diversity index method, and comparing current temperature data. There are two phases based on the appearance of Globorotalia menardii and Pulleniatina obliqueculata pointed to Phase Tropical Area, and the appearance of fossil Globigerinoides ruber and Orbulina universa fossil shows the phase of Subtropical Area. Paleotemperatur based on the appearance of Globorotalia menardii, Globigerinoides trilobus, Globigerinoides ruber, Orbulina universa, and Pulleniatina obliqueculata pointed to Warm Water Area and Warm Water Area (average surface water approximate 25°C).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
709
82797
Heavy Sulphide Material Characterization of Grasberg Block Cave Mine, Mimika, Papua: Implication for Tunnel Development and Mill Issue
Abstract:
Grasberg Cu-Au ore deposit as one of the biggest porphyry deposits located in Papua Province, Indonesia produced by several intrusion that restricted by Heavy Sulphide Zone (HSZ) in peripheral. HSZ is the rock that becomes the contact between Grassberg Igneous Complex (GIC) with sedimentary and igneous rock outside, which is rich in sulphide minerals such as pyrite ± pyrrhotite. This research is to obtain the characteristic of HSZ based on geotechnical, geochemical and mineralogy aspect and those implication for daily mining operational activities. Method used in this research are geological and alteration mapping, core logging, FAA (Fire Assay Analysis), AAS (Atomic absorption spectroscopy), RQD (Rock Quality Designation) and rock water content. Data generated from methods among RQD data, mineral composition and grade, lithological and structural geology distribution in research area. The mapping data show that HSZ material characteristics divided into three type based on rocks association, there are near igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and on HSZ area. And also divided based on its location, north and south part of research area. HSZ material characteristic consist of rock which rich of pyrite ± pyrrhotite, and RQD range valued about 25%-100%. Pyrite ± pyrrhotite which outcropped will react with H₂O and O₂ resulting acid that generates corrosive effect on steel wire and rockbolt. Whereas, pyrite precipitation proses in HSZ forming combustible H₂S gas which is harmful during blasting activities. Furthermore, the impact of H₂S gas in blasting activities is forming poison gas SO₂. Although HSZ high grade Cu-Au, however those high grade Cu-Au rich in sulphide components which is affected in flotation milling process. Pyrite ± pyrrhotite in HSZ will chemically react with Cu-Au that will settle in milling process instead of floating.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
708
82673
An Integrated Geophysical Investigation for Earthen Dam Inspection: A Case Study of Huai Phueng Dam, Udon Thani, Northeastern Thailand
Abstract:
In the middle of September 2017, a tropical storm named ‘DOKSURI’ swept through Udon Thani, Northeastern Thailand. The storm dumped heavy rain for many hours and caused large amount of water flowing into Huai Phueng reservoir. Level of impounding water increased rapidly, and the extra water flowed over a service spillway, morning-glory type constructed by concrete material for about 50 years ago. Subsequently, a sinkhole was formed on the dam crest and five points of water piping were found on downstream slope closely to spillway. Three techniques of geophysical investigation were carried out to inspect cause of failures; Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI), Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW), and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), respectively. Result of ERI clearly shows evidence of overtop event and heterogeneity around spillway that implied possibility of previous shape of sinkhole around the pipe. The shear wave velocity of subsurface soil measured by MASW can numerically convert to undrained shear strength of impervious clay core. Result of GPR clearly reveals partial settlements of freeboard zone at top part of the dam and also shaping new refilled material to plug the sinkhole back to the condition it should be. In addition, the GPR image is a main answer to confirm that there are not any sinkholes in the survey lines, only that found on top of the spillway. Integrity interpretation of the three results together with several evidences observed during a field walk-through and data from drilled holes can be interpreted that there are four main causes in this account. The first cause is too much water flowing over the spillway. Second, the water attacking morning glory spillway creates cracks upon concrete contact where the spillway is cross-cut to the center of the dam. Third, high velocity of water inside the concrete pipe sucking fine particle of embankment material down via those cracks and flushing out to the river channel. Lastly, loss of clay material of the dam into the concrete pipe creates the sinkhole at the crest. However, in case of failure by piping, it is possible that they can be formed both by backward erosion (internal erosion along or into embedded structure of spillway walls) and also by excess saturated water of downstream material.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
707
82456
Comparative Morphometric Analysis of Yelganga-Shivbhadra and Kohilla River Sub-Basins in Aurangabad District Maharashtra India
Abstract:
Morphometric analysis is the first stage of any basin analysis. By using these morphometric parameters we give indirect information about the nature and relations of stream with other streams, Geology of the area, groundwater condition and tectonic history of the basin. In the present study, Yelganga, Shivbhadra and Kohilla rivers, tributaries of the Godavari River in Aurangabad district, Maharashtra, India are considered to compare and study their morphometric characters. The linear, areal and relief morphometric aspects of the sub-basins have been assessed and evaluated in GIS environment. For this study, ArcGIS 10.1 software has been used for delineating, digitizing and generating different thematic maps. The Survey of India (SOI) toposheets maps and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) on resolution 30 m downloaded from United States Geological Survey (USGS) have been used for preparation of map and data generation. Geologically, the study area is covered by Central Deccan Volcanic Province (CDVP). It mainly consists of ‘aa’ type of basaltic lava flows of Late (upper) Cretaceous to Early (lower) Eocene age. The total geographical area of Yelganga, Shivbhadra and Kohilla river sub-basins are 185.5 sq. km., 142.6 sq. km and 122.3 sq. km. respectively The stream ordering method as suggested by the Strahler has been employed for present study and found that all the sub-basins are of 5th order streams. The average bifurcation ratio value of the sub-basins is below 5, indicates that there appears to be no strong structural control on drainage development, homogeneous nature of lithology and drainage network is in well-developed stage of erosion. The drainage density of Yelganga, Shivbhadra and Kohilla Sub-basins is 1.79 km/km2, 1.48 km/km2 and 1.89 km/km2 respectively and stream frequency is 1.94 streams/km2, 1.19 streams/km2 and 1.68 streams/km2 respectively, indicating semi-permeable sub-surface. Based on textural ratio values it indicates that the sub-basins have coarse texture. Shape parameters such as form factor ratio, circularity ratio and elongation ratio values shows that all three sub- basins are elongated in shape.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
706
82318
Grain-Size Analysis of Mudrocks: An Automated Method from SEM Images
Abstract:
Grain-size analysis of mudrock is challenging and time-consuming and there is need to develop a fast, effective and objective method for accurately determining the grain size of this group of rocks. We suggest that this is best achieved by using high-resolution electron microscopy to study both the microstructure and grain size of mudrocks at the same time. Here we present grain-size analysis from SEM images through image analysis of Feret diameter. The method has been tested on 7 mudrock samples from two IODP Expeditions and compared with results from standard laser diffraction granulometry. Image analysis shows that all the samples fall within the clayey silt to silty clayey range with average grain size from fine silt to coarse silt. Close comparable results and statistical parameters were obtained by laser diffractometry, with only slight variations between the two sets of results. Normalised root mean square error of the mean, median sorting, skewness, and kurtosis are 0.27, 0.29, 0.33, 0.37 and 0.29 respectively which indicate that the difference in the statistical parameter form both techniques are similar with statistically insignificant difference. Linear plots of grain percentage at corresponding phi values showed strong positive correlation between the two techniques with R-square values ranging between 0.76 and 0.96 except in sample 1 where there was no correlation (R-square = 0.083). Image analysis of grain size as described herein gives comparable and generally smoother normal distribution curves than the laser diffraction technique for all the seven samples. All grain-size analysis techniques are based on different measurements and assumptions. It is therefore unlikely to obtain perfectly comparable results from two different methods. Grain-size results based on image analysis of Feret diameter showed a slightly greater percentage in finer sediments than those obtained by laser diffractometry. The procedures involved in the proposed method is rapid, automated, devoid of human subjectivity and precise.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
705
82273
Analysis of Microstructure around Opak River Pleret Area, Bantul Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, as a Result of Opak Fault Reactivation, Using Stereographic Method
Abstract:
Opak Fault is a large fault that extends from the northeast to the southwest of Yogyakarta Special Region. Opak Fault allegedly re-active after the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake, about eleven years ago. Opak Fault is a big fault, therefore the activation will bring up the microstructure around the Opak River. This microstructure will reveal a different direction of force from the Opak Fault because the trigger for the emergence of the microstructure is the reactivation of the Opak Fault. In other words, this microstructure is a potentially severe weak area during a tectonic disaster. This research was conducted to find out the impact from the reactivation of Opak Fault that triggered the emergence of microstructure around Opak River which is very useful for disaster mitigation information around research area. This research used the approach from literature study in the form of the journal of structural geology and field study. The method used is a laboratory analysis in the form of stereographic analysis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
704
82253
Unsupervised Detection of Burned Area from Remote Sensing Images using Spatial Correlation and Fuzzy Clustering
Abstract:
Land-cover and land-use change information are important because of their practical uses in various applications, including deforestation, damage assessment, disasters monitoring, urban expansion, planning, and land management. Therefore, developing change detection methods for remote sensing images is an important ongoing research agenda. However, detection of change through optical remote sensing images is not a trivial task due to many factors including the vagueness between the boundaries of changed and unchanged regions and spatial dependence of the pixels to its neighborhood. In this paper, we propose a binary change detection technique for bi-temporal optical remote sensing images. As in most of the optical remote sensing images, the transition between the two clusters (change and no change) is overlapping and the existing methods are incapable of providing the accurate cluster boundaries. In this regard, a methodology has been proposed which uses the fuzzy c-means clustering to tackle the problem of vagueness in the changed and unchanged class by formulating the soft boundaries between them. Furthermore, in order to exploit the neighborhood information of the pixels, the input patterns are generated corresponding to each pixel from bi-temporal images using 3×3, 5×5 and 7×7 window. The between images and within image spatial dependence of the pixels to its neighborhood is quantified by using Pearson product moment correlation and Moran’s I statistics, respectively. The proposed technique consists of two phases. At first, between images and within image spatial correlation is calculated to utilize the information that the pixels at different locations may not be independent. Second, fuzzy c-means technique is used to produce two clusters from input feature by not only taking care of vagueness between the changed and unchanged class but also by exploiting the spatial correlation of the pixels. To show the effectiveness of the proposed technique, experiments are conducted on multispectral and bi-temporal remote sensing images. A subset (2100×1212 pixels) of a pan-sharpened, bi-temporal Landsat 5 thematic mapper optical image of Los Angeles, California, is used in this study which shows a long period of the forest fire continued from July until October 2009. Early forest fire and later forest fire optical remote sensing images were acquired on July 5, 2009 and October 25, 2009, respectively. The proposed technique is used to detect the fire (which causes change on earth’s surface) and compared with the existing K-means clustering technique. Experimental results showed that proposed technique performs better than the already existing technique. The proposed technique can be easily extendable for optical hyperspectral images and is suitable for many practical applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
703
81845
Estimating Strength Properties of Upper Eocene Carbonate Rocks in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
Abstract:
Rock strength is commonly recognized as a rock ability to resist stress or deformation without breaking down. Its measurement in either in-situ or laboratory environment is costly and requires time-consuming efforts for rock sampling, preparation and laboratory tests. There are different suggested testing methods available such as Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS), Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS), Point Load Index (PLI), Schmidt Hammer Hardness (SHH), etc. and used to interpret of rock strength properties. The study will only focus on the Upper Eocene Dammam Formation (carbonate rocks), which is widely exposed around the western periphery of the northern Oman Mountains and is divided into three members in the eastern UAE: Mezyad Member, Ain Al Faydah Member and Wadi Al Nahyan Member. In the study, more than fifty carbonate (limestone) rock blocks were collected from four different selected sites in the Hafit Mountain area, Al Ain. Following the sample preparations based on the ASTM standards, about fourth UCS, fourth-one ITS, thirty-seven PLI (in laboratory) and hundreds to thousands of SHH (both laboratory and field) tests will be carried out according to ASTM Standards. Then, to find out the possible relationships between different strength test results (values), regression analyses will be performed for carbonate rocks targeted in the study area. The equation of the best-fit line and the correlation coefficient will be determined for each regression analysis and presented in Figures. Finally, their likely influences on structures in/on rock, usage of rocks as a construction material, slope stability, etc. will be discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
702
81800
Numerical Modeling of Determination of in situ Rock Mass Deformation Modulus Using the Plate Load Test
Abstract:
Accurate determination of rock mass deformation modulus, as an important design parameter, is one of the most controversial issues in most engineering projects. A 3D numerical model of standard plate load test (PLT) using the FLAC3D code was carried on to investigate the mechanism governing the test process. Five objectives were the focus of this study. The first goal was to employ 3D modeling in the interpretation of plate load tests conducted at the Bazoft dam site, Iran. The second objective was to investigate the effect of displacements measuring depth from the loading plates on the calculated moduli. The magnitude of rock mass deformation modulus calculated from PLT depends on anchor depth, and in practice, this may be a cause of error in the selection of realistic deformation modulus for the rock mass. The third goal of the study was to investigate the effect of testing plate diameter on the calculated modulus. Moreover, a comparison of the calculated modulus from ISRM formula, numerical modeling and calculated modulus from the actual PLT carried out at the right abutment of the Bazoft dam site was another objective of the study. Finally, the effect of plastic strains on the calculated moduli in each of the loading-unloading cycles for three loading plates was investigated. The geometry, material properties and boundary conditions on the constructed 3D model were selected based on the in situ conditions of PLT at Bazoft dam site. A good agreement was achieved between numerical model results and the field tests results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
701
81731
Iranian Refinery Vacuum Residue Upgrading Using Microwave Irradiation: Effects of Catalyst Type and Amount
Authors:
Abstract:
Microwave irradiation is an innovative technology in the petroleum industry. This kind of energy has been considered to convert vacuum residue of oil refineries into useful products. The advantages of microwaves energy are short time, fast heating, high energy efficiency, and precise process control. In this paper, the effects of catalyst type and amount have been investigated on upgrading of vacuum residue using microwave irradiation. The vacuum residue used in this research is from Tehran oil refinery, Iran. Additives include different catalysts, active carbon as sensitizer, and sodium borohydride as a solid hydrogen donor. Various catalysts contain iron, nickel, molybdenum disulfide, iron oxide and copper. The amount of catalysts in two cases of presence and absence of sodium borohydride have been evaluated. The objective parameters include temperature, asphaltene, viscosity, and API. The specifications of vacuum residue are API, 8.79, viscosity, 16391 cSt (60°C), asphaltene, 13.3 wt %. The results show that there is a significant difference between the effects of catalysts. Among the used catalysts, Fe powder is the best catalyst for upgrading vacuum residue using microwave irradiation and resulted in asphaltene reduction, 31.3 %; viscosity reduction, 76.43 %; and 23.43 % in API increase.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
700
81709
Treatment of Onshore Petroleum Drill Cuttings via Soil Washing Process: Characterization and Optimal Conditions
Abstract:
Drilling is a key activity in oil and gas exploration and production. Drilling always requires the use of drilling mud for lubricating the drill bit and controlling the subsurface pressure. As drilling proceeds, a considerable amount of cuttings or rock fragments is generated. In general, water or Water Based Mud (WBM) serves as drilling fluid for the top hole section. The cuttings generated from this section is non-hazardous and normally applied as fill materials. On the other hand, drilling the bottom hole to reservoir section uses Synthetic Based Mud (SBM) of which synthetic oils are composed. The bottom-hole cuttings, SBM cuttings, is regarded as a hazardous waste, in accordance with the government regulations, due to the presence of hydrocarbons. Currently, the SBM cuttings are disposed of as an alternative fuel and raw material in cement kiln. Instead of burning, this work aims to propose an alternative for drill cuttings management under two ultimate goals: (1) reduction of hazardous waste volume; and (2) making use of the cleaned cuttings. Soil washing was selected as the major treatment process. The physiochemical properties of drill cuttings were analyzed, such as size fraction, pH, moisture content, and hydrocarbons. The particle size of cuttings was analyzed via light scattering method. Oil present in cuttings was quantified in terms of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) through gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Other components were measured by the standard methods for soil analysis. Effects of different washing agents, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, washing time, mixing speed, rinse-to-solid (R/S) ratio, and rinsing time were also evaluated. It was found that drill cuttings held the electrical conductivity of 3.84 dS/m, pH of 9.1, and moisture content of 7.5%. The TPH in cuttings existed in the diesel range with the concentration ranging from 20,000 to 30,000 mg/kg dry cuttings. A majority of cuttings particles held a mean diameter of 50 µm, which represented silt fraction. The results also suggested that a green solvent was considered most promising for cuttings treatment regarding occupational health, safety, and environmental benefits. The optimal washing conditions were obtained at L/S of 5, washing time of 15 min, mixing speed of 60 rpm, R/S of 10, and rinsing time of 1 min. After washing process, three fractions including clean cuttings, spent solvent, and wastewater were considered and provided with recommendations. The residual TPH less than 5,000 mg/kg was detected in clean cuttings. The treated cuttings can be then used for various purposes. The spent solvent held the calorific value of higher than 3,000 cal/g, which can be used as an alternative fuel. Otherwise, the recovery of the used solvent can be conducted using distillation or chromatography techniques. Finally, the generated wastewater can be combined with the produced water and simultaneously managed by re-injection into the reservoir.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
699
81707
3D Numerical Study of Tsunami Loading and Inundation in a Model Urban Area
Abstract:
We develop a new set of diagnostic tools to analyze inundation into a model district using three-dimensional CFD simulations, with a view to generating a database against which to test simpler models. A three-dimensional model of Oregon city with different-sized groups of building next to the coastline is used to run calculations of the movement of a long period wave on the shore. The initial and boundary conditions of the off-shore water are set using a nonlinear inverse method based on Eulerian spatial information matching experimental Eulerian time series measurements of water height. The water movement is followed in time, and this enables the pressure distribution on every surface of each building to be followed in a temporal manner. The three-dimensional numerical data set is validated against published experimental work. In the first instance, we use the dataset as a basis to understand the success of reduced models - including 2D shallow water model and reduced 1D models - to predict water heights, flow velocity and forces. This is because models based on the shallow water equations are known to underestimate drag forces after the initial surge of water. The second component is to identify critical flow features, such as hydraulic jumps and choked states, which are flow regions where dissipation occurs and drag forces are large. Finally, we describe how future tsunami inundation models should be modified to account for the complex effects of buildings through drag and blocking.Financial support from UCL and HR Wallingford is greatly appreciated. The authors would like to thank Professor Daniel Cox and Dr. Hyoungsu Park for providing the data on the Seaside Oregon experiment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
698
81705
Long Waves Inundating through and around an Array of Circular Cylinders
Abstract:
Tsunami is characterised by their very long time periods and can have devastating consequences when these inundate through built-up coastal regions as in the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Tsunami. This work aims to investigate the effect of these long waves on the flow through and around a group of buildings, which are abstracted to circular cylinders. The research approach used in this study was using experiments and numerical simulations. Large-scale experiments were carried out at HR Wallingford. The novelty of these experiments is (I) the number of bodies present (up to 64), (II) the long wavelength of the input waves (80 seconds) and (III) the width of the tank (4m) which gives the unique opportunity to investigate three length scales, namely the diameter of the building, the diameter of the array and the width of the tank. To complement the experiments, dam break flow past the same arrays is investigated using three-dimensional numerical simulations in OpenFOAM. Dam break flow was chosen as it is often used as a surrogate for the tsunami in previous research and is used here as there are well defined initial conditions and high quality previous experimental data for the case of a single cylinder is available. The focus of this work is to better understand the effect of the solid void fraction on the force and flow through and around the array. New qualitative and quantitative diagnostics are developed and tested to analyse the complex coupled interaction between the cylinders.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
697
81593
Characterisation of the Physical Properties of Debris and Residual Soils Implications for the Possible Landslides Occurrence on Cililin West Java
Abstract:
Landslide occurence at Mukapayung, Cililin West Java with material movement downward slope as far as 500m and hit residential areas of the village Nagrog cause eighteen people died and ten homes were destroyed and twenty-three heads of families evacuated. In order to test the hypothesis that soil at the landslides area is prone to landslides, we do drilling and the following tests were taken: particle size distribution, atterberg limits, shear strength, density, shringkage limits and triaxial unconsolidated and consolidated undrained test. Factor of safety was calculated to find out the possibility of subsequent landslides. The value of FOS of three layers is 1,05 which means that the soil in a critical condition and would be imminent to slide if there is disruption from the outside.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
696
81120
Liquefaction Phenomenon in the Kathmandu Valley during the 2015 Earthquake of Nepal
Abstract:
The Gorkha Nepal earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8 struck the central region of Nepal on April 25, 2015 with the epicenter about 77 km northwest of Kathmandu Valley . Peak ground acceleration observed during the earthquake was 0.18g. This motion induced several geotechnical effects such as landslides, foundation failures liquefaction, lateral spreading and settlement, and local amplification. An aftershock of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.3 hit northeast of Kathmandu on May 12 after 17 days of main shock caused additional damages. Kathmandu is the largest city in Nepal, have a population over four million. As the Kathmandu Valley deposits are composed mainly of sand, silt and clay layers with a shallow ground water table, liquefaction is highly anticipated. Extensive liquefaction was also observed in Kathmandu Valley during the 1934 Nepal-Bihar earthquake. Field investigations were carried out in Kathmandu Valley immediately after Mw 7.8, April 25 main shock and Mw 7.3, May 12 aftershock. Geotechnical investigation of both liquefied and non-liquefied sites were conducted after the earthquake. This paper presents observations of liquefaction and liquefaction induced damage, and the liquefaction potential assessment based on Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) for liquefied and non-liquefied sites. SPT based semi-empirical approach has been used for evaluating liquefaction potential of the soil and Liquefaction Potential Index (LPI) has been used to determine liquefaction probability. Recorded ground motions from the event are presented. Geological aspect of Kathmandu Valley and local site effect on the occurrence of liquefaction is described briefly. Observed liquefaction case studies are described briefly. Typically, these are sand boils formed by freshly ejected sand forced out of over-pressurized sub-strata. At most site, sand was ejected to agricultural fields forming deposits that varied from millimetres to a few centimeters thick. Liquefaction-induced damage to structures in these areas was not significant except buildings on some places tilted slightly. Boiled soils at liquefied sites were collected and the particle size distributions of ejected soils were analyzed. SPT blow counts and the soil profiles at ten liquefied and non-liquefied sites were obtained. The factors of safety against liquefaction with depth and liquefaction potential index of the ten sites were estimated and compared with observed liquefaction after 2015 Gorkha earthquake. The liquefaction potential indices obtained from the analysis were found to be consistent with the field observation. The field observations along with results from liquefaction assessment were compared with the existing liquefaction hazard map. It was found that the existing hazard maps are unrepresentative and underestimate the liquefaction susceptibility in Kathmandu Valley. The lessons learned from the liquefaction during this earthquake are also summarized in this paper. Some recommendations are also made to the seismic liquefaction mitigation in the Kathmandu Valley.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
695
81063
Verification of a Simple Model for Rolling Isolation System Response
Abstract:
Rolling Isolation Systems (RISs) are simple and effective means to mitigate earthquake hazards to equipment in critical and precious facilities, such as hospitals, network collocation facilities, supercomputer centers, and museums. The RIS works by isolating components acceleration the inertial forces felt by the subsystem. The RIS consists of two platforms with counter-facing concave surfaces (dishes) in each corner. Steel balls lie inside the dishes and allow the relative motion between the top and bottom platform. Formerly, a mathematical model for the dynamics of RISs was developed using Lagrange’s equations (LE) and experimentally validated. A new mathematical model was developed using Gauss’s Principle of Least Constraint (GPLC) and verified by comparing impulse response trajectories of the GPLC model and the LE model in terms of the peak displacements and accelerations of the top platform. Mathematical models for the RIS are tedious to derive because of the non-holonomic rolling constraints imposed on the system. However, using Gauss’s Principle of Least constraint to find the equations of motion removes some of the obscurity and yields a system that can be easily extended. Though the GPLC model requires more state variables, the equations of motion are far simpler. The non-holonomic constraint is enforced in terms of accelerations and therefore requires additional constraint stabilization methods in order to avoid the possibility that numerical integration methods can cause the system to go unstable. The GPLC model allows the incorporation of more physical aspects related to the RIS, such as contribution of the vertical velocity of the platform to the kinetic energy and the mass of the balls. This mathematical model for the RIS is a tool to predict the motion of the isolation platform. The ability to statistically quantify the expected responses of the RIS is critical in the implementation of earthquake hazard mitigation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
694
81055
Systematic Evaluation of Convolutional Neural Network on Land Cover Classification from Remotely Sensed Images
Abstract:
In using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for classification, there is a set of hyperparameters available for the configuration purpose. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a range of parameters in CNN architecture i.e. AlexNet on land cover classification based on four remotely sensed datasets. The evaluation tests the influence of a set of hyperparameters on the classification performance. The parameters concerned are epoch values, batch size, and convolutional filter size against input image size. Thus, a set of experiments were conducted to specify the effectiveness of the selected parameters using two implementing approaches, named pertained and fine-tuned. We first explore the number of epochs under several selected batch size values (32, 64, 128 and 200). The impact of kernel size of convolutional filters (1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30) was evaluated against the image size under testing (64, 96, 128, 180 and 224), which gave us insight of the relationship between the size of convolutional filters and image size. To generalise the validation, four remote sensing datasets, AID, RSD, UCMerced and RSCCN, which have different land covers and are publicly available, were used in the experiments. These datasets have a wide diversity of input data, such as number of classes, amount of labelled data, and texture patterns. A specifically designed interactive deep learning GPU training platform for image classification (Nvidia Digit) was employed in the experiments. It has shown efficiency in both training and testing. The results have shown that increasing the number of epochs leads to a higher accuracy rate, as expected. However, the convergence state is highly related to datasets. For the batch size evaluation, it has shown that a larger batch size slightly decreases the classification accuracy compared to a small batch size. For example, selecting the value 32 as the batch size on the RSCCN dataset achieves the accuracy rate of 90.34 % at the 11th epoch while decreasing the epoch value to one makes the accuracy rate drop to 74%. On the other extreme, setting an increased value of batch size to 200 decreases the accuracy rate at the 11th epoch is 86.5%, and 63% when using one epoch only. On the other hand, selecting the kernel size is loosely related to data set. From a practical point of view, the filter size 20 produces 70.4286%. The last performed image size experiment shows a dependency in the accuracy improvement. However, an expensive performance gain had been noticed. The represented conclusion opens the opportunities toward a better classification performance in various applications such as planetary remote sensing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
693
81053
Effect of Damper Combinations in Series or Parallel on Structural Response
Abstract:
Passive energy dissipation method for earthquake protection of structures is undergoing developments for improved performance. Combined use of different types of damping mechanisms has shown positive results in the near past. Different supplemental damping methods like viscous damping, frictional damping, and metallic damping are being combined together for optimum performance. The conventional method of connecting passive dampers to structures is a parallel connection between the damper unit and structural member. Researchers are investigating coupling effect of different types of dampers. The most popular choice among the research community is coupling of viscous dampers and frictional dampers. The series and parallel coupling of these damping units are being studied for relative performance of the coupled system on response control of structures against earthquake. In this paper, an attempt has been made to couple Fluid Viscous Dampers (FVDs) and Frictional Dampers (FDs) in series and parallel to form a single unit of damping system. The relative performance of the coupled units has been studied on three dimensional reinforced concrete framed structure. The current theories of structural dynamics in practice for viscous damping and frictional damping have been incorporated in this study. The time history analysis of the structural system with coupled damper units, uncoupled damper units as well as of structural system without any supplemental damping has been performed in this study. The investigations reported in this study show significantly improved performance of coupled system. A higher natural frequency of the system outside the forcing frequency has been obtained for structural systems with coupled damper units as against the other cases. The structural response of the structure in terms of storey displacement and storey drift show significant improvement for the case with coupled damper units as against the cases with uncoupled units or without any supplemental damping. The time history plots of various response parameters viz. displacement, velocity, acceleration, shear forces etc. for different storey have also been studied. The results are promising in terms of improved response of the structure with coupled damper units. Further investigations in this regard for a comparative performance of the series and parallel coupled systems will be carried out to study the optimum behavior of these coupled systems for enhanced response control of structural systems. Furthermore, the effectiveness of Fluid Viscous Dampers from various investigations is evident in form of reduced stress demands on structural elements. Fluid Viscous Dampers are velocity dependent devices and are more damping oriented rather than response control of the structural system. The effectiveness of Frictional Dampers is evident in form of reduced storey responses and stress demands on structural elements and indicates the nature of the Frictional Damper which is a displacement based damper. The study has been done to investigate a combination of damping devices in structural systems to improve the response of structures against seismic load. The investigation of series and parallel connection reveals the lower base shear and ductility demands for the series coupling.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
692
81038
Seismic Vulnerability of Non-Structural Elements in Hospital and School Buildings
Abstract:
India has witnessed several major earthquakes in recent times which have resulted in huge loss of lives mainly due to collapse of structures. However, some of the deaths, many, most of the injuries, and a large proportion of economic damage destruction and disruption associated with earthquakes are caused by non-structural building elements and building content that break, fall or slide. The share of cost of non-structural elements (NSEs) out of the building construction cost of projects has been rising over the last four decades in India. From a meager 5% in the 1970s, cost of NSEs rose to a dominant 70% in the recent times with high expectations of functional performance of buildings and increased maintenance costs. In a severe earthquake, hospitals and paramedical care facilities must provide the injured and traumatized survivors with immediate medical attention and life-saving care. For the hospitals and paramedical facilities to remain functional for this purpose, not only their building structures must remain safe for continued occupancy, but their nonstructural components must remain functional as well. Furthermore, there are many reports that reveal the suffering of Indian healthcare system from acute problem of limited resources. For instance, India has only 1.3 hospital beds per 1000 people which are significantly lower than the guideline of World Health Organisation for 3.5 beds per 1000 people. In India, where 3.5 million hospital beds and approximately $245 billion investment are required in next two decades, there must be no damage to existing health infrastructure. Existing facilities have a very high level of occupancy, with patients, medical and supported staff. The high occupancies make a hospital more vulnerable than any other lifeline building. It also demands uninterrupted power and potable water continual communications services, solid and liquid waste disposal, and a steady supply of pharmaceutical products, medical and surgical supplies, specialized gases, chemicals, and fuels. At the same time, each of these necessities also represents a hazard if not stored properly, handled, or maintained, and can become a hazard during an earthquake. Schools, being important building as fostering education as well as often used as emergency shelters in times of disaster, must be resilient to disaster. Students are most vulnerable during an earthquake, so it is very much required to make schools safe against falling hazards. This paper is focused on the nonstructural mitigation in two lifeline buildings, i.e., hospitals and schools. The work is carried out by categorizing all nonstructural elements into force sensitive NSEs, displacement sensitive NSEs and force-displacement sensitive NSEs and then applying suitable mitigation technique. Response descriptors for NSEs in these buildings have been studied to quantify seismic vulnerability to such elements. Indices used here depict damage probability in order to develop efficient damage risk mitigation. The paper also assimilates the information about various earthquake-resistant design philosophies which should be implemented in lifeline buildings like hospitals and schools.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
691
81009
Challenges for Reconstruction: A Case Study from 2015 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake
Abstract:
The Gorkha Nepal earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8 hit the central region of Nepal on April 25, 2015; with the epicenter about 77 km northwest of Kathmandu Valley. This paper aims to explore challenges of reconstruction in the rural earthquake-stricken areas of Nepal. The Gorkha earthquake on April 25, 2015, has significantly affected the livelihood of people and overall economy in Nepal, causing severe damage and destruction in central Nepal including nation’s capital. A larger part of the earthquake affected area is difficult to access with rugged terrain and scattered settlements, which posed unique challenges and efforts on a massive scale reconstruction and rehabilitation. 800 thousand buildings were affected leaving 8 million people homeless. Challenge of reconstruction of optimum 800 thousand houses is arduous for Nepal in the background of its turmoil political scenario and weak governance. With significant actors involved in the reconstruction process, no appreciable relief has reached to the ground, which is reflected over the frustration of affected people. The 2015 Gorkha earthquake is one of most devastating disasters in the modern history of Nepal. Best of our knowledge, there is no comprehensive study on reconstruction after disasters in modern Nepal, which integrates the necessary information to deal with challenges and opportunities of reconstructions. The study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Thirty engineers and ten social mobilizes working for reconstruction and more than hundreds local social workers, local party leaders, and earthquake victims were selected arbitrarily. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews and open-ended questions, focus group discussions, and field notes, with no previous assumption. Author also reviewed literature and document reviews covering academic and practitioner studies on challenges of reconstruction after earthquake in developing countries such as 2001 Gujarat earthquake, 2005 Kashmir earthquake, 2003 Bam earthquake and 2010 Haiti earthquake; which have very similar building typologies, economic, political, geographical, and geological conditions with Nepal. Secondary data was collected from reports, action plans, and reflection papers of governmental entities, non-governmental organizations, private sector businesses, and the online news. This study concludes that inaccessibility, absence of local government, weak governance, weak infrastructures, lack of preparedness, knowledge gap and manpower shortage, etc. are the key challenges of the reconstruction after 2015 earthquake in Nepal. After scrutinizing different challenges and issues, study counsels that good governance, integrated information, addressing technical issues, public participation along with short term and long term strategies to tackle with technical issues are some crucial factors for timely and quality reconstruction in context of Nepal. Sample collected for this study is relatively small sample size and may not be fully representative of the stakeholders involved in reconstruction. However, the key findings of this study are ones that need to be recognized by academics, governments, and implementation agencies, and considered in the implementation of post-disaster reconstruction program in developing countries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
690
80956
Mapping the Early History of Common Law Education in England, 1292-1500
Abstract:
This paper illustrates how historical problems can be studied successfully using GIS even in cases in which data, in the modern sense, is fragmentary. The overall problem under investigation is how early (1300-1500) English schools of Common Law moved from apprenticeship training in random individual London inns run in part by clerks of the royal chancery to become what is widely called 'the Third University of England,' a recognized system of independent but connected legal inns. This paper focuses on the preparatory legal inns, called the Inns of Chancery, rather than the senior (and still existing) Inns of Court. The immediate problem studied in this paper is how the junior legal inns were organized, staffed, and located from 1292 to about 1500, and what maps tell us about the role of the chancery clerks as managers of legal inns. The authors first uncovered the names of all chancery clerks of the period, most of them unrecorded in histories, from archival sources in the National Archives, Kew. Then they matched the names with London property leases. Using ArcGIS, the legal inns and their owners were plotted on a series of maps covering the period 1292 to 1500. The results show a distinct pattern of ownership of the legal inns and suggest a narrative that would help explain why the Inns of Chancery became serious centers of learning during the fifteenth century. In brief, lower-ranking chancery clerks, always looking for sources of income, discovered by 1370 that legal inns could be a source of income. Since chancery clerks were intimately involved with writs and other legal forms, and since the chancery itself had a long-standing training system, these clerks opened their own legal inns to train fledgling lawyers, estate managers, and scriveners. The maps clearly show growth patterns of ownership by the chancery clerks for both legal inns and other London properties in the areas of Holborn and The Strand between 1450 and 1417. However, the maps also show that a royal ordinance of 1417 forbidding chancery clerks to live with lawyers, law students, and other non-chancery personnel had an immediate effect, and properties in that area of London leased by chancery clerks simply stop after 1417. The long-term importance of the patterns shown in the maps is that while the presence of chancery clerks in the legal inns likely created a more coherent education system, their removal forced the legal profession, suddenly without a hostelry managerial class, to professionalize the inns and legal education themselves. Given the number and social status of members of the legal inns, the effect on English education was to free legal education from the limits of chancery clerk education (the clerks were not practicing common lawyers) and to enable it to become broader in theory and practice, in fact, a kind of 'finishing school' for the governing (if not noble) class.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
689
80826
Geological and Geotechnical Investigation of a Landslide Prone Slope Along Koraput- Rayagada Railway Track Odisha, India: A Case Study
Abstract:
A number of landslides are occurring during the rainy season along Rayagada-Koraput Railway track for past three years. The track was constructed about 20 years ago. However, the protection measures are not able to control the recurring slope failures now. It leads to a loss to Indian Railway and its passengers ultimately leading to wastage of time and money. The slopes along Rayagada-Koraput track include both rock and soil slopes. The rock types include mainly Khondalite and Charnockite whereas soil slopes are mainly composed of laterite ranging from less weathered to highly weathered laterite. The field studies were carried out in one of the critical slope. Field study was followed by the kinematic analysis to assess the type of failure. Slake Durability test, Uniaxial Compression test, specific gravity test and triaxial test were done on rock samples to calculate and assess properties such as weathering index, unconfined compressive strength, density, cohesion, and friction angle. Following all the laboratory tests, rock mass rating was calculated. Further, from Kinematic analysis and Rock Mass Ratingbasic, Slope Mass Rating was proposed for each slope. The properties obtained were used to do the slope stability simulations using finite element method based modelling. After all the results, suitable protection measures, to prevent the loss due to slope failure, were suggested using the relation between Slope Mass Rating and protection measures.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):