Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48564

Marine and Environmental Sciences

144
79126
Spatio-Temporal Variation of Gaseous Pollutants and the Contribution of Particulate Matters in Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand
Abstract:
The elevated levels of air pollutants in regional atmospheric environments is a significant problem that affects human health in Thailand, particularly in the Chao Phraya River Basin. Of concern are issues surrounding ambient air pollution such as particulate matter, gaseous pollutants and more specifically concerning air pollution along the river. Therefore, the spatio-temporal study of air pollution in this real environment can gain more accurate air quality data for making formalized environmental policy in river basins. In order to inform such a policy, a study was conducted over a period of January –December, 2015 to continually collect measurements of various pollutants in both urban and regional locations in the Chao Phraya River Basin. This study investigated the air pollutants in many diverse environments along the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand in 2015. Multivariate Analysis Techniques such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Path analysis were utilised to classify air pollution in the surveyed location. Measurements were collected in both urban and rural areas to see if significant differences existed between the two locations in terms of air pollution levels. The meteorological parameters of various particulates were collected continually from a Thai pollution control department monitoring station over a period of January –December, 2015. Of interest to this study were the readings of SO2, CO, NOx, O3, and PM10. Results showed a daily arithmetic mean concentration of SO2, CO, NOx, O3, PM10 reading at 3±1 ppb, 0.5± 0.5 ppm, 30±21 ppb, 19±16 ppb, and 40±20 ug/m3 in urban locations (Bangkok). During the same time period, the readings for the same measurements in rural areas, Ayutthaya (were 1±0.5 ppb, 0.1± 0.05 ppm, 25±17 ppb, 30±21 ppb, and 35±10 ug/m3respectively. This show that Bangkok were located in highly polluted environments that are dominated source emitted from vehicles. Further, results were analysed to ascertain if significant seasonal variation existed in the measurements. It was found that levels of both gaseous pollutants and particle matter in dry season were higher than the wet season. More broadly, the results show that levels of pollutants were measured highest in locations along the Chao Phraya. River Basin known to have a large number of vehicles and biomass burning. This correlation suggests that the principle pollutants were from these anthropogenic sources. This study contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding ambient air pollution such as particulate matter, gaseous pollutants and more specifically concerning air pollution along the Chao Phraya River Basin. Further, this study is one of the first to utilise continuous mobile monitoring along a river in order to gain accurate measurements during a data collection period. Overall, the results of this study can be used for making formalized environmental policy in river basins in order to reduce the physical effects on human health.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
143
76762
Numerical Simulations of the Transition Flow of Model Propellers for Predicting Open Water Performance
Abstract:
Simulations of the transition flow of model propellers are important for predicting hydrodynamic performance and studying scale effects. In this paper, the transition flow of a model propeller under different loadings are simulated using a transition model provided by STAR-CCM+, and the influence of turbulence intensity (TI) on the transition, especially friction and pressure components of propeller performance, was studied. Before that, the transition model was applied to simulate the transition flow of a flat plate and an airfoil. Predicted transitions agree well with experimental results. Then, the transition model was applied for propeller simulations in open water, and the influence of TI was studied. Under the heavy and moderate loadings, thrust and torque of the propeller predicted by the transition model (different TI) and two turbulence models are very close and agree well with measurements. However, under the light loading, only the transition model with low TI predicts the most accurate results. Above all, the friction components of propeller performance predicted by the transition model with different TI have obvious difference.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
142
76011
Evidence of Behavioural Thermoregulation by Dugongs (Dugong dugon) at the High Latitude Limit to Their Range in Eastern Australia
Abstract:
Marine mammals live in an environment with water temperatures nearly always lower than the mammalian core body temperature of 35 - 38°C. Marine mammals can lose heat at high rates and have evolved a range of adaptations to minimise heat loss. Our project tracked dugongs to examine if there was a discoverable relationship between the animals’ movements and the temperature of their environment that might suggest behavioural thermoregulation. Twenty-nine dugongs were fitted with acoustic and satellite/GPS transmitters in 2012, 2013 and 2014 in Moreton Bay Queensland at the high latitude limit of the species’ winter range in eastern Australia on 30 occasions (one animal was tagged twice). All 22 animals that stayed in the area and had functional transmitters made at least one (and up to 66) return trip(s) to the warmer oceanic waters outside the bay where seagrass is unavailable. Individual dugongs went in and out of the bay in synchrony with the tides and typically spent about 6 hours in the oceanic water. There was a diel pattern in the movements: 85% of outgoing trips occurred between midnight and noon. There were significant individual differences, but the likelihood of a dugong leaving the bay was independent of body length or sex. In Quarter 2 (April – June), the odds of a dugong making a trip increased by about 40% for each 1°C increase in the temperature difference between the bay and the warmer adjacent oceanic waters. In Quarter 3, the odds of making a trip were lower when the outside –inside bay temperature differences were small or negative but increased by a factor of up to 2.12 for each 1°C difference in outside – inside temperatures. In Quarter 4, the odds of making a trip were higher when it was cooler outside the bay and decreased by a factor of nearly 0.5 for each 1°C difference in outside – inside bay temperatures. The activity spaces of the dugongs generally declined as winter progressed suggesting a change in the cost-effectiveness of moving outside the bay. Our analysis suggests that dugongs can thermoregulate their core temperature through the behaviour of moving to water having more favourable temperature.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
141
75286
Analysis and Study of Growth Rates of Indigenous Phytoplankton in Enriched Spent Oil Impacted Ecosystems in South Western Nigeria Coastal Waters
Abstract:
In order to determine the effect of spent oil on the growth rates of indigenous phytoplankton in an aquaculture pond, a study was carried out on varying concentrations of samples using the bioassay procedure for a period of 14 days. Four divisions Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Bacillariophyta were observed in the water samples collected from the Aquaculture pond. The growth response was measured using a microprocessor photocolorimeter at optical density of 680nm. A general assessment of spent oil contaminated samples showed either a sharp rise or fall in growth rate from day 0 to day 2 followed by increased growth response for most higher concentration of pollutants up to Day 8, then fluctuations in the growth response pattern for the other days. There was no marked significant difference in the growth response of phytoplankton in the spent oil impacted water samples. The lowest and highest phytoplankton abundance was recorded in 10/90ml and 2.5/97.5ml spent oil impacted water sample respectively. Oscillatoria limosa, Chlorella sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. showed high tolerance to oil pollution and these species used as bioindicators of an organic polluted environment increased abundantly and can therefore be employed in the cleanup and bioremediation process of an oil polluted freshwater body.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
140
74771
Institutional Superposition, over Management and Coastal Economic Development: Coastal Areas in China
Abstract:
The coastal zone is the intersection of land and sea system, and also is the connecting zone of the two economic systems of land and sea. In the world, all countries attach great importance to the coastal zone management and the coastal zone economy. In China, the government has developed a number of related coastal management policies and institutional, such as marine functional zoning, main function zoning, integrated coastal zone management, to ensure the sustainable utilization of the coastal zone and promote the development of coastal economic. However, in practice, the effect is not satisfactory. This paper analyses the coastal areas of coastal zone management on coastal economic growth contribution based on coastal areas economic development data with the 2007-2015 in China, which uses the method of the evaluation index system of coastal zone management institutional efficiency. The results show that the coastal zone management institutional objectives are not clear, and the institutional has high repeatability. At the same time, over management of coastal zone leads to low economic efficiency because the government management boundary is blurred.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
139
74612
Evaluation of Sustainable Blue Economy Development Performance: Method and Case
Authors:
Abstract:
After Rio+20, the blue economy rises all over the world, and it has become the focus field of national development. At present, the blue economy has become a new growth point in the field of global economy and the direction of the development of ‘green’ in the ocean. However, in fact, the key factors affecting the development of the blue economy have not been explored in depth, and the development policies and performance of the blue economy have not been scientifically evaluated. This cannot provide useful guidance for the development of the blue economy. Therefore, it is urgent to establish a quantitative evaluation framework to measure the performance of the blue economic development. Based on the full understanding of the connotation and elements of the blue economy, and studying the literature, this article has built an universality and operability evaluation index system, including ecological environment, social justice, sustainable growth, policy measures, and so on. And this article also established a sound evaluation framework of blue economic development performance. At the same time, this article takes China as a sample to test the framework of the adaptability, and to assess the performance of China's blue economic.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
138
74597
Regional Rates of Sand Supply to the New South Wales Coast: Southeastern Australia
Abstract:
Coastal behavior is best investigated using a sediment budget approach, based on the identification of sediment sources and sinks. Grain size distribution over the New South Wales (NSW) continental shelf has been widely characterized since the 1970’s. Coarser sediment has generally accumulated on the outer shelf, and/or nearshore zones, with the latter related to the presence of nearshore reef and bedrocks. The central part of the NSW shelf is characterized by the presence of fine sediments distributed parallel to the coastline. This study presents new grain size distribution maps along the NSW continental shelf, built using all available NSW and Commonwealth Government holdings. All available seabed bathymetric data form prior projects, single and multibeam sonar, and aerial LiDAR surveys were integrated into a single bathymetric surface for the NSW continental shelf. Grain size information was extracted from the sediment sample data collected in more than 30 studies. The information extracted from the sediment collections varied between reports. Thus, given the inconsistency of the grain size data, a common grain size classification was her defined using the phi scale. The new sediment distribution maps produced, together with new detailed seabed bathymetric data enabled us to revise the delineation of sediment compartments to more accurately reflect the true nature of sediment movement on the inner shelf and nearshore. Accordingly, nine primary mega coastal compartments were delineated along the NSW coast and shelf. The sediment compartments are bounded by prominent nearshore headlands and reefs, and major river and estuarine inlets that act as sediment sources and/or sinks. The new sediment grain size distribution was used as an input in the morphological modelling to quantify the sediment transport patterns (and indicative rates of transport), used to investigate sand supply rates and processes from the lower shoreface to the NSW coast. The rate of sand supply to the NSW coast from deep water is a major uncertainty in projecting future coastal response to sea-level rise. Offshore transport of sand is generally expected as beaches respond to rising sea levels but an onshore supply from the lower shoreface has the potential to offset some of the impacts of sea-level rise, such as coastline recession. Sediment exchange between the lower shoreface and sub-aerial beach has been modelled across the south, central, mid-north and far-north coast of NSW. Our model approach is that high-energy storm events are the primary agents of sand transport in deep water, while non-storm conditions are responsible for re-distributing sand within the beach and surf zone.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
137
74167
Extraction of Road Edge Lines from High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Energy Function and Snake Model
Abstract:
In this paper, the strategy to extract double road edge lines from acquired road stripe image was explored. The workflow is as follows: the road stripes are acquired by probabilistic boosting tree algorithm and morphological algorithm immediately, and road centerlines are detected by thinning algorithm, so the initial road edge lines can be acquired along the road centerlines. Then we refine the results with big variation of local curvature of centerlines. Specifically, the energy function of edge line is constructed by gradient feature and spectral information, and Dijkstra algorithm is used to optimize the initial road edge lines. The Snake model is constructed to solve the fracture problem of intersection, and the discrete dynamic programming algorithm is used to solve the model. After that, we could get the final road network. Experiment results show that the strategy proposed in this paper can be used to extract the continuous and smooth road edge lines from high-resolution remote sensing images with an accuracy of 88% in our study area.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
136
74155
Analysis of the Contribution of Coastal and Marine Physical Factors to Oil Slick Movement: Case Study of Misrata, Libya
Abstract:
Developing a coastal oil spill management plan for the Misratah coast is the motivating factor for building a database for coastal and marine systems and energy resources. Wind direction and speed, currents, bathymetry, coastal topography and offshore dynamics influence oil spill deposition in coastal water. Therefore, oceanographic and climatological data can be used to understand oil slick movement and potential oil deposits on shoreline area and the behaviour of oil spill trajectories on the sea surface. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the coastal and marine physical factors under strong wave conditions and various bathymetric and coastal topography gradients in the western coastal area of Libya on the movement of oil slicks. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a GNOME simulation model based on current and wind speed/direction. The results in this paper show that (1) Oil slick might reach the Misratah shoreline area in two days in the summer and winter. Seasons. (2 ) The North coast of Misratah is the potential oil deposit area on the Misratah coast. (3) Tarball pollution was observed along the North coast of Misratah. (4) Two scenarios for the summer and the winter season were run, along the western coast of Libya . (5) The eastern coast is at a lower potential risk due to the influence of wind and current energy in the Gulf of Sidra. (6) The Misratah coastline is more vulnerable to oil spill movement in the summer than in winter seasons. (7) Oil slick takes from 2 to 5 days to reach the saltmarsh in the eastern Misratah coast. (8) Oil slick moves 300 km in 30 days from the spill resource location near the Libyan western border to the Misratah coast.(9) Bathymetric features have a profound effect on oil spill movement. (9)Oil dispersion simulations using GNOME are carried out taking into account high-resolution wind and current data.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
135
73921
Effects of Net Height of Crab Entangling Nets on the Capture of Targeted Economically Important Portunid Species and Non-Target Species
Abstract:
This study determined the effects of net height on the capture performance of crab entangling nets. Fishing trials were conducted using nets with the following net heights: 1) 12 meshes down (MD), 2) 24 MD and 3) 50 MD. A total of 1,290 individuals comprising of 87 species belonging to 53 families were caught. One-way ANOVA showed that net height significantly affects various catch parameters such as catch per unit effort (CPUE) of the total and target catch, amount of non-target catch, sizes and species richness. The use of appropriate net height is a potential technical measure for a selective but still efficient crab entangling net fishery. Lower net height significantly reduced non-target catch up to 70%. While lower nets decreased the CPUE of target catch such as blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus and christian crab Charybdis feriatus up to 65% in 12 MD, catch in 24 MD was not significantly different with that in 50 MD. The use of 24 MD also resulted in capturing larger-sized Portunus pelagicus. Catch species richness decreased up to 58% in lower nets. These results are useful to fisheries managers and government institutions to develop or improve existing regulations towards a sustainable crab fishery particularly blue swimming crabs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
134
73695
Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenol and Pigments Content of Seaweeds Collected from, Rameshwaram, Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to estimate some in-vitro antioxidant activities and total phenols of various extracts such as aqueous, acetone, ethanol, methanol extract of seaweeds and pigments content by Spectrophotometric method. The seaweeds were collected during 2016 from Rameshwaram, southeast coast of India. Among four different extracts, aqueous extracts from all seaweeds had minimum activity than acetone, methanol and ethanol. The Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta had high antioxidant activity in comparing to Chlorophyta. The highest total antioxidant activity was found in acetone extract fromTurbinaria decurrens (98.97±0.00%), followed by its methanol extract (98.81±0.60%) and ethanol extract (98.58±0.53%). The highest reducing power and H2O2 scavenging activity were found in acetone extract of Caulerpa racemosa (383.25±1.04%), and methanol extract from Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (24.91±0.49%). The methanol extract from Caulerpa scalpelliformis contained the highest total phenol (85.23±0.12%). The Chloro-a and Chloro-b contents were the highest in Gracilaria foliifera (13.69±0.38% mg/gm dry wt.) and Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (9.12 ±0.12% mg/gm dry wt.) likewise carotenoid was also the highest in Gracilaria foliifera (0.054±0.0003% mg/gm dry wt.) and Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (0.04 ±0.002% mg/gm dry wt.). It can be concluded from this study that some seaweed extract can be used for natural antioxidant production, after further characterization to negotiate the side effect of synthetic, market available antioxidants.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
133
73147
Study of the Process of Climate Change According to Data Simulation Using LARS-WG Software during 2010-2030: Case Study of Semnan Province
Abstract:
Temperature rise on Earth has had harmful effects on the Earth's surface and has led to change in precipitation patterns all around the world. The present research was aimed to study the process of climate change according to the data simulation in future and compare these parameters with current situation in the studied stations in Semnan province including Garmsar, Shahrood and Semnan. In this regard, LARS-WG software, HADCM3 model and A2 scenario were used for the 2010-2030 period. In this model, climatic parameters such as maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and radiation were used daily. The obtained results indicated that there will be a 4.4% increase in precipitation in Semnan province compared with the observed data, and in general, there will be a 1.9% increase in temperature. This temperature rise has significant impact on precipitation patterns. Most of precipitation will be raining (torrential rains in some cases). According to the results, from west to east, the country will experience more temperature rise and will be warmer.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
132
73081
Sea Level Change and Vulnerability Assessment in the Coastal Zone of Mumbai, India: A Geospatial Approach
Abstract:
Climate change induced sea level rise increases storm surge, erosion, and inundation, which are stirred by an intricate interplay of physical environmental components at the coastal region. The Mumbai coast is much vulnerable to accelerated regional sea level change due to its highly dense population, highly developed economy, and low topography. To determine the significant causes behind coastal vulnerability, this study analyzes four different iterations of CVI by incorporating the pixel based differentially weighted rank values of the selected five geological (CVI5), three physical (CVI8 with including geological variables), and four socio-economic variables (CVI4). However, CVI5 and CVI8 results yielded broadly similar natures, but after including socio-economic variables (CVI4), the results CVI (CVI12) has been changed at Mumbai and Kurla coastal portion that indicates the study coastal areas are mostly sensible with socio-economic variables. Therefore, the results of CVI12 show that out of 274.1 km of coastline analyzed, 55.83 % of the coast is very low vulnerable, 60.91 % of the coast is moderately vulnerable while 50.75 % is very high vulnerable. Finding also admits that in the context of growing urban population and the increasing rate of economic activities, socio-economic variables are most important variable to use for validating and testing the CVI. Finally, some recommendations are presented for concerned decision makers and stakeholders to develop appropriate coastal management plans, nourishment projects and mitigation measures considering socio-economic variables.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
131
71431
Correlates of Income Generation of Small-Scale Fish Processors in Abeokuta Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria
Abstract:
Economically fish provides an important source of food and income for both men and women especially many households in the developing world and fishing has an important social and cultural position in river-rine communities. However, fish is highly susceptible to deterioration. Consequently, this study was carried out to correlate income generation of small-scale women fish processors in Abeokuta metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria. Eighty small-scale women fish processors were randomly selected from five communities as the sample size for this study. Collected data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that the mean age of the respondents was 31.75 years with average household size of 4 people while 47.5% of the respondents had primary education. Most (86.3%) of the respondents were married and had spent more than 11 years in fish processing. The respondents were predominantly Yoruba tribe (91.2%). Majority (71.3%) of the respondents used traditional kiln for processing their fish while 23.7% of the respondents used hot vegetable oil to fry their fish. Also, the result revealed that respondents sourced capital from Personal Savings (48.8%), Cooperatives (27.5%), Friends and Family (17.5%) and Microfinance Banks (6.2%) for fish processing activities. The respondents generated an average income of ₦7,000.00 from roasted fish, ₦3,500.00 from dried fish, and ₦5,200.00 from fried fish daily. However, inadequate processing equipment (95.0%), non-availability of credit facility from microfinance banks (85.0%), poor electricity supply (77.5%), inadequate extension service support (70.0%), and fuel scarcity (68.7%) were major constraints to fish processing in the study area. Results of chi-square analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between personal characteristics (χ2 = 36.83, df = 9), processing methods (χ2 = 15.88, df = 3) and income generated at p < 0.05 level of significance. It can be concluded that significant relationship existed between processing methods and income generated. The study, therefore, recommends that modern processing equipment should be made available to the respondents at a subsidized price by the agro-allied companies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
130
71351
Ship Roll Reduction Using Water-Flow Induced Coriolis Effect
Abstract:
Ships are subjected to motions which can disrupt on-board operations and damage equipment. Roll motion, in particular, is of great interest due to low damping conditions which may lead to capsizing. Therefore finding ways to reduce this motion is important in ship designs. Several techniques have been investigated to reduce rolling. These include the commonly used anti-roll tanks, fin stabilizers and bilge keels. However, these systems are not without their challenges. For example, water-flow in anti-roll tanks creates complications, and for fin stabilizers and bilge keels, an extremely large size is required to produce any significant damping creating operational challenges. Additionally, among these measures presented above only anti-roll tanks are effective in zero forward motion of the vessels. This paper proposes and investigates a method to reduce rolling by inducing Coriolis effect using water-flow in the radial direction. Motion in the radial direction of a rolling structure will induce Coriolis force and, depending on the direction of flow will either amplify or attenuate the structure. The system is modelled with two degrees of freedom, having rotational motion for parametric rolling and radial motion of the water-flow. Equations of motion are derived and investigated. Numerical examples are analyzed in detail. To demonstrate applicability parameters from a Ro-Ro vessel are used as extensive research have been conducted on these over the years. The vessel is investigated under free and forced roll conditions. Several models are created using various masses, heights, and velocities of water-flow at a given time. The proposed system was found to produce substantial roll reduction which increases with increase in any of the parameters varied as stated above, with velocity having the most significant effect. The proposed system provides a simple approach to reduce ship rolling. Water-flow control is very simple as the water flows in only one direction with constant velocity. Only needing to control the time at which the system should be turned on or off. Furthermore, the proposed system is effective in both forward and zero forward motion of the ship, and provides no hydrodynamic drag. This is a starting point for designing an effective and practical system. For this to be a viable approach further investigations are needed to address challenges that present themselves.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
129
70345
Behavior Adoption on Marine Habitat Conservation in Indonesia
Abstract:
Fish Forever, Rare’s innovative coastal fisheries program, combined community-based conservation management approach with spatial management to restore and protect Indonesia’s small-scale fisheries by establishing Fishing Managed Access Area. A ‘TURF-Reserve’ is a fishery management approach that positions fishers at the center of fisheries management, empowering them to take care of and make decisions about the future of their fishery. After two years of the program, social marketing campaigns succeeded in changing their behavior by adopting the new conservation behavior. The Pride-TURF-R campaigns developed an overarching hypothesis of impact that captured the knowledge, attitude and behavior changes needed to reduce threats and achieve conservation results. Rare help Batu Belah fishers to develop their group, developed with their roles, sustainable fisheries plan, and the budget plan. On 12th February 2017, the Head of Loka Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Nasional (LKKPN) which is a Technical Implementation Unit for National Marine Conservation Areas directly responsible to the Directorate General for Marine Spatial Management in the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries had signed a Partnership Agreement with the Head of Batu Belah Village to manage a TURF+Reserve area as wide as 909 hectares. The fishers group have been collecting the catch and submitting the report monthly, initiated the installation of the buoy markers for the No Take Zone, and formed the Pokmaswas (community-based surveillance group). Prior to this behavior adoption, they don’t have any fisheries data, no group of fishers, and they have still fishing inside the No Take Zone. This is really a new behavior adoption for them. This paper will show the process and success story of the social marketing campaign to conserve marine habitat in Anambas through Pride-TURF-R program.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
128
69722
Spatial Variation of WRF Model Rainfall Prediction over Uganda
Abstract:
Rainfall is a major climatic parameter affecting many sectors such as health, agriculture and water resources. Its quantitative prediction remains a challenge to weather forecasters although numerical weather prediction models are increasingly being used for rainfall prediction. The performance of six convective parameterization schemes, namely the Kain-Fritsch scheme, the Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme, the Grell-Deveny scheme, the Grell-3D scheme, the Grell-Fretas scheme, the New Tiedke scheme of the weather research and forecast (WRF) model regarding quantitative rainfall prediction over Uganda is investigated using the root mean square error for the March-May (MAM) 2013 season. The MAM 2013 seasonal rainfall amount ranged from 200 mm to 900 mm over Uganda with northern region receiving comparatively lower rainfall amount (200&ndash;500 mm); western Uganda (270&ndash;550 mm); eastern Uganda (400&ndash;900 mm) and the lake Victoria basin (400&ndash;650 mm). A spatial variation in simulated rainfall amount by different convective parameterization schemes was noted with the Kain-Fritsch scheme over estimating the rainfall amount over northern Uganda (300&ndash;750 mm) but also presented comparable rainfall amounts over the eastern Uganda (400&ndash;900 mm). The Betts-Miller-Janjic, the Grell-Deveny, and the Grell-3D underestimated the rainfall amount over most parts of the country especially the eastern region (300&ndash;600 mm). The Grell-Fretas captured rainfall amount over the northern region (250&ndash;450 mm) but also underestimated rainfall over the lake Victoria Basin (150&ndash;300 mm) while the New Tiedke generally underestimated rainfall amount over many areas of Uganda. For deterministic rainfall prediction, the Grell-Fretas is recommended for rainfall prediction over northern Uganda while the Kain-Fritsch scheme is recommended over eastern region.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
127
69580
Polyhydroxybutyrate Production in Bacteria Isolated from Estuaries along the Eastern Coast of India
Abstract:
Odisha is one of the coastal states situated on the eastern part of India with 480 km long coastline. The coastal Odisha is referred to as "Gift of Six Rivers". Balasore, a major coastal district of Odisha is bounded by Bay of Bengal in the East having 26 km long seashore. It is lined with several estuaries rich in biodiversity.Several studies have been carried out on the macro flora and fauna of this area but very few documented information are available regarding microbial biodiversity. In the present study, an attempt has been made to isolate and identify bacteria found along the estuaries of Balasore.Many marine microorganisms are sources of natural products which makes them potential industrial organisms. So the ability of the isolated bacteria to secrete one such industrially significant product, PHB (Polyhydroxybutyrate) has been elucidated. Several rounds of sampling, pure culture, morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic screening led to the identification of two PHB producing strains. Isolate 5 was identified to be Brevibacillus sp. and has maximum similarity to Brevibacillus parabrevis (KX83268). The isolate was named as Brevibacillus sp.KEI-5. Isolate 8 was identified asLysinibacillus sp. having closest similarity withLysinibacillus boroni-tolerance (KP314269) and named as Lysinibacillus sp. KEI-8.Media, temperature, carbon, nitrogen and salinity requirement were optimized for both isolates. Submerged fermentation of both isolates in Terrific Broth media supplemented with optimized carbon and nitrogen source at 37°C led to significant accumulation of PHB as detected by colorimetric method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
126
69052
Recovery and Εncapsulation of Μarine Derived Antifouling Agents
Abstract:
Biofouling is a complex problem of the aquaculture industry, as it reduces the efficiency of the equipment and causes significant losses of cultured organisms. Nowadays, the current antifouling methods are proved to be labor intensive, have limited lifetime and use toxic substances that result in fish mortality. Several species of marine algae produce a wide variety of biogenic compounds with antibacterial and antifouling properties, which are effective in the prevention and control of biofouling and can be incorporated in antifouling coatings. In the present work, Fucus spiralis, a species of macro algae, and Chlorella vulgaris, a well-known species of microalgae, were used for the isolation and recovery of bioactive compounds, belonging to groups of fatty acids, lipopeptides and amides. The recovery of the compounds was achieved through the application of the ultrasound- assisted extraction, an environmentally friendly method, using green, non-toxic solvents. Moreover, the coating of the antifouling agents was done by innovative encapsulation and coating methods, such as electro-hydrodynamic process. For the encapsulation of the bioactive compounds natural matrices were used, such as polysaccharides and proteins. Water extracts that were incorporated in protein matrices were considered the most efficient antifouling coating.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
125
68723
Near Bottom Concentrations of Krill in Two Arctic Fjords, Spitsbergen
Abstract:
Two glaciated fjords on Spitsbergen (Hornsund 77°N) and Kongsfjorden (79°N) were studied for the occurrence of macroplankton (mostly euphausids, hyperiids, chaetognaths) with the use of drop down the camera. The underwater imagery demonstrates that closer to the glacier front, where turbid and freshwater occurs, most of the macroplankters leave the upper water column and descends to the bottom (about 100m depth). Concentrations of macroplankton in the immediate vicinity of the sediment reach over 500 specimens per m² - what corresponds to the biomass of 10g C/m³. Such concentrations of macroplankton are of prime interest for fish, seals and other carnivores. Conditions in the near-bottom waters are in many respects better than in the upper water column- better oxygenated, cold, fully saline and transparent waters with rich food deposited on the seabed from the surface (sinking microplankton). We suggest that near bottom occurrence of macroplankton is related to the increase of glacier melt and freshwater discharge intensity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
124
68121
A Unified Approach for Naval Telecommunication Architectures
Abstract:
We present a chronological evolution for naval telecommunication networks. We distinguish periods: with or without multiplexers, with switch systems, with federative systems, with medium switching, and with medium switching with wireless networks. This highlights the introduction of new layers and technology in the architecture. These architectures are presented using layer models of transmission, in a unified way, which enables us to integrate pre-existing models. A ship of a naval fleet has internal communications (i.e. applications&#39; networks of the edge) and external communications (i.e. the use of the means of transmission between edges). We propose architectures, deduced from the layer model, which are the point of convergence between the networks on board and the HF, UHF radio, and satellite resources. This modelling allows to consider end-to-end naval communications, and in a more global way, that is from the user on board towards the user on shore, including transmission and networks on the shore side. The new architectures need take care of quality of services for end-to-end communications, the more remote control develops a lot and will do so in the future. Naval telecommunications will be more and more complex and will use more and more advanced technologies, it will thus be necessary to establish clear global communication schemes to grant consistency of the architectures. Our latest model has been implemented in a military naval situation, and serves as the basic architecture for the RIFAN2 network.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
123
68040
High Cycle Fatigue Analysis of a Lower Hopper Knuckle Connection of a Large Bulk Carrier under Dynamic Loading
Abstract:
The fatigue of ship structural details is of major concern in the maritime industry as it can generate fracture issues that may compromise structural integrity. In the present study, a fatigue analysis of the lower hopper knuckle connection of a bulk carrier was conducted using the Finite Element Method by means of ABAQUS/CAE software. The fatigue life was calculated using Miner&rsquo;s Rule and the long-term distribution of stress range by the use of the two-parameter Weibull distribution. The cumulative damage ratio was estimated using the fatigue damage resulting from the stress range occurring at each load condition. For this purpose, a cargo hold model was first generated, which extends over the length of two holds (the mid-hold and half of each of the adjacent holds) and transversely over the full breadth of the hull girder. Following that, a submodel of the area of interest was extracted in order to calculate the hot spot stress of the connection and to estimate the fatigue life of the structural detail. Two hot spot locations were identified; one at the top layer of the inner bottom plate and one at the top layer of the hopper plate. The IACS Common Structural Rules (CSR) require that specific dynamic load cases for each loading condition are assessed. Following this, the dynamic load case that causes the highest stress range at each loading condition should be used in the fatigue analysis for the calculation of the cumulative fatigue damage ratio. Each load case has a different effect on ship hull response. Of main concern, when assessing the fatigue strength of the lower hopper knuckle connection, was the determination of the maximum, i.e. the critical value of the stress range, which acts in a direction normal to the weld toe line. This acts in the transverse direction, that is, perpendicularly to the ship&#39;s centerline axis. The load cases were explored both theoretically and numerically in order to establish the one that causes the highest damage to the location examined. The most severe one was identified to be the load case induced by beam sea condition where the encountered wave comes from the starboard. At the level of the cargo hold model, the model was assumed to be simply supported at its ends. A coarse mesh was generated in order to represent the overall stiffness of the structure. The elements employed were quadrilateral shell elements, each having four integration points. A linear elastic analysis was performed because linear elastic material behavior can be presumed, since only localized yielding is allowed by most design codes. At the submodel level, the displacements of the analysis of the cargo hold model to the outer region nodes of the submodel acted as boundary conditions and applied loading for the submodel. In order to calculate the hot spot stress at the hot spot locations, a very fine mesh zone was generated and used. The fatigue life of the detail was found to be 16.4 years which is lower than the design fatigue life of the structure (25 years), making this location vulnerable to fatigue fracture issues. Moreover, the loading conditions that induce the most damage to the location were found to be the various ballasting conditions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
122
67414
Study of Suezmax Shuttle Tanker Energy Efficiency for Operations at the Brazilian Pre-Salt Region
Abstract:
The need to reduce fossil fuels consumption due to the current scenario of trying to restrain global warming effects and reduce air pollution is dictating a series of transformations in shipping. This study introduces, at first, the changes of the regulatory framework concerning gas emissions control and fuel consumption efficiency on merchant ships. Secondly, the main operational procedures with high potential reduction of fuel consumption are discussed, with focus on existing vessels, using ship speed reduction procedure. This procedure shows the positive impacts on both operating costs reduction and also on energy efficiency increase if correctly applied. Finally, a numerical analysis of the fuel consumption variation with the speed was carried out for a Suezmax class oil tanker, which has been adapted to oil offloading operations for FPSOs in Brazilian offshore oil production systems. In this analysis, the discussions about the variations of vessel energy efficiency from small speed rate reductions and the possible applications of this improvement, taking into account the typical operating profile of the vessel in such a way to have significant economic impacts on the operation. This analysis also evaluated the application of two different numerical methods: one based only on regression equations produced by existing data, semi-empirical method, and another using a CFD simulations for estimating the hull shape parameters that are most relevant for determining fuel consumption, analyzing inaccuracies and impact on the final results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
121
66864
Role of Climatic Conditions on Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus orientalis Stock Structure
Abstract:
Bluefin (Thunnus orientalis) tuna is one of the most economically valuable tuna species in the world. In recent years the stock has been observed to decline. It is suspected that the stock-recruitment relationship and population structure is influenced by environmental and climatic variables. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of environmental and climatic conditions on the trajectory of the different life stages of the North Pacific bluefin tuna. Exploratory analysis was performed for the North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the time series of the bluefin tuna cohorts (age-0, 1, 2,…,9, 10+). General Additive Modeling (GAM) was used to reconstruct the recruitment (R) trajectory. The spatial movement of the SST was also monitored from 1953 to 2012 in the distribution area of the bluefin tuna. Exploratory analysis showed significance influence of the North Pacific Sea Surface temperature (SST) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the time series of the age-0 group. Other age group (1, 2,…,9, 10+) time series did not exhibit any significant correlations. PDO showed most significant relationship in the months of October to December. Although the stock-recruitment relationship is of biological significance, the recruits (age-0) showed poor correlation with the Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB). Indeed the most significant model incorporated the SSB, SST and PDO. The results show that the stock-recruitment relationship of the North Pacific bluefin tuna is multi-dimensional and cannot be adequately explained by the SSB alone. SST and PDO forcing of the population structure is of significant importance and needs to be accounted for when making harvesting plans for bluefin tuna in the North Pacific.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
120
66272
Flora of Seaweeds and the Preliminary Screening of the Fungal Endophytes
Abstract:
Seaweeds are economically important as they have the potential of being utilized, the capabilities and opportunities for further expansion as well as the availability of other species for future development. Hence, research on the diversity and distribution of seaweeds have to be expanded whilst the seaweeds are one of the Malaysian marine valuable heritage. The study on the distribution of seaweeds at Pengerang, Johor was carried out between February and November 2015 at Kampung Jawa Darat and Kampung Sungai Buntu. The study sites are located at the south-southeast of Peninsular Malaysia where the Petronas Refinery and Petrochemicals Integrated Project Development (RAPID) are in progress. In future, the richness of seaweeds in Pengerang will vanish soon due to the loss of habitat prior to RAPID project. The research was completed to study the diversity of seaweed and to determine the present of fungal endophyte isolated from the seaweed. The sample was calculated by using quadrat with 25-meter line transect by 3 replication for each site. The specimen were preserved, identified, processed in the laboratory and kept as herbarium specimen in Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The complete thallus specimens for fungal endophyte screening were chosen meticulously, transferred into sterile zip-lock plastic bag and kept in the freezer for further process. A total of 29 species has been identified including 12 species of Chlorophyta, 2 species of Phaeophyta and 14 species of Rhodophyta. From February to November 2015, the number of species highly varied and there was a significant change in community structure of seaweeds. Kampung Sungai Buntu shows the highest diversity throughout the study compared to Kampung Jawa Darat. This evidence can be related to the high habitat preference such as types of shores which is rocky, sandy and having lagoon and bay. These can enhance the existence of the seaweeds community due to variations of the habitat. Eighteen seaweed species were selected and screened for the capability presence of fungal endophyte; Sargassum polycystum marked having the highest number of fungal endophyte compared to the other species. These evidence has proved the seaweed have capable of accommodating a lot of species of fungal endophytes. Thus, these evidence leads to positive consequences where further research should be employed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
119
66192
Diversity and Taxonomy: Malaysian Marine Algae Genus Halimeda (Halimedaceae, Chlorophyta)
Abstract:
The study of genus Halimeda in Malaysia is in the early stage due to less specific study on its taxonomy. Most of the previous research tend to choose other genus such as Caulerpa and Gracilaria because of the potential of being utilized. The identification of Halimeda is complex by the high morphological variation within individual species due to different types of habitat and the changes in composition of seawater. The study was completed to study the diversity and distribution of Halimeda in Malaysia and to identify the morphological and anatomical differences between Halimeda species. The methods which have been used for this study are collection of Halimeda and seawater, preservation of specimen, identification of the specimen including the preparation of the temporary slide and decalcification of the calcium layer by using diluted hydrochloric acid. The specimen were processed in laboratory and kept as herbarium specimen in Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Environmental parameters were tested by using YSI multiparameter probe and the recorded data were temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen. The nutrient content of seawater such as nitrate and phosphate were analysed by using Hach kit model DR 2000. In the present study, out of 330 herbarium specimen, ten species were identified as Halimeda cuneata, H. discoidea, H. macroloba, H. macrophysa, H. opuntia, H. simulans, H. stuposa, H. taenicola, H. tuna and H. velasquezii. Of these, five species were new record to Malaysia. They are Halimeda cuneata, H. macrophysa, H. stuposa, H. taenicola and H. velasquezii. H. opuntia was found as the most abundance species with wide distribution in Malaysia coastal area. Meanwhile, from the study of their distribution, two localities in which Pulau Balak Balak, Kudat and Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, were noted having high number of Halimeda species. As a conclusion, this study has successfully identified ten species of Halimeda of Malaysia with full description of morphological characteristics that may assist further researcher to differentiate and identify Halimeda.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
118
65335
The Effect That the Data Assimilation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Has on a Precipitation Forecast
Authors:
Abstract:
Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has an important influence on the precipitation of its lower reaches. Data from remote sensing has itself advantage and numerical prediction model which assimilates RS data will be better than other. We got the assimilation data of MHS and terrestrial and sounding from GSI, and introduced the result into WRF, then got the result of RH and precipitation forecast. We found that assimilating MHS and terrestrial and sounding made the forecast on precipitation, area and the center of the precipitation more accurate by comparing the result of 1h,6h,12h, and 24h. Analyzing the difference of the initial field, we knew that the data assimilating about Qinghai-Tibet Plateau influence its lower reaches forecast by affecting on initial temperature and RH.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
117
65199
Analysis of Translational Ship Oscillations in a Realistic Environment
Abstract:
To acquire accurate ship motions at the center of gravity, a single low-cost inertial sensor is utilized and applied on board to measure ship oscillating motions. As observations, the three axes accelerations and three axes rotational rates provided by the sensor are used. The mathematical model of processing the observation data includes determination of the distance vector between the sensor and the center of gravity in x, y, and z directions. After setting up the transfer matrix from sensor&rsquo;s own coordinate system to the ship&rsquo;s body frame, an extended Kalman filter is applied to deal with nonlinearities between the ship motion in the body frame and the observation information in the sensor&rsquo;s frame. As a side effect, the method eliminates sensor noise and other unwanted errors. Results are not only roll and pitch, but also linear motions, in particular heave and surge at the center of gravity. For testing, we resort to measurements recorded on a small vessel in a well-defined sea state. With response amplitude operators computed numerically by a commercial software (Seaway), motion characteristics are estimated. These agree well with the measurements after processing with the suggested method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
116
64827
Prediction of Extreme Precipitation in East Asia Using Complex Network
Abstract:
In order to study the spatial structure and dynamical mechanism of extreme precipitation in East Asia, a corresponding climate network is constructed by employing the method of event synchronization. It is found that the area of East Asian summer extreme precipitation can be separated into two regions: one with high area weighted connectivity receiving heavy precipitation mostly during the active phase of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), and another one with low area weighted connectivity receiving heavy precipitation during both the active and the retreat phase of the EASM. Besides,a way for the prediction of extreme precipitation is also developed by constructing a directed climate networks. The simulation accuracy in East Asia is 58% with a 0-day lead, and the prediction accuracy is 21% and average 12% with a 1-day and an n-day (2≤n≤10) lead, respectively. Compare to the normal EASM year, the prediction accuracy is lower in a weak year and higher in a strong year, which is relevant to the differences in correlations and extreme precipitation rates in different EASM situations. Recognizing and identifying these effects is good for understanding and predicting extreme precipitation in East Asia.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
115
64693
Socioeconomic Impact of Marine Invertebrates Collection on Chuiba and Maringanha Beaches
Abstract:
Marine invertebrates are very important for the livelihood of coastal communities, particularly in Pemba City. The study was conducted From June 2011 to March 2012. The aim of this study is to determine the socioeconomic impact of collecting marine invertebrates in communities and Chuiba Maringanha. Data were collected biweekly during the spring tide ebb in the intertidal zone, and through structured surveys, the confrontation of data was done through direct observation in the neighborhoods. In total 40 collectors was surveyed and it was found that activity of collecting marine invertebrates is practiced by women 57.2% and men 42.5%. Their ages ranged from 9 to 45 years, and the range was 25-32 dominant with 30.5% and collection practice 5-7 times per week they spend about 4-6 hours a day. The collection methods are direct harvesting by hand aided by knives, sharp irons, and transport use pots, buckets, basins, shawls. Were identified in total 8 marketable species namely: Octopus vulgaris 8.6 Kg, Cyprea Tigers 7 units, Cypraea annulus 48 kg, 40 kg holuturias, Cyprea bully, Atrina vexilium 10 kg, Modiulus philiphinarum and lambis lambis. The species with the greatest economic value are sea cucumber (3 Usd/ kg) and Octopus vulgaris ( 2.5 Usd/ kg) more commercialized. The socio-economic impacts on communities of collectors the average income of collectors varies from 0.5 to 5 Usd/ day and the money are intended to purchase food and agricultural instruments. The other socioeconomics impacts are illiteracy with 36% dropout, and 28% have never studied 87% of unemployed collectors, a high number of family members, weak economic power, poor housing made the basis of local materials and relies on community wells to access water, and most do not have electric power.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):