Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50631

Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

1598
86053
Thermodynamic Analysis of Hydrogen Plasma Reduction of TiCl₄
Abstract:
With increasing demands for high performance materials, intensive interest on the Ti has been focused. Especially, low cost production process of Ti has been extremely necessitated from wide parts and various industries. Tetrachloride (TiCl₄) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO₂ feedstock and used as an intermediate product for the production of metal titanium sponge. Reduction of TiCl₄ is usually conducted by Kroll process using magnesium as a reduction reagent, producing metallic Ti in the shape of sponge. The process is batch type and takes very long time including post processes treating sponge. As an alternative reduction reagent, hydrogen in the state of plasma has long been strongly recommended. Experimental confirmation has not been completely reported yet and more strict analysis is required. In the present study, hydrogen plasma reduction process has been thermodynamically analyzed focusing the effects of temperature, pressure and concentration. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage® thermodynamical software.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1597
85849
A Study of the Weld Properties of Inconel 625 Based on Nb Content
Abstract:
In this study, shielded metal arc welding was performed as a function of Nb content at 2.24 wt%, 3.25 wt%, and 4.26 wt%. The microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and showed the development of a columnar dendrite structure in the specimen having the least Nb content. From the hardness test, the hardness value was confirmed to reduce with decreasing Nb content. From electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the largest grain size was found in the specimen with Nb content of 2.24 wt%. The potentiodynamic polarization test was carried out to determine the pitting corrosion resistance; there was no significant difference in the pitting corrosion resistance with increasing Nb content. To evaluate the degree of sensitization to intergranular corrosion, the Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiodynamic Reactivation(DL-EPR test) was conducted. A similar degree of sensitization was found in two specimens except with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%, while a relatively high degree of sensitization was found in the specimen with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1596
85057
Three-Dimensional Carbon Foams for the Application as Electrode Material in Energy Storage Systems
Abstract:
Carbon materials, especially three-dimensional carbon foams, show very high potential in the application as electrode material for energy storage systems such as batteries and supercapacitors with unique fast charging and discharging times. Regarding their high specific surface areas (SSA) high specific capacities can be reached. Globugraphite is a newly developed carbon foam with an interconnected globular carbon morphology. Especially, this foam has a statistically distributed hierarchical pore structure resulting from the manufacturing process based on sintered ceramic templates which are synthetized during a final chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. For morphology characterization scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used. In addition, the SSA is carried out by nitrogen adsorption combined with the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory. Electrochemical measurements in organic and inorganic electrolyte provide high energy densities and power densities resulting from ion absorption by forming an electrochemical double layer. All values are summarized in a Ragone Diagram. Finally, power densities up to 833 W/kg and energy densities up to 48 Wh/kg could be achieved. The corresponding SSA is between 376 m²/g and 859 m²/g. For organic electrolyte a specific capacity of 71 F/g at a density of 20 mg/cm³ was achieved.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1595
84326
Quality Improvement of the Sand Moulding Process in Foundries Using Six Sigma Technique
Abstract:
The sand casting process involves pattern making, mould making, metal pouring and shake out. Every step in the sand moulding process is very critical for production of good quality castings. However, waste generated during the sand moulding operation and lack of quality are matters that influences performance inefficiencies and lack of competitiveness in South African foundries. Defects produced from the sand moulding process are only visible in the final product (casting) which results in increased number of scrap, reduced sales and increases cost in the foundry. The purpose of this Research is to propose six sigma technique (DMAIC, Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) intervention in sand moulding foundries and to reduce variation caused by deficiencies in the sand moulding process in South African foundries. Its objective is to create sustainability and enhance productivity in the South African foundry industry. Six sigma is a data driven method to process improvement that aims to eliminate variation in business processes using statistical control methods .Six sigma focuses on business performance improvement through quality initiative using the seven basic tools of quality by Ishikawa. The objectives of six sigma are to eliminate features that affects productivity, profit and meeting customers’ demands. Six sigma has become one of the most important tools/techniques for attaining competitive advantage. Competitive advantage for sand casting foundries in South Africa means improved plant maintenance processes, improved product quality and proper utilization of resources especially scarce resources. Defects such as sand inclusion, Flashes and sand burn on were some of the defects that were identified as resulting from the sand moulding process inefficiencies using six sigma technique. The courses were we found to be wrong design of the mould due to the pattern used and poor ramming of the moulding sand in a foundry. Six sigma tools such as the voice of customer, the Fishbone, the voice of the process and process mapping were used to define the problem in the foundry and to outline the critical to quality elements. The SIPOC (Supplier Input Process Output Customer) Diagram was also employed to ensure that the material and process parameters were achieved to ensure quality improvement in a foundry. The process capability of the sand moulding process was measured to understand the current performance to enable improvement. The Expected results of this research are; reduced sand moulding process variation, increased productivity and competitive advantage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1594
84148
Growth Model and Properties of a 3D Carbon Aerogel
Abstract:
Aerographite is a 3D interconnected carbon foam. Its tetrapodal morphology is based on the zinc oxide (ZnO) template structure, which is replicated in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) into a hollow carbon structure. This replication process is analyzed in ex-situ studies via interrupted synthesis and the observation of the reaction progress by using scanning electron (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. Based on the epitaxial growth process, with a layer-by-layer growth behaviour of the wall thickness or number of layers and the catalytical graphitization of the deposited amorphous carbon into graphitic carbon by zinc, a growth model is created. The properties of aerographite, such as the electrical conductivity is dependent on the graphitization and number of layer (wall thickness). Wall thicknesses between 3 nm and 22 nm are achieved by a controlled stepwise reduction of the synthesis time on the basis of the developed growth model, and by a further thermal treatment at 1800 °C the graphitization of the presented carbon foam is modified. The variation of the wall thickness leads to an optimum defect density (ID/IG ratio) and the graphitization to an improvement in the electrical conductivity. Furthermore, a metallic conducting behaviour of untreated and 1800 °C treated aerographite can be observed. Due to these structural and defective modifications, a fundamental structural-property equation for the description of their influences on the electrical conductivity is developed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1593
82705
Characteristics of Silicon Integrated Vertical Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors
Authors:
Abstract:
A new vertical carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) has been developed. The source, drain and gate are vertically stacked in this structure. The carbon nanotubes are put on the side wall of the vertical stack. Unique transfer characteristics which depend on both silicon type and the sign of drain voltage have been observed in silicon integrated CNTFETs. The significant advantage of this CNTFET is that the short channel of the transistor can be fabricated without using complicate lithography technique.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1592
82651
Parameter Optimization and Thermal Simulation in Laser Joining of Coach Peel Panels of Dissimilar Materials
Abstract:
The quality of laser welded-brazed (LWB) joints were strongly dependent on the main process parameters, therefore the effect of laser power (3.2–4 kW), welding speed (60–80 mm/s) and wire feed rate (70–90 mm/s) on mechanical strength and surface roughness were investigated in this study. The comprehensive optimization process by means of response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function was used for multi-criteria optimization. The experiments were planned based on Box– Behnken design implementing linear and quadratic polynomial equations for predicting the desired output properties. Finally, validation experiments were conducted on an optimized process condition which exhibited good agreement between the predicted and experimental results. AlSi3Mn1 was selected as the filler material for joining aluminum alloy 6022 and hot-dip galvanized steel in coach peel configuration. The high scanning speed could control the thickness of IMC as thin as 5 µm. The thermal simulations of joining process were conducted by the Finite Element Method (FEM), and results were validated through experimental data. The Fe/Al interfacial thermal history evidenced that the duration of critical temperature range (700–900 °C) in this high scanning speed process was less than 1 s. This short interaction time leads to the formation of reaction-control IMC layer instead of diffusion-control mechanisms.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1591
82518
Polycaprolactone/Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Oxide Biocomposite Films: A Promising Moisture Absorption Behavior
Abstract:
Biocomposite materials were fabricated using mixing biodegradable polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) and Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Oxide (TEGO) through solution casting. Various samples of biocomposite films were prepared by varying the TEGO wt% composition by 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Thereafter, the density and water absorption of the composites were investigated with respect to immersion time in water. The moisture absorption results show that with an increase in weight percentage (from 0.1 to wt 1.5%) of TEGO within the biopolymer films, the absorption value of bio-nanocomposite films reduced rapidly from 27.4% to 14.3%. The density of hybrid composites also increased with increase in weight percentage of TEGO. These results indicate that the optimized composition of constituents in composite membrane could effectively reduce the anhydrous conditions of bio-composite film.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1590
82266
Comparison of Different Activators Impact on the Alkali-Activated Aluminium-Silicate Composites
Abstract:
Alkali-activated aluminium-silicate composites (AASC) can be used in the production of innovative materials with a wide range of properties and applications. AASC are associated with low CO₂ emissions; in the production process, it is possible to use industrial by-products and waste, thereby minimizing the use of a non-renewable natural resource. This study deals with the preparation of heat-resistant porous AASC based on chamotte for high-temperature applications up to 1200°C. Different fillers, aluminium scrap recycling waste as pores forming agent and alkali activation with 6M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution were used. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is widely used for the synthesis of AASC compared to potassium hydroxide (KOH), but comparison of using different activator for geopolymer synthesis is not well established. Changes in chemical composition of AASC during heating were identified and quantitatively analyzed by using DTA, dimension changes during the heating process were determined by using HTOM, pore microstructure was examined by SEM, and mineralogical composition of AASC was determined by XRD. Lightweight porous AASC activated with NaOH have been obtained with density in range from 600 to 880 kg/m³ and compressive strength from 0.8 to 2.7 MPa, but for AAM activated with KOH density was in range from 750 to 850 kg/m³ and compressive strength from 0.7 to 2.1 MPa.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1589
82263
TiO₂ Nanotube Array Based Selective Vapor Sensors for Breath Analysis
Authors:
Abstract:
Breath analysis is a quick, noninvasive and inexpensive technique for disease diagnosis can be used on people of all ages without any risk. Only a limited number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be associated with the occurrence of specific diseases. These VOCs can be considered as disease markers or breath markers. Selective detection with specific concentration of breath marker in exhaled human breath is required to detect a particular disease. For example, acetone (C₃H₆O), ethanol (C₂H₅OH), ethane (C₂H₆) etc. are the breath markers and abnormal concentrations of these VOCs in exhaled human breath indicates the diseases like diabetes mellitus, renal failure, breast cancer respectively. Nanomaterial-based vapor sensors are inexpensive, small and potential candidate for the detection of breath markers. In practical measurement, selectivity is the most crucial issue where trace detection of breath marker is needed to identify accurately in the presence of several interfering vapors and gases. Current article concerns a novel technique for selective and lower ppb level detection of breath markers at very low temperature based on TiO₂ nanotube array based vapor sensor devices. Highly ordered and oriented TiO₂ nanotube array was synthesized by electrochemical anodization of high purity tatinium (Ti) foil. 0.5 wt% NH₄F, ethylene glycol and 10 vol% H₂O was used as the electrolyte and anodization was carried out for 90 min with 40 V DC potential. Au/TiO₂ Nanotube/Ti, sandwich type sensor device was fabricated for the selective detection of VOCs in low concentration range. Initially, sensor was characterized where resistive and capacitive change of the sensor was recorded within the valid concentration range for individual breath markers (or organic vapors). Sensor resistance was decreased and sensor capacitance was increased with the increase of vapor concentration. Now, the ratio of resistive slope (mR) and capacitive slope (mC) provided a concentration independent constant term (M) for a particular vapor. For the detection of unknown vapor, ratio of resistive change and capacitive change at any concentration was same to the previously calculated constant term (M). After successful identification of the target vapor, concentration was calculated from the straight line behavior of resistance as a function of concentration. Current technique is suitable for the detection of particular vapor from a mixture of other interfering vapors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1588
81425
Graphene-Graphene Oxide Dopping Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Polyamide Composites
Abstract:
Graphene and graphene oxide have been intensively studied due to the very good properties, which are intrinsic to the material or come from the easy doping of those with other functional groups. Graphene and graphene oxide have known a broad band of useful applications, in electronic devices, drug delivery systems, medical devices, sensors and opto-electronics, coating materials, sorbents of different agents for environmental applications, etc. The board range of applications does not come only from the use of graphene or graphene oxide alone, or by its prior functionalization with different moieties, but also it is a building block and an important component in many composite devices, its addition coming with new functionalities on the final composite or strengthening the ones that are already existent on the parent product. An attempt to improve the mechanical properties of polyamide elastomers by compounding with graphene oxide in the parent polymer composition was attempted. The addition of the graphene oxide contributes to the properties of the final product, improving the hardness and aging resistance. Graphene oxide has a lower hardness and textile strength, and if the amount of graphene oxide in the final product is not correctly estimated, it can lead to mechanical properties which are comparable to the starting material or even worse, the graphene oxide agglomerates becoming a tearing point in the final material if the amount added is too high (in a value greater than 3% towards the parent material measured in mass percentages). Two different types of tests were done on the obtained materials, the hardness standard test and the tensile strength standard test, and they were made on the obtained materials before and after the aging process. For the aging process, an accelerated aging was used in order to simulate the effect of natural aging over a long period of time. The accelerated aging was made in extreme heat. For all materials, FT-IR spectra were recorded using FT-IR spectroscopy. From the FT-IR spectra only the bands corresponding to the polyamide were intense, while the characteristic bands for graphene oxide were very small in comparison due to the very small amounts introduced in the final composite along with the low absorptivity of the graphene backbone and limited number of functional groups. In conclusion, some compositions showed very promising results, both in tensile strength test and in hardness tests. The best ratio of graphene to elastomer was between 0.6 and 0.8%, this addition extending the life of the product. Acknowledgements: The present work was possible due to the EU-funding grant POSCCE-A2O2.2.1-2013-1, Project No. 638/12.03.2014, code SMIS-CSNR 48652. The financial contribution received from the national project ‘New nanostructured polymeric composites for centre pivot liners, centre plate and other components for the railway industry (RONERANANOSTRUCT)’, No: 18 PTE (PN-III-P2-2.1-PTE-2016-0146) is also acknowledged.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1587
79759
Improvement of Overall Equipment Effectiveness of Load Haul Dump Machines in Underground Coal Mines
Abstract:
Every organization in the competitive world tends to improve its economy by increasing their production and productivity rates. Unequivocally, the production in Indian underground mines over the years is not satisfactory, due to a variety of reasons. There are manifold of avenues for the betterment of production, and one such approach is through enhanced utilization of mechanized equipment such as Load Haul Dumper (LHD). This is used as loading and hauling purpose in underground mines. In view of the aforementioned facts, this paper delves into identification of the key influencing factors such as LHDs maintenance effectiveness, vehicle condition, operator skill and utilization of the machines on performance of LHDs. An attempt has been made for improvement of performance of the equipment through evaluation of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). Two different approaches for evaluation of OEE have been adopted and compared under various operating conditions. The use of OEE calculation in terms of percentage availability, performance and quality and the hitherto existing situation of the underground mine production is evaluated. Necessary recommendations are suggested to mining industry on the basis of OEE.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1586
79357
Characterization of Carbon/Polyamide 6,6 (C/PA66) Composite Material for Dry and Wet Conditions
Abstract:
Absorption of moisture may cause many problems in a composite material, such as delamination, degradation of the strength and increase in the weight. For small coupons, the increase in weight may be negligible, however, for large structures increase in weight due to moisture absorption may be quite significant. Polyamides (PA6, PA66) absorb more moisture as compared to other thermoplastics. There are many parameters which affect the moisture absorption of the composite material for example temperature, pressure, type of matrix and fibers, thickness of the material and relative humidity (RH) etc. So, it is utmost important to investigate the impact of moisture on PA66 based composites which can be done by characterizing the mechanical properties of composite materials both for dry and wet conditions. In this study, laminates of C/PA66 composite are manufactured by first heating the commingled material in conventional oven at a temperature of 220 °C followed by pressing in a manual hot press for 20 minutes with preheated platen at 220 °C. To observe the moisture absorption of the composite, coupons of the material were placed in a climate chamber at five different conditions 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% RH for 24 hours. Five specimens were used for each condition. These coupons were weighed before placing in the climate chamber and just after removing from the chamber to observe the moisture absorption of the material. The mechanical characterization such as tensile strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and DMTA of C/PA66 material are performed at 0, 50 and 100 % RH. The work is going on for the testing of the material and results will be presented in full paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1585
79352
Development of Micelle-Mediated Sr(II) Fluorescent Analysis System
Abstract:
Fluorescent probes are useful for the selective detection of trace amount of ions and biomolecular imaging in living cells. Various kinds of metal ion-selective fluorescent compounds have been developed, and some compounds have been applied as effective metal ion-selective fluorescent probes. However, because competition between the ligand and water molecules for the metal ion constitutes a major contribution to the stability of a complex in aqueous solution, it is difficult to develop a highly sensitive, selective, and stable fluorescent probe in aqueous solution. The micelles, these are formed in the surfactant aqueous solution, provides a unique hydrophobic nano-environment for stabilizing metal-organic complexes in aqueous solution. Therefore, we focused on the unique properties of micelles to develop a new fluorescence analysis system. We have been developed a fluorescence analysis system for Sr(II) by using a Sr(II) fluorescent sensor, N-(2-hydroxy-3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-phenyl)-1-aza-18-crown-6-ether (BIC), and studied its complexation behavior with Sr(II) in micellar solution. We revealed that the stability constant of Sr(II)-BIC complex was 10 times higher than that in aqueous solution. In addition, its detection limit value was also improved up to 300 times by this system. However, the mechanisms of these phenomena have remained obscure. In this study, we investigated the structure of Sr(II)-BIC complex in aqueous micellar solution by combining use the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and neutron reflectivity (NR) method to understand the unique properties of the fluorescence analysis system from the view point of structural chemistry. EXAFS and NR experiments were performed on BL-27B at KEK-PF and on BL17 SHARAKU at J-PARC MLF, respectively. The obtained EXAFS spectra and their fitting results indicated that Sr(II) and BIC formed a Sr(18-crown-6-ether)-like complex in aqueous micellar solution. The EXAFS results also indicated that the hydrophilic head group of surfactant molecule was directly coordinated with Sr(II). In addition, the NR results also indicated that Sr(II)-BIC complex would interact with the surface of micelle molecules. Therefore, we concluded that Sr(II), BIC, and surfactant molecule formed a ternary complexes in aqueous micellar solution, and at least, it is clear that the improvement of the stability constant in micellar solution is attributed to the result of the formation of Sr(BIC)(surfactant) complex.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1584
79210
Cyclic Plastic Deformation of 20MN-MO-NI 55 Steel in Dynamic Strain Ageing Regime
Abstract:
Low cycle fatigue behavior of a ferritic, martensitic pressure vessel steel at dynamic strain ageing regime of 250°C to 280°C has been investigated. Dynamic strain ageing is a mechanism that has attracted interests of researchers due to its fascinating inexplicable repetitive nature for quite a long time. The interaction of dynamic strain ageing and cyclic plasticity has been studied from the mechanistic point of view. Dynamic strain ageing gives rise to identical serrated flow behavior in tensile and compressive halves of hysteresis loops and this has been found to gives rise to initial cyclic hardening followed by softening behavior, where as in non-DSA regime continuous cyclic softening has been found to be the dominant mechanism. An appreciable sensitivity towards nature of serrations has been observed due to degree of hardening of stable loop. The increase in degree of hardening with strain amplitude in the regime where only A type serrations are present and it decreases with strain amplitude where A+B type of serrations are present. Masing type of locus has been found in the behavior of metal at 280°C. Cyclic Stress Strain curve and Master curve has been constructed to decipher among the fatigue strength and ductility coefficients. Fractographic examinations have also shown a competition between progression of striations and secondary cracking.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1583
79091
Synthesis and Characterization of Zr and V Co-Doped BaTiO₃ Ceramic
Abstract:
BaZrTiO3 ceramics having high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss are interesting material for being used as commercial capacitor applications. BZT (BaZrTiO3) has attracted attentions for their many applications for the microwave technology as the doping of Zr4+ on Ti4+ has advantage to the stability of the system. In the present work, co-doping of Zr and V with BaTiO3 ceramics was synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction technique and sintered at 1200 K for 6 hours, and their structural and ferroelectric properties were studied. The XRD (x-ray diffraction) pattern of BZT (BaZrTiO3) ceramics shows that the crystalline sample is single phase tetragonal structure with P4mm space group. The result revealed that Zr ion enters the unit cell maintaining the perovskite structure of BZT ceramics and the impedance spectroscopy of the sample performed in selected frequency and temperature range.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1582
79035
Study on the Dynamic Characteristics Change of Welded Beam Due to Vibration Aging
Abstract:
Fatigue fracture of an aluminum welded structure is a phenomenon frequently occurring from pores in a weld. In order to grasp the state of the welded structure in operation in real time, the acceleration signal of the structure is measured. At this time, the vibration characteristic of the signal according to the fatigue load is an important parameter of the state diagnosis. This paper was an experimental study on the variation of vibration characteristics of welded beams with vibration aging (especially bending vibration). First simple beams were produced according to welding conditions. Each beam was vibrated and measured beam's PSD (power spectral density) according to the degree of aging. Also, modal testing was conducted to compare the transfer functions of welded beams. Testing result shows that the natural frequencies of the beam changed with the vibration aging due to the change of stiffness in welding part and its stiffness was estimated by the finite element method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1581
78905
Impact of Gd³⁺ Substitution on Structural, Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles
Abstract:
In this report, the impact of Gd³⁺ substitution in ZnFe₂O₄ spinel ferrite nanoparticles on structural, optical and magnetic properties was investigated. ZnFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄ (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) nanoparticles were synthesized by honey-mediated sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the formation of cubic spinel ferrite crystal structure. The morphology and elemental analysis were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Visible reflectance spectroscopy revealed band gap variation with concentration of Gd³⁺ substitution in ZnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. Magnetic property was studied using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles showed ferromagnetic behaviour. The evaluated magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanence showed variation with Gd³⁺ substitution in spinel ferrite nanoparticles. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1580
78897
Design and Development of Bioactive a-Hydroxy Carboxylate Group Modified MnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticle: Comparative Fluorescence Study, Magnetism and DNA Nuclease Activity
Abstract:
Three new α-hydroxy carboxylate group functionalized MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to explore the microscopic origin of ligand modified fluorescence and magnetic properties of nearly monodispersed MnFe₂O₄ NPs. The surface functionalization has been carried out with three small organic ligands (tartrate, malate, and citrate) having different number of α-hydroxy carboxylate functional group along with steric effect. Detailed study unveils that α-hydroxy carboxylate moiety of the ligands plays key role to generate intrinsic fluorescence in functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NPs through the activation of ligand to metal charge transfer transitions, associated with ligand-Mn²⁺/Fe³⁺ interactions along with d-d transition corresponding to d-orbital energy level splitting of Fe³⁺ ions on NP surface. Further, MnFe₂O₄ NPs show a maximum 140.88% increase in coercivity and 97.95% decrease in magnetization compared to its bare one upon functionalization. The ligands that induce smallest crystal field splitting of d-orbital energy level of transition metal ions are found to result in strongest ferromagnetic activation of the NPs. Finally, our developed tartrate functionalized MnFe₂O₄ (T-MnFe₂O₄) NPs have been utilized for studying DNA binding interaction and nuclease activity for stimulating their beneficial activities toward diverse biomedical applications. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs bind calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode. The ability of T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs to induce DNA cleavage was studied by gel electrophoresis technique where the complex is found to promote the cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA from the super coiled form I to linear coiled form II and nicked coiled form III with good efficiency. This may be taken into account for designing new biomolecular detection agents and anti-cancer drug which can open up a new door toward diverse non-invasive biomedical applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1579
78511
Effect of Flux Salts on the Recovery Extent and Quality of Metal Values from Spent Rechargeable Lead Batteries
Abstract:
Lead-calcium alloy containing up to 0.10% calcium was recovered from spent rechargeable sealed acid lead batteries. Two techniques were investigated to explore the effect of flux salts on the extent and quality of the recovered alloy, pyro-metallurgical and electrochemical methods. About 10 kg of the spent batteries were collected for testing. The sample was washed with hot water and dried. The plastic cases of the batteries were mechanically cut, and the contents were dismantled manually, the plastic containers were shredded for recycling. The electrode plates were freed from the loose powder and placed in SiC crucible and covered with alkali chloride salts. The loaded crucible was heated in an electronically controlled chamber furnace type Nabertherm C3 at temperatures up to 800 °C. The obtained metals were analyzed. The effect of temperature, rate of heating, atmospheric conditions, composition of the flux salts on the extent and quality of the recovered products were studied. Results revealed that the spent rechargeable batteries contain 6 blocks of 6 plates of Pb-Ca alloy each. Direct heating of these plates in a silicon carbide crucible under ambient conditions produces lead metal poor in calcium content ( < 0.07%) due to partial oxidation of the alloying calcium element. Rate of temperature increase has a considerable effect on the yield of the lead alloy extraction. Flux salts composition benefits the recovery process. Sodium salts are more powerful as compared to potassium salts. Lead calcium alloy meeting the standard specification was successfully recovered from the spent rechargeable acid lead batteries with a very competitive cost to the same alloy prepared from primary resources.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1578
78208
Environmental Effects on Coconut Coir Fiber Epoxy Composites Having TiO₂ as Filler
Abstract:
Composite materials are being widely used in Aerospace, Naval, Defence and other branches of engineering applications. Studies on natural fibers is another emerging research area as they are available in abundance, and also due to their eco-friendly in nature. India being one of the major producer of coir, there is always a scope to study the possibilities of exploring coir as reinforment, and with different combinations of other elements of the composite. In present investigation effort is made to utilize properties possessed by natural fiber and make them enable with polymer/epoxy resin. In natural fiber coconut coir is used as reinforcement fiber in epoxy resin with varying weight percentages of fiber and filler material. Titanium dioxide powder (TiO2) is used as filler material with varying weight percentage including 0%, 2% and 4% are considered for experimentation. Environmental effects on the performance of the composite plate are also studied and presented in this project work; Moisture absorption test for composite specimens is conducted using different solvents including Kerosene, Mineral Water and Saline Water, and its absorption capacity is evaluated. Analysis is carried out in different combinations of Coir as fiber and TiO2 as filler material, and the best suitable composite material considering the strength and environmental effects is identified in this work. Therefore, the significant combination of the composite material is with following composition: 2% TiO2 powder 15% of coir fibre and 83% epoxy, under unique mechanical and environmental conditions considered in the work.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1577
78196
Investigation on Strength Properties of Concrete Using Industrial Waste as Supplementary Cementitious Material
Abstract:
The use of industrial waste in making concrete reduce the consumption of natural resources and pollution of the environment. These materials possess problems of disposal and health hazards. An attempt has been made to use paper and thermal industrial wastes such as lime sludge and flyash. Present investigation is aimed at the utilization of Lime Sludge and Flyash as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) and influence of these materials on strength properties of concrete. Thermal industry waste fly ash is mixed with lime sludge and used as a replacement to cement at different proportions to obtain the strength properties and compared with ordinary concrete prepared without any additives. Grade of concrete prepared was M₂₅ designed according to Indian standard method. Cement has been replaced by paper industry waste and fly ash in different proportions such as 0% (normal concrete), 10%, 20%, and 30% by weight. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength were assessed. Test results indicated that the use of lime sludge and Fly ash in concrete had improved the properties of concrete. Better results were observed at 20% replacement of cement with these additives.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1576
77870
Modeling Nanomechanical Behavior of ZnO Nanowires as a Function of Nano-Diameter
Abstract:
Elastic performances, as an essential property of nanowires (NWs), play a significant role in the design and fabrication of modern nanodevices. In this paper, our interest is focused on ZnO NWs to investigate wire diameter (Dwire &le; 400 nm) effects on elastic properties. The plotted data reveal that a strong size dependence of the elastic constants exists when the wire diameter is smaller than ~ 100 nm. For larger diameters (Dwire &gt; 100 nm), these ones approach their corresponding bulk values. To enrich this study, we make use of the scanning acoustic microscopy simulation technique. The calculation methodology consists of several steps: determination of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities, calculation of refection coefficients, calculation of acoustic signatures and Rayleigh velocity determination. Quantitatively, it was found that changes in ZnO diameters over the ranges 1 nm &le; Dwire &le; 100 nm lead to similar exponential variations, for all elastic parameters, of the from: A = a + b exp(-Dwire/c) where a, b, and c are characteristic constants of a given parameter. The developed relation can be used to predict elastic properties of such NW by just knowing its diameter and vice versa.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1575
77814
Development of β-Ti Alloy Powders for Additive Manufacturing for Application in Patient-Specific Orthopedic Implants
Abstract:
Series of low modulus beta Ti alloy billets and powders can be produced in commercial quantities using a combination of electron beam melting (EBM) and EIGA atomization processes. In the present study, TNZT alloy powder was produced and processed in the EOSINT M290 laser sintering system to produce parts for mechanical testing. Post heat treatments such as diffusion annealing to reduce internal stresses or hot isostatic pressing to remove closed pores were not applied. The density can visually be estimated to be > 99,9 %. According to EDS study Nb, Zr, and Ta are distributed homogeneously throughout the printed sample. There are no indications for any segregation or chemical inhomogeneity, i.e. variation of the element distribution. These points to the fact that under the applied experimental conditions the melt generated by the laser rapidly cools down in the SLM (Selective Laser Melting) process. The selective laser sintering yielded dense structures with relatively good surface quality. The mechanical properties, especially the elongation (24%) along with tensile strength ( > 500MPa) and modulus of elasticity (~60GPa), were found to be promising compared to titanium alloys in general.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1574
77807
Corrosion Properties of Friction Welded Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys; Duralumin and AA6063
Abstract:
With the increased needs for lightweight materials in automobile industry, the usage of aluminum alloys becomes prevailed as components and car bodies due to their comparative specific strength. These parts composed of different aluminum alloys should be connected each other, where welding technologies are commonly applied. Among various welding methods, friction welding method as a solid state welding gets to be popular in joining aluminum alloys as it does not produce a defect such as blowhole that is often formed during typical welding processes. Once two metals are joined, corrosion would become an issue due to different electrochemical potentials. In this study, we investigated variations of corrosion properties when Duralumin and AA6063 were joined by friction welding. From the polarization test, it was found that the potential of the welded was placed between those of two original metals, which could be explained by a concept of mixed potential. Pitting is a common form as a result of the corrosion of aluminum alloys when they are exposed to 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. However, when two different aluminum alloys (Duralumin and AA6063) were joined, pitting corrosion occurred severely and uniformly in Duralumin while there were a few pits around precipitates in AA6063, indicating that AA6063 was cathodically protected.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1573
77806
Continuous Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles by Hydrazine Reduction
Abstract:
The synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by the reduction of nickel chloride with hydrazine in an aqueous solution. The effect of hydrazine concentration on batch-processed particle characteristics was investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Both average particle size and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were decreasing with increasing hydrazine concentration. The continuous synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by microemulsion method was also studied using FESEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The average size and geometric standard deviation of continuous-processed particles were 87.4 nm and 1.16, respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed continuous-processed particles were pure nickel crystalline with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1572
77805
Chemical Stability of Ceramic Crucibles to Molten Titanium
Abstract:
Titanium is widely used due to its high specific strength, good biocompatibility, and excellent corrosion resistance. In order to produce titanium powders, it is necessary to melt titanium, and generally it is conducted by an induction heating method using Al₂O₃ ceramic crucible. However, since titanium reacts chemically with Al₂O₃, it is difficult to melt titanium by the induction heating method using Al₂O₃ crucible. To avoid this problem, we studied the chemical stability of the various crucibles such as Al₂O₃, MgO, ZrO₂, and Y₂O₃ crucibles to molten titanium. After titanium lumps (Grade 2, O(oxygen)< 0.25wt%) were placed in each crucible, they were heated to 1800℃ with a heating rate of 5 ℃/min, held at 1800℃ for 30 min, and finally cooled to room temperature with a cooling rate of 5 ℃/min. All heat treatments were carried out in high purity Ar atmosphere. To evaluate the chemical stability, thermodynamic data such as Ellingham diagram were utilized, and also Vickers hardness test, microstructure analysis, and EPMA quantitative analysis were performed. As a result, Al₂O₃, MgO and ZrO₂ crucibles chemically reacted with molten titanium, but Y₂O₃ crucible rarely reacted with it.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1571
77712
Study of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene/1-Octene Copolymer Based Nanocomposites
Abstract:
Ethylene/1-octene copolymer was modified incorporating three types of nanofillers differed in their dimensionality in order to investigate the effect of filler dimensionality on mechanical properties, for instance, tensile strength, microhardness etc. The samples were prepared by melt mixing followed by compression moldings. The microstructure of the novel material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Other important properties such as melting, crystallizing and thermal stability were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The FTIR and XRD results showed that the composites were formed by physical mixing. The TEM result supported the homogeneous dispersion of nanofillers in the matrix. The mechanical characterization performed by tensile testing showed that the composites with 1D nanofiller effectively reinforced the polymer. TGA results revealed that the thermal stability of pure EOC is marginally improved by the addition of nanofillers. Likewise, melting and crystallizing properties of the composites are not much different from that of pure.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1570
77617
Controlled Growth of Au Hierarchically Ordered Crystals Architectures for Electrochemical Detection of Traces of Molecules
Abstract:
Nowadays, noble metallic nanostructures with unique morphology are widely used as new sensors due to their fascinating optical, electronic and catalytic properties. Among various shapes, dendritic nanostructures have attracted much attention because of their large surface-to-volume ratio, high sensitivity and special texture with sharp tips and nanoscale junctions. Several methods have been developed to fabricate those specific structures such as electrodeposition, photochemical way, seed-mediated growth or wet chemical method. The present study deals with a novel approach for a controlled growth pattern-directed organisation of Au flower-like crystals (NFs) deposited onto stainless steel plates to achieve large-scale functional surfaces. This technique consists in the deposition of a soft nanoporous template on which Au NFs are grown by electroplating and seed-mediated method. Size, morphology, and interstructure distance have been controlled by a site selective nucleation process. Dendritic Au nanostructures have appeared as excellent Raman-active candidates due to the presence of very sharp tips of multi-branched Au nanoparticles that leads to a large local field enhancement and a good SERS sensitivity. In addition, these structures have also been used as electrochemical sensors to detect traces of molecules present in a solution. A correlation of the number of active sites on the surface and the current charge by both colorimetric method and cyclic voltammetry of gold structures have allowed a calibration of the system. This device represents a first step for the fabrication of MEMs platform that could ultimately be integrated into a lab-on-chip system. It also opens pathways to several technologically large-scale nanomaterials fabrication such as hierarchically ordered crystal architectures for sensor applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1569
77305
Determination of Optimum Conditions for the Leaching of Oxidized Copper Ores with Ammonium Nitrate
Abstract:
The most common lixiviant in the leaching process of copper minerals is H₂SO₄, however, the current situation requires more environmentally friendly reagents and in certain situations that have a lower consumption due to the presence of undesirable gangue as muscovite or kaolinite that can make the process unfeasible. The present work studied the leaching of an oxidized copper mineral in an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate, in order to obtain the optimum leaching conditions of the copper contained in the malachite mineral from Peru. The copper ore studied comes from a deposit in southern Peru and was characterized by X-ray diffractometer, inductively coupled-plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The experiments were developed in batch reactor of 600 mL where the parameters as; temperature, pH, ammonium nitrate concentration, particle size and stirring speed were controlled according to experimental planning. The sample solution was analyzed for copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). A simulation in the HSC Chemistry 6.0 program showed that the predominance of the copper compounds of a Cu-H₂O aqueous system is altered by the presence in the system of ammonium complexes, the compound being thermodynamically more stable Cu(NH3)₄²⁺, which predominates in pH ranges from 8.5 to 10 at a temperature of 25 °C. The optimum conditions for copper leaching of the malachite mineral were a stirring speed of 600 rpm, an ammonium nitrate concentration of 4M, a particle diameter of 53 um and temperature of 62 °C. These results showed that the leaching of copper increases with increasing concentration of the ammonium solution, increasing the stirring rate, increasing the temperature and decreasing the particle diameter. Finally, the recovery of copper in optimum conditions was above 80%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):