Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48564

Mathematical and Computational Sciences

884
81250
Identification of Shocks from Unconventional Monetary Policy Measures
Abstract:
After several prominent central banks including European Central Bank (ECB), Federal Reserve System (Fed), Bank of Japan and Bank of England employed unconventional monetary policies in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2008-2009 the problem of identification of the effects from such policies became of great interest. One of the main difficulties in identification of shocks from unconventional monetary policy measures in structural VAR analysis is that they often are anticipated, which leads to a non-fundamental MA representation of the VAR model. Moreover, the unconventional monetary policy actions may indirectly transmit to markets information about the future stance of the interest rate, which raises a question of the plausibility of the assumption of orthogonality between shocks from unconventional and conventional policy measures. This paper offers a method of identification that takes into account the abovementioned issues. The author uses factor-augmented VARs to increase the information set and identification through heteroskedasticity of error terms and rank restrictions on the errors’ second moments’ matrix to deal with the cross-correlation of the structural shocks.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
883
79636
Comparative Study of Estimators of Population Means in Two Phase Sampling in the Presence of Non-Response
Abstract:
A comparative study of estimators of population means in two phase sampling in the presence of non-response when Unknown population means of the auxiliary variable(s) and incomplete information of study variable y as well as of auxiliary variable(s) is made. Three real data sets of University students, hospital and unemployment are used for comparison of all the available techniques in two phase sampling in the presence of non-response with the newly generalized ratio estimators.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
882
78434
Theorem on Inconsistency of The Classical Logic
Abstract:
This abstract concerns an extremely fundamental issue. Namely, the fundamental problem of science is the issue of consistency. In this abstract, we present the theorem saying that the classical calculus of quantifiers is inconsistent in the traditional sense. At the beginning, we introduce a notation, and later we remind the definition of the consistency in the traditional sense. S1 is the set of all well-formed formulas in the calculus of quantifiers. RS1 denotes the set of all rules over the set S1. Cn(R, X) is the set of all formulas standardly provable from X by rules R, where R is a subset of RS1, and X is a subset of S1. The couple < R,X > is called a system, whenever R is a subset of RS1, and X is a subset of S1. Definition: The system < R,X > is consistent in the traditional sense if there does not exist any formula from the set S1, such that this formula and its negation are provable from X, by using rules from R. Finally, < R0+, L2 > denotes the classical calculus of quantifiers, where R0+ consists of Modus Ponens and the generalization rule. L2 is the set of all formulas valid in the classical calculus of quantifiers. The Main Result: The system < R0+, L2 > is inconsistent in the traditional sense.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
881
78296
Total Controllability of the Second Order Nonlinear Differential Equation with Delay and Non-Instantaneous Impulses
Abstract:
A stronger concept of exact controllability which is called Total Controllability is introduced in this manuscript. Sufficient conditions have been established for the total controllability of a control problem, governed by second order nonlinear differential equation with delay and non-instantaneous impulses in a Banach space X. The results are obtained using the strongly continuous cosine family and Banach fixed point theorem. Also, the total controllability of an integrodifferential problem is investigated. At the end, some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the analytical findings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
880
77919
Generalized Rough Sets Applied to Graphs Related to Urban Problems
Abstract:
Branch of modern mathematics, graphs represent instruments for optimization and solving practical applications in various fields such as economic networks, engineering, network optimization, the geometry of social action, generally, complex systems including contemporary urban problems (path or transport efficiencies, biourbanism, &amp; c.). In this paper is studied the interconnection of some urban network, which can lead to a simulation problem of a digraph through another digraph. The simulation is made univoc or more general multivoc. The concepts of fragment and atom are very useful in the study of connectivity in the digraph that is simulation - including an alternative evaluation of k- connectivity. Rough set approach in (bi)digraph which is proposed in premier in this paper contribute to improved significantly the evaluation of k-connectivity. This rough set approach is based on generalized rough sets - basic facts are presented in this paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
879
77683
Bayesian Flexibility Modelling of the Conditional Autoregressive Prior in a Disease Mapping Model
Abstract:
The basic model usually used in disease mapping, is the Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) model and which combines the spatially structured and spatially unstructured priors as random effects. Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) model is a disease mapping method that is commonly used for smoothening the relative risk of any disease as used in the Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) model. This model (CAR), which is also usually assigned as a prior to one of the spatial random effects in the BYM model, successfully uses information from adjacent sites to improve estimates for individual sites. To our knowledge, there are some unrealistic or counter-intuitive consequences on the posterior covariance matrix of the CAR prior for the spatial random effects. In the conventional BYM (Besag, York and Mollie) model, the spatially structured and the unstructured random components cannot be seen independently, and which challenges the prior definitions for the hyperparameters of the two random effects. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to construct and utilize an extended Bayesian spatial CAR model for studying tuberculosis patterns in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, and then compare for flexibility with some existing CAR models. The results of the study revealed the flexibility and robustness of this alternative extended CAR to the commonly used CAR models by comparison, using the deviance information criteria. The extended Bayesian spatial CAR model is proved to be a useful and robust tool for disease modeling and as a prior for the structured spatial random effects because of the inclusion of an extra hyperparameter.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
878
77368
[Keynote Talk]: Analysis of One Dimensional Advection Diffusion Model Using Finite Difference Method
Abstract:
In this paper, one-dimensional advection diffusion model is analyzed using finite difference method based on Crank-Nicolson scheme. A practical problem of filter cake washing of chemical engineering is analyzed. The model is converted into dimensionless form. For the grid Ω × ω = [0,1] × [0,T], the Crank-Nicolson spatial derivative scheme is used in space domain and forward difference scheme is used in the time domain. The scheme is found to be unconditionally convergent, stable, first order accurate in time and second order accurate in the space domain. For a test problem, numerical results are compared with the analytical ones for different values of the parameter.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
877
76784
On the Inequality between Queue Length and Virtual Waiting Time in Open Queueing Networks under Conditions of Heavy Traffic
Abstract:
The paper is devoted to the analysis of queueing systems in the context of the network and communications theory. We investigate the inequality in an open queueing network and its applications to the theorems in heavy traffic conditions (fluid approximation, functional limit theorem, and law of the iterated logarithm) for a queue of customers in an open queueing network.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
876
76734
Estimating the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve from Clustered Data and Case-Control Studies
Abstract:
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have been widely used in medical research to illustrate the performance of the biomarker in correctly distinguishing the diseased and non-diseased groups. Correlated biomarker data arises in study designs that include subjects that contain same genetic or environmental factors. The information about correlation might help to identify family members at increased risk of disease development, and may lead to initiating treatment to slow or stop the progression to disease. Approaches appropriate to a case-control design matched by family identification, must be able to accommodate both the correlation inherent in the design in correctly estimating the biomarker’s ability to differentiate between cases and controls, as well as to handle estimation from a matched case control design. This talk will review some developed methods for ROC curve estimation in settings with correlated data from case control design and will discuss the limitations of current methods for analyzing correlated familial paired data. An alternative approach using Conditional ROC curves will be demonstrated, to provide appropriate ROC curves for correlated paired data. The proposed approach will use the information about the correlation among biomarker values, producing conditional ROC curves that evaluate the ability of a biomarker to discriminate between diseased and non-diseased subjects in a familial paired design.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
875
75349
Generalized π-Armendariz Authentication Cryptosystem
Abstract:
Algebra is one of the important fields of mathematics. It concerns with the study and manipulation of mathematical symbols. It also concerns with the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. Due to the development of these abstractions, it is extended to consider other structures, such as vectors, matrices, and polynomials, which are non-numerical objects. Computer algebra is the implementation of algebraic methods as algorithms and computer programs. Recently, many algebraic cryptosystem protocols are based on non-commutative algebraic structures, such as authentication, key exchange, and encryption-decryption processes are adopted. Cryptography is the science that aimed at sending the information through public channels in such a way that only an authorized recipient can read it. Ring theory is the most attractive category of algebra in the area of cryptography. In this paper, we employ the algebraic structure called skew -Armendariz rings to design a neoteric algorithm for zero knowledge proof. The proposed protocol is established and illustrated through numerical example, and its soundness and completeness are proved.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
874
75328
Forecasting Performance Comparison of Autoregressive Fractional Integrated Moving Average and Jordan Recurrent Neural Network Models on the Turbidity of Stream Flows
Abstract:
In this study, the Autoregressive Fractional Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) and Jordan Recurrent Neural Network (JRNN) models were employed to model the forecasting performance of the daily turbidity flow of White Clay Creek (WCC). The two methods were applied to the log difference series of the daily turbidity flow series of WCC. The measurements of error employed to investigate the forecasting performance of the ARFIMA and JRNN models are the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE). The outcome of the investigation revealed that the forecasting performance of the JRNN technique is better than the forecasting performance of the ARFIMA technique in the mean square error sense. The results of the ARFIMA and JRNN models were obtained by the simulation of the models using MATLAB version 8.03. The significance of using the log difference series rather than the difference series is that the log difference series stabilizes the turbidity flow series than the difference series on the ARFIMA and JRNN.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
873
75290
Determining the Causality Variables in Female Genital Mutilation: A Factor Screening Approach
Abstract:
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is made up of three types namely: Clitoridectomy, Excision and Infibulation. In this study, we examine the factors responsible for FGM in order to identify the causality variables in a logistic regression approach. From the result of the survey conducted by the Public Health Division, Nigeria Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos State, the tau statistic, τ was used to screen 9 factors that causes FGM in order to select few of the predictors before multiple regression equation is obtained. The need for this may be that the sample size may not be able to sustain having a regression with all the predictors or to avoid multi-collinearity. A total of 300 respondents, comprising 150 adult males and 150 adult females were selected for the household survey based on the multi-stage sampling procedure. The tau statistic,
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
872
75110
Forecasting the Volatility of Geophysical Time Series with Stochastic Volatility Models
Abstract:
This work is devoted to the study of modeling geophysical time series. A stochastic technique with time-varying parameters is used to forecast the volatility of data arising in geophysics. In this study, the volatility is defined as a logarithmic first-order autoregressive process. We observe that the inclusion of log-volatility into the time-varying parameter estimation significantly improves forecasting which is facilitated via maximum likelihood estimation. This allows us to conclude that the estimation algorithm for the corresponding one-step-ahead suggested volatility (with &plusmn;2 standard prediction errors) is very feasible since it possesses good convergence properties.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
871
74758
Comparison of the Logistic and the Gompertz Growth Functions Considering a Periodic Perturbation in the Model Parameters
Abstract:
Both the logistic growth model and the gompertz growth model are used to describe growth processes. Both models driven by perturbations in different cases are investigated using information theory as a useful measure of sustainability and the variability. Specifically, we study the effect of different oscillatory modulations in the system's parameters on the evolution of the system and Probability Density Function (PDF). We show the maintenance of the initial conditions for a long time. We offer Fisher information analysis in positive and/or negative feedback and explain its implications for the sustainability of population dynamics. We also display a finite amplitude solution due to the purely fluctuating growth rate whereas the periodic fluctuations in negative feedback can lead to break down the system's self-regulation with an exponentially growing solution. In the cases tested, the gompertz and logistic systems show similar behaviour in terms of information and sustainability although they develop differently in time.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
870
74744
Mathematics Model Approaching: Parameter Estimation of Transmission Dynamics of HIV and AIDS in Indonesia
Abstract:
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the world's deadliest diseases caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that infects white blood cells and cause a decline in the immune system. AIDS quickly became a world epidemic disease that affects almost all countries. Therefore, mathematical modeling approach to the spread of HIV and AIDS is needed to anticipate the spread of HIV and AIDS which are widespread. The purpose of this study is to determine the parameter estimation on mathematical models of HIV transmission and AIDS using cumulative data of people with HIV and AIDS each year in Indonesia. In this model, there are parameters of r ∈ [0,1) which is the effectiveness of the treatment in patients with HIV. If the value of r is close to 1, the number of people with HIV and AIDS will decline toward zero. The estimation results indicate when the value of r is close to unity, there will be a significant decline in HIV patients, whereas in AIDS patients constantly decreases towards zero.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
869
74739
A Mathematical Analysis of Behavioural Epidemiology: Drugs Users Transmission Dynamics Based on Level Education for Susceptible Population
Abstract:
The spread of drug users is one kind of behavioral epidemiology that becomes a threat to every country in the world. This problem caused various crisis simultaneously, including financial or economic crisis, social, health, until human crisis. Most drug users are teenagers at school age. A new deterministic model would be constructed to determine the dynamics of the spread of drug users by considering level of education in a susceptible population. Based on the analytical model, two equilibria points were obtained; there were E₀ (zero user) and E₁ (endemic equilibrium). Existence of equilibrium and local stability of equilibria depended on the Basic Reproduction Ratio (R₀). This parameter was defined as the expected rate of secondary prevalence and primary prevalence in virgin population along spreading primary prevalence. The zero-victim equilibrium would be locally asymptotically stable if R₀ < 1 while if R₀ > 1 the endemic equilibrium would be locally asymptotically stable. The result showed that R₀ was proportional to the rate of interaction of each susceptible population based on educational level with the users' population. It is concluded that there was a need to be given a control in interaction, so that drug users population could be minimized. Numerical simulations were also provided to support analytical results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
868
74570
Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis of Copper-Water Nanofluid with Temperature Dependent Viscosity past a Riga Plate
Authors:
Abstract:
Flow of electrically conducting nanofluids is of pivotal importance in countless industrial and medical appliances. Fluctuations in thermophysical properties of such fluids due to variations in temperature have not received due attention in the available literature. Present investigation aims to fill this void by analyzing the flow of copper-water nanofluid with temperature dependent viscosity past a Riga plate. Strong wall suction and viscous dissipation have also been taken into account. Numerical solutions for the resulting nonlinear system have been obtained. Results are presented in the graphical and tabular format in order to facilitate the physical analysis. An estimated expression for skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are obtained by performing linear regression on numerical data for embedded parameters. Results indicate that the temperature dependent viscosity alters the velocity, as well as the temperature of the nanofluid and, is of considerable importance in the processes where high accuracy is desired. Addition of copper nanoparticles makes the momentum boundary layer thinner whereas viscosity parameter does not affect the boundary layer thickness. Moreover, the regression expressions indicate that magnitude of rate of change in effective skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number with respect to nanoparticles volume fraction is prominent when compared with the rate of change with variable viscosity parameter and modified Hartmann number.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
867
74544
The Valuation of Employees Provident Fund on Long Term Care Cost among Elderly in Malaysia
Abstract:
Nowadays, financing long-term care for elderly people is a crucial issue, either towards the family members or the care institution. Corresponding with the growing number of ageing population in Malaysia, there’s a need of concern on the uncertaintiness of future family care and the need for long-term care services. Moreover, with the increasing cost of living, children feels the urge of needing to work and receive a fixed monthly income that results to sending their elderly parents to care institutions. Currently, in Malaysia, the rates for private nursing homes can amount up to RM 4,000 per month excluding medical treatments and other recurring expenses. These costs are expected to be paid using their Employees Provident Fund (EPF) savings that they accumulate during their working years, especially for those working under private sectors. Hence, this study identifies the adequacy of EPF in funding the cost of long-term care service during old age. This study used a hypothetical simulation model to simulate different scenarios. The findings of this study could be used for individuals to prepare on the importance of planning for retirement, especially with the increasing cost of long-term care services.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
866
74530
Free Convection from a Perforated Spinning Cone with Heat Generation, Temperature-Dependent Viscosity and Partial Slip
Abstract:
The problem of free convection from a perforated spinning cone with viscous dissipation, temperature-dependent viscosity, and partial slip was studied. The boundary layer velocity and temperature profiles were numerically computed for different values of the spin, viscosity variation, inertia drag force, Eckert, suction/blowing parameters. The partial differential equations were transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations which were solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. This paper considered the effect of partial slip and spin parameters on the swirling velocity profiles which are rarely reported in the literature. The results obtained by this method was compared to those in the literature and found to be in agreement. Increasing the viscosity variation parameter, spin, partial slip, Eckert number, Darcian drag force parameters reduce swirling velocity profiles.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
865
74529
Investigating the Dynamics of Knowledge Acquisition in Learning Using Differential Equations
Abstract:
A mathematical model for knowledge acquisition in teaching and learning is proposed. In this study we adopt the mathematical model that is normally used for disease modelling into teaching and learning. We derive mathematical conditions which facilitate knowledge acquisition. This study compares the effects of dropping out of the course at early stages with later stages of learning. The study also investigates the effect of individual interaction and learning from other sources to facilitate learning. The study fits actual data to a general mathematical model using Matlab ODE45 and lsqnonlin to obtain a unique mathematical model that can be used to predict knowledge acquisition. The data used in this study was obtained from the tutorial test results for mathematics 2 students from the Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa in the Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences. The study confirms already known results that increasing dropout rates and forgetting taught concepts reduce the population of knowledgeable students. Increasing teaching contacts and access to other learning materials facilitate knowledge acquisition. The effect of increasing dropout rates is more enhanced in the later stages of learning than earlier stages. The study opens up a new direction in further investigations in teaching and learning using differential equations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
864
74331
A Filtering Algorithm for a Nonlinear State-Space Model
Abstract:
Kalman filter is a famous algorithm that utilizes to estimate the state in the linear systems. It has numerous applications in technology and science. Since of the most of applications in real life can be described by nonlinear systems. So, Kalman filter does not work with the nonlinear systems because it is suitable to linear systems only. In this work, a nonlinear filtering algorithm is presented which is suitable to use with the special kinds of nonlinear systems. This filter generalizes the Kalman filter. This means that this filter also can be used for the linear systems. Our algorithm depends on a special linearization of the second degree. We introduced the nonlinear algorithm with a bilinear state-space model. A simulation example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
863
74305
A Study of Algebraic Structure Involving Banach Space through Q-Analogue
Abstract:
The aim of the present paper is to study the Banach Space and Combinatorial Algebraic Structure of R. It is further aimed to study algebraic structure of set of all q-extension of classical formula and function for 0 < q < 1.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
862
74244
Deep Learning for Recommender System: Principles, Methods and Evaluation
Abstract:
Recommender systems have become increasingly popular in recent years, and are utilized in numerous areas. Nowadays many web services provide several information for users and recommender systems have been developed as critical element of these web applications to predict choice of preference and provide significant recommendations. With the help of the advantage of deep learning in modeling different types of data and due to the dynamic change of user preference, building a deep model can better understand users demand and further improve quality of recommendation. In this paper, deep neural network models for recommender system are evaluated. Most of deep neural network models in recommender system focus on the classical collaborative filtering user-item setting. Deep learning models demonstrated high level features of complex data can be learned instead of using metadata which can significantly improve accuracy of recommendation. Even though deep learning poses a great impact in various areas, applying the model to a recommender system have not been fully exploited and still a lot of improvements can be done both in collaborative and content-based approach while considering different contextual factors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
861
74099
Study on a Family of Optimal Fourth-Order Multiple-Root Solver
Abstract:
In this paper,we develop the complex dynamics of a family of optimal fourth-order multiple-root solvers and plot their basins of attraction. Mobius conjugacy maps and extraneous fixed points applied to a prototype quadratic polynomial raised to the power of the known integer multiplicity m are investigated. A 300 x 300 uniform grid centered at the origin covering 3 x 3 square region is chosen to visualize the initial values on each basin of attraction in accordance with a coloring scheme based on their dynamical behavior. The illustrative basins of attractions applied to various test polynomials and the corresponding statistical data for convergence are shown to confirm the theoretical convergence.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
860
74060
A Class of Third Derivative Four-Step Exponential Fitting Numerical Integrator for Stiff Differential Equations
Abstract:
In this paper, we construct a class of four-step third derivative exponential fitting integrator of order six for the numerical integration of stiff initial-value problems of the type: y’= f(x,y); y(x₀) =y₀. The implicit method has free parameters which allow it to be fitted automatically to exponential functions. For the purpose of effective implementation of the proposed method, we adopted the techniques of splitting the method into predictor and corrector schemes. The numerical analysis of the stability of the new method was discussed; the results show that the method is A-stable. Finally, numerical examples are presented, to show the efficiency and accuracy of the new method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
859
74051
Modelling the Spread of HIV/AIDS Epidemic with Condom Campaign and Treatment
Abstract:
This paper considers a deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS in which condom campaign and treatment are both important for the disease management. In modelling of the spread of AIDS, the population is divided into six subpopulations, namely susceptible population, susceptible population who change their behavior due to education condom campaign, infected population, pre-AIDS population, treated population and full-blown AIDS population. We calculate the effective reproduction number using the next generation matrix method and investigate the existence and stability of the equilibrium points. A sensitivity analysis discovers parameters that have a high impact on effective reproduction number and should be targeted by intervention strategies. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate and verify our analytic results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
858
73961
Equity Investment Restrictions and Pension Replacement Rates in Nigeria: A Ruin-Risk Analysis
Abstract:
Pension funds are pooled assets which are established to provide income for retirees. The funds are usually regulated to check excessive risk taking by fund managers. In Nigeria, the current defined contribution (DC) pension scheme appears to contain some overly stringent restrictions which might be hampering its successful implementation. Notable among these restrictions is the 25 percent maximum limit on investment in ordinary shares of quoted companies. This paper examines the extent to which these restrictions affect pension replacement rates at retirement. The study made use of both simulated and historical asset return distributions using mean-variance, regression analysis and ruin-risk analyses, the study found that the current equity investment restriction policy in Nigeria reduces replacement rates at retirement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
857
73856
Analysis of Financial Time Series by Using Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Type Models
Abstract:
In the present work, we develop a technique for estimating the volatility of financial time series by using stochastic differential equation. Taking the daily closing prices from developed and emergent stock markets as the basis, we argue that the incorporation of stochastic volatility into the time-varying parameter estimation significantly improves the forecasting performance via Maximum Likelihood Estimation. While using the technique, we see the long-memory behavior of data sets and one-step-ahead-predicted log-volatility with ±2 standard errors despite the variation of the observed noise from a Normal mixture distribution, because the financial data studied is not fully Gaussian. Also, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process followed in this work simulates well the financial time series, which aligns our estimation algorithm with large data sets due to the fact that this algorithm has good convergence properties.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
856
73819
Parallel Evaluation of Sommerfeld Integrals for Multilayer Dyadic Green's Function
Abstract:
Sommerfeld-integrals (SIs) are commonly encountered in electromagnetics problems involving analysis of antennas and scatterers embedded in planar multilayered media. Generally speaking, the analytical solution of SIs is unavailable, and it is well known that numerical evaluation of SIs is very time consuming and computationally expensive due to the highly oscillating and slowly decaying nature of the integrands. Therefore, fast computation of SIs has a paramount importance. In this paper, a parallel code has been developed to speed up the computation of SI in the framework of calculation of dyadic Green’s function in multilayered media. OpenMP shared memory approach is used to parallelize the SI algorithm and resulted in significant time savings. Moreover accelerating the computation of dyadic Green’s function is discussed based on the parallel SI algorithm developed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
855
73763
Improved Elastoplastic Bounding Surface Model for the Mathematical Modeling of Geomaterials
Abstract:
The nature of most engineering materials is quite complex. It is, therefore, difficult to devise a general mathematical model that will cover all possible ranges and types of excitation and behavior of a given material. As a result, the development of mathematical models is based upon simplifying assumptions regarding material behavior. Such simplifications result in some material idealization; for example, one of the simplest material idealization is to assume that the material behavior obeys the elasticity. However, soils are nonhomogeneous, anisotropic, path-dependent materials that exhibit nonlinear stress-strain relationships, changes in volume under shear, dilatancy, as well as time-, rate- and temperature-dependent behavior. Over the years, many constitutive models, possessing different levels of sophistication, have been developed to simulate the behavior geomaterials, particularly cohesive soils. Early in the development of constitutive models, it became evident that elastic or standard elastoplastic formulations, employing purely isotropic hardening and predicated in the existence of a yield surface surrounding a purely elastic domain, were incapable of realistically simulating the behavior of geomaterials. Accordingly, more sophisticated constitutive models have been developed; for example, the bounding surface elastoplasticity. The essence of the bounding surface concept is the hypothesis that plastic deformations can occur for stress states either within or on the bounding surface. Thus, unlike classical yield surface elastoplasticity, the plastic states are not restricted only to those lying on a surface. Elastoplastic bounding surface models have been improved; however, there is still need to improve their capabilities in simulating the response of anisotropically consolidated cohesive soils, especially the response in extension tests. Thus, in this work an improved constitutive model that can more accurately predict diverse stress-strain phenomena exhibited by cohesive soils was developed. Particularly, an improved rotational hardening rule that better simulate the response of cohesive soils in extension. The generalized definition of the bounding surface model provides a convenient and elegant framework for unifying various previous versions of the model for anisotropically consolidated cohesive soils. The Generalized Bounding Surface Model for cohesive soils is a fully three-dimensional, time-dependent model that accounts for both inherent and stress induced anisotropy employing a non-associative flow rule. The model numerical implementation in a computer code followed an adaptive multistep integration scheme in conjunction with local iteration and radial return. The one-step trapezoidal rule was used to get the stiffness matrix that defines the relationship between the stress increment and the strain increment. After testing the model in simulating the response of cohesive soils through extensive comparisons of model simulations to experimental data, it has been shown to give quite good simulations. The new model successfully simulates the response of different cohesive soils; for example, Cardiff Kaolin, Spestone Kaolin, and Lower Cromer Till. The simulated undrained stress paths, stress-strain response, and excess pore pressures are in very good agreement with the experimental values, especially in extension.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):