Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48534

Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

32
77142
Investor’s Psychology in Investment Decision Making in Context of Behavioural Finance
Abstract:
Worldwide, the financial markets are influenced by several factors such as the changes in economic and political processes that occur in the country and the globe, information diffusion and approachability and so on. Yet, the foremost important factor is the investor’s reaction and perception. For an individual investor, decision-making process can be perceived as a continuous process that has significant impact of their psychology while making investment decisions. Behavioral finance relies on research of human and social recognition and emotional tolerance studies to identify and understand the investment decisions. This article aims to report the research of individual investor’s financial behavior in a historical perspective. This article uncovers the investor’s psychology in investment decision making focusing on the investor’s rationality with an explanation of psychological and emotional factors that affect investing. The results of the study are revealed by means of Graphical visualization.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
31
75630
Analysis of Performance Improvement Factors in Supply Chain Manufacturing Using Analytic Network Process and Kaizen
Abstract:
A company producing drinking water through many incompatibility issues that affect supply chain performance. The study was conducted to determine the factors that affect the performance of the supply chain and improve it. To obtain the dominant factors affecting the performance of the supply chain used Analytic Network Process, while to improve performance is done by using Kaizen. Factors affecting the performance of the supply chain to be a reference to identify the cause of the non-conformance. Results weighting using ANP indicates that the dominant factor affecting the level of performance is the precision of the number of shipments (15%), the ability of the fulfillment of the booking amount (12%), and the number of rejected products when signing (12%). Incompatibility of the factors that affect the performance of the supply chain are identified, so that found the root cause of the problem is most dominant. Based on the weight of Risk Priority Number (RPN) gained the most dominant root cause of the problem, namely the poorly maintained engine, the engine worked for three shifts, machine parts that are not contained in the plant. Improvements then performed using the Kaizen method of systematic and sustainable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
30
75285
The Impact of Leadership Styles and Coordination on Employees Performance in the Nigerian Banking Sector
Abstract:
Leadership is a subject of direction. Direction entails ensuring that employees carryout the jobs assigned to them. In order to direct subordinates, a manager must lead, motivate, communicate and ensure effective co-ordination of activities so that enterprise objectives are achieved. The purpose of the study was to find out the impact of Leadership Styles on Employees Performance, Study of Wema Bank Plc. Leadership has been described as a tool used in influencing people in order to willingly get a particular or task done. The importance of leadership is followership. That is the willingness of people to follow what makes a person a leader. A sample size of 150 was systematically selected from the study population using the statistical packages for Social Science (SPSS) formula. Based on this, questionnaire was designed and administered. Out of the 105 copies of the questionnaire administered. 150 were recovered, 45 were discarded for improper filling and mutilation while the remaining 105 were used for statistical analysis. Chi-square was employed in testing the hypothesis. The following findings were discovered in the course of the study: how leadership enhances employee’s performance, 85.7% of the respondents were in agreement. Also how implementation of workers social welfare packages enhance the employees performance. 88.6 percent of the respondents in agreement. Over the years, some leadership styles adopted by managers and administrators have an impact on the level of employee’s performance in workplace and this has led to the inefficient and ineffective attainment of organizational goals and objectives. Due to the inability of employees to perform to set standard, this research work will also indicate some ways through which high employee performance will be attained most especially with regards to the leadership style adopted by the management that is managers and administrators. It was also discovered that collective intelligence of employees leads to high employee’s performance 82.9 percent of the respondent in agreement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
29
75086
A Case Study on Barriers in Total Productive Maintenance Implementation in the Abu Dhabi Power Industry
Abstract:
Maintenance has evolved into an imperative function and contributes significantly to efficient and effective equipment performance. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is an ideal approach to support the development and implementation of operation performance improvement. It systematically aims to understand the function of equipment, the service quality relationship with equipment and the probable critical equipment failure conditions. Implementation of TPM programmes needs strategic planning, and there has been little research applied in this area within Middle-East power plants. In the power sector of Abu Dhabi, technologically and strategically, the power industry is extremely important, and it thus needs effective and efficient equipment management support. The aim of this paper is to investigate barriers to successful TPM implementation in the Abu Dhabi power industry. The study has been conducted in the context of a leading power company in the UAE. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 employees, including maintenance and operation staff, and senior managers. The findings of this research identified seven key barriers, thus: managerial; organisational; cultural; financial; educational; communications; and auditing. With respect to the understanding of these barriers and obstacles in TPM implementation, the findings can contribute towards improved equipment operations and maintenance in power organisations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
28
74786
Validation and Interpretation about Precedence Diagram for Start to Finish Relationship by Graph Theory
Abstract:
Four types of dependencies, which are 'Finish-to-start', 'Finish-to-finish', 'Start-to-start' and 'Start-to-finish (S-F)' as logical relationship are modeled based on the definition by 'the predecessor activity is defined as an activity to come before a dependent activity in a schedule' in PMBOK. However, it is found a self-contradiction in the precedence diagram for S-F relationship by PMBOK. In this paper, author would like to validate logical relationship of S-F by Graph Theory and propose a new interpretation of the precedence diagram for S-F relationship.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
27
73314
Entrepreneurship Education as a 21st Century Strategy for Economic Growth and Sustainable Development
Abstract:
Within the last 30 years, entrepreneurship education (EE) has continued to gain massive interest both in the field of research and among policy makers. This surge in interest can be attributed to the perceived importance EE plays in the equipping of potential entrepreneurs and as a 21st century strategy to foster economic growth and development. This paper sets out to ascertain the correlation between EE and economic growth and development. A desk research approach was adopted where a multiplicity of literatures in the field were studied intensely. The findings reveal that indeed EE has a positive effect on entrepreneurship engagement thereby fostering economic growth and development. However, some research studies reported the contrary. That although EE may be able to equip potential entrepreneurs with requisite entrepreneurial skills and competencies, it will only be successful in producing entrepreneurs if they are internally driven to become entrepreneurs, because we cannot make people what they are not. The findings also reveal that countries that adopted EE early have more innovations inspired by entrepreneurs and are more developed than those that only recently adopted EE as a viable tool for entrepreneurship and economic development.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
26
73043
Application of Cube IQ Software to Optimize Heterogeneous Packing Products in Logistics Cargo and Minimize Transportation Cost
Abstract:
XYZ company is one of the upstream chemical companies that produce chemical products such as NaOH, HCl, NaClO, VCM, EDC, and PVC for downstream companies. The products are shipped by land using trucks and sea lanes using ship mode. Especially for solid products such as flake caustic soda (F-NaOH) and PVC resin, the products are sold in loose bag packing and palletize packing (packed in pallet). The focus of this study is to increase the number of items that can be loaded in pallet packaging on the company's logistics vehicle. This is very difficult because on this packaging, the dimensions or size of the material to be loaded become larger and certainly much heavier than the loose bag packing. This factor causes the arrangement and handling of materials in the mode of transportation more difficult. In this case, it is difficult to load a different type of volume packing pallet dimension in one truck or container. By using the Cube-IQ software, it is hoped that the planning of stuffing activity material by pallet can become easier in optimizing the existing space with various possible combinations of possibilities. In addition, the output of this software can also be used as a reference for operators in the material handling include the order and orientation of materials contained in the truck or container. The more optimal contents of logistics cargo, then transportation costs can also be minimized.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
25
72979
The Impact of Reshuffle in Indonesian Working Cabinet Volume II to Abnormal Return and Abnormal Trading Activity of Companies Listed in the Jakarta Islamic Index
Abstract:
A big political event such as Cabinet reshuffle mostly can affect the stock price positively or negatively, depend on the perception of each investor and potential investor. This study aims to analyze the movement of the market and trading activities which respect to an event using event study method. This method is used to measure the movement of the stock exchange in which abnormal return can be obtained by investor related to the event. This study examines the differences of reaction on abnormal return and trading volume activity from the companies listed in the Jakarta Islamic Index (JII), before and after the announcement of the Cabinet Work Volume II on 27 July 2016. The study was conducted in observation of 21 days in total which consists of 10 days before the event and 10 days after the event. The method used in this study is event study with market adjusted model method that observes market reaction to the information of an announcement or publicity events. The Results from the study showed that there is no significant negative nor positive reaction at the abnormal return and abnormal trading before and after the announcement of the cabinet reshuffle. It is indicated by the results of statistical tests whose value not exceeds the level of significance. Stock exchange of the JII just reflects from the previous stock prices without reflecting the information regarding to the Cabinet reshuffle event. It can be concluded that the capital market is efficient with a weak form.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
24
72953
Comparison of Formation Sensitivity Gap between Islamic Maybank Indonesia and Islamic Maybank Malaysia
Abstract:
Theoretically, Islamic banks in Indonesia and Malaysia not necessarily aware to the interest rate fluctuation, since they don’t use interest-based instruments. Both countries use dual banking system in which Islamic and conventional banking system are exist. This situation makes the profit-sharing level of the Islamic banks will be indirectly affected by the interest rate fluctuation from the conventional banks system. One of the risk management tools for anticipating the risk of interest rate fluctuation is gap management, which has purpose to narrow the difference between Rate Sensitive Asset (RSA) and Rate Sensitive Liability (RSL). This formed gap will give the information about the risk potential in Islamic banks which respect to the fluctuation on the interest rate. This study aims to determine the position of the gap formed at Islamic Maybank Indonesia and Islamic Maybank Malaysia, and analyze the difference in the formation of gap based on the period of sensitivity. This study is a quantitative research with comparative study using sensitivity gap analysis, independent sample t-test, and Mann-Whitney method. The data being used was secondary data from Maturity Profile contained in the Annual Financial Report of Islamic Maybank Indonesia and Islamic Maybank Malaysia from 2011 to 2015 period. The result shows that, cumulatively the formation of the gap was negative gap. From the results of independent sample t-test and Mann-Whitney, the formation of the gap in Islamic Maybank Indonesia and Islamic Maybank Malaysia for a period of sensitivity of ≤ 1 month and >1-3 months show a significant difference, while the period of sensitivity >3-12 months does not. The result shows, even though Indonesia and Malaysia using same dual banking systems, the gap values are different. The difference in debt policy between Indonesia and Malaysia also affecting the gap sensitivity in debt. In can be concluded that each country needs an appropriate gap management to support its Islamic banking performance specifically.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
23
72945
The Determinants of Financing to Deposit Ratio of Islamic Bank in Malaysia
Abstract:
The research aimed to know the influence of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Return on Assets (ROA) and Size of the Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR) Islamic Banks in Malaysia by using eleven Islamic Banks in Indonesia and fifteen Islamic Banks in Malaysia in the period 2012 to 2016 as samples. The research used a quantitative approach method, and the analysis technique used multiple linear regression. Based on the result of t-test (partial), CAR, ROA and size significantly affect of FDR. While the results of f-test (simultaneous) showed that CAR, ROA and Size significant effect on FDR.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
22
72942
Comparative Analysis of Islamic Bank in Indonesia and Malaysia with Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance, Earnings, and Capital Method: Performance of Business Function and Social Function Perspective
Abstract:
This study aims to compare and see the differences between Islamic bank in Indonesia and Islamic bank in Malaysia using RGEC method (Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance, Earnings, and Capital). This study examines the comparison in business and social performance of eleven Islamic banks in Indonesia and fifteen Islamic banks in Malaysia. This research used quantitative approach and the collections of data was done by collecting all the annual reports of banks that has been created as a sample over the period 2011-2015. The test result of the Independent Samples T-test and Mann-Whitney Test showed there were differences in the business performance of Islamic Bank in Indonesia and Malaysia as seen from the aspect of Risk profile (FDR), GCG, and Earnings (ROA). Also, there were differences of business and social performance as seen from Earnings (ROE), Capital (CAR), and Sharia Conformity Indicator (PSR and ZR) aspects.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
21
72923
Comparison of Risk and Return on Trading and Profit Sharing Based Financing Contract in Indonesian Islamic Bank
Abstract:
Murabaha is the most popular contract by the Islamic banks in Indonesia, since there is opinion stating that the risk level of mudharaba and musyaraka are higher and the return is uncertain. This research aims to analyze the difference of return, risk, and variation coefficient between profit sharing-based and trading-based financing in Islamic bank. This research uses quantitative approach using Wilcoxon signed rank test with data sampled from 13 Indonesian Islamic banks, collected from their quarterly financial reports from 2011 to 2015. The result shows the significant difference in return, while risk and variation coefficient are almost same. From the analysis, it can be concluded that profit sharing-based financing is less desirable not because of its risk. Trading-based financing is more desirable than the profit sharing because of its return.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
20
72815
A Model of Empowerment Evaluation of Knowledge Management in Private Banks Using Fuzzy Inference System
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to provide a model based on fuzzy inference system for evaluating empowerment of Knowledge management. The first prototype of the research was developed based on the study of literature. In the next step, experts were provided with these models and after implementing consensus-based reform, the views of Fuzzy Delphi experts and techniques, components and Index research model were finalized. Culture, structure, IT and leadership were considered as dimensions of empowerment. Then, In order to collect and extract data for fuzzy inference system based on knowledge and Experience, the experts were interviewed. The values obtained from designed fuzzy inference system, made review and assessment of the organization's empowerment of Knowledge management possible. After the design and validation of systems to measure indexes ,empowerment of Knowledge management and inputs into fuzzy inference) in the AYANDEH Bank, a questionnaire was used. In the case of this bank, the system output indicates that the status of empowerment of Knowledge management, culture, organizational structure and leadership are at the moderate level and information technology empowerment are relatively high. Based on these results, the status of knowledge management empowerment in AYANDE Bank, was moderate. Eventually, some suggestions for improving the current situation of banks were provided. According to studies of research history, the use of powerful tools in Fuzzy Inference System for assessment of Knowledge management and knowledge management empowerment such an assessment in the field of banking, are the innovation of this Research.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
19
72718
A Comparation Analysis of Islamic Bank Efficiency in the United Kingdom and Indonesia during Eurozone Crisis Using Data Envelopment Analysis
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to determine and comparing the level of efficiency of Islamic Banks in Indonesia and United Kingdom during eurozone sovereign debt crisis. This study using a quantitative non-parametric approach with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) VRS assumption, and a statistical tool Mann-Whitney U-Test. The samples are 11 Islamic Banks in Indonesia and 4 Islamic Banks in England. This research used mediating approach. Input variable consists of total deposit, asset, and the cost of labour. Output variable consists of financing and profit/loss. This study shows that the efficiency of Islamic Bank in Indonesia and United Kingdom are varied and fluctuated during the observation period. There is no significant different the efficiency performance of Islamic Banks in Indonesia and United Kingdom.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
18
72470
Improving Efficiency of Organizational Performance: The Role of Human Resources in Supply Chains and Job Rotation Practice
Abstract:
Jordan Customs (JC) has been established to achieve objectives that must be consistent with the guidance of the wise leadership and its aspirations toward tomorrow. Therefore, it has developed several needed tools to provide a distinguished service to simplify work procedures and used modern technologies. A supply chain (SC) consists of all parties that are involved directly or indirectly in order to fulfill a customer request, which includes manufacturers, suppliers, shippers, retailers and even customer brokers. Within each firm, the SC includes all functions involved in receiving a filling a customers’ requests; one of the main functions include customer service. JC and global SCs are evolving into dynamic environment, which requires flexibility, effective communication, and team management. Thus, human resources (HRs) insight in these areas are critical for the effective development of global process network. The importance of HRs has increased significantly due to the role of employees depends on their knowledge, competencies, abilities, skills, and motivations. Strategic planning in JC began at the end of the 1990’s including operational strategy for Human Resource Management and Development (HRM&D). However, a huge transformation in human resources happened at the end of 2006; new employees’ regulation for customs were prepared, approved and applied at the end of 2007. Therefore, many employees lost their positions, while others were selected based on professorial recruitment and selection process (enter new blood). One of several policies that were applied by human resources in JC department is job rotation. From the researcher’s point of view, it was not based on scientific basis to achieve its goals and objectives, which at the end leads to having a significant negative impact on the Organizational Performance (OP) and weak job rotation approach. The purpose of this study is to call attention to re-review the applying process and procedure of job rotation that HRM directorate is currently applied at JC. Furthermore, it presents an overview of managing the HRs in the SC network that affects their success. The research methodology employed in this study was described as qualitative by conducting few interviews with managers, internal employee, external clients and reviewing the related literature to collect some qualitative data from secondary sources. Thus, conducting frequently and unstructured job rotation policy (i.e. monthly) will have a significant negative impact on JC performance as a whole. The results of this study show that the main impacts will affect on three main elements in JC: (1) internal employees' performance; (2) external clients, who are dealing with customs services; and finally, JC performance as a whole. In order to implement a successful and perfect job rotation technique at JC in a scientific way and to achieve its goals and objectives; JCs should be taken into consideration the proposed solutions and recommendations that will be presented in this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
17
72144
A Hybrid Pareto-Based Swarm Optimization Algorithm for the Multi-Objective Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems
Abstract:
In this paper, a new hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed for the multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem that is very important and hard combinatorial problem. The Pareto approach is used for solving the multi-objective problem. Several new local search heuristics are integrated into an algorithm based on the critical block concept to enhance the performance of the algorithm. The algorithm is compared with the recently published multi-objective algorithms based on benchmarks selected from the literature. Several metrics are used for quantifying performance and comparison of the achieved solutions. The algorithms are also compared based on the Weighting summation of objectives approach. The proposed algorithm can find the Pareto solutions more efficiently than the compared algorithms in less computational time.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
16
71968
Identifying and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Communication Channels between Employees and Management Based on the EFQM Excellence Model
Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the relationship between the bilateral communication channels, communication technologies with effective communications and communication technologies, employee participation in motivated decision-making of employees using the EFQM excellence model in Education Organization of Area 4 in Karaj. This research is an applied research in terms of the purpose and is a descriptive survey research in terms of nature and method and assesses the current situation using field studies. The statistical population consists of all employees and managers of Education Organization of Area 4 in Karaj including 5442 persons and random sampling was used and sample size is 359 using Cochran formula. Measurement tool is a researcher-made questionnaire with 20 questions including two categories of expertise and general questions. The first category includes general questions about respondents' personal characteristics such as gender and level of education, work experience and courses of study. The second category includes expertise questions of the questionnaire that have been designed to test research hypotheses that its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.916 and its validity was approved according to the vies of teachers and some senior managers of Education Organization of Area 4 in Karaj. The results of the analysis of the findings show that there is a significant relationship between mutual communication channels, communication technologies with effective communication between employees and management. There is also a significant relationship between communication technologies and employee motivation and employee participation in their motivated decision-making in Education Organization of Area 4 in Karaj.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
15
71919
A Constrained Neural Network Based Variable Neighborhood Search for the Multi-Objective Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems
Abstract:
In this paper, a new neural network based variable neighborhood search is proposed for the multi-objective dynamic, flexible job shop scheduling problems. The neural network controls the problems' constraints to prevent infeasible solutions, while the Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) applies moves, based on the critical block concept to improve the solutions. Two approaches are used for managing the constraints, in the first approach, infeasible solutions are modified according to the constraints, after the moves application, while in the second one, infeasible moves are prevented. Several neighborhood structures from the literature with some modifications, also new structures are used in the VNS. The suggested neighborhoods are more systematically defined and easy to implement. Comparison is done based on a multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem that is dynamic because of the jobs different release time and machines breakdowns. The results show that the presented method has better performance than the compared VNSs selected from the literature.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
14
70972
Extent of Derivative Usage, Firm Value and Risk: An Empirical Study on Pakistan Non-Financial Firms
Authors:
Abstract:
Growing liberalisation and intense market competition increase firm’s risk exposure and induce corporations to use derivatives extensively as a risk management instrument, which results in decrease in firm’s risk, and increase in value. Present study contributes towards existing literature by providing an in-depth analysis regarding the effect of extent of derivative usage on firm’s risk and value by using panel data models and seemingly unrelated regression technique. New evidence is established in current literature by dividing the sample data based on firm’s Exchange Rate (ER) and Interest Rate (IR) exposure. Analysis is performed for the effect of extent of derivative usage on firm’s risk and value and its variation with respect to the ER and IR exposure. Sample data consists of 166 Pakistani firms listed on Pakistan stock exchange for the period of 2004-2010. Results show that extensive usage of derivative instruments significantly increases firm value and reduces firm’s risk. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis depicts that Pakistani corporations having higher exchange rate exposure, with respect to foreign sales, and higher interest rate exposure, on the basis of industry adjusted leverage, have higher firm value and lower risk. Findings from seemingly unrelated regression also provide robustness to results obtained through panel data analysis. Study also highlights the role of derivative usage as a risk management instrument in high and low ER and IR risk and helps practitioners in understanding how value increasing effect of extent of derivative usage varies with the intensity of firm’s risk exposure.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
13
69835
Effective Use of X-Box Kinect in Rehabilitation Centers of Riyadh
Abstract:
Physical rehabilitation is the process of helping people to recover and be able to go back to their former activities that have been delayed due to external factors such as car accidents, old age and victims of strokes (chronic diseases and accidents, and those related to sport activities).The cost of hiring a personal nurse or driving the patient to and from the hospital could be costly and time-consuming. Also, there are other factors to take into account such as forgetfulness, boredom and lack of motivation. In order to solve this dilemma, some experts came up with rehabilitation software to be used with Microsoft Kinect to help the patients and their families for in-home rehabilitation. In home rehabilitation software is becoming more and more popular, since it is more convenient for all parties affiliated with the patient. In contrast to the other costly market-based systems that have no portability, Microsoft’s Kinect is a portable motion sensor that reads body movements and interprets it. New software development has made rehabilitation games available to be used at home for the convenience of the patient. The game will benefit its users (rehabilitation patients) in saving time and money. There are many software's that are used with the Kinect for rehabilitation, but the software that is chosen in this research is Kinectotherapy. Kinectotherapy software is used for rehabilitation patients in Riyadh clinics to test its acceptance by patients and their physicians. In this study, we used Kinect because it was affordable, portable and easy to access in contrast to expensive market-based motion sensors. This paper explores the importance of in-home rehabilitation by using Kinect with Kinectotherapy software. The software targets both upper and lower limbs, but in this research, the main focus is on upper-limb functionality. However, the in-home rehabilitation is applicable to be used by all patients with motor disability, since the patient must have some self-reliance. The targeted subjects are patients with minor motor impairment that are somewhat independent in their mobility. The presented work is the first to consider the implementation of in-home rehabilitation with real-time feedback to the patient and physician. This research proposes the implementation of in-home rehabilitation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The findings show that most of the patients are interested and motivated in using the in-home rehabilitation system in the future. The main value of the software application is due to these factors: improve patient engagement through stimulating rehabilitation, be a low cost rehabilitation tool and reduce the need for expensive one-to-one clinical contact. Rehabilitation is a crucial treatment that can improve the quality of life and confidence of the patient as well as their self-esteem.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
12
69627
Enterprise Harmonic Fusion as National Sustainability
Abstract:
Cosmology is a discipline commonly linked to philosophy. In this work, we show cosmology, from a perspective that can provide some proposals to help develop SMB in Mexico. We start from the belief that, in a complex world, the solutions to problems must nurture from different approaches. In order to be able to do this, we need to change our point of reference and use theoretical proposals and methodologies that came from other disciplines; in this case, we will try to show that between philosophy and administration exist dialogs that need to be incentivized. The work is structured in three parts. In the first one, we create a description of cosmology and how it could be applied to business. In the second, we show some of the most common problems that the SMB suffer from and in the third, we present a proposal of how cosmology can help improve the development. Finally, we concluded that better understanding of real needs, integration of knowledge at large scale and using information technologies within the cosmology framework presentment could make a difference.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
11
69181
The Effect of Political Characteristics on the Budget Balance of Local Governments: A Dynamic System Generalized Method of Moments Data Approach
Abstract:
This paper studies the effect of political characteristics of 308 Flemish municipalities on their budget balance in the period 1995-2011. All local governments experience the same economic and financial setting, however some governments have high budget balances, while others have low budget balances. The aim of this paper is to explain the differences in municipal budget balances by a number of economic, socio-demographic and political variables. The economic and socio-demographic variables will be used as control variables, while the focus of this paper will be on the political variables. We test four hypotheses resulting from the literature, namely (i) the partisan hypothesis tests if left wing governments have lower budget balances, (ii) the fragmentation hypothesis stating that more fragmented governments have lower budget balances, (iii) the hypothesis regarding the power of the government, higher powered governments would resolve in higher budget balances, and (iv) the opportunistic budget cycle to test whether politicians manipulate the economic situation before elections in order to maximize their reelection possibilities and therefore have lower budget balances before elections. The contributions of our paper to the existing literature are multiple. First, we use the whole array of political variables and not just a selection of them. Second, we are dealing with a homogeneous database with the same budget and election rules, making it easier to focus on the political factors without having to control for the impact of differences in the political systems. Third, our research extends the existing literature on Flemish municipalities as this is the first dynamic research on local budget balances. We use a dynamic panel data model. Because of the two lagged dependent variables as explanatory variables, we employ the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) estimator. This is the best possible estimator as we are dealing with political panel data that is rather persistent. Our empirical results show that the effect of the ideological position and the power of the coalition are of less importance to explain the budget balance. The political fragmentation of the government on the other hand has a negative and significant effect on the budget balance. The more parties in a coalition the worse the budget balance is ceteris paribus. Our results also provide evidence of an opportunistic budget cycle, the budget balances are lower in pre-election years relative to the other years to try and increase the incumbents reelection possibilities. An additional finding is that the incremental effect of the budget balance is very important and should not be ignored like is being done in a lot of empirical research. The coefficients of the lagged dependent variables are always positive and very significant. This proves that the budget balance is subject to incrementalism. It is not possible to change the entire policy from one year to another so the actions taken in recent past years still have an impact on the current budget balance. Only a relatively small amount of research concerning the budget balance takes this considerable incremental effect into account. Our findings survive several robustness checks.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
10
69079
Tiebout and Crime: How Crime Affect the Income Tax Capacity
Abstract:
Despite the extensive literature on the relation between crime and migration, not much is known about how crime affects the tax capacity of local communities. This paper empirically investigates whether the Flemish local income tax base yield is sensitive to changes in the local crime level. The underlying assumptions are threefold. In a Tiebout world, rational voters holding the local government accountable for the safety of its citizens, move out when the local level of security gets too much alienated from what they want it to be (first assumption). If migration is due to crime, then the more wealthy citizens are expected to move first (second assumption). Looking for a place elsewhere implies transaction costs, which the more wealthy citizens are more likely to be able to pay. As a consequence, the average income per capita and so the income distribution will be affected, which in turn, will influence the local income tax base yield (third assumption). The decreasing average income per capita, if not compensated by increasing earnings by the citizens that are staying or by the new citizens entering the locality, must result in a decreasing local income tax base yield. In the absence of a higher level governments’ compensation, decreasing local tax revenues could prove to be disastrous for a crime-ridden municipality. When communities do not succeed in forcing back the number of offences, this can be the onset of a cumulative process of urban deterioration. A spatial panel data model containing several proxies for the local level of crime in 306 Flemish municipalities covering the period 2000-2014 is used to test the relation between crime and the local income tax base yield. In addition to this direct relation, the underlying assumptions are investigated as well. Preliminary results show a modest, but positive relation between local violent crime rates and the efflux of citizens, persistent up until a 2 year lag. This positive effect is dampened by possible increasing crime rates in neighboring municipalities. The change in violent crimes -and to a lesser extent- thefts and extortions reduce the influx of citizens with a one year lag. Again this effect is diminished by external effects from neighboring municipalities, meaning that increasing crime rates in neighboring municipalities (especially violent crimes) have a positive effect on the local influx of citizens. Crime also has a depressing effect on the average income per capita within a municipality, whereas increasing crime rates in neighboring municipalities increase it. Notwithstanding the previous results, crime does not seem to significantly affect the local tax base yield. The results suggest that the depressing effect of crime on the income basis has to be compensated by a limited, but a wealthier influx of new citizens.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
9
68274
Synthesis of Ethoxylated Amide as Bactericide to Enhance the Storage Period of Diesel Fuel Nanoemulsions
Abstract:
This paper aims to the synthesis of new ethoxylated amide as bactericides to prevent the growth of Gram +ve and –ve bacteria of water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions over a long period of time as three months. To realize it, eight kinetically stable water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions differing in surfactant concentrations and water contents ranging from 4 to 8 and 5 to 8 wt.,wt.,% of total weight of the nanoemulsions, respectively were formed at a temperature of 20 °C. The performance of this ethoxylated amide as bactericides agents against two strains of Gram-negative bacteria, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and two strains of Gram-positive bacteria namely, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, were evaluated as antimicrobial agents. The maximum and minimum antimicrobial activities were 85 and 71 % against S. aureus and E. coli, respectively, at a concentration of 5 mg/l, pH 7, and 37 °C.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
8
67128
Dynamic Comovements between Exchange Rates, Stock Prices and Oil Prices: Evidence from Developed and Emerging Latin American Markets
Abstract:
This paper applies DCC, EWMA and OGARCH models to compare the dynamic correlations between exchange rates, oil prices, exchange rates and stock markets to examine the time-varying conditional correlations to the daily oil prices and index returns in relation to the US dollar/local currency for developed (Canada and Mexico) and emerging Latin American markets (Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru). Changes in correlation interactions are indicative of structural changes in market linkages with implications to contagion and interdependence. For each pair of stock price-exchange rate and oil price-US dollar/local currency, empirical evidence confirms of a strengthening negative correlation in the last decade. Methodologies suggest only two events have significatively impact in the countries analyzed: global financial crisis and Europe crisis, both events are associated with shifts of correlations to stronger negative level for most of the pairs analyzed. While, the first event has a shifting effect on mainly emerging members, the latter affects developed members. The identification of these relationships provides benefits in risk diversification and inflation targeting.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
7
65436
Clustering of Extremes in Financial Returns: A Comparison between Developed and Emerging Markets
Abstract:
This paper investigates the dependency or clustering of extremes in the financial returns data by estimating the extremal index value θ∈[0,1]. The smaller the value of θ the more clustering we have. Here we apply the method of Ferro and Segers (2003) to estimate the extremal index for a range of threshold values. We compare the dependency structure of extremes in the developed and emerging markets. We use the financial returns of the stock market index in the developed markets of US, UK, France, Germany and Japan and the emerging markets of Brazil, Russia, India, China and Saudi Arabia. We expect that more clustering occurs in the emerging markets. This study will help to understand the dependency structure of the financial returns data.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
6
41756
Designing a Cricket Team Selection Method Using Super-Efficient DEA and Semi Variance Approach
Abstract:
Team formation plays an instrumental role in the sports like cricket. Existing literature reveals that most of the works on player selection focus only on the players’ efficiency and ignore the consistency. It motivates us to design an improved player selection method based on both player’s efficiency and consistency. To measure the players’ efficiency measurement, we employ a modified data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique namely ‘super-efficient DEA model’. We design a modified consistency index based on semi variance approach. Here, we introduce a new parameter called ‘fitness index’ for consistency computation to assess a player’s fitness level. Finally, we devise a single performance score using both efficiency score and consistency score with the help of a linear programming model. To test the robustness of our method, we perform a rigorous numerical analysis to determine the all-time best One Day International (ODI) Cricket XI. Next, we conduct extensive comparative studies regarding efficiency scores, consistency scores, selected team between the existing methods and the proposed method and explain the rationale behind the improvement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
5
38689
An Application of Bidirectional Option Contract to Coordinate a Dyadic Fashion Apparel Supply Chain
Abstract:
Since the inception, the fashion apparel supply chain is facing the problem of high demand uncertainty. Often the demand volatility compels the corresponding supply chain member to incur substantial holding cost and opportunity cost in case of the overproduction and the underproduction scenario, respectively. It leads to an uncoordinated fashion apparel supply chain. There exist several scholarly works to achieve coordination in the fashion apparel supply chain by employing the different contracts such as the buyback contract, the revenue sharing contract, the option contract, and so on. Specially, the application of option contract in the apparel industry becomes prevalent with the changing global scenario. Exploration of existing literature related to the option contract reveals that most of the research works concentrate on the one direction demand adjustment i.e. either to match the demand upwards or downwards. Here, we present a holistic approach to coordinate a dyadic fashion apparel supply chain comprising one manufacturer and one retailer with the help of bidirectional option contract. We show a combination of wholesale price contract and bidirectional option contract can coordinate the under expanded supply chain. We also propose a framework that captures the variation of the apparel retailer’s order quantity and the apparel manufacturer’s production quantity with the changing exercise price for the different ranges of the option price. We analytically explore that corresponding cost parameters of the supply chain members along with the nature of demand distribution play an instrumental role in the coordination as well as the retailer’s ordering decision.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
4
38429
A Game of Information in Defense/Attack Strategies: Case of Poisson Attacks
Abstract:
In this paper, we briefly introduce the concept of Poisson attacks in the case of defense/attack strategies where attacks are assumed to be continuous. We suggest a game model in which the attacker will combine both criteria of a sufficient confidence level of a successful attack and a reasonably small size of the estimation error in order to launch an attack. Here, estimation error arises from assessing the system failure upon attack using aggregate data at the system level. The corresponding error is referred to as aggregation error. On the other hand, the defender will attempt to deter attack by making one or both criteria inapplicable. The defender will build his/her strategy by both strengthening the targeted system and increasing the size of error. We will formulate the defender problem based on appropriate optimization models. The attacker will opt for a Bayesian updating in assessing the impact on the improvement made by the defender. Then, the attacker will evaluate the feasibility of the attack before making the decision of whether or not to launch it. We will provide illustrations to better explain the process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3
34619
Oil-price Volatility and Economic Prosperity in Nigeria: Empirical Evidence
Abstract:
The impact of macroeconomic instability on economic growth and prosperity has been at forefront in many discourses among researchers and policy makers and has generated a lot of controversies over the years. This has generated series of research efforts towards understanding the remote causes of this phenomenon; its nature, determinants and how it can be targeted and mitigated. While others have opined that the root cause of macroeconomic flux in Nigeria is attributed to Oil-Price volatility, others viewed the issue as resulting from some constellation of structural constraints both within and outside the shores of the country. Research works of scholars such as [Akpan (2009), Aliyu (2009), Olomola (2006), etc] argue that oil volatility can determine economic growth or has the potential of doing so. On the contrary, [Darby (1982), Cerralo (2005) etc] share the opinion that it can slow down growth. The earlier argument rest on the understanding that for a net balance of oil exporting economies, price upbeat directly increases real national income through higher export earnings, whereas, the latter allude to the case of net-oil importing countries (which experience price rises, increased input costs, reduced non-oil demand, low investment, fall in tax revenues and ultimately an increase in budget deficit which will further reduce welfare level). Therefore, assessing the precise impact of oil price volatility on virtually any economy is a function of whether it is an oil-exporting or importing nation. Research on oil price volatility and its outcome on the growth of the Nigerian economy are evolving and in a march towards resolving Nigeria’s macroeconomic instability as long as oil revenue still remain the mainstay and driver of socio-economic engineering. Recently, a major importer of Nigeria’s oil- United States made a historic breakthrough in more efficient source of energy for her economy with the capacity of serving significant part of the world. This undoubtedly suggests a threat to the exchange earnings of the country. The need to understand fluctuation in its major export commodity is critical. This paper leans on the Renaissance growth theory with greater focus on theoretical work of Lee (1998); a leading proponent of this school who makes a clear cut of difference between oil price changes and oil price volatility. Based on the above background, the research seeks to empirically examine the impact oil-price volatility on government expenditure using quarterly time series data spanning 1986:1 to 2014:4. Vector Auto Regression (VAR) econometric approach shall be used. The structural properties of the model shall be tested using Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-Perron. Relevant diagnostics tests of heteroscedasticity, serial correlation and normality shall also be carried out. Policy recommendation shall be offered on the empirical findings and believes it assist policy makers not only in Nigeria but the world-over.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):