Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48534

Medical and Health Sciences

2160
83889
Case Report: A Rare Case of Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Foot Drop
Abstract:
Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) are the most common arterial aneurysm of the periphery. It is defined as focal dilation of the artery more than 50% of the normal vessel diameter which usually varies between 7 mm to 11 mm. The most common presentation for PAAs is claudication due to luminal stenosis secondary to mural thrombus or acute limb ischaemia due to occlusive thrombosis or distal thromboembolism. It is less common for patients to present with non-ischaemic symptoms secondary to mass effect and compression of adjacent structures, and of these, presentation with common peroneal nerve compression is particularly uncommon. We present a rare case of a 92-year-old female patient presenting with 4-month history of left foot drop with radiological evidence of common peroneal nerve compression secondary to PAA of 22 mm by 21mm in size. To the best of our knowledge, this is the smallest reported popliteal aneurysm presenting with foot drop. We also present the endovascular treatment option taken in our case.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2159
82656
Review of the Safety of Discharge on the First Postoperative Day Following Carotid Surgery: A Retrospective Analysis
Abstract:
Objective: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study evaluating the safety of discharge on the first postoperative day following carotid surgery - principally carotid endarterectomy. Methods: Between January 2010 to October 2017, 252 patients with mean age of 72 years, underwent carotid surgery by seven surgeons. Their medical records were consulted and their operative as well as complication timelines were databased. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse pooled responses and our indicator variables. The statistical package used was STATA 13. Results: There were 183 males (73%) and the comorbid burden was as follows: ischaemic heart disease (54%), diabetes (38%), hypertension (92%), stage 4 kidney impairment (5%) and current or ex-smoking (77%). The main indications were transient ischaemic attacks (42%), stroke (31%), asymptomatic carotid disease (16%) and amaurosis fugax (8%). 247 carotid endarterectomies (109 with patch arterioplasty, 88 with eversion and transection technique, 50 with endarterectomy only) were performed. 2 carotid bypasses, 1 embolectomy, 1 thrombectomy with patch arterioplasty and 1 excision of a carotid body tumour were also performed. 92% of the cases were performed under general anaesthesia. A shunt was used in 29% of cases. The mean length of stay was 5.1 ± 3.7days with the range of 2 to 22 days. No patient was discharged on day 1. The mean time from admission to surgery was 1.4 ± 2.8 days, ranging from 0 to 19 days. The mean time from surgery to discharge was 2.7 ± 2.0 days with the of range 0 to 14 days. 36 complications were encountered over this period, with 12 failed repairs (5 major strokes, 2 minor strokes, 3 transient ischaemic attacks, 1 cerebral bleed, 1 occluded graft), 11 bleeding episodes requiring a return to the operating theatre, 5 adverse cardiac events, 3 cranial nerve injuries, 2 respiratory complications, 2 wound complications and 1 acute kidney injury. There were no deaths. 17 complications occurred on postoperative day 0, 11 on postoperative day 1, 6 on postoperative day 2 and 2 on postoperative day 3. 78% of all complications happened before the second postoperative day. Out of the complications which occurred on the second or third postoperative day, 4 (1.6%) were bleeding episodes, 1 (0.4%) failed repair , 1 respiratory complication (0.4%) and 1 wound complication (0.4%). Conclusion: Although it has been common practice to discharge patients on the second postoperative day following carotid endarterectomy, we find here that discharge on the first operative day is safe. The overall complication rate is low and most complications are captured before the second postoperative day. We suggest that patients having an uneventful first 24 hours post surgery be discharged on the first day. This should reduce hospital length of stay and the health economic burden.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2158
81161
The Perspective of Health Care Professionals of Pediatric Palliative Care
Abstract:
Background: Pediatric palliative care has been increasing, and the number of studies has focused on the age at which pediatric patient can be notified their terminal illness, pediatric advanced care planning (ACP) and palliative care. However, there is a lack of research on health professionals’ perception. Aim: We aimed to investigate the perceptions of healthcare professionals about appropriate age disclosing terminal illness, awareness of ACP, and the relationship between ACP knowledge and the preference for palliative care for children. Methods: We administered nationwide questionnaires to 928 physicians from the 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association and 1,241 individuals of the general Korean population. We asked about the age at which the pediatric patients could be notified of their terminal illness, by 4 groups; 4 years old or older, 12 years old or older, 15 years old or older, or not. In addition, we surveyed the questionnaires about the knowledge of ACP of the medical staff, the preference of the pediatric hospice palliative care, aggressive treatment, and life-sustaining treatment preference. Results: In the appropriate age disclosing terminal illness, there were more respondents in the physicians than in the general population who thought that it was possible even at a younger age. Palliative care preference in pediatric patients who were expected to expire within months was higher when health care professionals had knowledge of ACPs compared to those without knowledge. The same results were obtained when deaths were expected within weeks or days. The age of the terminal status notification, the health care professionals who thought to be available at a lower age have a higher preference for palliative care and has less preference for aggressive treatment and life-sustaining treatment. Conclusion: Despite the importance of pediatric palliative care, our study confirmed that there is a difference in the preference of the health care professionals for pediatric palliative care according to the ACP knowledge of the medical staff or the appropriate age disclosing terminal illness. Future research should focus on strategies for inducing changes in perceptions of health care professionals and identifying other obstacles for the pediatric palliative care.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2157
80838
A Rare Case of Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Foot Drop
Abstract:
Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) are the most common arterial aneurysm of the periphery. It is defined as focal dilation of the artery more than 50% of the normal vessel diameter which usually varies between 7 mm to 11 mm. The most common presentation for PAAs is claudication due to luminal stenmosis secondary to mural thrombus or acute limb ischaemia due to occlusive thrombosis or distal thromboembolism. It is less common for patients to present with non-ischaemic symptoms secondary to mass effect and compression of adjacent structures, and of these, presentation with common peroneal nerve compression is particularly uncommon. We present a rare case of a 92-year-old female patient presenting with 4-month history of left foot drop with radiological evidence of common peroneal nerve compression secondary to PAA of 22 mm by21mm in size. To the best of our knowledge, this is the smallest reported popliteal aneurysm presenting with foot drop. We also present the endovascular treatment option taken in our case.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2156
80240
Pattern of Biopsy Proven Renal Disease and Association between the Clinical Findings with Renal Pathology in Eastern Nepal
Abstract:
Background: The pattern of glomerular disease varies worldwide. In absence of kidney disease/Kidney biopsy registry in Nepal, the exact etiology of different forms of glomerular disease is primarily unknown in our country. Method: We retrospectively analyzed 175 cases of renal biopsies performed from dated September 2014 to August 2016 at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Results: The commonest indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (34.9%), followed by Systemic lupus erythematosus with suspected renal involvement (22.3%). Majority of patients were in the 30-60 year bracket (57.2%), with the mean age of the patients being 35.37 years. The average number of glomeruli per core was 13, with inadequate sampling in 5.1%. IgA nephropathy (17%) was found to be the most common primary glomerular disease, followed by membranous nephropathy (14.6%) and FSGS (14.6%). The commonest secondary glomerular disease was lupus nephritis. Complications associated with renal biopsy were pain at biopsy site in 18% of cases, hematuria in 6% and perinephric hematoma in 4% cases. Conclusion: The commonest primary and secondary glomerular disease was IgA nephropathy and lupus nephritis respectively. The high prevalence of Systemic lupus erythematosus with lupus nephritis among Nepalese in comparison with other developing countries warrants further evaluation. As an initial attempt towards documentation of glomerular diseases in the national context, this study should serve as a stepping stone towards the eventual establishment of a full-fledged national registry of glomerular diseases in Nepal.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2155
80230
Impact of Youth Corners and Knowledge about Human Sexuality among Young Adults and Adolescents of Nigerian Population in the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Abstract:
Background: Access to youth Friendly Health Corners is vital for ensuring sexual reproductive health and total well being of young Adults since human sexuality has been widely misunderstood. Meanwhile, behavior of young people towards it remains at variance with the alarm. This study attempt to access the impact of youth corners also called Adolescent Friendly Health Corners on manifestation of human sexual behavior among Nigerian adolescent and young adults. Description: Hundred young adults and adolescents of both sex between the Age range of 12-25years were randomly selected from 5 secondary schools and 3 prominent universities in Southwestern Nigeria and focal group discussions (FGD) were conducted among them. Fifty secondary and primary health facilities were visited between February and June 2017 to conduct interviews for health workers and to ascertain the presence or absence of youth corners. Results: 95% of the health facilities visited lack Youth Corners section neither are they willing to make provision for it due to lack of workmanship and sponsorship. However, 5% with Youth corners does not have well-trained Counselors or a Health Educator but health professionals from nursing profession. 90% of the respondents of which 16-17 years of Age is the mean age had their first sexual exposure with no use of protection even before been introduced to what Sexuality is all about. Virtually, none of the respondents had ever visited a Youth Corner before or heard the term before. 86% have heard about the term STI before of which 60% are using protection, 10% care less about any information attached to the term STI, 4% have not heard of the term STI before even when translated to their local dialect. 20% are abstaining as at the time the study was conducted and they attribute their sexual decision to religion and parental influence. Of the age group 20-25, 45% claimed they have had symptoms of one STI or the other and 40% claimed they have been tested positive for an STI before of which 12% have positive HIV status. Promiscuous behaviors were found among them before they reach the age 16years with pornography ranking the highest, followed by masturbation. Respondents blame this on peer pressure, the lack of Youth Friendly Centers in their locality and lack of proper Sexual Orientation on time. About half of the respondents make use of contraceptives while others have varying views. We found out that inability to access Youth Friendly Centers amongst the respondents might be one of the singular reasons of their early experimentation of their sex life and lack of healthy sexual lifestyle. (95% CI, P=0.922) Conclusion: The study reveals that a connection between youth Friendly Centers and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, therefore more sustainable Friendly Youth Corners with well-trained educators are needed in various Health facilities to checkmate the numerous risks of Young People along the path of adulthood.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2154
79678
Family Caregivers' Burden in Providing Care to the Hospitalized Elderly: Findings from Two Hospitals in Kolkata, India
Abstract:
Family caregivers are vital in providing physical and emotional care to the aged. Providing care to aged involves physical as well as psycho-socio-economic challenges, compels the caregiver to fit in manifold roles, feel overburdened; which in turn requires them to change their priorities in life. The study conducted on family caregivers of the hospitalized elderly explores caregiver’s burden using Zarit Burden Scale (ZBS). The data has been collected from two randomly selected Multispecialty Hospitals in Kolkata (India), after obtaining ethical clearance from the Institutional Review Board of both the hospitals. The predictors of burden were also assessed using interview schedules. Among fifty-seven caregivers who participated in the study, caregiver’s burden was identified among thirty respondents with twenty-six having mild to moderate burden and four having moderate to severe burden. Majority of the caregivers were found to be female, reflecting the gendered nature of caregiving. Family caregivers spent more than six hours per day on caregiving, which severely disturbed their work-life including loss of job. The study revealed that the caregivers’ marital status, family structure, academic qualification, occupation and time spent on caregiving are related to family caregivers’ burden. The burden of care giving was accentuated by poor access to information, counseling, and lack of supportive services. The paper concludes by indicating the need for greater state interventions for caregivers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2153
79170
Contribution of PALB2 and BLM Mutations to Familial Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1/2 Negative South African Breast Cancer Patients Detected Using High-Resolution Melting Analysis
Abstract:
Women representing high-risk breast cancer families, who tested negative for pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, are four times more likely to develop breast cancer compared to women in the general population. Sequencing of genes involved in genomic stability and DNA repair led to the identification of novel contributors to familial breast cancer risk. These include BLM and PALB2. Bloom's syndrome is a rare homozygous autosomal recessive chromosomal instability disorder with a high incidence of various types of neoplasia and is associated with breast cancer when in a heterozygous state. PALB2, on the other hand, binds to BRCA2 and together, they partake actively in DNA damage repair. Archived DNA samples of 66 BRCA1/2 negative high-risk breast cancer patients were retrospectively selected based on the presence of an extensive family history of the disease ( > 3 affecteds per family). All coding regions and splice-site boundaries of both genes were screened using High-Resolution Melting Analysis. Samples exhibiting variation were bi-directionally automated Sanger sequenced. The clinical significance of each variant was assessed using various in silico and splice site prediction algorithms. Comprehensive screening identified a total of 11 BLM and 26 PALB2 variants. The variants detected ranged from global to rare and included three novel mutations. Three BLM and two PALB2 likely pathogenic mutations were identified that could account for the disease in these extensive breast cancer families in the absence of BRCA mutations (BLM c.11T > A, p.V4D; BLM c.2603C > T, p.P868L; BLM c.3961G > A, p.V1321I; PALB2 c.421C > T, p.Gln141Ter; PALB2 c.508A > T, p.Arg170Ter). Conclusion: The study confirmed the contribution of pathogenic mutations in BLM and PALB2 to the familial breast cancer burden in South Africa. It explained the presence of the disease in 7.5% of the BRCA1/2 negative families with an extensive family history of breast cancer. Segregation analysis will be performed to confirm the clinical impact of these mutations for each of these families. These results justify the inclusion of both these genes in a comprehensive breast and ovarian next generation sequencing cancer panel and should be screened simultaneously with BRCA1 and BRCA2 as it might explain a significant percentage of familial breast and ovarian cancer in South Africa.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2152
79169
South African Breast Cancer Mutation Spectrum: Pitfalls to Copy Number Variation Detection Using Internationally Designed Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification and Next Generation Sequencing Panels
Abstract:
The National Health Laboratory Services in Bloemfontien has been the diagnostic testing facility for 1830 patients for familial breast cancer since 1997. From the cohort, 540 were comprehensively screened using High-Resolution Melting Analysis or Next Generation Sequencing for the presence of point mutations and/or indels. Approximately 90% of these patients stil remain undiagnosed as they are BRCA1/2 negative. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was initially added to screen for copy number variation detection, but with the introduction of next generation sequencing in 2017, was substituted and is currently used as a confirmation assay. The aim was to investigate the viability of utilizing internationally designed copy number variation detection assays based on mostly European/Caucasian genomic data for use within a South African context. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique is based on the hybridization and subsequent ligation of multiple probes to a targeted exon. The ligated probes are amplified using conventional polymerase chain reaction, followed by fragment analysis by means of capillary electrophoresis. The experimental design of the assay was performed according to the guidelines of MRC-Holland. For BRCA1 (P002-D1) and BRCA2 (P045-B3), both multiplex assays were validated, and results were confirmed using a secondary probe set for each gene. The next generation sequencing technique is based on target amplification via multiplex polymerase chain reaction, where after the amplicons are sequenced parallel on a semiconductor chip. Amplified read counts are visualized as relative copy numbers to determine the median of the absolute values of all pairwise differences. Various experimental parameters such as DNA quality, quantity, and signal intensity or read depth were verified using positive and negative patients previously tested internationally. DNA quality and quantity proved to be the critical factors during the verification of both assays. The quantity influenced the relative copy number frequency directly whereas the quality of the DNA and its salt concentration influenced denaturation consistency in both assays. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification produced false positives due to ligation failure when ligation was inhibited due to a variant present within the ligation site. Next generation sequencing produced false positives due to read dropout when primer sequences did not meet optimal multiplex binding kinetics due to population variants in the primer binding site. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for the South African population have been proven. Verification resulted in repeatable reactions with regards to the detection of relative copy number differences. Both multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and next generation sequencing multiplex panels need to be optimized to accommodate South African polymorphisms present within the genetically diverse ethnic groups to reduce the false copy number variation positive rate and increase performance efficiency.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2151
78992
Linac Quality Controls Using An Electronic Portal Imaging Device
Abstract:
Monthly quality control checks for a Radiation Therapy Linac may be performed is a simple and efficient way once they have been standardized and protocolized. On the other hand this checks, in spite of being imperatives, require a not negligible execution times in terms of machine time and operators time. Besides it must be taken into account the amount of disposable material which may be needed together with the use of commercial software for their performing. With the aim of optimizing and standardizing mechanical-geometric checks and multi leaves collimator checks, we decided to implement a protocol which makes use of the Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) available on our Linacs. The user is step by step guided by the software during the whole procedure. Acquired images are automatically analyzed by our programs all of them written using only free software.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2150
78991
A Relational Data Base for Radiation Therapy
Abstract:
As far as we know, it is still unavailable a commercial solution which would allow to manage, openly and configurable up to user needs, the huge amount of data generated in a modern Radiation Oncology Department. Currently, available information management systems are mainly focused on Record & Verify and clinical data, and only to a small extent on physical data. Thus, results in a partial and limited use of the actually available information. In the present work we describe the implementation at our department of a centralized information management system based on a web server. Our system manages both information generated during patient planning and treatment, and information of general interest for the whole department (i.e. treatment protocols, quality assurance protocols etc.). Our objective it to be able to analyze in a simple and efficient way all the available data and thus to obtain quantitative evaluations of our treatments. This would allow us to improve our work flow and protocols. To this end we have implemented a relational data base which would allow us to use in a practical and efficient way all the available information. As always we only use license free software.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2149
78907
Biomarkers for Rectal Adenocarcinoma Identified by Lipidomic and Bioinformatic
Abstract:
Lipidomic strategy can provide important information regarding cancer pathogenesis mechanisms and could reveal new biomarkers to enable early diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma (RAC). This study set out to evaluate lipoperoxidation biomarkers, and lipidomic signature by gas chromatography (GC) and electrospray ionization-qToF-mass spectrometry (ESI-qToF-MS) combined with multivariate data analysis in plasma from 23 RAC patients (early- or advanced-stages cancer) and 18 healthy controls. The most abundant ions identified in the RAC patients were those of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) while those of lisophosphatidylcholine (LPC), identified as LPC (16:1), LPC (18:1) and LPC (18:2), were down-regulated. LPC plasmalogen containing palmitoleic acid (LPC (P-16:1)), with highest VIP score, showed a low tendency in the cancer patients. Malondialdehyde plasma levels were higher in patients with advanced cancer (III/IV stages) than in the early stages groups and the healthy group (p< 0.05). No differences in F2-isoprostane levels were observed between these groups. This study shows that the reduction in plasma levels of LPC plasmalogens associated to an increase in MDA levels may indicate increased oxidative stress in these patients and identify the metabolite LPC (P-16:1) as new biomarkers for RAC.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2148
78904
Correlation of Serum Ferritin and Left Ventricular Function in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients with Increased Transfusion Dependence
Authors:
Abstract:
Aims: To correlate serum ferritin with left ventricular function in beta thalassemia major patients with increased transfusion dependence and to find out whether echocardiography can be used to assess pre clinical cardiac disease in these patients. Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted at Department of Pathology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. 60 patients of beta thalassemia major with increased transfusion dependence were enrolled in this study. Serum ferritin levels of all patients were measured by using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Echocardiography was performed on all patients by a consultant cardiologist by linking conventional echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging. Ejection fraction and E/A ratio were measured in all patients to assess left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Results: On the basis of serum ferritin level, patients were divided into three groups. Group I consisted of patients having serum ferritin level equal to or less than 2500 ng/ml. A total of 25 patients were placed in this group. Group II included patients having serum ferritin level between 2500 to 5000 ng/ml. A total of 22 patients were placed in this group. Group III included patients having serum ferritin level more than 5000 ng/ml. This group consisted of 13 patients. All patients having serum ferritin below 2500ng/ml had normal systolic function, and only 16% of the patients in this group had diastolic dysfunction as reflected by abnormal E/A ratio. In group II, 27% of the patients had systolic dysfunction reflected by subnormal ejection fraction while 40% of the patients had diastolic dysfunction. In group III, 62% of the patients had abnormal systolic and diastolic function. Pearson correlation was used to find a correlation between serum ferritin and left ventricular function. A strong negative correlation was found which is reflected by a p value of less than 0.05 which is significant. Chi square test is used to correlate serum ferritin with E/A ratio. P value came out to be less than 0.05 which is significant.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2147
78767
Implementing Quality Improvement Projects to Enhance Contraception and Abortion Care Service Provision and Pre-Service Training of Health Care Providers
Abstract:
Improving the quality of sexual and reproductive health services that women receive is expected to have an impact on women’s satisfaction with the services, on their continued use and, ultimately, on their ability to achieve their fertility goals or reproductive intentions. Surprisingly, however, there is little empirical evidence of either whether this expectation is correct, or how best to improve service quality within sexual and reproductive health programs so that these impacts can be achieved. The Recent focus on quality has prompted more physicians to do quality improvement work, but often without the needed skill sets, which results in poorly conceived and ultimately unsuccessful improvement initiatives. As this renders the work unpublishable, it further impedes progress in the field of health care improvement and widens the quality chasm. Moreover, since 2014, the Center for International Reproductive Health Training (CIRHT) has worked diligently with 11 teaching hospitals across Ethiopia to increase access to contraception and abortion care services. This work has included improving pre-service training through education and curriculum development, expanding hands-on training to better learn critical techniques and counseling skills, and fostering a “team science” approach to research by encouraging scientific exploration. This is the first time this systematic approach has been applied and documented to improve access to high-quality services in Ethiopia. The purpose of this article is to report initiatives undertaken, and findings concluded by the clinical service team at CIRHT in an effort to provide a pragmatic approach to quality improvement projects. An audit containing nearly 300 questions about several aspects of patient care, including structure, process, and outcome indicators was completed by each teaching hospital’s quality improvement team. This baseline audit assisted in identifying major gaps and barriers, and each team was responsible for determining specific quality improvement aims and tasks to support change interventions using Shewart’s Cycle for Learning and Improvement (the Plan-Do-Study-Act model). To measure progress over time, quality improvement teams met biweekly and compiled monthly data for review. Also, site visits to each hospital were completed by the clinical service team to ensure monitoring and support. The results indicate that applying an evidence-based, participatory approach to quality improvement has the potential to increase the accessibility and quality of services in a short amount of time. In addition, continued ownership and on-site support are vital in promoting sustainability. This approach could be adapted and applied in similar contexts, particularly in other African countries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2146
78416
Religiosity and Social Factors on Alcohol Use among South African University Students
Abstract:
Background: Abounding studies found that religiosity and social factors modulate alcohol use among university students. However, there is a scarcity of empirical studies examining the protective effects of religiosity and other social factors on alcohol use and abuse in South African universities. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the protective effects of religiosity and roles of social factors on alcohol use among university students. Methodology: A survey on the use of alcohol among 416 university students was conducted using structured questionnaire in 2014. Data were sourced on religiosity and contextual variables. Students were classified as practicing intrinsic religiosity or extrinsic religiosity based on the response to the measures of religiosity. Descriptive, chi square and binary logistic analyses were used in processing the data. Result: Results revealed that alcohol use was associated with religiosity, religion, sex, family history of alcohol use and experimenting with alcohol. Reporting alcohol abuse was significantly predicted by sex, family history of alcohol use and experimenting with alcohol. Religiosity mediated lower alcohol use whereas family history of alcohol use and experimenting with alcohol promoted alcohol use and abuse. Conclusion: Families, religious groups and societal factors may be the specific niches for intervention on alcohol use among university students.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2145
78209
The Femoral Eversion Endarterectomy Technique with Transection: Safety and Efficacy
Abstract:
Objective: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study evaluating the safety and efficacy of femoral endarterectomy using the eversion technique with transection as opposed to the conventional endarterectomy technique with either vein or synthetic patch arterioplasty. Methods: Between 2010 to mid 2017, 19 patients with mean age of 75.4 years, underwent eversion femoral endarterectomy with transection by a single surgeon. There were 13 males (68.4%), and the comorbid burden was as follows: ischaemic heart disease (53.3%), diabetes (43.8%), stage 4 kidney impairment (13.3%) and current or ex-smoking (73.3%). The indications were claudication (45.5%), rest pain (18.2%) and tissue loss (36.3%). Results: The technical success rate was 100%. One patient required a blood transfusion following bleeding from intraoperative losses. Two patients required blood transfusions from low post operative haemogloblin concentrations – one of them in the context of myelodysplastic syndrome. There were no unexpected returns to theatre. The mean length of stay was 11.5 days with two patients having inpatient stays of 36 and 50 days respectively due to the need for rehabilitation. There was one death unrelated to the operation. Conclusion: The eversion technique with transection is safe and effective with low complication rates and a normally expected length of stay. It poses the advantage of not requiring a synthetic patch. This technique features minimal extraneous dissection as there is no need to harvest vein for a patch. Additionally, future endovascular interventions can be performed by puncturing the native vessel. There is no change to the femoral bifurcation anatomy after this technique. We posit that this is a useful adjunct to the surgeon’s panoply of vascular surgical techniques.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2144
77901
Exploring the Strategy to Identify Seed-Specific Acyl-Hydrolases from Arabidopsis thaliana by Activity-Based Protein Profiling
Abstract:
Vegetable oils mainly triacylglycerol (TAG) are an essential nutrient in the human diet as well as one of the major global commodity. There is a pressing need to enhance the yield of oil production to meet the world’s growing demand. Oil content is controlled by the balance between synthesis and breakdown in the cells. Several studies have established to increase the oil content by the overexpression of oil biosynthetic enzymes. Interestingly the significant oil accumulation was observed with impaired TAG hydrolysis. Unfortunately, the structural, as well as the biochemical properties of the lipase enzymes, is widely unknown, and so far, no candidate gene was identified in seeds except sugar-dependent1 (SDP1). Evidence has shown that SDP1directly responsible for initiation of oil breakdown in the seeds during germination. The present study is the identification of seed-specific acyl-hydrolases by activity based proteome profiling (ABPP) using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system. The ABPP reveals that around 8 to 10 proteins having the serine hydrolase domain and are expressed during germination of Arabidopsis seed. The N-term sequencing, as well as LC-MS/MS analysis, was performed for the differentially expressed protein during germination. The coding region of the identified proteins was cloned, and lipases activity was assessed with purified recombinant protein. The enzyme assay was performed against various lipid substrates, and we have observed the acylhydrolase activity towards lysophosphatidylcholine and monoacylglycerol. Further, the functional characteristic of the identified protein will reveal the physiological significance the enzyme in oil accumulation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2143
77826
Effects of Swimming Exercise Training on Persistent Pain in Rats after Thoracotomy
Abstract:
Background: Exercise training is well known to alleviate chronic pain syndromes improve of chronic pain. This study investigated the effect of swimming exercise training on thoracotomy and rib retraction-induced allodynia. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats that received animal model of persistent postthoracotomy pain. All rats were divided into three groups: sham operations group (Sham), thoracotomy and rib retraction group (TRR), and TRR with swimming exercise training for 90min/day, 7 days a week for 4 weeks (TRR-SEW). The sham group did not receive retraction of the ribs. Thus, they received a pleural incision. The levels of mechanical and cold allodynia were measured by von Frey and acetone test. Results: In von Frey test, the level of mechanical allodynia in the TRR group was significantly higher than the sham group. The level of mechanical allodynia in the TRR-SEW group was significantly lower than the TRR group. In acetone test, the level of cold allodynia in the TRR group was significantly higher than the sham group. The level of cold allodynia in the TRR-SEW group was significantly lower than the TRR group. Conclusions: These results suggest that swimming exercise training decreases persistent postthoracotomy pain caused by TRR surgery. It may provide one of the new therapeutic effects of swimming exercise training could alleviate persistent postthoracotomy pain.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2142
77710
Hearing Threshold Levels among Steel Industry Workers in Samut Prakan Province, Thailand
Abstract:
Industrial noise is usually considered as the main impact of the environmental health and safety because its exposure can cause permanently serious hearing damage. Despite providing strictly hearing protection standards and campaigning extensively encouraging public health awareness among industrial workers in Thailand, hazard noise-induced hearing loss has dramatically been massive obstacles for workers’ health. The aims of the study were to explore and specify the hearing threshold levels among steel industrial workers responsible in which higher noise levels of work zone and to examine the relationships of hearing loss and workers’ age and the length of employment in Samut Prakan province, Thailand. Cross-sectional study design was done. Ninety-three steel industrial workers in the designated zone of higher noise (> 85dBA) with more than 1 year of employment from two factories by simple random sampling and available to participate in were assessed by the audiometric screening at regional Samut Prakan hospital. Data of doing screening were collected from October to December, 2016 by the occupational medicine physician and a qualified occupational nurse. All participants were examined by the same examiners for the validity. An Audiometric testing was performed at least 14 hours after the last noise exposure from the workplace. Workers’ age and the length of employment were gathered by the developed occupational record form. Results: The range of workers’ age was from 23 to 59 years, (Mean = 41.67, SD = 9.69) and the length of employment was from 1 to 39 years, (Mean = 13.99, SD = 9.88). Fifty three (60.0%) out of all participants have been exposing to the hazard of noise in the workplace for more than 10 years. Twenty-three (24.7%) of them have been exposing to the hazard of noise less than or equal to 5 years. Seventeen (18.3%) of them have been exposing to the hazard of noise for 5 to 10 years. Using the cut point of less than or equal to 25 dBA of hearing thresholds, the average means of hearing thresholds for participants at 4, 6, and 8 kHz were 31.34, 29.62, and 25.64 dB, respectively for the right ear and 40.15, 32.20, and 25.48 dB for the left ear, respectively. The more developing age of workers in the work zone with hazard of noise, the more the hearing thresholds would be increasing at frequencies of 4, 6, and 8 kHz (p =.012, p =.026, p =.024) for the right ear, respectively and for the left ear only at the frequency 4 kHz (p =.009). Conclusion: The participants’ age in the hazard of noise work zone was significantly associated with the hearing loss in different levels while the length of participants’ employment was not significantly associated with the hearing loss. Thus hearing threshold levels among industrial workers would be regularly assessed and needed to be protected at the beginning of working.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2141
77649
Use of a Novel Intermittent Compression Shoe in Reducing Lower Limb Venous Stasis
Abstract:
This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a newly designed shoe which will act as an intermittent pneumatic compression device to augment venous flow in the lower limb. The aim was to assess the degree with which a wearable intermittent compression device can increase the venous flow in the popliteal vein. Background: Deep venous thrombosis and chronic venous insufficiency are relatively common problems with significant morbidity and mortality. While mechanical and chemical thromboprophylaxis measures are in place in hospital environments (in the form of TED stockings, intermittent pneumatic compression devices, analgesia, antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents), there are limited options in a community setting. Additionally, many individuals are poorly tolerant of graduated compression stockings due to the difficulty in putting them on, their constant tightness and increased associated discomfort in warm weather. These factors may hinder the management of their chronic venous insufficiency. Method: The device is lightweight, easy to wear and comfortable, with a self-contained power source. It features a Bluetooth transmitter and can be controlled with a smartphone. It is externally almost indistinguishable from a normal shoe. During activation, two bladders are inflated -one overlying the metatarsal heads and the second at the pedal arch. The resulting cyclical increase in pressure squeezes blood into the deep venous system. This will decrease periods of stasis and potentially reduce the risk of deep venous thrombosis. The shoe was fitted to 2 healthy participants and the peak systolic velocity of flow in the popliteal vein was measured during and prior to intermittent compression phases. Assessments of total flow volume were also performed. All haemodynamic assessments were performed with ultrasound by a licensed sonographer. Results: Mean peak systolic velocity of 3.5 cm/s with standard deviation of 1.3 cm/s were obtained. There was a three fold increase in mean peak systolic velocity and five fold increase in total flow volume. Conclusion: The device augments venous flow in the leg significantly. This may contribute to lowered thromboembolic risk during periods of prolonged travel or immobility. This device may also serve as an adjunct in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. The study will be replicated on a larger scale in a multi—centre trial.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2140
77292
Association between TNF-α and Its Receptor TNFRSF1B Polymorphism with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Tomsk, Russia Federation
Abstract:
Purpose: Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is clear that the immune response to M. tuberculosis infection is a relationship between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in which Tumour Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) plays key roles as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. TNF-α involved in various cell immune responses via binding to its two types of membrane-bound receptors, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B. Importantly, some variants of the TNFRSF1B gene have been considered as possible markers of host susceptibility to TB. However, the possible impact of such TNF-α and its receptor genes polymorphism on TB cases in Tomsk is missing. Thus, the purpose of our study was to investigate polymorphism of TNF-α (rs1800629) and its receptor TNFRSF1B (rs652625 and rs525891) genes in population of Tomsk and to evaluate their possible association with the development of pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: The population distribution features of genes polymorphisms were investigated and made case-control study based on group of people from Tomsk. Human blood was collected during routine patients examination at Tomsk Regional TB Dispensary. Altogether, 234 TB-positive patients (80 women, 154 men, average age is 28 years old) and 205 health-controls (153 women, 52 men, average age is 47 years old) were investigated. DNA was extracted from blood plasma by phenol-chloroform method. Genotyping was carried out by a single-nucleotide-specific real-time PCR assay. Results: First, interpopulational comparison was carried out between healthy individuals from Tomsk and available data from the 1000 Genomes project. It was found that polymorphism rs1800629 region demonstrated that Tomsk population was significantly different from Japanese (P = 0.0007), but it was similar with the following Europeans subpopulations: Italians (P = 0.052), Finns (P = 0.124) and British (P = 0.910). Polymorphism rs525891 clear demonstrated that group from Tomsk was significantly different from population of South Africa (P = 0.019). However, rs652625 demonstrated significant differences from Asian population: Chinese (P = 0.03) and Japanese (P = 0.004). Next, we have compared healthy individuals versus patients with TB. It was detected that no association between rs1800629, rs652625 polymorphisms, and positive TB cases. Importantly, AT genotype of polymorphism rs525891 was significantly associated with resistance to TB (odds ratio (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41-0.9; P < 0.05). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, the polymorphism of TNFRSF1B (rs525891) was associated with TB, while genotype AT is protective [OR = 0.61] in Tomsk population. In contrast, no significant correlation was detected between polymorphism TNF-α (rs1800629) and TNFRSF1B (rs652625) genes and alveolar TB cases among population of Tomsk. In conclusion, our data expands the molecular particularities associated with TB. The study was supported by the grant of the Russia for Basic Research #15-04-05852.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2139
77213
Utilization of Antenatal Care Services by Domestic Workers in Delhi
Authors:
Abstract:
Background: The complications during pregnancy are the major cause of morbidity and deaths among women in the reproductive age group. Childbearing is the most important phase in women’s lives that occur mainly in the adolescent and adult years. Maternal health, thus is an important issue as this as this is important phase is also productive time for women as they strive fulfill their capabilities as an individual, mothers, family members and also as a citizen. The objective of the study is to document the coverage of ANC and its determinants among domestic workers. Method: A survey of 300 domestic workers were carried in Delhi. Only respondents in the age group (15-49) and whose recent birth was of 5 years preceding the survey were included. Socio-demographic data and information on maternal health was collected from these respondents Information on ANC was collected from total 300 respondents. Standard of living index were composed based on households assists and similarly autonomy index was computed based on women decision making power in the households taking certain key variables. Cross tabulations were performed to obtain frequency and percentages. Potential socio-economic determinants of utilization of ANC among domestic workers were examined using binary logistic regressions. Results: Out of 300 domestic workers survey, only 70.7 per cent per cent received ANC. Domestic workers who married at age 18 years and above are 4 times more likely to utilize antenatal services during their last birth (***p< 0.01). Comparison to domestic workers with number of living children two or less, domestic workers with number of living children more than two are less likely to utilize antenatal care services (**p< 0.05). Domestic workers belonging to Other Backward Castes are more likely to utilize antenatal care services than domestic workers belonging to scheduled tribes ((**p< 0.05). Conclusion: The level of utilization of maternal health services are less among domestic workers is less, as they spend most of their time at the employers household. Though demonstration effect do have impact on their life styles but utilization of maternal health services is poor. Strategies and action are needed to improve the utilization of maternal health services among this section of workers as they are vulnerable because of no proper labour legislations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2138
77156
Blood Ketones as a Point of Care Testing in Paediatric Emergencies
Abstract:
Introduction: Ketones are the end products of fatty acid metabolism and a source of energy for vital organs such as the brain, heart and skeletal muscles. Ketones are produced in excess when glucose is not available as a source of energy or it cannot be utilized as in diabetic ketoacidosis. Children admitted in the emergency department often have starvation ketosis which is not clinically manifested. Decision on admission of children to the emergency room with subtle signs can be difficult at times. Point of care blood ketone testing can be done at the bedside even in a primary level care setting to supplement and guide us in our management decisions. Hence this study was done to explore the utility of this simple bedside parameter as a supplement in assessing pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department. Objectives: To estimate blood ketones of children admitted in the emergency department. To analyze the significance of blood ketones in various disease conditions. Methods: Blood ketones using point of care testing instrument (ABOTTprecision Xceed Pro meters) was done in patients getting admitted in emergency room and in out-patients (through sample collection centre). Study population: Children aged 1 month to 18 years were included in the study. 250 cases (In-patients) and 250 controls (out-patients) were collected. Study design: Prospective observational study. Data on details of illness and physiological status were documented. Blood ketones were compared between the two groups and all in patients were categorized into various system groups and analysed. Results: Mean blood ketones were high in in-patients ranging from 0 to 7.2, with a mean of 1.28 compared to out-patients ranging from 0 to 1.9 with a mean of 0.35. This difference was statistically significant with a p value < 0.001. In-patients with shock (mean of 4.15) and diarrheal dehydration (mean of 1.85) had a significantly higher blood ketone values compared to patients with other system involvement. Conclusion: Blood ketones were significantly high (above the normal range) in pediatric patients who are sick requiring admission. Patients with various forms of shock had very high blood ketone values as found in diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketone values in diarrheal dehydration were moderately high correlating to the degree of dehydration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2137
77078
Factors Associated with Commencement of Non-Invasive Ventilation
Abstract:
Introduction: In the past two decades, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) emerged as one of the most important advances in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure in children. In the acute setting, it is an alternative to intubation with a goal to preserve normal physiologic functions, decrease airway injury, and prevent respiratory tract infections. There is a need to determine the clinical profile and parameters which point towards the need for NIV in the pediatric emergency setting. Objectives: i) To study the clinical profile of children who required non invasive ventilation and invasive ventilation, ii) To study the clinical parameters common to children who required non invasive ventilation. Methods: All children between one month to 18 years, who were intubated in the pediatric emergency department and those for whom decision to commence Non Invasive Ventilation was made in Emergency Room were included in the study. Children were transferred to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit and started on Non Invasive Ventilation as per our hospital policy and followed up in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit. Clinical profile of all children which included age, gender, diagnosis and indication for intubation were documented. Clinical parameters such as respiratory rate, heart rate, saturation, grunting were documented. Parameters obtained were subject to statistical analysis. Observations: Airway disease (Bronchiolitis 25%, Viral induced wheeze 22%) was a common diagnosis in 32 children who required Non Invasive Ventilation. Neuromuscular disorder was the common diagnosis in 27 children (78%) who were Intubated. 17 children commenced on Non Invasive Ventilation who later needed invasive ventilation had Neuromuscular disease. High frequency nasal cannula was used in 32, and mask ventilation in 17 children. Clinical parameters common to the Non Invasive Ventilation group were age < 1 year (17), tachycardia n = 7 (22%), tachypnea n = 23 (72%) and severe respiratory distress n = 9 (28%), grunt n = 7 (22%), SPO2 (80% to 90%) n = 16. Children in the Non Invasive Ventilation + INTUBATION group were > 3 years (9), had tachycardia 7 (41%), tachypnea 9(53%) with a male predominance n = 9. In statistical comparison among 3 groups,'p' value was significant for pH, saturation, and use of Ionotrope. Conclusion: Invasive ventilation can be avoided in the paediatric Emergency Department in children with airway disease, by commencing Non Invasive Ventilation early. Intubation in the pediatric emergency department has a higher association with neuromuscular disorders.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2136
77030
Computed Tomography Guided Bone Biopsies: Experience at an Australian Metropolitan Hospital
Abstract:
Percutaneous CT guided biopsies provide a fast, minimally invasive, cost effective and safe method for obtaining tissue for histopathology and culture. Standards for diagnostic yield vary depending on whether the tissue is being obtained for histopathology or culture. We present a retrospective audit from Western Health in Melbourne Australia over a 12-month period which aimed to determine the diagnostic yield, technical success and complication rate for CT guided bone biopsies and identify factors affecting these results. The digital imaging storage program (Synapse Picture Archiving and Communication System – Fujifilm Australia) was analysed with key word searches from October 2015 to October 2016. Nineteen CT guided bone biopsies were performed during this time. The most common referring unit was oncology, work up imaging included CT, MRI, bone scan and PET scan. The complication rate was 0%, overall diagnostic yield was 74% with a technical success of 95%. When performing biopsies for histologic analysis diagnostic yield was 85% and when performing biopsies for bacterial culture diagnostic yield was 60%. There was no significant relationship identified between size of lesion, distance of lesion to skin, lesion appearance on CT, the number of samples taken or gauge of needle to diagnostic yield or technical success. CT guided bone biopsy at Western Health meets the standard reported at other major clinical centres for technical success and safety. It is a useful investigation in identification of primary malignancy in distal bone metastases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2135
76928
Bi-Layer Electro-Conductive Nanofibrous Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration
Abstract:
Injury of peripheral nervous system (PNS) can lead to loss of sensation or movement. To date, one of the challenges for surgeons is repairing large gaps in PNS. To solve this problem, nerve conduits have been developed. Conduits produced by means of electrospinning can mimic extracellular matrix and provide enough surface for further functionalization. In this research, a conductive bilayer nerve conduit with poly caprolactone (PCL), poly (lactic acid co glycolic acid) (PLGA) and MWCNT for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration was fabricated. The conduit was made of longitudinally aligned PLGA nanofibrous sheets in the lumen to promote nerve regeneration and randomly oriented PCL nanofibers on the outer surface for mechanical support. The intra-luminal guidance channel was made out of conductive aligned nanofibrous rolled sheets which are coated with laminin via dopamine. Different properties of electrospun scaffolds were investigated by using contact angle, mechanical strength, degradation time, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM analysis was shown that size range of nanofibrous mat were about 600-750 nm and MWCNTs deposited between nanofibers. The XPS result was shown that laminin attached to the nanofibers surface successfully. The contact-angle and tensile tests analysis revealed that scaffolds have good hydrophilicity and enough mechanical strength. In vitro studies demonstrated that this conductive surface was able to enhance the attachment and proliferation of PC12 and Schwann cells. We concluded that this bilayer composite conduit has good potential for nerve regeneration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2134
76876
Pictorial Smart Android Application for Enhancing the Face Reputation Abilities in Youngsters with ASD
Abstract:
With the passage of time and development in mobile technology, mobile device had received the special reputation in the Desire community. It is very easy to use mobile devices as they are having Jordan display screens, especially for those people who are not having respectable pleasant motor skill. This paper highlights how mobile phone based apps can be used to confront perceiving capacities among kids with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder). Consequently, a cellular social android application is planned to aid the children to develop Social interaction capabilities named as “KIDDY”. The thought is that these games will inspire concentration and imagination from toddler via repetitive movement and visual commentary. Four students with Autism, diverse in historic period , social behaviour and communiqué ability had been enrolled in program and provide education how to recognize new faces in another thrilling way. Therefore, this paper offers resultant role based on “Social skills rating system” that how cellular generation used as an academician intervention to decorate studying and communiqué among children those located within the autism spectrum and additionally proven the tremendous behaviour toward cell primarily based activities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2133
76852
Comparison of the Indocyanine Green Dye Method versus the Combined Method of Indigo Carmine Blue Dye with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Conservative Therapy for Early Breast Cancer
Abstract:
Background: Fluorescence imaging (FI) is one of the methods to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). However, the procedure is technically complicated and requires procedural skills, as SLN biopsy must be conducted in dim light conditions. As an improved version of this method, we introduced a combined method (Combined mixed dye and fluorescence; CMF) consisting of indigo carmine blue dye and FI. The direct visualization of SLNs under shadowless surgical light conditions is facilitated by the addition of the blue dye. We compared the SLN detection rates of CMF with that of the indocyanine green (ICG) dye method (ICG-D). Methods: A total of 202 patients with stage ≤ IIA breast cancer who underwent breast conservative therapy with separate incision from January 2004 to February 2017 were reviewed. Details of the two methods are as follows: (1) ICG-D: 2ml of ICG (10mg) was used and the green-stained SLNs were resected via a 3-4cm axillary incision; (2) CMF: A combination of 1ml of ICG (5mg) and 1-3ml of indigo carmine (4-12mg) was used. Using Photodynamic Eye (PDE), a 1.5-2 cm incision was made near the point of disappearance of the fluorescence and SLNs with intermediate color of blue and green were resected. Results: There were 92 ICG-D and 110 CMF cases. CMF resulted in a significantly higher detection rate than ICG-D (96.4% vs. 83.7%; p=0.003). This difference was particularly notable in those aged ≥ 60 years (98.3% vs. 74.3%) and individuals with BMI ≥ 25kg/m2 (90.3% vs. 58.3%). Conclusion: CMF is an effective method to identify SLNs which is safe, efficient, and cost-effective. Furthermore, radiation exposure can be avoided, and it can be performed in institutes without nuclear medicine facilities. CMF achieves a high SLN identification rate, and most of this procedure is feasible under shadowless surgical light conditions. CMF can reliably perform SLN biopsy even in those aged ≥ 60 years and individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2132
76630
The Effect of SIRT1 on NLRP3 (Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain-Like Receptor Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 3) Inflammasome of Osteoarthritis
Abstract:
The role of metabolism in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is an emerging field. Metabolic alterations may be a role in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, and these changes influence joint destruction via several cytokine. Especially, in OA patients, levels of IL-1β are elevated in the synovial fluid, synovial membrane, subchondral bone, and cartilage. The IL-1β is activated by NLRP3 inflammasomes, and NLRP3 inflammasomes are cytosolic complexes that drive the production of other inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β. In this study, we examined that SIRT1 suppresses IL-1β through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasomes and SIRT1 ameliorates osteoarthritis. OA fibroblasts were isolated from synovium of OA patients. IL-1β and NLRP3 were detected in synovium of OA patients by immunohistochemistry. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulated the expression of active IL-1β mRNA in OA fibroblasts and combination of LPS, and adenosine triphosphate increased more the expression of active IL-1β in OA fibroblasts. The level of IL-1β was measured by western blot and ELISA assay. NLRP3 inflammasomes complex were measured by western blot. SIRT1 did not inhibit expression of NLRP3 inflammasome. So caspase-1, apoptotic speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and NLRP3 protein were expressed in OA fibroblasts. But SIRT1 suppressed activation of IL-1β by inhibiting activity of caspase-1 via NLRP3 inflammasome in OA fibroblasts under LPS plus ATP stimulation. These results suggest that SIRT1 is a modulator of NLRP3 inflammasomes in OA fibroblasts and ameliorate IL-1β, so expression of SIRT1 in OA fibroblast may be a potential strategy for OA inflammation treatment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2131
76566
Evaluation of Anti-Arthritic Activity of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb in Freund's Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritic Rat Model
Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the anti-arthritic activity of chloroform extract and Isolate 1 of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and dichloromethane extract and Isolate 2 of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb in adjuvant arthritic (AA) rat model induced by Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA). Methods: Forty two healthy albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups. Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA) was used to induce arthritis and then treated with chloroform extract, isolate 1 and dichloromethane extract, isolate 2 for 28 days. The various parameters like paw volume, haematological parameters (RBC, WBC, Hb and ESR), were studied. Structural elucidation of active constituents isolate 1 and isolate 2 from Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb will be done using GCMS and H1NMR. Results: In FCA induced arthritic rats, there was significant increase in rat paw volume whereas chloroform extract and Isolate 1 of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and dichloromethane extract and Isolate 2 of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb treated groups showed strong significant reduction in paw volume. The altered haematological parameters in the arthritic rats were significantly recovered to near normal by the treatment with extracts at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Further histopathological studies revealed the anti-arthritic activity of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb by preventing cartilage and bone destruction of the arthritic joints of AA rats. Conclusion: Extracts and isolates of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb have shown anti-arthritic activity. Decrease in paw volume and normalization of haematological abnormalities in adjuvant induced arthritic rats is significantly seen in the experiment. Further histopathological studies confirmed the anti-arthritic activity of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):