Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48522

Sport and Health Sciences

499
83844
Investigation of Various Variabilities of Attitudes toward Teaching as a Profession Levels of Physical Education and Sports School Students
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to determine the relation of the level attitudes toward teaching as a profession to various variables of the students in physical education and sports departments. 277 students who are studying at the departments of physical education and sports teaching, sports management and coaching in Ahi Evran University, College of Physical Education and Sports participated to the research. Personal information tool and teaching profession scale consisting 34 items were used as data collection tool in the research. Distribution, frequency, t test and anova test were used in comparison of the related data. As a result of statistical analysis, attitudes toward teaching as a profession levels do not differ according to gender, but significant differences were detected in the exercise regularly and department.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
498
83715
Parents' Motivating Factors for Their Deaf and Mute Children to Participate in Physical and Recreational Activities
Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the parents’ motivating factors for their deaf and mute children to participate in physical and recreational activities. Data were collected from the 17 parents of the deaf and mute children using a specifically designed survey questionnaire as the primary instrument used in the study. Data analysis and interpretation were done with the aid of descriptive statistics, such as frequency, percentage, weighted mean and multiple responses. Most of the respondents were female with a mean average age of 38 years old. The average age of their children was 10 years old. In terms of monthly income, the respondents had an average monthly income of PhP 13,945. Furthermore, most of the respondents lived in the urban area and were all Catholic by faith or religion. As to the factors that parents used to motivate their deaf and mute children to engage in physical and recreational activities, these included the followings: First; to make my child experience and explore more meaningful things through physical and recreational activities; second; to gain other’s respect; third; to build friendship and interact with his peers; fourth; to experience the feeling of belongingness; and fifth: to learn and discover new things. On the other hand, the least chosen factors were: first; to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight; second; to reduce fats and lowering blood pressure; third; to improve balance, coordination and strength; fourth; to improve posture; and fifth; to assist the child in the development of gross motor and fine motor skills. Based on the findings of the study, it is hereby recommended that since the first factor is 'to make my child experience and explore more meaningful things through physical and recreational activities' and the other top factors are more on social aspect, the school should design extra-curricular activities such as theatrical play and other similar activities that the students will find interesting while the parents will be more motivated to engage their children into physical and recreational activities. Also, since the least chosen factors are more on physical aspect, the school should organize or conduct a seminar for the parents to be aware of the benefits of participating in physical and recreational activities for their deaf and mute children. They can also conduct an information campaign to encourage the other parents of deaf and mute children, whom they keep only inside their home to enroll in the school and let their children be exposed to the natural world. Considering that parents are the primary motivators that can best help their children become more interested in physical and recreational activities for their own development, the school should always remain motivated by creating activities for the deaf and mute children with their parents. The study also recommends conducting further study on the level of knowledge/understanding of the parents on the benefits that can be derived from participating in physical and recreational activities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
497
83414
Concussion: Clinical and Vocational Outcomes from Sport Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Abstract:
There is an increasing incidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cases throughout sport and with this, a growing interest from governing bodies to ensure these are managed appropriately and player welfare is prioritised. The Berlin consensus statement on concussion in sport recommends a multidisciplinary approach when managing those patients who do not have full resolution of mTBI symptoms. There are as of yet no standardised guideline to follow in the treatment of complex cases mTBI in athletes. The aim of this project was to analyse the outcomes, both clinical and vocational, of all patients admitted to the mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) service at the UK’s Defence Military Rehabilitation Centre Headley Court between 1st June 2008 and 1st February 2017, as a result of a sport induced injury, and evaluate potential predictive indicators of outcome. Patients were identified from a database maintained by the mTBI service. Clinical and occupational outcomes were ascertained from medical and occupational employment records, recorded prospectively, at time of discharge from the mTBI service. Outcomes were graded based on the vocational independence scale (VIS) and clinical documentation at discharge. Predictive indicators including referral time, age at time of injury, previous mental health diagnosis and a financial claim in place at time of entry to service were assessed using logistic regression. 45 Patients were treated for sport-related mTBI during this time frame. Clinically 96% of patients had full resolution of their mTBI symptoms after input from the mTBI service. 51% of patients returned to work at their previous vocational level, 4% had ongoing mTBI symptoms, 22% had ongoing physical rehabilitation needs, 11% required mental health input and 11% required further vestibular rehabilitation. Neither age, time to referral, pre-existing mental health condition nor compensation seeking had a significant impact on either vocational or clinical outcome in this population. The vast majority of patients reviewed in the mTBI clinic had persistent symptoms which could not be managed in primary care. A consultant-led, multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and management of mTBI has resulted in excellent clinical outcomes in these complex cases. High levels of symptom resolution suggest that this referral and treatment pathway is successful and is a model which could be replicated in other organisations with consultant led input. Further understanding of both predictive and individual factors would allow clinicians to focus treatments on those who are most likely to develop long-term complications following mTBI. A consultant-led, multidisciplinary service ensures a large number of patients will have complete resolution of mTBI symptoms after sport-related mTBI. Further research is now required to ascertain the key predictive indicators of outcome following sport-related mTBI.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
496
83045
Sports Racism in Australia: A Fifty Year Study of Bigotry and the Culture of Silence, from Mexico City to Melbourne
Abstract:
The 1968 Summer Olympics will forever be remembered for the silent protest against racism exhibited by American athletes Tommy Smith and John Carlos. Also standing on the medal podium was Australian Peter Norman, whose silent solidarity as a white sportsman completes the powerful, evocative image of that night in Mexico City. In the 50 years since Norman’s stance of solidarity with his American counterparts, Australian sports has traveled a wide arc of racism narratives, with athletes still experiencing episodes of bigotry, both on the pitch and elsewhere. Aboriginal athletes, like tennis champion Yvonne Goolagong, have endured the plaudits of appreciation for their achievements on both the national and international stage, while simultaneously being subject to both prejudice and even questions as to their right to represent their country as full, acceptable citizens. Racism in Australia is directed toward Australian athletes of colour as well as foreign sportspeople who visit the country. The complex, mutating nature of racism in Australia is also informed by the culture of silence, where fellow athletes stand mute in light of their colleagues’ experience with bigotry. This paper analyses the phenomenon of sports racism in Australia over the past fifty years, culminating in the most recent showdown between Heretier Lumumba, former Collingwood football player, and his public allegations of racism experienced by team mates over his 10 year career. It shall examine the treatment and mistreatment of athletes because of their race and will further assess how such public perceptions both shape Australian culture or are themselves a manifestation of preexisting pathologies of bigotry. Further, it will examine the efficacy of anti-racism initiatives in responding to this hate. This paper will analyse the growing influence of corporate and media entities in crafting the economics of Australian sports and assess the role of such factors in creating the narrative of racism in the nation, both as a sociological reality as well as a marker of national identity. Finally, this paper will examine the political, social and economic forces that contribute to the culture of silence in Australian society in defying racism.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
495
82734
Testing the Possibility of Healthy Individuals to Mimic Fatigability in Multiple Sclerotic Patients
Abstract:
A proper functioning of the Central Nervous System ensures that we are able to accomplish just about everything we do as human beings such as walking, breathing, running, etc. Myelinated neurons throughout the body which transmit signals at high speeds facilitate these actions. In the case of MS, the body’s immune system attacks the myelin sheath surrounding the neurons and overtime destroys the myelin sheaths. Depending upon where the destruction occurs in the brain symptoms can vary from person to person. Fatigue is, however, the biggest problem encountered by an MS sufferer. It is very often described as the bedrock upon which other symptoms of MS such challenges in balance and coordination, dizziness, slurred speech, etc. may occur. Classifying and distinguishing between perceptions based fatigue and performance based fatigability is key to identifying appropriate treatment options for patients. Objective methods for assessing motor fatigability is also key to providing clinicians and physiotherapist with critical information on the progression of the symptom. This study tested if the Fatigue Index Kliniken Schmieder assessment tool can detect fatigability as seen in MS patients when healthy subjects with no known history of neurological pathology mimic abnormal gaits. Thirty three healthy adults between ages 18-58years volunteered as subjects for the study. The subjects, strapped with RehaWatch sensors on both feet, completed 6 gait protocols of normal and mimicked fatigable gaits for 60 seconds per each gait and at 1.38889m/s treadmill speed following clear instructions given.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
494
82655
Examining the Effects of Ticket Bundling Strategies and Team Identification on Purchase of Hedonic and Utilitarian Options
Abstract:
Bundling strategy is a common marketing practice today. In the past decades, both academicians and practitioners have increasingly emphasized the strategic importance of bundling in today’s markets. The reason for increased interest in bundling strategy is that they normally believe that it can significantly increase profits on organization’s sales over time and it is convenient for the customer. However, little efforts has been made on ticket bundling and purchase considerations in hedonic and utilitarian options in sport consumer behavior context. Consumers often face choices between utilitarian and hedonic alternatives in decision making. When consumers purchase certain products, they are only interested in the functional dimensions, which are called utilitarian dimensions. On the other hand, others focus more on hedonic features such as fun, excitement, and pleasure. Thus, the current research examines how utilitarian and hedonic consumption can vary in typical ticket purchasing process. The purpose of this research is to understand the following two research themes: (1) the differential effect of discount framing on ticket bundling: utilitarian and hedonic options and (2) moderating effect of team identification on ticket bundling. In order to test the research hypotheses, an experimental study using a two-way ANOVA, 3 (team identification: low, medium, and high) X 2 (discount frame: ticket bundle sales with utilitarian product, and hedonic product), with mixed factorial design will be conducted to determine whether there is a statistical significance between purchasing intentions of two discount frames of ticket bundle sales within different team identification levels. To compare mean differences among the two different settings, we will create two conditions of ticket bundles: (1) offering a discount on a ticket ($5 off) if they would purchase it along with utilitarian product (e.g., iPhone8 case, t-shirt, cap), and (2) offering a discount on a ticket ($5 off) if they would purchase it along with hedonic product (e.g., pizza, drink, fans featured on big screen). The findings of the current ticket bundling study are expected to have many theoretical and practical contributions and implications by extending the research and literature pertaining to the relationship between team identification and sport consumer behavior. Specifically, this study can provide a reliable and valid framework to understanding the role of team identification as a moderator on behavioral intentions such as purchase intentions. From an academic perspective, the study will be the first known attempt to understand consumer reactions toward different discount frames related to ticket bundling. Even though the game ticket itself is the major commodity of sport event attendance and significantly related to teams’ revenue streams, most recent ticket pricing research has been done in terms of economic or cost-oriented pricing and not from a consumer psychological perspective. For sport practitioners, this study will also provide significant implications. The result will imply that sport marketers may need to develop two different ticketing promotions for loyal fan and non-loyal fans. Since loyal fans concern ticket price than tie-in products when they see ticket bundle sales, advertising campaign should be more focused on discounting ticket price.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
493
82648
The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Equestrian Jumping Tasks
Abstract:
Imagery is a popular mental technique used by athletes and coaches to improve learning and performance. It has been widely investigated and beneficial in the sports context. However, the imagery application in equestrian sport has been understudied. Thus, the effectiveness of imagery should encompass the application in the equestrian sport to ensure its application covert all sports. Unlike most sports (e.g., football, badminton, tennis, ski) which are both mental and physical are dependent solely upon human decision and response, equestrian sports involves the interaction of human-horse collaboration to success in the equestrian tasks. This study aims to investigate the effect of PETTLEP imagery on equestrian jumping tasks, motivation and imagery ability. It was hypothesized that the use of PETTLEP imagery intervention will significantly increase in the skill equestrian jumping tasks. It was also hypothesized that riders’ imagery ability and motivation will increase across phases. The participants were skilled riders with less to no imagery experience. A single-subject ABA design was employed. The study was occurred over five week’s period at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Equestrian Park. Imagery ability was measured using the Sport Imagery Assessment Questionnaires (SIAQ), the motivational measured based on the Motivational imagery ability measure for Sport (MIAMS). The effectiveness of the PETTLEP imagery intervention on show jumping tasks were evaluated by the professional equine rider on the observational scale. Results demonstrated the improvement on all equestrian jumping tasks for the most participants from baseline to intervention. Result shows the improvement on imagery ability and participants’ motivations after the PETTLEP imagery intervention. Implication of the present study include underlining the impact of PETTLEP imagery on equestrian jumping tasks. The result extends the previous research on the effectiveness of PETTLEP imagery in the sports context that involves interaction and collaboration between human and horse.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
492
82220
Quality of Life Assessment across the Cancer Continuum: Understanding the Role of an Exercise Rehabilitation Programme
Abstract:
The Quality of Life (QoL) paradigm is multidimensional, dynamic and modular and its definition differs across the disease continuum. The challenge in the interpretation of QoL data in clinical research is that QoL is influenced by psychological phenomena such as adaptation to illness. This research aims to obtain a valid and sensitive assessment of QoL change over the cancer continuum disease and to evaluate an exercise rehabilitation programme aimed at inverting the observed decrease in QoL when patients return to daily living activities. The sample comprised 66 men. Patients were first assessed to establish a baseline (P1-diagnosis). This was followed by a post-test (P2-discharge) and a then-test measurement (P3-retrospective evaluation) and after returning home patients were randomized in experimental and control groups. The experimental group attended a rehabilitation programme over 24 weeks (P4). Results show that from baseline to post-test, QoL decreased significantly. The recalibration then-test confirmed a low QoL in all periods evaluated. Significant differences between the experimental and control groups prove the positive effect of the Rehabilitation Programme on QoL. Understanding the real dynamic of QoL over time would help to adapt rehabilitation programmes by improving sensitivity and efficacy and provide professionals with a more accurate perception of the impact of treatment and side effects on patients’ QoL. Our results underline the importance of a health professional change towards a watchful waiting on QoL until its total recovery in the daily living.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
491
82058
Assessing the Efficiency of Sports Stadiums in India: An Explorative Study of Socio-Economic Sustainability
Abstract:
Sports stadiums are not merely public amenities for entertainment and recreation for a city. They are buildings with extremely high construction investment and running costs which holds the supreme responsibility of social integration, nation building and financial upliftment of the community apart from its primary motive of conducting and promotion of the sports. But the present scenario of sports performances at international events and growing physical inactivity among the youth in India show that the sports facilities are far behind in achieving these goals. A pilot study of Indira Gandhi Sports complex in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh gave an indication of underutilization of sports stadia in India. This probed a crying need for the assessment of the present usage and functioning of the major sports (non-cricketing) facilities within the country. This paper assesses the sustainability of stadiums built for national and international sporting (non-cricket) events in terms of sporting, socio-cultural and financial sustainability by mainly focusing on their usage in non-event days. The criteria for the assessment and comparison of the stadiums within the nation is done using World Stadium Index and GDI (Gross Domestic Income) while with international counterparts using WSI and GNI (Gross National Income). The pilot case of India Gandhi Sports complex in Vijayawada is further investigated for a deeper understanding of the present usage, the existing issues for its underutilization and the way-forward (at least a few) to reach its sustainable potential. The paper finally concludes with the discussion on whether sports stadiums are being utilized to its financial potential and if it is at par with its international counterparts.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
490
81917
Reliability and Validity for Measurement of Body Composition: A Field Method
Abstract:
Measurement of body composition via a field method has the most popular instruments which are used to estimate the percentage of body fat. Among the instruments used are the Body Mass Index, Bio Impedance Analysis and Skinfold Test. All three of these instruments do not involve high costs, do not require high technical skills, are mobile, save time, and are suitable for use in large populations. Because all three instruments can estimate the percentage of body fat, but it is important to identify the most appropriate instruments and have high reliability. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the reliability and convergent validity of the instruments. A total of 40 students, males and females aged between 13 and 14 years participated in this study. The study found that the test retest and Pearson correlation coefficient of reliability for the three instruments is very high, r = .99. While the inter class reliability also are at high level with r = .99 for Body Mass Index and Bio Impedance Analysis, r = .96 for Skin fold test. Intra class reliability coefficient for these three instruments is too high for Body Mass Index r = .99, Bio Impedance Analysis r = .97, and Skin fold Test r = .90. However, Standard Error of Measurement value for all three instruments indicates the Body Mass Index is the most appropriate instrument with a mean value of .000672 compared with other instruments. The findings show that the Body Mass Index is an instrument which is the most accurate and reliable in estimating body fat percentage for the population studied.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
489
81747
Comparing the Knee Kinetics and Kinematics during Non-Steady Movements in Recovered Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Badminton Players against an Uninjured Cohort: Case-Control Study
Abstract:
Background: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament(ACL) helps stabilize the knee joint minimizing tibial anterior translation. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is common in racquet sports and often occurs due to sudden acceleration, deceleration or changes of direction. This mechanism in badminton most commonly occurs during landing after an overhead stroke. Knee biomechanics during dynamic movements such as walking, running and stair negotiation, do not return to normal for more than a year after an ACL reconstruction. This change in the biomechanics may lead to re-injury whilst performing non-steady movements during sports, where these injuries are most prevalent. Aims: To compare if the knee kinetics and kinematics in ACL injury recovered athletes return to the same level as those from an uninjured cohort during standard movements used for clinical assessment and badminton shots. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine: Knee valgus during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Degree of internal or external rotation during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Maximum knee flexion during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump and net shot. Methods: This case-control study included 14 participants with three ACL injury recovered athletes and 11 uninjured participants. The participants performed various functional tasks including vertical drop jump, single leg squat; the forehand net shot and the forehand drop shot. The data was analysed using the two-way ANOVA test, and the reliability of the data was evaluated using the Intra Class Coefficient. Results: The data showed a significant decrease in the range of knee rotation in ACL injured participants as compared to the uninjured cohort (F₇,₅₅₆=2.37; p=0.021). There was also a decrease in the maximum knee flexion angles and an increase in knee valgus angles in ACL injured participants although they were not statistically significant. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in the knee rotation angles in the ACL injured participants which could be a potential cause for re-injury in these athletes in the future. Although the results for decrease in maximum knee flexion angles and increase in knee valgus angles were not significant, this may be due to a limited sample of ACL injured participants; there is potential for it to be identified as a variable of interest in the rehabilitation of ACL injuries. These changes in the knee biomechanics could be vital in the rehabilitation of ACL injured athletes in the future, and an inclusion of sports based tasks, e.g., Net shot along with standard protocol movements for ACL assessment would provide a better measure of the rehabilitation of the athlete.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
488
81738
Effects of Continuous and Periodic Aerobic Exercises on C Reactive Protein in Overweight Women
Abstract:
The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of eight weeks of continuous and periodic aerobic exercises on serum levels of CRP in overweight woman. 36 woman aged between 20 and 35 years from the city of Ahwaz were randomly selected as the sample of the study. This sample was further divided into three groups (n= 12) of continuous aerobic exercise, periodic aerobic exercise, and control. Subjects of the groups of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise participated in 8 weeks of specialized exercises while the control group subjects did not take part in any regular physical activity program. Blood samples were collected from subjects in 24 hours prior to and 48 hours past to the intervention period. Afterwards, the serum level of CRP was measured for each blood sample. Results showed that BMI and serum level of CRP both significantly reduced as a result of aerobic exercises. However, no statistically significant difference was recorded between the extent of effects of the former and latter aerobic exercise types. Eight weeks of aerobic exercise will probably result in reduced inflammation and cardiovascular diseases risk in overweight women. The reason for lack of difference between effects of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise may lie in the similarity of average intensity and length of physical administered activities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
487
80991
The Comparison of Physical Fitness across Age and Gender in the Lithuanian Primary School Students: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Abstract:
Background: Gender differences in physical fitness were tracked in many studies with lower effect in preschool children and increasing difference among genders across age. In Lithuania, on a population level, secular trends in physical fitness were regularly observed each ten years for the last two decades for 11-18 years old students. However, there is apparently a lack of such epidemiological studies among primary school students. Assessing and monitoring physical fitness from an early age is of particular importance seeking to develop and strengthen physical abilities of youths for future health benefits. The goal of the current study was to indicate age and gender differences in anthropometric measures, musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness in Lithuanian primary school children. Methods: The study included 3456 1-4th grade students from 6 to 10 years. The data reliably represents the population of primary school children in Lithuania. Among them, 1721 (49.8 percent) were boys. Physical fitness was measured by the 9-item test battery, developed by Fjørtoft and colleagues (2011). Height and weight were measured and body mass index was calculated. Student t test evaluated differences in physical fitness between boys and girls, ANOVA was performed to indicate differences across age. Results: All anthropometric and fitness means that were identified as significantly different were better in boys than in girls and in older than younger students (p < .05). Among anthropometric measures, height was higher in boys aged 7 through 9 years. Weight and BMI differed among boys and girls only at 8 years old. Means of height and weight increased significantly across all ages. Among musculoskeletal fitness tests, means of standing broad jump, throwing a tennis ball and pushing a medicine ball were different between genders within each age group and across all ages. Differences between genders were less likely in motor fitness than in musculoskeletal or cardiorespiratory fitness. Differences in means of shuttle run 10 x 5 test between genders occurred at age 6, 9 and 10 years; running 20 m at age 6 and 9 years, and climbing wall bars at age 9 and 10. Means of Reduced Cooper test representing cardiorespiratory fitness were different between genders within each age group but did not differ among age 6 and 8 as well as 7 and 8 years in boys, and among age 7 and 8 years in girls. Conclusion: In general, the current study confirms gender differences in musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness found in other studies across the world in primary school and older children. Observed gender differences might be explained by higher physical activity in boys rather than girls. As it is explained by previous literature, older boys and girls had better performances than younger ones, because of the components of fitness change as a function of growth, maturation, development, and interactions among the three processes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
486
80985
Physical Fitness Normative Reference Values among Lithuanian Primary School Children: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Abstract:
Background. Health-related physical fitness refers to the favorable health status, i.e. ability to perform daily activities with vigor, as well as capacities that are associated with a low risk for development of chronic diseases and premature death. However, in school-aged children it is constantly declining, while some aspects of fitness declined as much as 50 percent during the last two decades, which prognosticates increasingly earlier onset of health problems, decreasing the quality of life of the population and financial burden for the society. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to indicate nationally representative age- and gender-specific reference values of anthropometric measures, musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness in Lithuanian primary school children from 6 to 10 years. Methods. The study included 3556 students in total, from 73 randomly selected schools. Ethics approval for research by the Kaunas Regional Ethics Committee (No. BE-2-42) was obtained. Physical fitness was measured by the 9-item test battery, developed by Fjørtoft and colleagues. Height and weight were measured and body mass index calculated. Smoothed centile charts were derived using the LMS method. Results. The numerical age- and gender-specific percentile values (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile) for anthropometric measures, musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness were provided. The equivalent smoothed LMS curves were performed. The study indicated 12.5 percent of overweight and 5 percent of obese children in accordance with international gender and age specific norms of body mass index. This data could be used in clinical and educational settings in order to identify the level of individual physical fitness within its different components.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
485
80849
The Role of Chemerin and Myostatin after Physical Activity
Abstract:
Obesity and overweight is one of the most common metabolic disorders in industrialized countries and in developing countries. One consequence of pathological obesity is cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Obesity as an inflammatory disease plays a key role in the beginning and development of atheroma processes by secretory function of adipose tissue in the synthesis and release of cytokines. Chemerin is mainly originated from adipose tissue which can affect the development of atherosclerosis as paracrine and create the mobilization of macrophages and inflammatory responses in atherosclerosis plaques created. Resistance training for 10 weeks could reduce levels of plasma myostatin. It seems that resistance training can reduce atrophy and increase muscular strength; and it plays role as an autocrine mechanism to guide the growth of skeletal muscle in response to mechanical stimuli times. Better understanding of adipokines can help to further understand the complications of obesity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
484
80751
Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Economy Following Exercise-Induced Fatigue
Abstract:
Running economy is a key physiological parameter of an individual’s running efficacy and a valid tool for predicting performance outcomes. Of the many factors known to influence running economy (RE), footwear certainly plays a role owing to its characteristics that vary substantially from model to model. Although minimalist footwear is believed to enhance RE and thereby endurance performance, conclusive research reports are scarce. Indeed, debates remain as to which footwear characteristics most alter RE. The purposes of this study were, therefore, two-fold: (a) to determine whether wearing minimalist shoes results in better RE compared to shod and to identify relationships with kinematic and muscle activation patterns; (b) to determine whether changes in RE with minimalist shoes are still evident following a fatiguing bout of exercise. Well-trained male distance runners (n=10; 29.0 ± 7.5 yrs; 71.0 ± 4.8 kg; 176.3 ± 6.5 cm) partook first in a maximal O₂ uptake determination test (VO₂ₘₐₓ = 61.6 ± 7.3 ml min⁻¹ kg⁻¹) 7 days prior to the experimental sessions. Second, in a fully randomized fashion, an RE test consisting of three 8-min treadmill runs in shod and minimalist footwear were performed prior to and following exercise induced fatigue (EIF). The minimalist and shod conditions were tested with a minimum of 7-day wash-out period between conditions. The RE bouts, interspaced by 2-min rest periods, were run at 2.79, 3.33, and 3.89 m s⁻¹ with a 1% grade. EIF consisted of 7 times 1000 m at 94-97% VO₂ₘₐₓ interspaced with 3-min recovery. Cardiorespiratory, electromyography (EMG), kinematics, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate were measured throughout the experimental sessions. A significant main speed effect on RE (p=0.001) and stride frequency (SF) (p=0.001) was observed. The pairwise comparisons showed that running at 2.79 m s⁻¹ was less economic compared to 3.33, and 3.89 m s⁻¹ (3.56 ± 0.38, 3.41 ± 0.45, 3.40 ± 0.45 ml O₂ kg⁻¹ km⁻¹; respectively) and that SF increased as a function of speed (79 ± 5, 82 ± 5, 84 ± 5 strides min⁻¹). Further, EMG analyses revealed that root mean square EMG significantly increased as a function of speed for all muscles (Biceps femoris, Gluteus maximus, Gastrocnemius, Tibialis anterior, Vastus lateralis). During EIF, the statistical analysis revealed a significant main effect of time on lactate production (from 2.7 ± 5.7 to 11.2 ± 6.2 mmol L⁻¹), RPE scores (from 7.6 ± 4.0 to 18.4 ± 2.7) and peak HR (from 171 ± 30 to 181 ± 20 bpm), expect for the recovery period. Surprisingly, a significant main footwear effect was observed on running speed during intervals (p=0.041). Participants ran faster with minimalist shoes compared to shod (3:24 ± 0:44 min [95%CI: 3:14-3:34] vs. 3:30 ± 0:47 min [95%CI: 3:19-3:41]). Although EIF altered lactate production and RPE scores, no other effect was noticeable on RE, EMG, and SF pre- and post-EIF, except for the expected speed effect. The significant footwear effect on running speed during EIF was unforeseen but could be due to shoe mass and/or heel-toe-drop differences. We also cannot discard the effect of speed on foot-strike pattern and therefore, running performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
483
80449
Exploring The Physical Activity Behavior And Needs Of Adolescent Girls: A Mixed-Methods Study
Abstract:
Despite the well-established health benefits of physical activity (PA), most adolescents do not meet guidelines recommending 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) each day. Adolescent girls engage in less PA than boys, a difference that increases with age. By the 9th grade, only 20% of girls report meeting recommendations for PA with lower percentages for black and Hispanic girls compared to white girls. The purpose of the study was to explore the physical activity (PA) behavior and needs of adolescent girls. Study aims included assessment of adolescent girls’ PA behavior; facilitators of and barriers to PA, PA needs, and acceptability of the Fitbit-Flex 2 activity tracker. This exploratory study used a qualitative and quantitative approach. The qualitative approach involved a focus group using a semi-structured interview technique. PA was measured using the Fitbit-Flex 2 activity tracker. Steps, distance, and active minutes were recorded for one week. A Fitbit survey was also administered to assess acceptability. SPSS Version 22.0 and ATLAS.ti Version 8 were used to analyze data. Girls in the ninth grade were recruited from a high school in the Midwest (n=11). Girls were excluded if they were involved in sports or other organized PA ≥ 3 days per week, had a health condition that prevented or limited PA, or could not read and write English. Participants received a Fitbit-Flex 2 activity tracker to wear for one week. At the end of the week, girls returned the Fitbit and participated in a focus group. Girls responded to open-ended questions regarding their PA behavior and shared their ideas for future intervention efforts aimed at increasing PA among adolescents. Girls completed a survey assessing their perceptions of the Fitbit. Mean age of the girls was 15.3 years (SD=0.44). On average girls took 6,520 steps and walked 2.73 miles each day. Girls stated their favorite types of PA were walking, riding bike, and running. Most girls stated they did PA for 30 minutes or more at a time once a day or every other day. The top 3 facilitators of PA reported by girls were friends, family, and transportation. The top 3 barriers included health issues, lack of motivation, and weather. Top intervention ideas were community service projects, camps, and using a Fitbit activity tracker. Girls felt the best timing of a PA program would be in the summer. Fitbit survey results showed 100% of girls would use a Fitbit on most days if they had one. Ten (91%) girls wore the Fitbit on all days. Seven (64%) girls used the Fitbit app and all reported they liked it. Findings indicate that PA participation for this sample is consistent with previous studies. Adolescent girls are not meeting recommended daily guidelines for PA. Fitbit activity trackers were positively received by all participants and could be used in future interventions aimed at increasing PA for adolescent girls. PA interventions that take place in the summer with friends and include community service projects may increase PA and be well received by this population.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
482
80351
The Role of the Coach in Elite Equestrian Sport
Abstract:
The British Equestrian Federation (BEF) aims to develop a holistic coach education and certification program, moving away from traditional autocratic instruction in line with the UK Coaching Framework. This framework is based on generic coaching science research where the coach is cited as a pivotal aspect in developing sporting success. Theoretic knowledge suggests that the role of the sports coach is to develop the physical, tactical, technical and psychological attributes of the athlete and is responsible for the planning, organization and delivery of the training plan and competition schedule. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, there is no empirical evidence to suggest that is the role required in equestrian sport as the rider takes responsibility for many of these tasks. This research aimed to address the void in current knowledge by gaining an understanding of coaching in equestrian sport in order to improve coaching education system through awareness of the role of the coach. Objectives were to examine the relationship between coach and rider at elite level in equestrian sport providing empirical evidence to suggest that the rider is, in part, ‘self –coached’. To identify the elite equestrian coaches’ role in coaching these ‘self-coached riders. A qualitative method using semi-structured interviews was used. A sample of elite coaches (N=3) and elite riders (N=3) were interviewed. Analysis of the transcripts revealed a total of 534 meaning units that were further grouped into sub-themes and general themes from the coaches’ perspective and the riders’ perspective. This led to the development of a final thematic structure revealing major dimensions that characterized coaching in elite equestrian sport. It was found that the riders at the elite level coach themselves the majority of the time, therefore, can be considered as ‘self-coached’ athletes. However, they do use elite coaches in a mentoring and consultancy role, where they seek guidance from the coach on specific problems, to sound ideas off or to seek reassurance that what they are doing is correct. Findings from this research suggest that the rider-coach relationship at the elite level is a professional one, based on trust and respect, but not a close relationship as seen in other sports. The results show the imperative need for the BEF to educate coaches in coaching the self-coached rider at the elite level, particularly in terms of mentoring skills. As well as incorporating rider education aimed at developing the independent, self-coached riders.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
481
80288
Predictors and Prevention of Sports’ Injuries among Male Professional Footballers in Nigeria
Abstract:
The study assessed the influence of playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches, skill level and competition level on the occurrence and severity of football injuries. The prospective outline of the study was as follows: after a baseline examination and measurements were performed ascertaining possible predictors of injury, all players were followed up weekly for one year to register subsequent injuries and complaints. Four hundred and thirty-five out of 455 subjects completed the weekly follow-ups over one year. Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data collected. Results showed that playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches skill level and competition level were predictors of injuries among the professional footballer. Playing on natural grass, acclimatization, reduction of physical overload, among others, were strategies postulated for preventing injuries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
480
80219
Preliminary Study Investigating Trunk Muscle Fatigue and Cognitive Function in Event Riders during a Simulated Jumping Test
Abstract:
The Olympic discipline of eventing is the triathlon of equestrian sport, consisting of dressage, cross-country and show jumping. Falls on the cross-country are common and can be serious even causing death to rider. Research identifies an increased risk of a fall with an increasing number of obstacles and for jumping efforts later in the course suggesting fatigue maybe a contributing factor. Advice based on anecdotal evidence suggests riders undertake strength and conditioning programs to improve their ‘core’, thus improving their ability to maintain and control their riding position. There is little empirical evidence to support this advice. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate truck muscle fatigue and cognitive function during a simulated jumping test. Eight adult riders participated in a riding test on a Racewood Event simulator for 10 minutes, over a continuous jumping programme. The SEMG activity of six trunk muscles were bilaterally measured at every minute, and normalised root mean squares (RMS) and median frequencies (MDF) were computed from the EMG power spectra. Visual analogue scales (VAS) measuring Fatigue and Pain levels and Cognitive Function ‘tapping’ tests were performed before and after the riding test. Average MDF values for all muscles differed significantly between each sampled minute (p = 0.017), however a consistent decrease from Minute 1 and Minute 9 was not found, suggesting the trunk muscles fatigued and then recovered as other muscle groups important in maintaining the riding position during dynamic movement compensated. Differences between the MDF and RMS of different muscles were highly significant (H=213.01, DF=5, p < 0.001), supporting previous anecdotal evidence that different trunk muscles carry out different roles of posture maintenance during riding. RMS values were not significantly different between the sampled minutes or between riders, suggesting the riding test produced a consistent and repeatable effect on the trunk muscles. MDF values differed significantly between riders (H=50.8, DF = 5, p < 0.001), suggesting individuals may experience localised muscular fatigue of the same test differently, and that other parameters of physical fitness should be investigated to provide conclusions. Lumbar muscles were shown to be important in maintaining the position, therefore physical training program should focus on these areas. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-riding test VAS Pain and Fatigue scores or cognitive function test scores, suggesting the riding test was not significantly fatiguing for participants. However, a near significant correlation was found between time of riding test and VAS Pain score (p = 0.06), suggesting somatic pain may be a limiting factor to performance. No other correlations were found between the factors of participant riding test time, VAS Pain and Fatigue, however a larger sample needs to be tested to improve statistical analysis. The findings suggest the simulator riding test was not sufficient to provoke fatigue in the riders, however foundations for future studies have been laid to enable methodologies in realistic eventing settings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
479
79361
Effects of Static Stretching Exercises on Flexibility and Sprint Performance in Inactive Healthy Girls
Authors:
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of static stretching exercises on the flexibility and sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls. A total of 27 girls were randomly divided into control group (n=15) and stretching group (n=12) who performed static stretching. Sit and reach flexibility and 30-meter sprint pre-tests were performed for both groups. Static stretching exercises were performed three times, 30 sec. practice and 15 sec. rest for each leg only on five muscle by stretching group. The post-tests were performed in five minutes after static stretching exercise. Paired t-test was used to analyze differentiations among the group parameters. According to research results, there is a significant difference between pre-test and post-test flexibility (p < 0.05) and sprint test results (p < 0.01). As a conclusion of the study, static stretching exercises improve flexibility but decrease sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
478
79358
Examination of 12-14 Years Old Volleyball Players’ Body Image Levels
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to examine the body image levels of 12-14 years old girls who are playing volleyball. The research group consists of 113 girls who are playing volleyball in Sakarya during the fall season of 2015-2016. Data was collected by means of the 'Body Image Questionnaire' which was originally developed by Secord and Jourard. The consequence of repeated analysis of the reliability of the scale was determined to as '.96'. This study employed statistical calculations as mean, standard deviation and t-test. According to results of this study, it was determined that the mean point of the volleyball players is 158.5 ± 25.1 (minimum=40; maximum=200) and it can be said that the volleyball players’ body image levels are high. There is a significant difference between the underweight (167.4 ± 20.7) and normal weight (151.4 ± 26.2) groups according to their Body Mass Index. Body image levels of underweight group were determined higher than normal weight group.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
477
79212
Factors Affecting Leisure Time Physical Activity and Its Relationship with Chronic Diseases
Abstract:
High incidence of inactive lifestyle can lead to development of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to find out the level of leisure time physical activity in two generations of Estonians and its associations with chronic diseases. Also, aspects that affect physical activity, associations between subjective self estimation and real physical activity level; and differences between work time physical activity and leisure time physical activity were determined. The questionnaire was carried out between October 2012 and November 2013 in four colleges and two universities of Estonia. The students and their parents were involved. Current and school time physical activity was classified into three groups according to the WHO recommendations, respectively: inactive – physical activity 7x60 minutes a week. The average group was defined as the group with optimal or moderate physical activity. Altogether 318 students and 138 parents were enrolled in the study. Half (52.2%) and one third (30.9%) of the responders belonged to the current and school time optimal physical activity groups, respectively. Physical activity in later life was influenced by the level of schooltime activity; however, it seemed to tend toward extremes with ageing. Compared with physical activity in schooltime the responders had two times higher chance to belong either to the inactive group (OR = 1.83; 95% CI 1.39-2.41) or to the very active group (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.28-3.31). The greatest motivation for physical activity in more active groups was interest in activity itself, in the inactive group the motivation was accompanied by body weight. The level of optimal work time physical activity favours leisure time activity, but if work demands more physical activity then inactivity in leisure time was observed. Of all the responders 38% had 201 chronic diseases: almost one third of the students and half of their parents. Tere were significantly less chronic diseases in the very active group compared with the inactive group (p< 0.001) and the optimally active group (p = 0.003). The study shows that the level of physical activity in later life is largely influenced by physical activity during school years. Chronic diseases are more frequent in thf e inactive group in compared with the optimally active and very active groups.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
476
79027
Eight-Week Exercise for Women: Impact on Anomalies in Width Depth and Environmental Dimension
Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the undesirable hypertrophic anomalies in the body of females and to investigate how they can be affected by the exercise program according to the applied 8 week individual conditions. The research was carried out on 35 women who did not have any regular previous sports practice and had an approximate age of 30 ± 5.0 at the gymnasium because of their asymmetric structure and weight gain of the body. Measurements of width, depth, and periphery were taken from the participants' body, and the exercise protocol was applied for 8 weeks according to the individual measurements in accordance with the obtained measurements. After 8 weeks, the same measurements were applied again. Measurements were made by using ruler and paper tape. The findings were evaluated and differences were analyzed by paired sample t test. According to the findings obtained, ulnae distal proiecturas width averages were 44.77 ± 3.65 and 43.52 ± 3.47 pre- and post-exercise respectively. Bithorachanteric width averages were 29.3 ± 3.12 before exercise and 26.67 ± 3.27 after exercise. Average abdominal widths were observed as 18.64 ± 4.14 (before exercise) and 18.01 ± 6.27 (after exercise). The distances between the malleolus were measured as 16.98 ± 1.62 (before exercise) and 16.70 ± 1.64 (after exercise). The results were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean of pre-exercise Externus abdominis circumference was 93.97 ± 8.91, and the mean of post-exercise mean was 90.82 ± 8.24. The results are statistically significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, findings of the study show that inactivity, daily uncontrolled activities or erroneous postural postures, malnutrition cause some anomalies in the human body. However, with consciously standardized and regular exercises, these abnormalities are reduced by an eight-week exercise protocol in parallel with the expulsion of excess kilos and can be removed when working much longer and fitter, it is proposed to be healthier and more beautiful in appearance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
475
78788
The Effect of a Test Pump Supplement on the Physiological and Functional Performance of Futsal Women
Abstract:
To evaluate the effect of Test Pump supplement on the physiological and functional performance of futsal women, twenty female futsal subjects were divided into two groups: placebo (n = 10) and supplement (n = 10) and were given buccal tablets for 7 days and 12 g daily supplement each day. The placebo group used starch powder during this period. Speed, agility with ball, agility without ball and dribbling time were measured before and after supplementation. In addition, the rate of heart rate and blood pressure changes were measured before and after the YOYO test. The results showed that the test pump had no significant effect on improving speed, agility with ball, agility without ball, dribbling time and heart rate changes and diastolic blood pressure, and only affect the maximum oxygen consumption and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05). In general, the use of the test-pump supplement does not have a significant effect on the physiological and functional performance of futsal women. The results of this study showed that the use of supplementary pump tests on women's futsal heart rate changes after loading period had a significant difference between the two groups in resting heart rate with heart rate after exercise and 5 minutes after exercise. However, it did not have a significant effect on the increase in heart rate. Supplementation significantly increased systolic blood pressure after exercise compared to resting blood pressure, as well as a significant increase in systolic blood pressure after exercise compared to resting systolic blood pressure and 5 minutes after exercise in both groups from the loading period. On the other hand, there was a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in both placebo and supplemented groups.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
474
77579
Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking Training
Abstract:
The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age=22.5( ± 1.0) years, body mass=61.4 ( ± 3.6) kg, height=170.3 ( ± 4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age=22.7 ( ± 2.9) years, body mass=53.0 ( ± 1.7) kg, height=156.7 ( ± 4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Participants were on treadmill walked without pole (W), with pole (NW) and with weight pole (1kgNW) each 5 minutes with resting recovery periods. Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Surface EMG data was recorded follows eight muscles; biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Statistical proceeding used t-tests, and the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The result of this experiment, it was increased step lengths with hip joint extension NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). It is therefore likely that NW and 1kgNW as a safe, feasible, and readily available form of physical exercise training, which exerts benefıcial effects in a wide range of people with the healthy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
473
77365
Effects of a Student-Centered Approach to Assessment on Students' Attitudes towards 'Applied Statistics' Course
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of this cross sectional study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching and learning Statistics from a student centered perspective in higher education institutions. Statistics education has emphasized the application of tangible and interesting examples in order to motivate students learning about statistical concepts. Participants in this study were 112 bachelor students enrolled in the ‘Applied Statistics’ course in Sports University of Tirana. Experimental group students received a student-centered teaching approach; Control group students received an instructor-centered teaching approach. This study found student-centered approach student group had statistically significantly higher assessments scores (52.1 ± 18.9) at the end of the evaluation compared to instructor-centered approach student group (61.8 ± 16.4), (t (108) = 2.848, p = 0.005). Results concluded that student-centered perspective can improve student positive attitude to statistical methods and to motivate project work. Therefore, findings of this study may be very useful to the higher education institutions to establish their learning strategies especially for courses related to Statistics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
472
77297
Haematological Responses on Amateur Cycling Stages Race
Abstract:
multiple stage bicycle races require high physiological loads from professional cyclists. Such demands can lead to immunosuppression and health problems. However, in this type of competition, little is known about its physiological effects on amateur athletes, who generally receive less medical support. Thus, this study analyzes the hematological effects of a multiple stage bicycle race on amateur cyclists. Seven Brazilian national amateur cyclists (34 ± 4.21 years) underwent a laboratory test to evaluate VO2Max (69.89 ± 7.43 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1). Six days later, these volunteers raced in the Tour of Goiás, participating in five races in four days (435 km) of competition. Arterial blood samples were collected one day before and one day after the competition. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to evaluate the data distribution and Wilcoxon to compare the two moments (p < 0.05) of data collection. The results show: Red cells ↓ 7.8% (5.1 ± 0.28 vs 4.7 ± 0.37 106 / mm 3, p = 0.01); Hemoglobin ↓ 7.9% (15.1 ± 0.31 vs 13.9 ± 0.27 g / dL, p = 0.01); Leukocytes ↑ 9.5% (4946 ± 553 versus 5416 ± 1075 / mm 3, p = 0.17); Platelets ↓ 7.0% (200.2 ± 51.5 vs 186.1 ± 39.5 / mm 3, p = 0.01); LDH ↑ 11% (164.4 ± 28.5 vs 182.5 ± 20.5 U / L, p = 0.17); CK ↑ 13.5% (290.7 ± 206.1 vs 330.1 ± 90.5 U / L, p = 0.39); CK-MB ↑ 2% (15.7 ± 3.9 vs. 20.1 ± 2.9 U / L, p = 0.06); Cortizol ↓ 13.5% (12.1 ± 2.4 vs 9.9 ± 1.9 μg / dL, p = 0.01); Total testosterone ↓ 7% (453.6 ± 120.1 vs 421.7 ± 74.3 ng / dL, p = 0.12); IGF-1 ↓ 15.1% (213.8 ± 18.8 vs 181.5 ± 34.7 ng / mL, p = 0.04). This means that there was significant reductions in O2 allocation / transport capacities, vascular injury disruption, and a fortuitous reduction of muscle skeletal anabolism along with maintenance and / or slight elevation of immune function, glucose and lipid energy and myocardial damage. Therefore, the results suggest that no abnormal health effect was identified among the athletes after participating in the Tour de Goiás.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
471
77112
Educational Sport and Quality of Life for Children and Teenagers from Brazilian Northeast
Abstract:
The use of sport as an integration mean is a very important tool regarding the social involvement of children and teenagers in a vulnerability situation. This study aims to report the experiences of a multidisciplinary program that intends to improve the quality of life of children and teenagers in Fortaleza, in the Northeast of Brazil. More than 400 children and teenagers aging 11 and 16 years participated in this study. Poor communities experience many particular difficulties in the urban centers such as violence, poor housing conditions, unemployment, lack in health care and deficient physical education in school. Physical education, physiotherapy, odontology, medicine and pharmacy students are responsible for the activities in the project supervised by a general coordinator and a counselor teacher of each academic unit. There are classes about team sports like basketball and soccer. Lectures about sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases are ministered beside the ones about oral health education, basic life support education, first aids, use and care with pharmaceuticals and orientations about healthy nutrition. In order to get the children’s family closer, monthly informative lectures are ministered. There is also the concern about reflecting the actions and producing academic paperwork such as graduation final projects and books. The number of participants has oscillated lately, and one of the causes is the lack of practicing physical activities and sports regularly. However, 250 teenagers have participated regularly for at least two years. These teenagers have shown a healthier lifestyle and a better physical fitness profile. The resources for maintaining the project come from the Pro-Reitoria of Extension, Federal University of Ceara, as well as from the PROEXT/MEC, Federal Government. Actions of this nature need to be done thinking for long periods so the effects results can become effective. Public and private investments are needed due to low socioeconomic families who are most vulnerable and have fewer opportunities to enhance to health prevention services.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
470
77098
Viscoelastic Behavior of Human Bone Tissue under Nanoindentation Tests
Abstract:
Cancellous bone is a porous composite of a hierarchical structure and anisotropic properties. The biological tissue is considered to be a viscoelastic material, but many studies based on a nanoindentation method have focused on their elasticity and microhardness. However, the response of many organic materials depends not only on the load magnitude, but also on its duration and time course. Depth Sensing Indentation (DSI) technique has been used for examination of creep in polymers, metals and composites. In the indentation tests on biological samples, the mechanical properties are most frequently determined for animal tissues (of an ox, a monkey, a pig, a rat, a mouse, a bovine). However, there are rare reports of studies of the bone viscoelastic properties on microstructural level. Various rheological models were used to describe the viscoelastic behaviours of bone, identified in the indentation process (e. g Burgers model, linear model, two-dashpot Kelvin model, Maxwell-Voigt model). The goal of the study was to determine the influence of creep effect on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone in indentation tests. The aim of this research was also the assessment of the material properties of bone structures, having in mind the energy aspects of the curve (penetrator loading-depth) obtained in the loading/unloading cycle. There was considered how the different holding times affected the results within trabecular bone.As a result, indentation creep (CIT), hardness (HM, HIT, HV) and elasticity are obtained. Human trabecular bone samples (n=21; mean age 63±15yrs) from the femoral heads replaced during hip alloplasty were removed and drained from alcohol of 1h before the experiment. The indentation process was conducted using CSM Microhardness Tester equipped with Vickers indenter. Each sample was indented 35 times (7 times for 5 different hold times: t1=0.1s, t2=1s, t3=10s, t4=100s and t5=1000s). The indenter was advanced at a rate of 10mN/s to 500mN. There was used Oliver-Pharr method in calculation process. The increase of hold time is associated with the decrease of hardness parameters (HIT(t1)=418±34 MPa, HIT(t2)=390±50 MPa, HIT(t3)= 313±54 MPa, HIT(t4)=305±54 MPa, HIT(t5)=276±90 MPa) and elasticity (EIT(t1)=7.7±1.2 GPa, EIT(t2)=8.0±1.5 GPa, EIT(t3)=7.0±0.9 GPa, EIT(t4)=7.2±0.9 GPa, EIT(t5)=6.2±1.8 GPa) as well as with the increase of the elastic (Welastic(t1)=4.11∙10-7±4.2∙10-8Nm, Welastic(t2)= 4.12∙10-7±6.4∙10-8 Nm, Welastic(t3)=4.71∙10-7±6.0∙10-9 Nm, Welastic(t4)= 4.33∙10-7±5.5∙10-9Nm, Welastic(t5)=5.11∙10-7±7.4∙10-8Nm) and inelastic (Winelastic(t1)=1.05∙10-6±1.2∙10-7 Nm, Winelastic(t2) =1.07∙10-6±7.6∙10-8 Nm, Winelastic(t3)=1.26∙10-6±1.9∙10-7Nm, Winelastic(t4)=1.56∙10-6± 1.9∙10-7 Nm, Winelastic(t5)=1.67∙10-6±2.6∙10-7)) reaction of materials. The indentation creep increased logarithmically (R2=0.901) with increasing hold time: CIT(t1) = 0.08±0.01%, CIT(t2) = 0.7±0.1%, CIT(t3) = 3.7±0.3%, CIT(t4) = 12.2±1.5%, CIT(t5) = 13.5±3.8%. The pronounced impact of creep effect on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone was observed in experimental studies. While the description elastic-inelastic, and thus the Oliver-Pharr method for data analysis, may apply in few limited cases, most biological tissues do not exhibit elastic-inelastic indentation responses. Viscoelastic properties of tissues may play a significant role in remodelling. The aspect is still under an analysis and numerical simulations. Acknowledgements: The presented results are part of the research project founded by National Science Centre (NCN), Poland, no.2014/15/B/ST7/03244.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):