Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

A Zakaria

Publications

5

Publications

5
2956
The Household-Based Socio-Economic Index for Every District in Peninsular Malaysia
Abstract:
Deprivation indices are widely used in public health study. These indices are also referred as the index of inequalities or disadvantage. Even though, there are many indices that have been built before, it is believed to be less appropriate to use the existing indices to be applied in other countries or areas which had different socio-economic conditions and different geographical characteristics. The objective of this study is to construct the index based on the geographical and socio-economic factors in Peninsular Malaysia which is defined as the weighted household-based deprivation index. This study has employed the variables based on household items, household facilities, school attendance and education level obtained from Malaysia 2000 census report. The factor analysis is used to extract the latent variables from indicators, or reducing the observable variable into smaller amount of components or factor. Based on the factor analysis, two extracted factors were selected, known as Basic Household Amenities and Middle-Class Household Item factor. It is observed that the district with a lower index values are located in the less developed states like Kelantan, Terengganu and Kedah. Meanwhile, the areas with high index values are located in developed states such as Pulau Pinang, W.P. Kuala Lumpur and Selangor.
Keywords:
Factor Analysis, Basic Household Amenities, Middle-Class Household Item, Socio-economic Index
4
12780
Feature-Based Machining using Macro
Abstract:
This paper presents an on-going research work on the implementation of feature-based machining via macro programming. Repetitive machining features such as holes, slots, pockets etc can readily be encapsulated in macros. Each macro consists of methods on how to machine the shape as defined by the feature. The macro programming technique comprises of a main program and subprograms. The main program allows user to select several subprograms that contain features and define their important parameters. With macros, complex machining routines can be implemented easily and no post processor is required. A case study on machining of a part that comprised of planar face, hole and pocket features using the macro programming technique was carried out. It is envisaged that the macro programming technique can be extended to other feature-based machining fields such as the newly developed STEP-NC domain.
Keywords:
Feature-based machining, CNC, Macro, STEP-NC.
3
15417
Stepwise Refinement in Executable-UML for Embedded System Design: A Preliminary Study
Abstract:

The fast growth in complexity coupled with requests for shorter development periods for embedded systems are bringing demands towards a more effective, i.e. higher-abstract, design process for hardaware/software integrated design. In Software Engineering area, Model Driven Architecture (MDA) and Executable UML (xUML) has been accepted to bring further improvement in software design. This paper constructs MDA and xUML stepwise transformations from an abstract specification model to a more concrete implementation model using the refactoring technique for hardaware/software integrated design. This approach provides clear and structured models which enables quick exploration and synthesis, and early stage verification.

Keywords:
Hardware/software integrated design, model driven architecture, executable UML, refactoring.
2
9996721
Fermentable Sugars from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Bioethanol Production
Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of a dilute acid, lime and ammonia aqueous pretreatment on the fermentable sugars conversion from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass. The dilute acid treatment was carried out in an autoclave, at 121ºC with 4% of sulfuric acid. In the lime pretreatment, 3 wt % of calcium hydroxide was used, whereas the third method was done by soaking EFB with 28% ammonia solution. The EFB biomass was then subjected to a two-stage-acid hydrolysis process. Subsequently, the hydrolysate was fermented by using instant baker’s yeast to produce bioethanol. The highest glucose yield was 890 mg/g of biomass, obtained from the sample which underwent lime pretreatment. The highest bioethanol yield of 6.1mg/g of glucose was achieved from acid pretreatment. This showed that the acid pretreatment gave the most fermentable sugars compared to the other two pretreatments.

Keywords:
Bioethanol, biomass, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fermentable sugars.
1
10006347
Sustainability Assessment of Municipal Wastewater Treatment
Abstract:

In this paper, our methodology to assess sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies in Egypt is presented. The preliminary list of factors to be considered, as well as their ranking listed. The factors include, but are not limited to pollutants removal efficiency and energy consumption under the environmental dimension, construction cost, operation and maintenance costs and required land area cost under the economic dimension and public acceptance, noise and generating job opportunities for local residents. This methodology is intended to be a user-friendly screening tool to support the decision making process when investigating different wastewater treatment technologies in Egypt. Based on the research work results presented in this paper, it can be generally concluded that the categorization of some of the social and environmental aspects of sustainability is subjective and highly dependent on the local conditions and researchers’ background.

Keywords:
Sustainability, wastewater treatment, sustainability assessment, Egypt.