Kinetics Study of Ammonia Removal from Synthetic Waste Water
The aim of this study was to investigate ammonium
exchange capacity of natural and activated clinoptilolite from
Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa. X – ray fluorescence (XRF)
analysis showed that the clinoptilolite contained exchangeable ions
of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. This analysis also
confirmed that the zeolite sample had a high silicon composition
compared to aluminium. Batch equilibrium studies were performed
in an orbital shaker and the data fitted the Langmuir isotherm very
well. The ammonium exchange capacity was found to increase with
pH and temperature. Clinoptilolite functionalization with
hydrochloric acid increased its ammonia uptake ability.
Activated clinoptilolite, Ammonium exchange,Equilibrium, Functionalization, Langmuir isotherm
Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil over TiO2 Supported nano-ZnO
TiO2 supported nano-ZnO catalyst was prepared by
deposition-precipitation and tested for the trans-esterification
reaction of soybean oil to biodiesel. The TiO2 support stabilized the
nano-ZnO in a dispersed form with limited crystallite size compared
to the unsupported ZnO. The final ZnO dispersion and crystallite size
and the material transfer resistance in the catalyst significantly
influenced the supported nano-ZnO catalyst performance.
nano-ZnO, soybean oil, TiO2, trans-esterification
Effect of Temperature on Specific Retention Volumes of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds Using the Gas - Liquid Chromatographic Technique Revisited
This paper is a continuation of our interest in the influence of temperature on specific retention volumes and the resulting infinite dilution activity coefficients. This has a direct effect in the design of absorption and stripping columns for the abatement of volatile organic compounds. The interaction of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at varying temperatures was studied by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Infinite dilution activity coefficients and specific retention volumes obtained in this study were found to be in agreement with those obtained from static headspace and group contribution methods by the authors as well as literature values for similar systems. Temperature variation also allows for transport calculations for different seasons. The results of this work confirm that PDMS is well suited for the scrubbing of VOCs from waste gas streams. Plots of specific retention volumes against temperature gave linear van-t Hoff plots.
Specific retention volume, Waste gas streams,specific retention, infinite dilution, abatement, transport.
Solubility of Organics in Water and Silicon Oil: A Comparative Study
The aim of this study was to compare the solubility of selected volatile organic compounds in water and silicon oil using the simple static headspace method. The experimental design allowed equilibrium achievement within 30 – 60 minutes. Infinite dilution activity coefficients and Henry-s law constants for various organics representing esters, ketones, alkanes, aromatics, cycloalkanes and amines were measured at 303K. The measurements were reproducible with a relative standard deviation and coefficient of variation of 1.3x10-3 and 1.3 respectively. The static determined activity coefficients using shaker flasks were reasonably comparable to those obtained using the gas liquid - chromatographic technique and those predicted using the group contribution methods mainly the UNIFAC. Silicon oil chemically known as polydimethysiloxane was found to be better absorbent for VOCs than water which quickly becomes saturated. For example the infinite dilution mole fraction based activity coefficients of hexane is 0.503 and 277 000 in silicon oil and water respectively. Thus silicon oil gives a superior factor of 550 696. Henry-s law constants and activity coefficients at infinite dilution play a significant role in the design of scrubbers for abatement of volatile organic compounds from contaminated air streams. This paper presents the phase equilibrium of volatile organic compounds in very dilute aqueous and polymeric solutions indicating the movement and fate of chemical in air and solvent. The successful comparison of the results obtained here and those obtained using other methods by the same authors and in literature, means that the results obtained here are reliable.
Abatement, absorbent, activity coefficients, equilibrium, Henry's law constant.
Estimating the Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Biodiesels Using the UNIFAC Procedure
This work considered the thermodynamic feasibility
of scrubbing volatile organic compounds into biodiesel in view of
designing a gas treatment process with this absorbent. A detailed
vapour – liquid equilibrium investigation was performed using the
original UNIFAC group contribution method. The four biodiesels
studied in this work are methyl oleate, methyl palmitate, methyl
linolenate and ethyl stearate. The original UNIFAC procedure was
used to estimate the infinite dilution activity coefficients of 13
selected volatile organic compounds in the biodiesels. The
calculations were done at the VOC mole fraction of 9.213x10-8. Ethyl
stearate gave the most favourable phase equilibrium. A close
agreement was found between the infinite dilution activity coefficient
of toluene found in this work and those reported in literature.
Thermodynamic models can efficiently be used to calculate vast
amount of phase equilibrium behaviour using limited number of
Biodiesel, Equilibrium, Gas treatment, Infinitedilution, Thermodynamic
Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage Using Un- Activated Bentonite and Limestone
The use of un-activated bentonite, and un-activated
bentonite blended with limestone for the treatment of acid mine
drainage (AMD) was investigated. Batch experiments were
conducted in a 5 L PVC reactor. Un-activated bentonite on its own
did not effectively neutralize and remove heavy metals from AMD.
The final pH obtained was below 4 and the metal removal efficiency
was below 50% for all the metals when bentonite solid loadings of 1,
5 and 10% were used. With un-activated bentonite (1%) blended with
1% limestone, the final pH obtained was approximately 7 and metal
removal efficiencies were greater than 60% for most of the metals.
The Langmuir isotherm gave the best fit for the experimental data
giving correlation coefficient (R2) very close to 1. Thus, it was
concluded that un-activated bentonite blended with limestone is
suitable for potential applications in removing heavy metals and
acid mine drainage, bentonite, limestone, heavy
Gauteng-s Waste Outlook: A Reflection
Gauteng, as the province with the greatest industrial and population density, the economic hub of South Africa also generates the greatest amount of waste, both general and hazardous. Therefore the province has a significant need to develop and apply appropriate integrated waste management policies that ensure that waste is recognised as a serious problem and is managed in an effective integrated manner to preserve both the present and future human health and environment. This paper reflects on Gauteng-s waste outlook in particular the province-s General Waste Minimisation Plan and its Integrated Waste Management Policy. The paper also looks at general waste generation, recyclable waste streams as well as recycling and separation at source initiatives in the province. Both the quantity and nature of solid waste differs considerably across the socio-economic spectrum. People in informal settlements generate an average of 0.16 kg per person per day whereas 2 kg per day is not unusual in affluent areas. For example the amount of waste generated in Johannesburg is approximately 1.2 kg per person per day.
General waste, generation, integrated, minimisation, recycling, separation
Effect of Oxygen and Micro-Cracking on the Flotation of Low Grade Nickel Sulphide Ore
This study investigated the effect of oxygen and
micro-cracking on the flotation of low grade nickel sulphide ore. The
ore treated contained serpentine minerals which have a history of
being difficult to process efficiently. The use of oxygen as a bubbling
gas has been noted to be effective because it increases the pulp
potential. The desired effect of micro cracking the ore is that the
nickel sulphide minerals will become activated and this activation
will render these minerals more susceptible to react with potassium
amyl xanthate collectors, resulting in a higher recovery of nickel and
hinder the recovery of other undesired minerals contained in the ore.
Higher nickel recoveries were obtained when pure oxygen was used
as a bubbling gas rather than the conventional air. Microwave
cracking favored the recovery of nickel.
Flotation, Conventional air, Oven micro-cracking,Recovery.
An Investigation into the Effect of Water Quality on Flotation Performance
A study was carried out to determine the effect of water quality on flotation performance. The experimental test work comprised of batch flotation tests using Denver lab cell for a period of 10 minutes. Nine different test runs were carried out in triplicates to ensure reproducibility using different water types from different thickener overflows, return and sewage effluent water (process water) and portable water. The water sources differed in pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids and conductivity. Process water was found to reduce the concentrate recovery and mass pull, while portable water increased the concentrate recovery and mass pull. Portable water reduced the concentrate grade while process water increased the concentrate grade. It is proposed that a combination of process water and portable water supply be used in flotation circuits to balance the different effects that the different water types have on the flotation efficiency.
Flotation, mass pull, process water, thickeneroverflows, water quality.
A Multistage Sulphidisation Flotation Procedure for a Low Grade Malachite Copper Ore
This study was carried out to develop a flotation
procedure for an oxide copper ore from a Region in Central Africa
for producing an 18% copper concentrate for downstream processing
at maximum recovery from a 4% copper feed grade. The copper
recoveries achieved from the test work were less than 50% despite
changes in reagent conditions (multistage sulphidisation, use of RCA
emulsion and mixture, use of AM 2, etc). The poor recoveries were
attributed to the mineralogy of the ore from which copper silicates
accounted for approximately 70% (mass) of the copper minerals in
the ore. These can be complex and difficult to float using
conventional flotation methods. Best results were obtained using
basic sulphidisation procedures, a high flotation temperature and
extended flotation residence time.
Froth flotation, Sulphidisation, Copper oxide ore,Mineralogy, Recovery
A Study of the Variables in the Optimisation of a Platinum Precipitation Process
This study investigated possible ways to improve the
efficiency of the platinum precipitation process using ammonium
chloride by reducing the platinum content reporting to the effluent.
The ore treated consist of five platinum group metals namely,
ruthenium, rhodium, iridium, platinum, palladium and a precious
metal gold. Gold, ruthenium, rhodium and iridium were extracted
prior the platinum precipitation process. Temperature, reducing
agent, flow rate and potential difference were the variables controlled
to determine the operation conditions for optimum platinum
precipitation efficiency. Hydrogen peroxide was added as the
oxidizing agent at the temperature of 85-90oC and potential
difference of 700-850mV was the variable used to check the
oxidizing state of platinum. The platinum was further purified at
temperature between 60-65oC, potential difference above 700 mV,
ammonium chloride of 200 l, and at these conditions the platinum
content reporting to the effluent was reduced to less than 300ppm,
resulting in optimum platinum precipitation efficiency and purity of
Platinum Group Metals (PGM), Potential difference,Precipitation, Redox reactions.
Feasibility Study for a Castor oil Extraction Plant in South Africa
A feasibility study for the design and construction of a
pilot plant for the extraction of castor oil in South Africa was
conducted. The study emphasized the four critical aspects of project
feasibility analysis, namely technical, financial, market and
managerial aspects. The technical aspect involved research on
existing oil extraction technologies, namely: mechanical pressing and
solvent extraction, as well as assessment of the proposed production
site for both short and long term viability of the project. The site is
on the outskirts of Nkomazi village in the Mpumalanga province,
where connections for water and electricity are currently underway,
potential raw material supply proves to be reliable since the province
is known for its commercial farming. The managerial aspect was
evaluated based on the fact that the current producer of castor oil will
be fully involved in the project while receiving training and technical
assistance from Sasol Technology, the TSC and SEDA. Market and
financial aspects were evaluated and the project was considered
financially viable with a Net Present Value (NPV) of R2 731 687 and
an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 18% at an annual interest rate of
10.5%. The payback time is 6years for analysis over the first 10
years with a net income of R1 971 000 in the first year. The project
was thus found to be feasible with high chance of success while
contributing to socio-economic development. It was recommended
for lab tests to be conducted to establish process kinetics that would
be used in the initial design of the plant.
Mechanical pressing, Net Present Value, Oilextraction, Project feasibility, Solvent extraction
Waste Management, Strategies and Situation in South Africa: An Overview
This paper highlights some interesting facts on South African-s waste situation and management strategies, in particular the Integrated Waste Management. South Africa supports a waste hierarchy by promoting cleaner production, waste minimisation, reuse, recycling and waste treatment with disposal and remediation as the last preferred options in waste management. The drivers for waste management techniques are identified as increased demand for waste service provision; increased demand for waste minimisation; recycling and recovery; land use, physical and environmental limitations; and socio-economic and demographic factors. The South African government recognizes the importance of scientific research as outlined on the white paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management (IP and WM) (DEAT, 2000).
Cleaner production, demographic factors, environmental quality, integrated waste management, hierarchy, recycling
Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds into Polydimethylsiloxane: Phase Equilibrium Computation at Infinite Dilution
Group contribution methods such as the UNIFAC are
very useful to researchers and engineers involved in synthesis,
feasibility studies, design and optimization of separation processes.
They can be applied successfully to predict phase equilibrium and
excess properties in the development of chemical and separation
processes. The main focus of this work was to investigate the
possibility of absorbing selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using three selected UNIFAC
group contribution methods. Absorption followed by subsequent
stripping is the predominant available abatement technology of
VOCs from flue gases prior to their release into the atmosphere. The
original, modified and effective UNIFAC models were used in this
work. The thirteen selected VOCs that have been considered in this
research are: pentane, hexane, heptanes, trimethylamine, toluene,
xylene, cyclohexane, butyl acetate, diethyl acetate, chloroform,
acetone, ethyl methyl ketone and isobutyl methyl ketone. The
computation was done for solute VOC concentration of 8.55x10-8
which is well in the infinite dilution region. The results obtained in
this study compare very well with those published in literature
obtained through both measurements and predictions. The phase
equilibrium obtained in this study show that PDMS is a good
absorbent for the removal of VOCs from contaminated air streams
through physical absorption.
Absorption, Computation, Feasibility studies,Infinite dilution, Volatile organic compounds
Low Pressure Binder-Less Densification of Fibrous Biomass Material using a Screw Press
In this study, the theoretical relationship between pressure and density was investigated on cylindrical hollow fuel briquettes produced of a mixture of fibrous biomass material using a screw press without any chemical binder. The fuel briquettes were made of biomass and other waste material such as spent coffee beans, mielie husks, saw dust and coal fines under pressures of 0.878-2.2 Mega Pascals (MPa). The material was densified into briquettes of outer diameter of 100mm, inner diameter of 35mm and 50mm long. It was observed that manual screw compression action produces briquettes of relatively low density as compared to the ones made using hydraulic compression action. The pressure and density relationship was obtained in the form of power law and compare well with other cylindrical solid briquettes made using hydraulic compression action. The produced briquettes have a dry density of 989 kg/m3 and contain 26.30% fixed carbon, 39.34% volatile matter, 10.9% moisture and 10.46% ash as per dry proximate analysis. The bomb calorimeter tests have shown the briquettes yielding a gross calorific value of 18.9MJ/kg.
Bio briquettes, biomass fuel, coffee grounds, fuelbriquettes
Intermolecular Dynamics between Alcohols and Fatty Acid Ester Solvents
This work focused on the interactions which occur between ester solvents and alcohol solutes. The alcohols selected ranged from the simplest alcohol (methanol) to C10-alcohols, and solubility predictions in the form of infinite dilution activity coefficients were made using the Modified UNIFAC Dortmund group contribution model. The model computation was set up on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet specifically designed for this purpose. It was found that alcohol/ ester interactions yielded an increase in activity coefficients (i.e. became less soluble) with an increase in the size of the ester solvent molecule. Furthermore, activity coefficients decreased with an increase in the size of the alcohol solute. The activity coefficients also decreased with an increase in the degree of unsaturation of the ester hydrocarbon tail. Tertiary alcohols yielded lower activity coefficients than primary alcohols. Finally, cyclic alcohols yielded higher activity coefficients than straight-chain alcohols until a point is reached where the trend is reversed, referred to as the ‘crossover’ point.
Activity coefficients, alcohols, esters, solubility, van der Waals, UNIFAC.
Beneficiation of Pyrolitic Carbon Black
This research investigated treatment of crude carbon black produced from pyrolysis of waste tyres in order to evaluate its quality and possible industrial applications. A representative sample of crude carbon black was dry screened to determine the initial particle size distribution. This was followed by pulverizing the crude carbon black and leaching in hot concentrated sulphuric acid for the removal of heavy metals and other contaminants. Analysis of the refined carbon black showed a significant improvement of the product quality compared to crude carbon black. It was discovered that refined carbon black can be further classified into multiple high value products for various industrial applications such as filler, paint pigment, activated carbon and fuel briquettes.
Activated Carbon, Briquettes, Fuel, Filler, Pyrolysis.