Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

M Bouhadef

Publications

9

Publications

9
9999194
The Effect of Soil Surface Slope on Splash Distribution under Water Drop Impact
Abstract:

The effects of down slope steepness on soil splash distribution under a water drop impact have been investigated in this study. The equipment used are the burette to simulate a water drop, a splash cup filled with sandy soil which forms the source area and a splash board to collect the ejected particles. The results found in this study have shown that the apparent mass increased with increasing downslope angle following a linear regression equation with high coefficient of determination. In the same way, the radial soil splash distribution over the distance has been analyzed statistically, and an exponential function was the best fit of the relationship for the different slope angles. The curves and the regressions equations validate the well known FSDF and extend the theory of Van Dijk.

Keywords:
Splash distribution, water drop, slope steepness, soil detachment.
8
1352
The Effects of Rain and Overland Flow Powers on Agricultural Soil Erodibility
Abstract:
The purpose of this investigation is to relate the rain power and the overland flow power to soil erodibility to assess the effects of both parameters on soil erosion using variable rainfall intensity on remoulded agricultural soil. Six rainfall intensities were used to simulate the natural rainfall and are as follows: 12.4mm/h, 20.3mm/h, 28.6mm/h, 52mm/h, 73.5mm/h and 103mm/h. The results have shown that the relationship between overland flow power and rain power is best represented by a linear function (R2=0.99). As regards the relationships between soil erodibility factor and rain and overland flow powers, the evolution of both parameters with the erodibility factor follow a polynomial function with high coefficient of determination. From their coefficients of determination (R2=0.95) for rain power and (R2=0.96) for overland flow power, we can conclude that the flow has more power to detach particles than rain. This could be explained by the fact that the presence of particles, already detached by rain and transported by the flow, give the flow more weight and then contribute to the detachment of particles by collision.
Keywords:
Laboratory experiments, soil erosion, flow power, erodibility, rainfall intensity.
7
1751
Laboratory Experiments: Influence of Rainfall Characteristics on Runoff and Water Erosion
Abstract:
The study concerns an experimental investigation in the laboratory of the water erosion using a rainfall simulator. We have focused our attention on the influence of rainfall intensity on some hydraulic characteristics. The results obtained allow us to conclude that there is a significant correlation between rainfall intensity and hydraulic characteristics of runoff (Reynolds number, Froude number) and sediment concentration.
Keywords:
Laboratory experiments, rainfall intensity, rainfall simulator, runoff, sediment concentration, soil erosion
6
3826
Sediment Transport Experiments: The Influence of the Furrow Geometry
Abstract:
In this experimental work, we have shown that the geometric shape of the grooves (furrows) plays an important role in sediment dynamics. In addition, the rheological behaviour of solid discharge does not depend only on the velocity discharge but also on the geometric shape.
Keywords:
Laboratory experiments, soil erosion, groove,furrow, sediment transport
5
16247
Plants Cover Effects on Overland Flow and on Soil Erosion under Simulated Rainfall Intensity
Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to study the effects of plants cover on overland flow and, therefore, its influences on the amount of eroded and transported soil. In this investigation, all the experiments were conducted in the LEGHYD laboratory using a rainfall simulator and a soil tray. The experiments were conducted using an experimental plot (soil tray) which is 2m long, 0.5 m wide and 0.15 m deep. The soil used is an agricultural sandy soil (62,08% coarse sand, 19,14% fine sand, 11,57% silt and 7,21% clay). Plastic rods (4 mm in diameter) were used to simulate the plants at different densities: 0 stem/m2 (bared soil), 126 stems/m², 203 stems/m², 461 stems/m² and 2500 stems/m²). The used rainfall intensity is 73mm/h and the soil tray slope is fixed to 3°. The results have shown that the overland flow velocities decreased with increasing stems density, and the density cover has a great effect on sediment concentration. Darcy–Weisbach and Manning friction coefficients of overland flow increased when the stems density increased. Froude and Reynolds numbers decreased with increasing stems density and, consequently, the flow regime of all treatments was laminar and subcritical. From these findings, we conclude that increasing the plants cover can efficiently reduce soil loss and avoid denuding the roots plants.

Keywords:
Soil erosion, vegetation, stems density, overland flow.
4
10000119
The Effect of Raindrop Kinetic Energy on Soil Erodibility
Abstract:

Soil erosion is a very complex phenomenon, resulting from detachment and transport of soil particles by erosion agents. The kinetic energy of raindrop is the energy available for detachment and transport by splashing rain. The soil erodibility is defined as the ability of soil to resist to erosion. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulator to study the effect of the kinetic energy of rain (Ec) on the soil erodibility (K). The soil used was a sandy agricultural soil of 62.08% coarse sand, 19.14% fine sand, 6.39% fine silt, 5.18% coarse silt and 7.21% clay. The obtained results show that the kinetic energy of raindrops evolves as a power law with soil erodibility.

Keywords:
Erosion, runoff, raindrop kinetic energy, soil erodibility, rainfall intensity, raindrop fall velocity.
3
10001746
Experiments of a Free Surface Flow in a Hydraulic Channel over an Uneven Bottom
Abstract:

The present study is concerned with the problem of determining the shape of the free surface flow in a hydraulic channel which has an uneven bottom. For the mathematical formulation of the problem, the fluid of the two-dimensional irrotational steady flow in water is assumed inviscid and incompressible. The solutions of the nonlinear problem are obtained by using the usual conformal mapping theory and Hilbert’s technique. An experimental study, for comparing the obtained results, has been conducted in a hydraulic channel (subcritical regime and supercritical regime). 

Keywords:
Free-surface flow, experiments, numerical method, uneven bottom, supercritical regime, subcritical regime.
2
10003255
Contribution to Experiments of a Free Surface Supercritical Flow over an Uneven Bottom
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to examine, through experimentation in the laboratory, the supercritical flow in the presence of an obstacle in a rectangular channel. The supercritical regime in the whole hydraulic channel is achieved by adding a convergent. We will observe the influence of the obstacle shape and dimension on the characteristics of the supercritical flow, mainly the free-surface elevation and the velocity profile. The velocity measurements have been conducted with the one dimension laser anemometry technique.
Keywords:
Experiments, free-surface flow, hydraulic channel, uneven bottom, laser anemometry, supercritical regime.
1
10007750
On the Free-Surface Generated by the Flow over an Obstacle in a Hydraulic Channel
Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to report the different experimental studies, conducted in the laboratory, dealing with the flow in the presence of an obstacle lying in a rectangular hydraulic channel. Both subcritical and supercritical regimes are considered. Generally, when considering the theoretical problem of the free-surface flow, in a fluid domain of finite depth, due to the presence of an obstacle, we suppose that the water is an inviscid fluid, which means that there is no sheared velocity profile, but constant upstream. In a hydraulic channel, it is impossible to satisfy this condition. Indeed, water is a viscous fluid and its velocity is null at the bottom. The two configurations are presented, i.e. a flow over an obstacle and a towed obstacle in a resting fluid.

Keywords:
Experiments, free-surface flow, hydraulic channel, subcritical regime, supercritical flow.