Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity





Creating a Space for Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Engineering Students through English Language Teaching
The complexity of teaching English in higher institutions by non-native speakers within a second/foreign language setting has created continuous discussions and research about teaching approaches and teaching practises, professional identities and challenges. In addition, there is a growing awareness that teaching English within discipline-specific contexts adds up to the existing complexity. This awareness leads to reassessments, discussions and suggestions on course design and content and teaching approaches and techniques. In meeting expectations teaching at a university specified in a particular discipline such as engineering, English language educators are not only required to teach students to be able to communicate in English effectively but also to teach soft skills such as problem solving skills. This paper is part of a research conducted to investigate how English language educators negotiate with the complexities of teaching problem solving skills through English language teaching at a technical university. This paper reports the way an English language educator identified himself and the way he approached his teaching in this institutional context.
English Language Teaching, Teacher Agency, Problem Solving Skills, Professional Identities.
Bridging Quantitative and Qualitative of Glaucoma Detection
Glaucoma diagnosis involves extracting three features of the fundus image; optic cup, optic disc and vernacular. Present manual diagnosis is expensive, tedious and time consuming. A number of researches have been conducted to automate this process. However, the variability between the diagnostic capability of an automated system and ophthalmologist has yet to be established. This paper discusses the efficiency and variability between ophthalmologist opinion and digital technique; threshold. The efficiency and variability measures are based on image quality grading; poor, satisfactory or good. The images are separated into four channels; gray, red, green and blue. A scientific investigation was conducted on three ophthalmologists who graded the images based on the image quality. The images are threshold using multithresholding and graded as done by the ophthalmologist. A comparison of grade from the ophthalmologist and threshold is made. The results show there is a small variability between result of ophthalmologists and digital threshold.
Digital Fundus Image, Glaucoma Detection, Multithresholding, Segmentation.
Day Type Identification for Algerian Electricity Load using Kohonen Maps
Short term electricity demand forecasts are required by power utilities for efficient operation of the power grid. In a competitive market environment, suppliers and large consumers also require short term forecasts in order to estimate their energy requirements in advance. Electricity demand is influenced (among other things) by the day of the week, the time of year and special periods and/or days such as Ramadhan, all of which must be identified prior to modelling. This identification, known as day-type identification, must be included in the modelling stage either by segmenting the data and modelling each day-type separately or by including the day-type as an input. Day-type identification is the main focus of this paper. A Kohonen map is employed to identify the separate day-types in Algerian data.
Day type identification, electricity Load, Kohonenmaps, load forecasting.
Transmission Performance of Millimeter Wave Multiband OFDM UWB Wireless Signal over Fiber System
Performance of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultrawideband (UWB) signal generation using frequency quadrupling technique and transmission over fiber is experimentally investigated. The frequency quadrupling is achived by using only one Mach- Zehnder modulator (MZM) that is biased at maximum transmission (MATB) point. At the output, a frequency quadrupling signal is obtained then sent to a second MZM. This MZM is used for MBOFDM UWB signal modulation. In this work, we demonstrate 30- GHz mm-wave wireless that carries three-bands OFDM UWB signals, and error vector magnitude (EVM) is used to analyze the transmission quality. It is found that our proposed technique leads to an improvement of 3.5 dB in EVM at 40% of local oscillator (LO) modulation with comparison to the technique using two cascaded MZMs biased at minimum transmission (MITB) point.
Optical communication, Frequency up-conversion, Mach-Zehnder modulator, millimeter wave generation, radio over fiber
Knowledge-Based Approach and System for Processof School/University Orientation
The school / university orientation interests a broad and often badly informed public. Technically, it is an important multicriterion decision problem, which supposes the combination of much academic professional and/or lawful knowledge, which in turn justifies software resorting to the techniques of Artificial Intelligence. CORUS is an expert system of the "Conseil et ORientation Universitaire et Scolaire", based on a knowledge representation language (KRL) with rules and objects, called/ known as Ibn Rochd. CORUS was developed thanks to DéGSE, a workshop of cognitive engineering which supports this LRC. CORUS works out many acceptable solutions for the case considered, and retains the most satisfactory among them. Several versions of CORUS have extended its services gradually.
Kknowledge Engineering, Multicriterion Decision,Knowledge-Based Systems.
Fuzzy Relatives of the CLARANS Algorithm With Application to Text Clustering
This paper introduces new algorithms (Fuzzy relative of the CLARANS algorithm FCLARANS and Fuzzy c Medoids based on randomized search FCMRANS) for fuzzy clustering of relational data. Unlike existing fuzzy c-medoids algorithm (FCMdd) in which the within cluster dissimilarity of each cluster is minimized in each iteration by recomputing new medoids given current memberships, FCLARANS minimizes the same objective function minimized by FCMdd by changing current medoids in such away that that the sum of the within cluster dissimilarities is minimized. Computing new medoids may be effected by noise because outliers may join the computation of medoids while the choice of medoids in FCLARANS is dictated by the location of a predominant fraction of points inside a cluster and, therefore, it is less sensitive to the presence of outliers. In FCMRANS the step of computing new medoids in FCMdd is modified to be based on randomized search. Furthermore, a new initialization procedure is developed that add randomness to the initialization procedure used with FCMdd. Both FCLARANS and FCMRANS are compared with the robust and linearized version of fuzzy c-medoids (RFCMdd). Experimental results with different samples of the Reuter-21578, Newsgroups (20NG) and generated datasets with noise show that FCLARANS is more robust than both RFCMdd and FCMRANS. Finally, both FCMRANS and FCLARANS are more efficient and their outputs are almost the same as that of RFCMdd in terms of classification rate.
Data Mining, Fuzzy Clustering, Relational Clustering, Medoid-Based Clustering, Cluster Analysis, Unsupervised Learning.
Estimation of Real Power Transfer Allocation Using Intelligent Systems

This paper presents application artificial intelligent (AI) techniques, namely artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy interface system (ANFIS), to estimate the real power transfer between generators and loads. Since these AI techniques adopt supervised learning, it first uses modified nodal equation method (MNE) to determine real power contribution from each generator to loads. Then the results of MNE method and load flow information are utilized to estimate the power transfer using AI techniques. The 25-bus equivalent system of south Malaysia is utilized as a test system to illustrate the effectiveness of both AI methods compared to that of the MNE method. The mean squared error of the estimate of ANN and ANFIS power transfer allocation methods are 1.19E-05 and 2.97E-05, respectively. Furthermore, when compared to MNE method, ANN and ANFIS methods computes generator contribution to loads within 20.99 and 39.37msec respectively whereas the MNE method took 360msec for the calculation of same real power transfer allocation. 

Artificial intelligence, Power tracing, Artificial neural network, ANFIS, Power system deregulation.
A Semantic Assistant Agent for Digital Libraries
In this paper we present semantic assistant agent (SAA), an open source digital library agent which takes user query for finding information in the digital library and takes resources- metadata and stores it semantically. SAA uses Semantic Web to improve browsing and searching for resources in digital library. All metadata stored in the library are available in RDF format for querying and processing by SemanSreach which is a part of SAA architecture. The architecture includes a generic RDF-based model that represents relationships among objects and their components. Queries against these relationships are supported by an RDF triple store.
Digital Library, Dublin Core, Ontology, Semantic web.
A Design and Implementation Model for Web Caching Using Server “URL Rewriting“

In order to make surfing the internet faster, and to save redundant processing load with each request for the same web page, many caching techniques have been developed to reduce latency of retrieving data on World Wide Web. In this paper we will give a quick overview of existing web caching techniques used for dynamic web pages then we will introduce a design and implementation model that take advantage of “URL Rewriting" feature in some popular web servers, e.g. Apache, to provide an effective approach of caching dynamic web pages.

Web Caching, URL Rewriting, Optimizing Web Performance, Dynamic Web Pages Loading Time.
GIS-based Non-point Sources of Pollution Simulation in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia
Cameron Highlands is a mountainous area subjected to torrential tropical showers. It extracts 5.8 million liters of water per day for drinking supply from its rivers at several intake points. The water quality of rivers in Cameron Highlands, however, has deteriorated significantly due to land clearing for agriculture, excessive usage of pesticides and fertilizers as well as construction activities in rapidly developing urban areas. On the other hand, these pollution sources known as non-point pollution sources are diverse and hard to identify and therefore they are difficult to estimate. Hence, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) was used to provide an extensive approach to evaluate landuse and other mapping characteristics to explain the spatial distribution of non-point sources of contamination in Cameron Highlands. The method to assess pollution sources has been developed by using Cameron Highlands Master Plan (2006-2010) for integrating GIS, databases, as well as pollution loads in the area of study. The results show highest annual runoff is created by forest, 3.56 × 108 m3/yr followed by urban development, 1.46 × 108 m3/yr. Furthermore, urban development causes highest BOD load (1.31 × 106 kgBOD/yr) while agricultural activities and forest contribute the highest annual loads for phosphorus (6.91 × 104 kgP/yr) and nitrogen (2.50 × 105 kgN/yr), respectively. Therefore, best management practices (BMPs) are suggested to be applied to reduce pollution level in the area.
Cameron Highlands, Land use, Non-point Sources of Pollution
Brain MRI Segmentation and Lesions Detection by EM Algorithm
In Multiple Sclerosis, pathological changes in the brain results in deviations in signal intensity on Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). Quantitative analysis of these changes and their correlation with clinical finding provides important information for diagnosis. This constitutes the objective of our work. A new approach is developed. After the enhancement of images contrast and the brain extraction by mathematical morphology algorithm, we proceed to the brain segmentation. Our approach is based on building statistical model from data itself, for normal brain MRI and including clustering tissue type. Then we detect signal abnormalities (MS lesions) as a rejection class containing voxels that are not explained by the built model. We validate the method on MR images of Multiple Sclerosis patients by comparing its results with those of human expert segmentation.
EM algorithm, Magnetic Resonance Imaging,Mathematical morphology, Markov random model.
Anti-microbial Activity of Aristolochic Acid from Root of Aristolochia bracteata Retz
The present research was designed to investigate the anti-microbial activity of aristolochic acid from the root of Aristolochia bracteata. From the methanolic & ethyl extract extracts of Aristolochia bracteata aristolochic acid I was isolated and conformed through IR, NMR & MS. The percentage purity of aristolochic acid I was determined by UV & HPLC method. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Aristolochia bracteata and the isolated compound was determined by disc diffusion method. The results reveled that the isolated aristolochic acid from methanolic extract was more pure than the compound from ethyl acetate extract. The various extracts (500μg/disc) of Aristolochia bracteata showed moderate antibacterial activity with the average zone of inhibition of 7-18 mm by disc diffusion method. Among the extracts, ethyl acetate & methanol extracts were shown good anti-microbial activity and the growth of E.coli (18 mm) was strongly inhibited. Microbial assay of isolated compound (Aristolochic acid I) from ethyl acetate & methanol extracts were shown good antimicrobial activity and the zone of inhibition of both at higher concentration 50 μg/ml was similar with the standard aristolochic acid. It may be concluded that the isolated compound of aristolochic acid I has good anti-bacterial activity.
Aristolochic acid I, Anti-microbial activity, Aristolochia bracteata, Bacillus subtilis, E.coli
The Oxidative Stress and the Antioxidant Defense of the Lower Vegetables towards an Environmental Pollution
The use of bioindicators plants (lichens, bryophytes and Sphagnum....) in monitoring pollution by heavy metals has been the subject of several works. However, few studies have addressed the impact of specific type-s pollutants (fertilizers, pesticides.) on these organisms. We propose in this work to make the highlighting effect of NPKs (NPK: nitrogen-phosphate-potassium-sulfate (NP2O5K2O) (15,15,15), at concentrations of 10, 20, 30 , 40 and 50mM/L) on the activity of detoxification enzymes (GSH/GST, CAT, APX and MDA) of plant bioindicators (mosses and lichens) after treatment for 3 and 7 days. This study shows the important role of the defense system in the accumulation and tolerance to chemical pollutants through the activation of enzymatic (GST (glutathione-S-transferase, APX (ascorbat peroxidase), CAT (catalase)) and nonenzymatic biomarkers (GSH (glutathione), MDA (malondialdehyde)) against oxidative stress generated by the NPKs.
NPKs, Bioindicators, lower plants, GSH / GST, CAT, APX and MDA.
On Two Control Approaches for The Output Voltage Regulation of a Boost Converter

This paper deals with the comparison between two proposed control strategies for a DC-DC boost converter. The first control is a classical Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and the second one is a distance based Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC). The SMC is an analytical control approach based on the boost mathematical model. However, the FSMC is a non-conventional control approach which does not need the controlled system mathematical model. It needs only the measures of the output voltage to perform the control signal. The obtained simulation results show that the two proposed control methods are robust for the case of load resistance and the input voltage variations. However, the proposed FSMC gives a better step voltage response than the one obtained by the SMC.

Boost DC-DC converter, Sliding Mode Control (SMC), Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC), Robustness.
Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis Pathogens in Malaysian Hospitals: Determining Empiric Antibiotic

Information regarding early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) pathogens may vary between regions. Global perspectives showed Group B Streptococcal (GBS) as the most common causative pathogens, but the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotics has changed the pathogens pattern towards gram negative microorganisms, especially E. coli. Objective of this study is to describe the pathogens isolated, to assess current treatment and risk of EONS. Records of 899 neonates born in three General Hospitals between 2009 until 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Proven was found in 22 (3%) neonates. The majority was isolated with gram positive organisms, 17 (2.3%). All grams positive and most gram negative organisms showed sensitivity to the tested antibiotics. Only two rare gram negative organisms showed total resistant. Male was possible risk of proven EONS. Although proven EONS remains uncommon in Malaysia, nonetheless, the effect of intrapartum antibiotics still required continuous surveillance.

Early onset neonatal sepsis, neonates, pathogens, gram positive, gram negative.
Aqueous Extract of Flacourtia indica Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rat
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatotoxin and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes liver injury by the formation of free radicals. Flacourtia indica commonly known as 'Baichi' has been reported as an effective remedy for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Flacourtia indica against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Animals were pretreated with the aqueous extract of Flacourtia indica (250 & 500 mg/kg body weight) for one week and then challenged with CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg bw) in olive oil (1:1, v/v) on 7th day. Serum marker enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT, Total Protein & Total Bilirubin) and TBARS level (Marker for oxidative stress) were estimated in all the study groups. Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like AST, ALT, ALP, Total Protein, Total Bilirubin and lipid peroxides (TBARS) were tested in both CCl4 treated and extract treated groups. CCl4 has enhanced the AST, ALT, ALP and the Lipid peroxides (TBARS) in liver. Treatment of aqueous extract of Flacourtia indica leaves (250 & 500 mg/kg) exhibited a significant protective effect by altering the serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, Total Protein, Total Bilirubin and liver TBARS. These biochemical observations were supported by histopathological study of liver sections. From this preliminary study it has been concluded that the aqueous extract of the leaves of Flacourtia indica protects liver against oxidative damages and could be used as an effective protector against CCl4 induced hepatic damage. Our findings suggested that Flacourtia indica possessed good hepatoprotective activity
Carbon Tetrachloride, Flacourtia indica, Hepatoprotective activity, Oxidative stress
The New AIMD Congestion Control Algorithm

Congestion control is one of the fundamental issues in computer networks. Without proper congestion control mechanisms there is the possibility of inefficient utilization of resources, ultimately leading to network collapse. Hence congestion control is an effort to adapt the performance of a network to changes in the traffic load without adversely affecting users perceived utilities. AIMD (Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease) is the best algorithm among the set of liner algorithms because it reflects good efficiency as well as good fairness. Our control model is based on the assumption of the original AIMD algorithm; we show that both efficiency and fairness of AIMD can be improved. We call our approach is New AIMD. We present experimental results with TCP that match the expectation of our theoretical analysis.

Congestion control, Efficiency, Fairness, TCP,AIMD.
Effect of TCSR on Measured Impedance by Distance Protection in Presence Single Phase to Earth Fault
This paper presents the impact study of apparent reactance injected by series Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) i.e. Thyristor Controlled Series Reactor (TCSR) on the measured impedance of a 400 kV single electrical transmission line in the presence of phase to earth fault with fault resistance. The study deals with an electrical transmission line of Eastern Algerian transmission networks at Group Sonelgaz (Algerian Company of Electrical and Gas) compensated by TCSR connected at midpoint of the line. This compensator used to inject active and reactive powers is controlled by three TCSR-s. The simulations results investigate the impacts of the TCSR on the parameters of short circuit calculation and parameters of measured impedance by distance relay in the presence of earth fault for three cases study.
TCSR, Transmission line, Apparent reactance, Earth fault, Symmetrical components, Distance protection, Measured impedance.
High Efficiency Class-F Power Amplifier Design

Due to the high increase in and demand for a wide assortment of applications that require low-cost, high-efficiency, and compact systems, RF power amplifiers are considered the most critical design blocks and power consuming components in wireless communication, TV transmission, radar, and RF heating. Therefore, much research has been carried out in order to improve the performance of power amplifiers. Classes-A, B, C, D, E and F are the main techniques for realizing power amplifiers.

An implementation of high efficiency class-F power amplifier with Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) was realized in this paper. The simulation and optimization of the class-F power amplifier circuit model was undertaken using Agilent’s Advanced Design system (ADS). The circuit was designed using lumped elements.

Power Amplifier (PA), Gallium Nitride (GaN), Agilent’s Advanced Design system (ADS) and lumped elements.
Accountability Issues and Challenges: The Scenario for Malaysian Cooperative Movement
This paper discusses the issues and challenges concerning the issues of accountability and regulation systems of cooperative movement in Malaysia.
Cooperative movement, compliance, transparency, issues.
Establish a Methodology for Testing and Optimizing GPRS Performance Case Study: Libya GSM
The main goal of this paper is to establish a methodology for testing and optimizing GPRS performance over Libya GSM network as well as to propose a suitable optimization technique to improve performance. Some measurements of download, upload, throughput, round-trip time, reliability, handover, security enhancement and packet loss over a GPRS access network were carried out. Measured values are compared to the theoretical values that could be calculated beforehand. This data should be processed and delivered by the server across the wireless network to the client. The client on the fly takes those pieces of the data and process immediately. Also, we illustrate the results by describing the main parameters that affect the quality of service. Finally, Libya-s two mobile operators, Libyana Mobile Phone and Al-Madar al- Jadeed Company are selected as a case study to validate our methodology.
GPRS, performance, optimization, GSM
Gene Expressions Associated with Ultrastructural Changes in Vascular Endothelium of Atherosclerotic Lesion
Attachment of the circulating monocytes to the endothelium is the earliest detectable events during formation of atherosclerosis. The adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix proteases genes were identified to be expressed in atherogenesis. Expressions of these genes may influence structural integrity of the luminal endothelium. The aim of this study is to relate changes in the ultrastructural morphology of the aortic luminal surface and gene expressions of the endothelial surface, chemokine and MMP-12 in normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Luminal endothelial surface from rabbit aortic tissue was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using low vacuum mode to ascertain ultrastructural changes in development of atherosclerotic lesion. Gene expression of adhesion molecules, MCP-1 and MMP-12 were studied by Real-time PCR. Ultrastructural observations of the aortic luminal surface exhibited changes from normal regular smooth intact endothelium to irregular luminal surface including marked globular appearance and ruptures of the membrane layer. Real-time PCR demonstrated differentially expressed of studied genes in atherosclerotic tissues. The appearance of ultrastructural changes in aortic tissue of hypercholesterolemic rabbits is suggested to have relation with underlying changes of endothelial surface molecules, chemokine and MMP-12 gene expressions.
Ultrastructure of luminal endothelial surface,Macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12), Real-time PCR.
Informal Education and Developing Entrepreneurial Skills among Farmers in Malaysia
The Malaysian government is promoting entrepreneurship development skills amongst farmers through informal courses. These courses will concentrate on teaching managerial skills as inevitable means for small farms to succeed by making farmers more creative and innovative. Therefore it is important to assess the effect of informal agri-entrepreneurial training in developing entrepreneurship among the farmers in Malaysia. Seven hundred and ninety six farmers (796) farmers were interviewed via structured questionnaire to define their opinion on whether the current informal educational and training establishments are sufficient to teach and develop entrepreneurial skills. Factor analysis and logic regression analysis were used to determine the motivating factors and predict their impact on the development of entrepreneurial skills. The result from the factor analysis led us to investigate the association between these factors and farmers- opinions about the development of entrepreneurial skills and traits through participating in informal entrepreneurship training or education. The outcome has shown us that the importance of informal training to promote entrepreneurship among farmers is crucial. The training should be intensified to encourage farmers to not only focus on the modern technologies but also on the fundamental changes in their attitude towards agriculture as a business. DOA: KMO: Kaiser- Meyer- Olkin Test MOA: Ministry of Agriculture NMP: Ninth Malaysia Plan NAP: Third National Agricultural Policy (2000-2010)
Entrepreneurial skills, farmers, informal education,Malaysia
Modern Vibration Signal Processing Techniques for Vehicle Gearbox Fault Diagnosis

This paper presents modern vibration signalprocessing techniques for vehicle gearbox fault diagnosis, via the wavelet analysis and the Squared Envelope (SE) technique. The wavelet analysis is regarded as a powerful tool for the detection of sudden changes in non-stationary signals. The Squared Envelope (SE) technique has been extensively used for rolling bearing diagnostics. In the present work a scheme of using the Squared Envelope technique for early detection of gear tooth pit. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of a fifth speed gear on the intermediate shaft of a vehicle gearbox. The objective is to supplement the current techniques of gearbox fault diagnosis based on using the raw vibration and ordered signals. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as the internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers introduce the load on the flanges of output joint shafts. The gearbox used for experimental measurements is the type most commonly used in modern small to mid-sized passenger cars with transversely mounted powertrain and front wheel drive; a five-speed gearbox with final drive gear and front wheel differential. The results show that the approaches methods are effective for detecting and diagnosing localized gear faults in early stage under different operation conditions, and are more sensitive and robust than current gear diagnostic techniques.

Wavelet analysis, Squared Envelope, gear faults.
EEIA: Energy Efficient Indexed Aggregation in Smart Wireless Sensor Networks
The main idea behind in network aggregation is that, rather than sending individual data items from sensors to sinks, multiple data items are aggregated as they are forwarded by the sensor network. Existing sensor network data aggregation techniques assume that the nodes are preprogrammed and send data to a central sink for offline querying and analysis. This approach faces two major drawbacks. First, the system behavior is preprogrammed and cannot be modified on the fly. Second, the increased energy wastage due to the communication overhead will result in decreasing the overall system lifetime. Thus, energy conservation is of prime consideration in sensor network protocols in order to maximize the network-s operational lifetime. In this paper, we give an energy efficient approach to query processing by implementing new optimization techniques applied to in-network aggregation. We first discuss earlier approaches in sensors data management and highlight their disadvantages. We then present our approach “Energy Efficient Indexed Aggregation" (EEIA) and evaluate it through several simulations to prove its efficiency, competence and effectiveness.
Sensor Networks, Data Base, Data Fusion, Aggregation, Indexing, Energy Efficiency
Approximation of Sturm-Liouville Problems by Exponentially Weighted Legendre-Gauss Tau Method

We construct an exponentially weighted Legendre- Gauss Tau method for solving differential equations with oscillatory solutions. The proposed method is applied to Sturm-Liouville problems. Numerical examples illustrating the efficiency and the high accuracy of our results are presented.

Oscillatory functions, Sturm-Liouville problems, legendre polynomial, gauss points.
Chattering Phenomenon Supression of Buck Boost DC-DC Converter with Fuzzy Sliding Modes Control

This paper proposes a Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC) as a control strategy for Buck-Boost DC-DC converter. The proposed fuzzy controller specifies changes in the control signal based on the knowledge of the surface and the surface change to satisfy the sliding mode stability and attraction conditions. The performances of the proposed fuzzy sliding controller are compared to those obtained by a classical sliding mode controller. The satisfactory simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control law which reduces the chattering phenomenon. Moreover, the obtained results prove the robustness of the proposed control law against variation of the load resistance and the input voltage of the studied converter.

Buck Boost converter, Sliding Mode Control, Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control, robustness, chattering.
Corporate Fraud: An Analysis of Malaysian Securities Commission Enforcement Releases
Economic crime (i.e. corporate fraud) has a significant impact on business. This study analyzes the fraud cases reported by the Malaysian Securities Commission. Frauds involving market manipulation and/or illegal share trading are the most common types of fraud reported over the 6 years analyzed. The highest number of frauds reported involved investment and fund holding companies. Alarmingly the results indicate quite a high number of frauds cases are committed by management. The higher number of Chinese perpetrators may be due to fact that they are the dominant group in Malaysian business. The result also shows that more than half of companies involved with fraud are privately held companies in the investment/fund/finance sector. The results of this study highlight general characteristic of perpetrators (person and company) that commit fraud which could help the regulators in their monitoring and enforcement activities. To investors, this would help in analyzing their business investment or portfolio risk.
Corporate fraud, economic crime, fraudcharacteristic, perpetrators
Using PFA in Feature Analysis and Selection for H.264 Adaptation

Classification of video sequences based on their contents is a vital process for adaptation techniques. It helps decide which adaptation technique best fits the resource reduction requested by the client. In this paper we used the principal feature analysis algorithm to select a reduced subset of video features. The main idea is to select only one feature from each class based on the similarities between the features within that class. Our results showed that using this feature reduction technique the source video features can be completely omitted from future classification of video sequences.

Adaptation, feature selection, H.264, Principal Feature Analysis (PFA)
Plug and Play Interferometer Configuration using Single Modulator Technique
We demonstrate single-photon interference over 10 km using a plug and play system for quantum key distribution. The quality of the interferometer is measured by using the interferometer visibility. The coding of the signal is based on the phase coding and the value of visibility is based on the interference effect, which result a number of count. The setup gives full control of polarization inside the interferometer. The quality measurement of the interferometer is based on number of count per second and the system produces 94 % visibility in one of the detectors.
single photon, interferometer, quantum key distribution.
Constructing Approximate and Exact Solutions for Boussinesq Equations using Homotopy Perturbation Padé Technique
Based on the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and Padé approximants (PA), approximate and exact solutions are obtained for cubic Boussinesq and modified Boussinesq equations. The obtained solutions contain solitary waves, rational solutions. HPM is used for analytic treatment to those equations and PA for increasing the convergence region of the HPM analytical solution. The results reveal that the HPM with the enhancement of PA is a very effective, convenient and quite accurate to such types of partial differential equations.
Homotopy perturbation method, Padé approximants,cubic Boussinesq equation, modified Boussinesq equation.
Rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete Columns

In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to increased spending on building work and repair of built works. In all cases, it is absolutely essential to carry out methods of strengthening or repair of structural elements, and that following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. The reinforced concrete columns are important elements in building structures. They support the vertical loads and provide bracing against the horizontal loads. This research about the behavior of reinforced concrete rectangular columns, rehabilitated by concrete liner, confinement FRP fabric, steel liner or cage formed by metal corners. It allows comparing the contributions of different processes used perspective section resistance elements rehabilitated compared to that is not reinforced or repaired. The different results obtained revealed a considerable gain in bearing capacity failure of reinforced sections cladding concrete, metal bracket, steel plates and a slight improvement to the section reinforced with fabric FRP. The use of FRP does not affect the weight of the structures, but the use of different techniques cladding increases the weight of elements rehabilitated and therefore the weight of the building which requires resizing foundations.

cladding, Rehabilitation, reinforced concrete columns, confinement, composite materials.
Behaviour of Masonry Wall Constructed using Interlocking Soil Cement Bricks
According to the masonry standard the compressive strength is basically dependent on factors such as the mortar strength and the relative values of unit and mortar strength. However interlocking brick has none or less use of mortar. Therefore there is a need to investigate the behavior of masonry walls using interlocking bricks. In this study a series of tests have been conducted; physical properties and compressive strength of brick units and masonry walls were constructed from interlocking bricks and tested under constant vertical load at different eccentricities. The purpose of the experimental investigations is to obtain the force displacement curves, analyze the behavior of masonry walls. The results showed that the brick is categorized as common brick (BS 3921:1985) and severe weathering grade (ASTM C62). The maximum compressive stress of interlocking brick wall is 3.6 N/mm2 and fulfilled the requirement of standard for residential building.
Interlocking brick, soil-cement brick, masonry wall, compressive strength, eccentricities
Groundwater Quality Improvement by Using Aeration and Filtration Methods
An experiment was conducted using two aeration methods (water-into-air and air-into-water) and followed by filtration processes using manganese greensand material. The properties of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and heavy metal concentration (iron and manganese) will be assessed. The objectives of this study are i) to determine the effective aeration method and ii) to assess the effectiveness of manganese greensand as filter media in removing iron and manganese concentration in groundwater. Results showed that final pH for all samples after treatment are in range from 7.40 and 8.40. Both aeration methods increased the dissolved oxygen content. Final turbidity for groundwater samples are between 3 NTU to 29 NTU. Only three out of eight samples achieved iron concentration of 0.3mg/L and less and all samples reach manganese concentration of 0.1mg/L and less. Air-into-water aeration method gives higher percentage of iron and manganese removal compare to water-into-air method.
Aeration, filtration, groundwater, water quality.
Parametric Urban Comfort Envelope an Approach toward a Responsive Sustainable Urban Morphology

By taking advantage of computer-s processing power, an unlimited number of variations and parameters in both spatial and environmental can be provided while following the same set of rules and constraints. This paper focuses on using the tools of parametric urbanism towards a more responsive environmental and sustainable urban morphology. It presents an understanding to Parametric Urban Comfort Envelope (PUCE) as an interactive computational assessment urban model. In addition, it investigates the applicability potentials of this model to generate an optimized urban form to Borg El Arab city (a new Egyptian Community) concerning the human comfort values specially wind and solar envelopes. Finally, this paper utilizes its application outcomes -both visual and numerical- to extend the designer-s limitations by decrease the concern of controlling and manipulation of geometry, and increase the designer-s awareness about the various potentials of using the parametric tools to create relationships that generate multiple geometric alternatives.

Assessment model, human comfort, parametric urbanism, sustainable urban morphology.
Neutron Flux Characterization for Radioisotope Production at ETRR-2
The thermal, epithermal and fast fluxes were calculated for three irradiation channels at Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) using CITVAP code. The validity of the calculations was verified by experimental measurements. There are some deviations between measurements and calculations. This is due to approximations in the calculation models used, homogenization of regions, condensation of energy groups and uncertainty in nuclear data used. Neutron flux data for the three irradiation channels are now available. This would enable predicting the irradiation conditions needed for future radioisotope production.
ETRR-2, Neutron flux, Radioisotope production, CITVAP
M-Learning the Next Generation of Education in Cyberspace
The technology usages of high speed Internet leads to establish and start new era of online education. With the advancement of the information technology and communication systems new opportunities have been created. This leads universities to have various online education channels to meet the demand of different learners- needs. One of these channels is M-learning, which can be used to improve the online education environment. With using such mobile technology in learning both students and instructors can easily access educational courses anytime from anywhere. The paper first presents literature about mobile learning and to what extent this approach can be utilized to enhance the overall learning system. It provides a comparison between mobile learning and traditional elearning showing the wide array of benefits of the new generation of technology. The possible challenges and potential advantages of Mlearning in the online education system are also discussed.
Mobile learning, M-learning, eLearning, Educational system.
Using Secure-Image Mechanism to Protect Mobile Agent Against Malicious Hosts

The usage of internet is rapidly increasing and the usage of mobile agent technology in internet environment has a great demand. The security issue one of main obstacles that restrict the mobile agent technology to spread. This paper proposes Secure-Image Mechanism (SIM) as a new mechanism to protect mobile agents against malicious hosts. . SIM aims to protect mobile agent by using the symmetric encryption and hash function in cryptography science. This mechanism can prevent the eavesdropping and alteration attacks. It assists the mobile agents to continue their journey normally incase attacks occurred.

Agent protection, cryptography, mobile agent security.
Study of the Glucidic Fraction of Celtis Australis L, Crataegus Azarolus L, Crataegus Monogyna Jacq., Elaeagnus Angustifolia L. and Zizyphus Lotus L. Fruits

In Algeria, some fruit trees produce fruits in free nature. Such trees are Celtis australis, Crataegus azarolus, Crataegus monogyna and Zizyphus lotus. In spite of their appreciable consumption, their nutritional value remains unknown. The objective of this study is the determination of sugars in the pulpe and almond of the above fruits. The biochemical analysis shows that these fruits present interesting contents of soluble sugars which confers significant caloric intakes to them. As well as significant fibres which give them therapeutic and industrial benefits? The analysis of the almonds shows that it contains considerable contents of sugars which enable them to be an energetic food.

Celtis australis, Crataegus azarolus, Crataegus monogyna, Zizyphus lotus, Fibres, Soluble sugars.
A Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Using Ad Hoc Wireless Network
In this paper, a Cooperative Multi-robot for Carrying Targets (CMCT) algorithm is proposed. The multi-robot team consists of three robots, one is a supervisor and the others are workers for carrying boxes in a store of 100×100 m2. Each robot has a self recharging mechanism. The CMCT minimizes robot-s worked time for carrying many boxes during day by working in parallel. That is, the supervisor detects the required variables in the same time another robots work with previous variables. It works with straightforward mechanical models by using simple cosine laws. It detects the robot-s shortest path for reaching the target position avoiding obstacles by using a proposed CMCT path planning (CMCT-PP) algorithm. It prevents the collision between robots during moving. The robots interact in an ad hoc wireless network. Simulation results show that the proposed system that consists of CMCT algorithm and its accomplished CMCT-PP algorithm achieves a high improvement in time and distance while performing the required tasks over the already existed algorithms.
Ad hoc network, Computer vision based positioning,Dynamic collision avoidance, Multi-robot, Path planning algorithms,Self recharging.
Modeling a Multinomial Logit Model of Intercity Travel Mode Choice Behavior for All Trips in Libya

In the planning point of view, it is essential to have mode choice, due to the massive amount of incurred in transportation systems. The intercity travellers in Libya have distinct features, as against travellers from other countries, which includes cultural and socioeconomic factors. Consequently, the goal of this study is to recognize the behavior of intercity travel using disaggregate models, for projecting the demand of nation-level intercity travel in Libya. Multinomial Logit Model for all the intercity trips has been formulated to examine the national-level intercity transportation in Libya. The Multinomial logit model was calibrated using nationwide revealed preferences (RP) and stated preferences (SP) survey. The model was developed for deference purpose of intercity trips (work, social and recreational). The variables of the model have been predicted based on maximum likelihood method. The data needed for model development were obtained from all major intercity corridors in Libya. The final sample size consisted of 1300 interviews. About two-thirds of these data were used for model calibration, and the remaining parts were used for model validation. This study, which is the first of its kind in Libya, investigates the intercity traveler’s mode-choice behavior. The intercity travel mode-choice model was successfully calibrated and validated. The outcomes indicate that, the overall model is effective and yields higher precision of estimation. The proposed model is beneficial, due to the fact that, it is receptive to a lot of variables, and can be employed to determine the impact of modifications in the numerous characteristics on the need for various travel modes. Estimations of the model might also be of valuable to planners, who can estimate possibilities for various modes and determine the impact of unique policy modifications on the need for intercity travel.

Multinomial logit model, improved intercity transport, intercity mode-choice behavior, disaggregate analysis.
Design and Development of Architectural Model Darul Ridzuan Museum
This paper focuses on the 3D reconstruction of the architectural design of Darul Ridzuan Museum. It has concentrated on designing exterior part of the building according to colored digital photo of the real museum. Besides viewing the architecture, walkthroughs are generated for the user to control it in an easier way. User can travel through the museum to get the feel of the environment and to explore the design of the museum as a whole; both exterior and interior. The result has shown positive result in terms of realism, navigation, collision detection, suitability, usability and user-s acceptance. In brief, the 3D virtual museum has provided an alternative to present a real museum.
Virtual Heritage, 3D Modelling, Virtual Museum,Usability Evaluation
The Occurrence of Fungi in Activated Sludge from MBRs
The objective of this study is to evaluate the occurrence of fungi in aerobic and anoxic activated sludge from membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Thirty-six samples of both aerobic and anoxic activated sludge were taken from 2 MBR treating domestic wastewater. Over a period of eight months 2 samples from each plant were taken per month. The samples were prepared for count and definition of fungi. The obtained data show that, sixty species belonging to 27 genera were collected from activated sludge samples under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Regarding to the fungi definition, under aerobic condition the Geotrichum was found at (8.8%) followed by Penicillium (75.0%), Yeasts (65.7%) and Trichoderma (55.5%), while Yeasts (77.1%) Geotrichum candidumand Penicillium (61.1%) species were the most prevalent in anoxic activated sludge. The results indicate that activated sludge is habitat for growth and sporulation of different groups of fungi, both saprophytic and pathogenic.
Aerobic conditions, Anoxic conditions, Activated sludge, Membrane bioreactor, Fungi.
Assessment of Performance Measures of Large-Scale Power Systems

In a recent major industry-supported research and development study, a novel framework was developed and applied for assessment of reliability and quality performance levels in reallife power systems with practical large-scale sizes. The new assessment methodology is based on three metaphors (dimensions) representing the relationship between available generation capacities and required demand levels. The paper shares the results of the successfully completed stud and describes the implementation of the new methodology on practical zones in the Saudi electricity system.

Power systems; large-scale analysis, reliability; performance assessment, linear programming.
Hybrid Method Using Wavelets and Predictive Method for Compression of Speech Signal
The development of the signal compression algorithms is having compressive progress. These algorithms are continuously improved by new tools and aim to reduce, an average, the number of bits necessary to the signal representation by means of minimizing the reconstruction error. The following article proposes the compression of Arabic speech signal by a hybrid method combining the wavelet transform and the linear prediction. The adopted approach rests, on one hand, on the original signal decomposition by ways of analysis filters, which is followed by the compression stage, and on the other hand, on the application of the order 5, as well as, the compression signal coefficients. The aim of this approach is the estimation of the predicted error, which will be coded and transmitted. The decoding operation is then used to reconstitute the original signal. Thus, the adequate choice of the bench of filters is useful to the transform in necessary to increase the compression rate and induce an impercevable distortion from an auditive point of view.
Compression, linear prediction analysis,multiresolution analysis, speech signal.
Evaluation of a PSO Approach for Optimum Design of a First-Order Controllers for TCP/AQM Systems
This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method for determining the optimal parameters of a first-order controller for TCP/AQM system. The model TCP/AQM is described by a second-order system with time delay. First, the analytical approach, based on the D-decomposition method and Lemma of Kharitonov, is used to determine the stabilizing regions of a firstorder controller. Second, the optimal parameters of the controller are obtained by the PSO algorithm. Finally, the proposed method is implemented in the Network Simulator NS-2 and compared with the PI controller.
AQM, first-order controller, time delay, stability, PSO.
An Efficient Algorithm for Reliability Lower Bound of Distributed Systems
The reliability of distributed systems and computer networks have been modeled by a probabilistic network or a graph G. Computing the residual connectedness reliability (RCR), denoted by R(G), under the node fault model is very useful, but is an NP-hard problem. Since it may need exponential time of the network size to compute the exact value of R(G), it is important to calculate its tight approximate value, especially its lower bound, at a moderate calculation time. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm for reliability lower bound of distributed systems with unreliable nodes. We also applied our algorithm to several typical classes of networks to evaluate the lower bounds and show the effectiveness of our algorithm.
Distributed systems, probabilistic network, residual connectedness reliability, lower bound.
Multi-models Approach for Describing and Verifying Constraints Based Interactive Systems

The requirements analysis, modeling, and simulation have consistently been one of the main challenges during the development of complex systems. The scenarios and the state machines are two successful models to describe the behavior of an interactive system. The scenarios represent examples of system execution in the form of sequences of messages exchanged between objects and are a partial view of the system. In contrast, state machines can represent the overall system behavior. The automation of processing scenarios in the state machines provide some answers to various problems such as system behavior validation and scenarios consistency checking. In this paper, we propose a method for translating scenarios in state machines represented by Discreet EVent Specification and procedure to detect implied scenarios. Each induced DEVS model represents the behavior of an object of the system. The global system behavior is described by coupling the atomic DEVS models and validated through simulation. We improve the validation process with integrating formal methods to eliminate logical inconsistencies in the global model. For that end, we use the Z notation.

Scenarios, DEVS, synthesis, validation and verification, simulation, formal verification, z notation.
Geomatics Techniques for Urban Transport Planning
The major urban centers are all facing rapid growth is most often associated with spreading urbanization, social status of the car has also changed: it has become a commodity of mass consumption. There are currently about 5 million and 260 cars in Algeria (2008), this number increases every year 200,000 new cars. These phenomena induce a demand for greater mobility and a significant need for transport infrastructure. Faced with these problems and development of the growing use of the automobile, central governments and local authorities in charge of urban transport issues are aware of the need to develop their urban transport systems but often lack opportunities. Urban Transport Plans (PDU) were born in reaction to the "culture of automobile." Their existence in the world the '80s, however, they had little success before laws on air and rational use of energy in 90 years does not alter substantially their content and make mandatory their implementation in cities of over 100,000 inhabitants (Abroad) [1]. The objective of this work is to use the tool and specifically Geomatics techniques as decision support in the organization and management of travel while taking into consideration the influence, which will then translate by National Urban Transport Plan.
Geomatic, GIS, PDU, planning, transport.
Quality of Concrete of Recent Development Projects in Libya
Numerous concrete structures projects are currently running in Libya as part of a US$50 billion government funding. The quality of concrete used in 20 different construction projects were assessed based mainly on the concrete compressive strength achieved. The projects are scattered all over the country and are at various levels of completeness. For most of these projects, the concrete compressive strength was obtained from test results of a 150mm standard cube mold. Statistical analysis of collected concrete compressive strengths reveals that the data in general followed a normal distribution pattern. The study covers comparison and assessment of concrete quality aspects such as: quality control, strength range, data standard deviation, data scatter, and ratio of minimum strength to design strength. Site quality control for these projects ranged from very good to poor according to ACI214 criteria [1]. The ranges (Rg) of the strength (max. strength – min. strength) divided by average strength are from (34% to 160%). Data scatter is measured as the range (Rg) divided by standard deviation () and is found to be (1.82 to 11.04), indicating that the range is ±3σ. International construction companies working in Libya follow different assessment criteria for concrete compressive strength in lieu of national unified procedure. The study reveals that assessments of concrete quality conducted by these construction companies usually meet their adopted (internal) standards, but sometimes fail to meet internationally known standard requirements. The assessment of concrete presented in this paper is based on ACI, British standards and proposed Libyan concrete strength assessment criteria.
Acceptance criteria, Concrete, Compressive strength, quality control
One Hour Ahead Load Forecasting Using Artificial Neural Network for the Western Area of Saudi Arabia

Load forecasting has become in recent years one of the major areas of research in electrical engineering. Most traditional forecasting models and artificial intelligence neural network techniques have been tried out in this task. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have lately received much attention, and a great number of papers have reported successful experiments and practical tests. This article presents the development of an ANN-based short-term load forecasting model with improved generalization technique for the Regional Power Control Center of Saudi Electricity Company, Western Operation Area (SEC-WOA). The proposed ANN is trained with weather-related data and historical electric load-related data using the data from the calendar years 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 for training. The model tested for one week at five different seasons, typically, winter, spring, summer, Ramadan and fall seasons, and the mean absolute average error for one hour-ahead load forecasting found 1.12%.

Artificial neural networks, short-term load forecasting, back propagation.
Biological Characterization of the New Invasive Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana in Tunisia: Sabkhet Halk El-Menzel

Endemic Artemia franciscana populations can be found throughout the American continent and also as an introduced specie in several country all over the world, such as in the Mediterranean region where Artemia franciscana was identified as an invasive specie replacing native Artemia parthenogenetica and Artemia salina. In the present study, the characterization of the new invasive Artemia franciscana reported from Sabkhet Halk El-Menzel (Tunisia) was done based on the cysts biometry, nauplii instar-I length, Adult sexual dimorphism and fatty acid profile. The mean value of the diameter of non-decapsulated and decapsulated cysts, chorion thickness and naupliar length is 235.8, 226.3, 4.75 and 426.8 μm, respectively. Sexual dimorphism for adults specimen showed that maximal distance between compound eyes, diameter for compound eyes, length of first antenna and the abdomen length compared to the total body length ratio, are the most important variables for males and females discrimination with a total contribution of 62.39 %. The analysis of fatty acid methyl esters profile of decapsulated cysts resulted in low levels of linolenic acid (LLA, C18:3n-3) and high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) with 3.11 and 11.10 %, respectively. Low quantity of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) was also observed with 0.17 mg.g-1 dry weight.

Invasive Artemia franciscana, biometry, sexualdimorphism, fatty acid, Tunisia.
Study of Cross Flow Air-Cooling Process via Water-Cooled Wing-Shaped Tubes in Staggered Arrangement at Different Angles of Attack, Part 2: Heat Transfer Characteristics and Thermal Performance Criteria

An experimental and numerical study has been conducted to clarify heat transfer characteristics and effectiveness of a cross-flow heat exchanger employing staggered wing-shaped tubes at different angels of attack. The water-side Rew and the air-side Rea were at 5 x 102 and at from 1.8 x 103 to 9.7 x 103, respectively. The tubes arrangements were employed with various angles of attack θ1,2,3 from 0° to 330° at the considered Rea range. Correlation of Nu, St, as well as the heat transfer per unit pumping power (ε) in terms of Rea, design parameters for the studied bundle were presented. The temperature fields around the staggered wing-shaped tubes bundle were predicted by using commercial CFD FLUENT 6.3.26 software package. Results indicated that the heat transfer was increased by increasing the angle of attack from 0° to 45°, while the opposite was true for angles of attack from 135° to 180°. The best thermal performance and hence η of studied bundle was occurred at the lowest Rea and/or zero angle of attack. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the present study and those, previously, obtained for similar available studies showed good agreements.

Wing-shaped tubes, Cross-flow cooling, Staggered arrangement, and CFD.
A Knowledge Engineering Workshop: Application for Choise Car
This paper proposes a declarative language for knowledge representation (Ibn Rochd), and its environment of exploitation (DeGSE). This DeGSE system was designed and developed to facilitate Ibn Rochd writing applications. The system was tested on several knowledge bases by ascending complexity, culminating in a system for recognition of a plant or a tree, and advisors to purchase a car, for pedagogical and academic guidance, or for bank savings and credit. Finally, the limits of the language and research perspectives are stated.
Knowledge representation, declarative language, IbnRochd, DeGSE, facets, cognitive approach.
Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Shape Effect on Shock Wave in Natural Gas Processing
Natural gas flow contains undesirable solid particles, liquid condensation, and/or oil droplets and requires reliable removing equipment to perform filtration. Recent natural gas processing applications are demanded compactness and reliability of process equipment. Since conventional means are sophisticated in design, poor in efficiency, and continue lacking robust, a supersonic nozzle has been introduced as an alternative means to meet such demands. A 3-D Convergent-Divergent Nozzle is simulated using commercial Code for pressure ratio (NPR) varies from 1.2 to 2. Six different shapes of nozzle are numerically examined to illustrate the position of shock-wave as such spot could be considered as a benchmark of particle separation. Rectangle, triangle, circular, elliptical, pentagon, and hexagon nozzles are simulated using Fluent Code with all have same cross-sectional area. The simple one-dimensional inviscid theory does not describe the actual features of fluid flow precisely as it ignores the impact of nozzle configuration on the flow properties. CFD Simulation results, however, show that nozzle geometry influences the flow structures including location of shock wave. The CFD analysis predicts shock appearance when p01/pa>1.2 for almost all geometry and locates at the lower area ratio (Ae/At). Simulation results showed that shock wave in Elliptical nozzle has the farthest distance from the throat among the others at relatively small NPR. As NPR increases, hexagon would be the farthest. The numerical result is compared with available experimental data and has shown good agreement in terms of shock location and flow structure.
CFD, Particle Separation, Shock wave, Supersonic Nozzle.
A Model Driven Based Method for Scheduling Analysis and HW/SW Partitioning

Unified Modeling Language (UML) extensions for real time embedded systems (RTES) co-design, are taking a growing interest by a great number of industrial and research communities. The extension mechanism is provided by UML profiles for RTES. It aims at improving an easily-understood method of system design for non-experts. On the other hand, one of the key items of the co- design methods is the Hardware/Software partitioning and scheduling tasks. Indeed, it is mandatory to define where and when tasks are implemented and run. Unfortunately the main goals of co-design are not included in the usual practice of UML profiles. So, there exists a need for mapping used models to an execution platform for both schedulability test and HW/SW partitioning. In the present work, test schedulability and design space exploration are performed at an early stage. The proposed approach adopts Model Driven Engineering MDE. It starts from UML specification annotated with the recent profile for the Modeling and Analysis of Real Time Embedded systems MARTE. Following refinement strategy, transformation rules allow to find a feasible schedule that satisfies timing constraints and to define where tasks will be implemented. The overall approach is experimented for the design of a football player robot application.

MDE, UML profile, scheduling analysis, HW/SW partitioning.
Evaluation of Baking Properties and Sensory Quality of Wheat-Cowpea Flour
The fortified of soft wheat flour with cowpea flour in bread making was investigated. The Soft wheat flour (SWF) was substituted by cowpea flour at levels of 5, 15 and 20%. The protein content of composite breads ranged from 6.1 – 9.9%. Significant difference was observed in moisture, protein and crude fibre contents of control (wheat bread) and composite bread at 5% addition of cowpea. Water absorption capacities of composite flours increased with increasing levels of cowpea flour in the blend. The specific loaf volume decreased significantly with increased cowpea content of blends. The overall acceptability of the 5% cowpea flour content of composite bread was not significantly different from the control (Soft Wheat-bread) but there is significantly different with increasing the levels of cowpea flour in the blend more than 5%.
Cowpea flour, wheat flour, baking properties, sensory quality.
Heat transfer Characteristics of Fin-and-Tube heat Exchanger under Condensing Conditions
In the present work an investigation of the effects of the air frontal velocity, relative humidity and dry air temperature on the heat transfer characteristics of plain finned tube evaporator has been conducted. Using an appropriate correlation for the air side heat transfer coefficient the temperature distribution along the fin surface was calculated using a dimensionless temperature distribution. For a constant relative humidity and bulb temperature, it is found that the temperature distribution decreases with increasing air frontal velocity. Apparently, it is attributed to the condensate water film flowing over the fin surface. When dry air temperature and face velocity are being kept constant, the temperature distribution decreases with the increase of inlet relative humidity. An increase in the inlet relative humidity is accompanied by a higher amount of moisture on the fin surface. This results in a higher amount of latent heat transfer which involves higher fin surface temperature. For the influence of dry air temperature, the results here show an increase in the dimensionless temperature parameter with a decrease in bulb temperature. Increasing bulb temperature leads to higher amount of sensible and latent heat transfer when other conditions remain constant.
Fin efficiency, heat and mass transfer, dehumidifying conditions, finned tube heat exchangers.
Performance Evaluation of Neural Network Prediction for Data Prefetching in Embedded Applications
Embedded systems need to respect stringent real time constraints. Various hardware components included in such systems such as cache memories exhibit variability and therefore affect execution time. Indeed, a cache memory access from an embedded microprocessor might result in a cache hit where the data is available or a cache miss and the data need to be fetched with an additional delay from an external memory. It is therefore highly desirable to predict future memory accesses during execution in order to appropriately prefetch data without incurring delays. In this paper, we evaluate the potential of several artificial neural networks for the prediction of instruction memory addresses. Neural network have the potential to tackle the nonlinear behavior observed in memory accesses during program execution and their demonstrated numerous hardware implementation emphasize this choice over traditional forecasting techniques for their inclusion in embedded systems. However, embedded applications execute millions of instructions and therefore millions of addresses to be predicted. This very challenging problem of neural network based prediction of large time series is approached in this paper by evaluating various neural network architectures based on the recurrent neural network paradigm with pre-processing based on the Self Organizing Map (SOM) classification technique.
Address, data set, memory, prediction, recurrentneural network.
Optical Reflectance of Pure and Doped Tin Oxide: From Thin Films to Poly-Crystalline Silicon/Thin Film Device
Films of pure tin oxide SnO2 and in presence of antimony atoms (SnO2-Sb) deposited onto glass substrates have shown a sufficiently high energy gap to be transparent in the visible region, a high electrical mobility and a carrier concentration which displays a good electrical conductivity [1]. In this work, the effects of polycrystalline silicon substrate on the optical properties of pure and Sb doped tin oxide is investigated. We used the APCVD (atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition) technique, which is a low-cost and simple technique, under nitrogen ambient, for growing this material. A series of SnO2 and SnO2-Sb have been deposited onto polycrystalline silicon substrates with different contents of antimony atoms at the same conditions of deposition (substrate temperature, flow oxygen, duration and nitrogen atmosphere of the reactor). The effect of the substrate in terms of morphology and nonlinear optical properties, mainly the reflectance, was studied. The reflectance intensity of the device, compared to the reflectance of tin oxide films deposited directly on glass substrate, is clearly reduced on the overall wavelength range. It is obvious that the roughness of the poly-c silicon plays an important role by improving the reflectance and hence the optical parameters. A clear shift in the minimum of the reflectance upon doping level is observed. This minimum corresponds to strong free carrier absorption, resulting in different plasma frequency. This effect is followed by an increase in the reflectance depending of the antimony doping. Applying the extended Drude theory to the combining optical and electrical obtained results these effects are discussed.
Doping, oxide, reflectance.
New Strategy Agents to Improve Power System Transient Stability
This paper proposes transient angle stability agents to enhance power system stability. The proposed transient angle stability agents divided into two strategy agents. The first strategy agent is a prediction agent that will predict power system instability. According to the prediction agent-s output, the second strategy agent, which is a control agent, is automatically calculating the amount of active power reduction that can stabilize the system and initiating a control action. The control action considered is turbine fast valving. The proposed strategies are applied to a realistic power system, the IEEE 50- generator system. Results show that the proposed technique can be used on-line for power system instability prediction and control.
Multi-agents, Fast Valving, Power System Transient Stability, Prediction methods,
Comparison of Phylogenetic Trees of Multiple Protein Sequence Alignment Methods
Multiple sequence alignment is a fundamental part in many bioinformatics applications such as phylogenetic analysis. Many alignment methods have been proposed. Each method gives a different result for the same data set, and consequently generates a different phylogenetic tree. Hence, the chosen alignment method affects the resulting tree. However in the literature, there is no evaluation of multiple alignment methods based on the comparison of their phylogenetic trees. This work evaluates the following eight aligners: ClustalX, T-Coffee, SAGA, MUSCLE, MAFFT, DIALIGN, ProbCons and Align-m, based on their phylogenetic trees (test trees) produced on a given data set. The Neighbor-Joining method is used to estimate trees. Three criteria, namely, the dNNI, the dRF and the Id_Tree are established to test the ability of different alignment methods to produce closer test tree compared to the reference one (true tree). Results show that the method which produces the most accurate alignment gives the nearest test tree to the reference tree. MUSCLE outperforms all aligners with respect to the three criteria and for all datasets, performing particularly better when sequence identities are within 10-20%. It is followed by T-Coffee at lower sequence identity (30%), trees scores of all methods become similar.
Multiple alignment methods, phylogenetic trees, Neighbor-Joining method, Robinson-Foulds distance.
A New Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic Systems
In this paper a new maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic arrays is proposed. The algorithm detects the maximum power point of the PV. The computed maximum power is used as a reference value (set point) of the control system. ON/OFF power controller with hysteresis band is used to control the operation of a Buck chopper such that the PV module always operates at its maximum power computed from the MPPT algorithm. The major difference between the proposed algorithm and other techniques is that the proposed algorithm is used to control directly the power drawn from the PV. The proposed MPPT has several advantages: simplicity, high convergence speed, and independent on PV array characteristics. The algorithm is tested under various operating conditions. The obtained results have proven that the MPP is tracked even under sudden change of irradiation level.
Photovoltaic, maximum power point tracking,MPPT.
Geometric and Material Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structure Considering Soil-Structure Interaction
In the present research, a finite element model is presented to study the geometrical and material nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete plane frames considering soil-structure interaction. The nonlinear behaviors of concrete and reinforcing steel are considered both in compression and tension up to failure. The model takes account also for the number, diameter, and distribution of rebar along every cross section. Soil behavior is taken into consideration using four different models; namely: linear-, nonlinear Winkler's model, and linear-, nonlinear continuum model. A computer program (NARC) is specially developed in order to perform the analysis. The results achieved by the present model show good agreement with both theoretical and experimental published literature. The nonlinear behavior of a rectangular frame resting on soft soil up to failure using the proposed model is introduced for demonstration.
Nonlinear analysis, Geometric nonlinearity, Material nonlinearity, Reinforced concrete, Finite element method, Soilstructure interaction, Winkler's soil model, Continuum soil model
Customer Loyalty and the Impacts of Service Quality:The Case of Five Star Hotels in Jordan
In the present Jordan hotels scenario, service quality is a vital competitive policy to keep customer support and build great base. Hotels are trying to win customer loyalty by providing enhanced quality services. This paper attempts to examine the impact of tourism service quality dimension in the Jordanian five star hotels. A total of 322 surveys were administrated to tourists who were staying at three branches Marriott hotel in Jordan. The results show that dimensions of service quality such as empathy, reliability, responsiveness and tangibility significantly predict customer loyalty. Specifically, among the dimension of tourism service quality, the most significant predictor of customer loyalty is tangibility. This paper implies that five star hotels in Jordan should also come forward and try their best to present better tourism service quality to win back their customers- loyalty.
Tourism, Service Quality, Loyalty, Five Star hotels,Jordan.
The Effect of the Direct Contact Heat Exchanger on Steam Power Plant
An actual power plant, which is the power plant of Iron and Steel Factory at Misurata city in Libya , has been modeled using Matlab in order to compare its results to the actual results of the actual cycle. This paper concentrates on two factors: a- The comparison between exergy losses in the actual cycle and the modeled cycle. b- The effect of extracting pressure on temperature water at boiler inlet. Closed heat exchangers used in this plant have been substituted by open heat exchangers in the current study of the modeled power plant and the required changes in the pressure have been considered. In the following investigation the two points mentioned above are taken in consideration.
Steam Power Plant, Contact Heat exchanger, Exergy, Cycle Efficiency.
Sensorless PM Motor with Multi Degree of Freedom Fuzzy Control

This paper introduces application of multi degree of freedom fuzzy(MDOFF) controller in permanent magnet (PM)drive system. The drive system model is developed for FO control. Simulation of the system is carried out to predict the performance at NL and under load,. The results indicate that application of MDOFF controller is effective for sensorless PM drive system.

Sensorless FO controller, PM drives system, MDOFF controller.
Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization for Positioning of Residential Houses

The current study describes a multi-objective optimization technique for positioning of houses in a residential neighborhood. The main task is the placement of residential houses in a favorable configuration satisfying a number of objectives. Solving the house layout problem is a challenging task. It requires an iterative approach to satisfy design requirements (e.g. energy efficiency, skyview, daylight, roads network, visual privacy, and clear access to favorite views). These design requirements vary from one project to another based on location and client preferences. In the Gulf region, the most important socio-cultural factor is the visual privacy in indoor space. Hence, most of the residential houses in this region are surrounded by high fences to provide privacy, which has a direct impact on other requirements (e.g. daylight and direction to favorite views). This investigation introduces a novel technique to optimally locate and orient residential buildings to satisfy a set of design requirements. The developed technique explores the search space for possible solutions. This study considers two dimensional house planning problems. However, it can be extended to solve three dimensional cases.

Evolutionary optimization, Houses planning, Urban modeling, Daylight, Visual Privacy, Residential compounds.
Kernel’s Parameter Selection for Support Vector Domain Description

Support Vector Domain Description (SVDD) is one of the best-known one-class support vector learning methods, in which one tries the strategy of using balls defined on the feature space in order to distinguish a set of normal data from all other possible abnormal objects. As all kernel-based learning algorithms its performance depends heavily on the proper choice of the kernel parameter. This paper proposes a new approach to select kernel's parameter based on maximizing the distance between both gravity centers of normal and abnormal classes, and at the same time minimizing the variance within each class. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on several benchmarks. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the presented method.

Gravity centers, Kernel’s parameter, Support Vector Domain Description, Variance.
Modified Diffie-Hellman Protocol By Extend The Theory of The Congruence
This paper is introduced a modification to Diffie- Hellman protocol to be applicable on the decimal numbers, which they are the numbers between zero and one. For this purpose we extend the theory of the congruence. The new congruence is over the set of the real numbers and it is called the “real congruence" or the “real modulus". We will refer to the existing congruence by the “integer congruence" or the “integer modulus". This extension will define new terms and redefine the existing terms. As the properties and the theorems of the integer modulus are extended as well. Modified Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol is produced a sharing, secure and decimal secret key for the the cryptosystems that depend on decimal numbers.
Extended theory of the congruence, modified Diffie- Hellman protocol.
Classification of the Latin Alphabet as Pattern on ARToolkit Markers for Augmented Reality Applications

augmented reality is a technique used to insert virtual objects in real scenes. One of the most used libraries in the area is the ARToolkit library. It is based on the recognition of the markers that are in the form of squares with a pattern inside. This pattern which is mostly textual is source of confusing. In this paper, we present the results of a classification of Latin characters as a pattern on the ARToolkit markers to know the most distinguishable among them.

ARToolkit library, augmented reality, K-means, patterns
Soil Improvement using Cement Dust Mixture
Day by day technology increases and problems associated with this technology also increase. Several researches were carried out to investigate the deployment of such material safely in geotechnical engineering in particular and civil engineering in general. However, different types of waste material have such as cement duct, fly ash and slag been proven to be suitable in several applications. In this research cement dust mixed with different percentages of sand will be used in some civil engineering application as will be explained later in this paper throughout filed and laboratory test. The used mixer (waste material with sand) prove high performance, durability to environmental condition, low cost and high benefits. At higher cement dust ratio, small cement ratio is valuable for compressive strength and permeability. Also at small cement dust ratio higher cement ratio is valuable for compressive strength.
cement dust, cement, soil improvement, permeability
An Algorithm Proposed for FIR Filter Coefficients Representation

Finite impulse response (FIR) filters have the advantage of linear phase, guaranteed stability, fewer finite precision errors, and efficient implementation. In contrast, they have a major disadvantage of high order need (more coefficients) than IIR counterpart with comparable performance. The high order demand imposes more hardware requirements, arithmetic operations, area usage, and power consumption when designing and fabricating the filter. Therefore, minimizing or reducing these parameters, is a major goal or target in digital filter design task. This paper presents an algorithm proposed for modifying values and the number of non-zero coefficients used to represent the FIR digital pulse shaping filter response. With this algorithm, the FIR filter frequency and phase response can be represented with a minimum number of non-zero coefficients. Therefore, reducing the arithmetic complexity needed to get the filter output. Consequently, the system characteristic i.e. power consumption, area usage, and processing time are also reduced. The proposed algorithm is more powerful when integrated with multiplierless algorithms such as distributed arithmetic (DA) in designing high order digital FIR filters. Here the DA usage eliminates the need for multipliers when implementing the multiply and accumulate unit (MAC) and the proposed algorithm will reduce the number of adders and addition operations needed through the minimization of the non-zero values coefficients to get the filter output.

Pulse shaping Filter, Distributed Arithmetic,Optimization algorithm.
Adaptive MPC Using a Recursive Learning Technique

A model predictive controller based on recursive learning is proposed. In this SISO adaptive controller, a model is automatically updated using simple recursive equations. The identified models are then stored in the memory to be re-used in the future. The decision for model update is taken based on a new control performance index. The new controller allows the use of simple linear model predictive controllers in the control of nonlinear time varying processes.

Adaptive control, model predictive control, dynamic matrix control, online model identification
Incidence of Pathogenic Bacteria in Cakes and Tarts Displayed for Sale in Tripoli, Libya
This study was conducted to investigate the incidence of pathogenic bacteria: Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli O157 and Staphylococcus aureus in cakes and tarts collected from thirtyfive confectionery producing and selling premises located within Tripoli city, Libya. The results revealed an incidence of S. aureus with 94.4 and 48.0 %, E. coli O157 with 14.7 and 4.0 % and Salmonella sp. with 5.9 and 8.0 % in cakes and tarts samples respectively; while Shigella was not detected in all samples. In order to determine the source of these pathogenic bacteria, cotton swabs were taken from the hands of workers on the production line, the surfaces of preparation tables and cream whipping instruments. The results showed that the cotton swabs obtained from the hands of workers contained S. aureus and Salmonella sp. with an incidence of 42.9 and 2.9 %, the cotton swabs obtained from the surfaces of preparation tables 22.9 and 2.9 % and the cotton swabs obtained from the cream whipping instruments 14.3 and 0.0 % respectively; while E. coli O157 and Shigella sp. were not detected in all swabs. Additionally, other bacteria were isolated from the hands of workers and the Surfaces of producing equipments included: Aeromonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., E. coli, Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sp., Proteus sp., Serratia sp. and Acinetobacter sp. These results indicate that some of the cakes and tarts might pose threat to consumer's health. Meanwhile, occurrences of pathogenic bacteria on the hands of those who are working in production line and the surfaces of equipments reflect poor hygienic practices at most confectionery premises examined in this study. Thus, firm and continuous surveillance of these premises is needed to insure the consumer's health and safety.
Pathogenic bacteria, Cakes, Tarts, Confectionery producing and selling premises.
Toward an Efficient Framework for Designing, Developing, and Using Secure Mobile Applications

Nowadays, people are going more and more mobile, both in terms of devices and associated applications. Moreover, services that these devices are offering are getting wider and much more complex. Even though actual handheld devices have considerable computing power, their contexts of utilization are different. These contexts are affected by the availability of connection, high latency of wireless networks, battery life, size of the screen, on-screen or hard keyboard, etc. Consequently, development of mobile applications and their associated mobile Web services, if any, should follow a concise methodology so they will provide a high Quality of Service. The aim of this paper is to highlight and discuss main issues to consider when developing mobile applications and mobile Web services and then propose a framework that leads developers through different steps and modules toward development of efficient and secure mobile applications. First, different challenges in developing such applications are elicited and deeply discussed. Second, a development framework is presented with different modules addressing each of these challenges. Third, the paper presents an example of a mobile application, Eivom Cinema Guide, which benefits from following our development framework.

Mobile applications, development of mobile applications, efficient mobile application, secure mobile application.
Computational Initial Value Method for Vibration Analysis of Symmetrically Laminated Composite Plate
In the present paper, an improved initial value numerical technique is presented to analyze the free vibration of symmetrically laminated rectangular plate. A combination of the initial value method (IV) and the finite differences (FD) devices is utilized to develop the present (IVFD) technique. The achieved technique is applied to the equation of motion of vibrating laminated rectangular plate under various types of boundary conditions. Three common types of laminated symmetrically cross-ply, orthotropic and isotropic plates are analyzed here. The convergence and accuracy of the presented Initial Value-Finite Differences (IVFD) technique have been examined. Also, the merits and validity of improved technique are satisfied via comparing the obtained results with those available in literature indicating good agreements.
Free Vibrations, Initial Value, Finite Differences, Laminated plates.
Speed Control of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) Fed by an Inverter Voltage Fuzzy Control Approach
This paper deals with the synthesis of fuzzy controller applied to a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with a guaranteed H∞ performance. To design this fuzzy controller, nonlinear model of the PMSM is approximated by Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model (T-S fuzzy model), then the so-called parallel distributed compensation (PDC) is employed. Next, we derive the property of the H∞ norm. The latter is cast in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMI-s) while minimizing the H∞ norm of the transfer function between the disturbance and the error ( ) ev T . The experimental and simulations results were conducted on a permanent magnet synchronous machine to illustrate the effects of the fuzzy modelling and the controller design via the PDC.
Feedback controller, Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model,Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI), PMSM, H∞ performance.
Characterization of the O.ul-mS952 Intron:A Potential Molecular Marker to Distinguish Between Ophiostoma Ulmi and Ophiostoma Novo-Ulmi Subsp. Americana
The full length mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal (mt-rns) gene has been characterized for Ophiostoma novo-ulmi subspecies americana. The gene was also characterized for Ophiostoma ulmi and a group II intron was noted in the mt-rns gene of O. ulmi. The insertion in the mt-rns gene is at position S952 and it is a group IIB1 intron that encodes a double motif LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease from an open reading frame located within a loop of domain III. Secondary structure models for the mt-rns RNA of O. novo-ulmi subsp. americana and O. ulmi were generated to place the intron within the context of the ribosomal RNA. The in vivo splicing of the O.ul-mS952 group II intron was confirmed with reverse transcription-PCR. A survey of 182 strains of Dutch Elm Diseases causing agents showed that the mS952 intron was absent in what is considered to be the more aggressive species O. novo-ulmi but present in strains of the less aggressive O. ulmi. This observation suggests that the O.ul-mS952 intron can be used as a PCR-based molecular marker to discriminate between O. ulmi and O. novo-ulmi subsp. americana.
Dutch Elm Disease, group II introns, mtDNA,species identification
The removal of Ni, Cu and Fe from a Mixed Metal System using Sodium Hypophosphite as a Reducing Agent

The main objective of this study was to remove and recover Ni, Cu and Fe from a mixed metal system using sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent and nickel powder as seeding material. The metal systems studied consisted of Ni-Cu, Ni-Fe and Ni-Cu-Fe solutions. A 5 L batch reactor was used to conduct experiments where 100 mg/l of each respective metal was used. It was found that the metals were reduced to their elemental form with removal efficiencies of over 80%. The removal efficiency decreased in the order Fe>Ni>Cu. The metal powder obtained contained between 97-99% Ni and was almost spherical and porous. Size enlargement by aggregation was the dominant particulate process.

crystallization, electroless plating, heavy metal removal, wastewater treatment
An Enhanced Distributed System to improve theTime Complexity of Binary Indexed Trees

Distributed Computing Systems are usually considered the most suitable model for practical solutions of many parallel algorithms. In this paper an enhanced distributed system is presented to improve the time complexity of Binary Indexed Trees (BIT). The proposed system uses multi-uniform processors with identical architectures and a specially designed distributed memory system. The analysis of this system has shown that it has reduced the time complexity of the read query to O(Log(Log(N))), and the update query to constant complexity, while the naive solution has a time complexity of O(Log(N)) for both queries. The system was implemented and simulated using VHDL and Verilog Hardware Description Languages, with xilinx ISE 10.1, as the development environment and ModelSim 6.1c, similarly as the simulation tool. The simulation has shown that the overhead resulting by the wiring and communication between the system fragments could be fairly neglected, which makes it applicable to practically reach the maximum speed up offered by the proposed model.

Binary Index Tree (BIT), Least Significant Bit (LSB),Parallel Adder (PA), Very High Speed Integrated Circuits HardwareDescription Language (VHDL), Distributed Parallel Computing System(DPCS).
Application of Natural Clay to Formulate Nontraditional Completion Fluid that Triples Oil Productivity
In the last decades, the problem of perforation damage has been considered as the major factor for the reduction of oil productivity. Underbalance perforation is considered as one of the best means to minimize or overcome this problem. By maintaining wellbore pressure lower than formation pressure, perforation damage could be minimize or eliminated. This can be achieved by the use of nontraditional lightweight completion fluid. This paper presents the effect of natural clay in formulating nontraditional completion fluid to ensure successful perforation job and increase of production rate. Natural clay is used as homogenizing agent to create a stable and non-damaging low-density completion fluid. Results indicate that the addition of natural clay dramatically increase the stability of the final fluids. In addition, field test has shown that the application of nontraditional completion fluid increases oil production by three folds.
Completion fluid, underbalance, clay, oil production.
Utilization of 3-N-trimethylamino-1-propanol by Rhodococcus sp. strain A4 isolated from Natural Soil
The aim of this study was to screen for microorganism that able to utilize 3-N-trimethylamino-1-propanol (homocholine) as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The aerobic degradation of homocholine has been found by a gram-positive Rhodococcus sp. bacterium isolated from soil. The isolate was identified as Rhodococcus sp. strain A4 based on the phenotypic features, physiologic and biochemical characteristics, and phylogenetic analysis. The cells of the isolated strain grown on both basal-TMAP and nutrient agar medium displayed elementary branching mycelia fragmented into irregular rod and coccoid elements. Comparative 16S rDNA sequencing studies indicated that the strain A4 falls into the Rhodococcus erythropolis subclade and forms a monophyletic group with the type-strains of R. opacus, and R. wratislaviensis. Metabolites analysis by capillary electrophoresis, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry, showed trimethylamine (TMA) as the major metabolite beside β-alanine betaine and trimethylaminopropionaldehyde. Therefore, the possible degradation pathway of trimethylamino propanol in the isolated strain is through consequence oxidation of alcohol group (-OH) to aldehyde (-CHO) and acid (-COOH), and thereafter the cleavage of β-alanine betaine C-N bonds yielded trimethylamine and alkyl chain.
Homocholine, 3-N-trimethylamino-1-propanol, Quaternary ammonium compounds, 16S rDNA gene sequence.
Combining Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks in Modeling Landfill Gas Production

Heterogeneity of solid waste characteristics as well as the complex processes taking place within the landfill ecosystem motivated the implementation of soft computing methodologies such as artificial neural networks (ANN), fuzzy logic (FL), and their combination. The present work uses a hybrid ANN-FL model that employs knowledge-based FL to describe the process qualitatively and implements the learning algorithm of ANN to optimize model parameters. The model was developed to simulate and predict the landfill gas production at a given time based on operational parameters. The experimental data used were compiled from lab-scale experiment that involved various operating scenarios. The developed model was validated and statistically analyzed using F-test, linear regression between actual and predicted data, and mean squared error measures. Overall, the simulated landfill gas production rates demonstrated reasonable agreement with actual data. The discussion focused on the effect of the size of training datasets and number of training epochs.

Adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (ANFIS),gas production, landfill
A Proposed Technique for Software Development Risks Identification by using FTA Model
Software Development Risks Identification (SDRI), using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), is a proposed technique to identify not only the risk factors but also the causes of the appearance of the risk factors in software development life cycle. The method is based on analyzing the probable causes of software development failures before they become problems and adversely affect a project. It uses Fault tree analysis (FTA) to determine the probability of a particular system level failures that are defined by A Taxonomy for Sources of Software Development Risk to deduce failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system by using Boolean logic to combine a series of lower-level events. The major purpose of this paper is to use the probabilistic calculations of Fault Tree Analysis approach to determine all possible causes that lead to software development risk occurrence
Software Development Risks Identification (SDRI), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Taxonomy for Software Development Risks (TSDR), Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA).
Extensions to Some AOSE Methodologies
This paper looks into areas not covered by prominent Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) methodologies. Extensive paper review led to the identification of two issues, first most of these methodologies almost neglect semantic web and ontology. Second, as expected, each one has its strength and weakness and may focus on some phases of the development lifecycle but not all of the phases. The work presented here builds extensions to a highly regarded AOSE methodology (MaSE) in order to cover the areas that this methodology does not concentrate on. The extensions include introducing an ontology stage for semantic representation and integrating early requirement specification from a methodology which mainly focuses on that. The integration involved developing transformation rules (with the necessary handling of nonmatching notions) between the two sets of representations and building the software which automates the transformation. The application of this integration on a case study is also presented in the paper. The main flow of MaSE stages was changed to smoothly accommodate the new additions.
Agents, Intelligent Agents, Software Engineering(SE), UML, AUML, and Design Patterns.
Removal of Copper and Zinc Ions onto Biomodified Palm Shell Activated Carbon
commercially produced in Malaysia granular palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) was biomodified with bacterial biomass (Bacillus subtilis) to produce a hybrid biosorbent of higher efficiency. The obtained biosorbent was evaluated in terms of adsorption capacity to remove copper and zinc metal ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity was evaluated in batch adsorption experiments where concentrations of metal ions varied from 20 to 350 mg/L. A range of pH from 3 to 6 of aqueous solutions containing metal ions was tested. Langmuir adsorption model was used to interpret the experimental data. Comparison of the adsorption data of the biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon showed higher uptake of metal ions by the hybrid biosorbent. A trend in metal ions uptake increase with the increase in the solution-s pH was observed. The surface characterization data indicated a decrease in the total surface area for the hybrid biosorbent; however the uptake of copper and zinc by it was at least equal to the original PSAC at pH 4 and 5. The highest capacity of the hybrid biosorbent was observed at pH 5 and comprised 22 mg/g and 19 mg/g for copper and zinc, respectively. The adsorption capacity at the lowest pH of 3 was significantly low. The experimental results facilitated identification of potential factors influencing the adsorption of copper and zinc onto biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon.
Adsorption, biomodification, copper, zinc,palm shell carbon.
Marangoni Convection in a Fluid Saturated Porous Layer with a Deformable Free Surface

The stability analysis of Marangoni convection in porous media with a deformable upper free surface is investigated. The linear stability theory and the normal mode analysis are applied and the resulting eigenvalue problem is solved exactly. The Darcy law and the Brinkman model are used to describe the flow in the porous medium heated from below. The effect of the Crispation number, Bond number and the Biot number are analyzed for the stability of the system. It is found that a decrease in the Crispation number and an increase in the Bond number delay the onset of convection in porous media. In addition, the system becomes more stable when the Biot number is increases and the Daeff number is decreases.

Deformable, Marangoni, Porous, Stability.
Analysis and Simulation of Automotive Interleaved Buck Converter

This paper will focus on modeling, analysis and simulation of a 42V/14V dc/dc converter based architecture. This architecture is considered to be technically a viable solution for automotive dual-voltage power system for passenger car in the near further. An interleaved dc/dc converter system is chosen for the automotive converter topology due to its advantages regarding filter reduction, dynamic response, and power management. Presented herein, is a model based on one kilowatt interleaved six-phase buck converter designed to operate in a Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). The control strategy of the converter is based on a voltagemode- controlled Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) with a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID). The effectiveness of the interleaved step-down converter is verified through simulation results using control-oriented simulator, MatLab/Simulink.

Automotive, dc-to-dc power modules, design,interleaved, Matlab\Simulink and PID control.
2D Gabor Functions and FCMI Algorithm for Flaws Detection in Ultrasonic Images
In this paper we present a new approach to detecting a flaw in T.O.F.D (Time Of Flight Diffraction) type ultrasonic image based on texture features. Texture is one of the most important features used in recognizing patterns in an image. The paper describes texture features based on 2D Gabor functions, i.e., Gaussian shaped band-pass filters, with dyadic treatment of the radial spatial frequency range and multiple orientations, which represent an appropriate choice for tasks requiring simultaneous measurement in both space and frequency domains. The most relevant features are used as input data on a Fuzzy c-mean clustering classifier. The classes that exist are only two: 'defects' or 'no defects'. The proposed approach is tested on the T.O.F.D image achieved at the laboratory and on the industrial field.
2D Gabor Functions, flaw detection, fuzzy c-mean clustering, non destructive testing, texture analysis, T.O.F.D Image (Time of Flight Diffraction).
Trace Emergence of Ants- Traffic Flow, based upon Exclusion Process
Biological evolution has generated a rich variety of successful solutions; from nature, optimized strategies can be inspired. One interesting example is the ant colonies, which are able to exhibit a collective intelligence, still that their dynamic is simple. The emergence of different patterns depends on the pheromone trail, leaved by the foragers. It serves as positive feedback mechanism for sharing information. In this paper, we use the dynamic of TASEP as a model of interaction at a low level of the collective environment in the ant-s traffic flow. This work consists of modifying the movement rules of particles “ants" belonging to the TASEP model, so that it adopts with the natural movement of ants. Therefore, as to respect the constraints of having no more than one particle per a given site, and in order to avoid collision within a bidirectional circulation, we suggested two strategies: decease strategy and waiting strategy. As a third work stage, this is devoted to the study of these two proposed strategies- stability. As a final work stage, we applied the first strategy to the whole environment, in order to get to the emergence of traffic flow, which is a way of learning.
Ants system, emergence, exclusion process, pheromone.
Investigation of a Transition from Steady Convection to Chaos in Porous Media Using Piecewise Variational Iteration Method

In this paper, a new dependable algorithm based on an adaptation of the standard variational iteration method (VIM) is used for analyzing the transition from steady convection to chaos for lowto-intermediate Rayleigh numbers convection in porous media. The solution trajectories show the transition from steady convection to chaos that occurs at a slightly subcritical value of Rayleigh number, the critical value being associated with the loss of linear stability of the steady convection solution. The VIM is treated as an algorithm in a sequence of intervals for finding accurate approximate solutions to the considered model and other dynamical systems. We shall call this technique as the piecewise VIM. Numerical comparisons between the piecewise VIM and the classical fourth-order Runge–Kutta (RK4) numerical solutions reveal that the proposed technique is a promising tool for the nonlinear chaotic and nonchaotic systems.

Variational iteration method, free convection, Chaos, Lorenz equations.
Local Curvelet Based Classification Using Linear Discriminant Analysis for Face Recognition
In this paper, an efficient local appearance feature extraction method based the multi-resolution Curvelet transform is proposed in order to further enhance the performance of the well known Linear Discriminant Analysis(LDA) method when applied to face recognition. Each face is described by a subset of band filtered images containing block-based Curvelet coefficients. These coefficients characterize the face texture and a set of simple statistical measures allows us to form compact and meaningful feature vectors. The proposed method is compared with some related feature extraction methods such as Principal component analysis (PCA), as well as Linear Discriminant Analysis LDA, and independent component Analysis (ICA). Two different muti-resolution transforms, Wavelet (DWT) and Contourlet, were also compared against the Block Based Curvelet-LDA algorithm. Experimental results on ORL, YALE and FERET face databases convince us that the proposed method provides a better representation of the class information and obtains much higher recognition accuracies.
Curvelet, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) , Contourlet,Discreet Wavelet Transform, DWT, Block-based analysis,face recognition (FR).
Development of Roller-Based Interior Wall Painting Robot
This paper describes the development of an autonomous robot for painting the interior walls of buildings. The robot consists of a painting arm with an end effector roller that scans the walls vertically and a mobile platform to give horizontal feed to paint the whole area of the wall. The painting arm has a planar twolink mechanism with two joints. Joints are driven from a stepping motor through a ball screw-nut mechanism. Four ultrasonic sensors are attached to the mobile platform and used to maintain a certain distance from the facing wall and to avoid collision with side walls. When settled on adjusted distance from the wall, the controller starts the painting process autonomously. Simplicity, relatively low weight and short painting time were considered in our design. Different modules constituting the robot have been separately tested then integrated. Experiments have shown successfulness of the robot in its intended tasks.
Automated roller painting, Construction robots,Mobile robots, service robots, two link planar manipulator
Blind Identification of MA Models Using Cumulants

In this paper, many techniques for blind identification of moving average (MA) process are presented. These methods utilize third- and fourth-order cumulants of the noisy observations of the system output. The system is driven by an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d) non-Gaussian sequence that is not observed. Two nonlinear optimization algorithms, namely the Gradient Descent and the Gauss-Newton algorithms are exposed. An algorithm based on the joint-diagonalization of the fourth-order cumulant matrices (FOSI) is also considered, as well as an improved version of the classical C(q, 0, k) algorithm based on the choice of the Best 1-D Slice of fourth-order cumulants. To illustrate the effectiveness of our methods, various simulation examples are presented.

Cumulants, Identification, MA models, Parameter estimation
Printed Arabic Sub-Word Recognition Using Moments
the cursive nature of the Arabic writing makes it difficult to accurately segment characters or even deal with the whole word efficiently. Therefore, in this paper, a printed Arabic sub-word recognition system is proposed. The suggested algorithm utilizes geometrical moments as descriptors for the separated sub-words. Three types of moments are investigated and applied to the printed sub-word images after dividing each image into multiple parts using windowing. Since moments are global descriptors, the windowing mechanism allows the moments to be applied to local regions of the sub-word. The local-global mixture of the proposed scheme increases the discrimination power of the moments while keeping the simplicity and ease of use of moments.
Arabic sub-word recognition, windowing, aspectratio, moments.
Vehicle Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Based On Cepstrum Analysis

Research on damage of gears and gear pairs using vibration signals remains very attractive, because vibration signals from a gear pair are complex in nature and not easy to interpret. Predicting gear pair defects by analyzing changes in vibration signal of gears pairs in operation is a very reliable method. Therefore, a suitable vibration signal processing technique is necessary to extract defect information generally obscured by the noise from dynamic factors of other gear pairs.This article presents the value of cepstrum analysis in vehicle gearbox fault diagnosis. Cepstrum represents the overall power content of a whole family of harmonics and sidebands when more than one family of sidebands is present at the same time. The concept for the measurement and analysis involved in using the technique are briefly outlined. Cepstrum analysis is used for detection of an artificial pitting defect in a vehicle gearbox loaded with different speeds and torques. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves asthe internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers introduce the load on the flanges of the output joint shafts. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of a gear of the fifth speed on the secondary shaft. Also, a method for fault diagnosis of gear faults is presented based on order Cepstrum. The procedure is illustrated with the experimental vibration data of the vehicle gearbox. The results show the effectiveness of Cepstrum analysis in detection and diagnosis of the gear condition.

Cepstrum analysis, fault diagnosis, gearbox.
Alcoholic Extract of Terminalia Arjuna Protects Rabbit Heart against Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury: Role of Antioxidant Enzymes and Heat Shock Protein
The present study was designed to investigate the cardio protective role of chronic oral administration of alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna in in-vivo ischemic reperfusion injury and the induction of HSP72. Rabbits, divided into three groups, and were administered with the alcoholic extract of the bark powder of Terminalia arjuna (TAAE) by oral gavage [6.75mg/kg: (T1) and 9.75mg/kg: (T2), 6 days /week for 12 weeks]. In open-chest Ketamine pentobarbitone anaesthetized rabbits, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 15 min of ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In the vehicle-treated group, ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI) was evidenced by depression of global hemodynamic function (MAP, HR, LVEDP, peak LV (+) & (- ) (dP/dt) along with depletion of HEP compounds. Oxidative stress in IRI was evidenced by, raised levels of myocardial TBARS and depletion of endogenous myocardial antioxidants GSH, SOD and catalase. Western blot analysis showed a single band corresponding to 72 kDa in homogenates of hearts from rabbits treated with both the doses. In the alcoholic extract of the bark powder of Terminalia arjuna treatment groups, both the doses had better recovery of myocardial hemodynamic function, with significant reduction in TBARS, and rise in SOD, GSH, catalase were observed. The results of the present study suggest that the alcoholic extract of the bark powder of Terminalia arjuna in rabbit induces myocardial HSP 72 and augments myocardial endogenous antioxidants, without causing any cellular injury and offered better cardioprotection against oxidative stress associated with myocardial IR injury.
Antioxidants, HSP72, Ischemic reperfusion injury,Terminalia arjuna.
Comparison between Haar and Daubechies Wavelet Transformions on FPGA Technology

Recently, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology offers the potential of designing high performance systems at low cost. The discrete wavelet transform has gained the reputation of being a very effective signal analysis tool for many practical applications. However, due to its computation-intensive nature, current implementation of the transform falls short of meeting real-time processing requirements of most application. The objectives of this paper are implement the Haar and Daubechies wavelets using FPGA technology. In addition, the comparison between the Haar and Daubechies wavelets is investigated. The Bit Error Rat (BER) between the input audio signal and the reconstructed output signal for each wavelet is calculated. It is seen that the BER using Daubechies wavelet techniques is less than Haar wavelet. The design procedure has been explained and designed using the stat-of-art Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools for system design on FPGA. Simulation, synthesis and implementation on the FPGA target technology has been carried out.

Daubechies wavelet, discrete wavelet transform,Haar wavelet, Xilinx FPGA.
Estimating the Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Biodiesels Using the UNIFAC Procedure
This work considered the thermodynamic feasibility of scrubbing volatile organic compounds into biodiesel in view of designing a gas treatment process with this absorbent. A detailed vapour – liquid equilibrium investigation was performed using the original UNIFAC group contribution method. The four biodiesels studied in this work are methyl oleate, methyl palmitate, methyl linolenate and ethyl stearate. The original UNIFAC procedure was used to estimate the infinite dilution activity coefficients of 13 selected volatile organic compounds in the biodiesels. The calculations were done at the VOC mole fraction of 9.213x10-8. Ethyl stearate gave the most favourable phase equilibrium. A close agreement was found between the infinite dilution activity coefficient of toluene found in this work and those reported in literature. Thermodynamic models can efficiently be used to calculate vast amount of phase equilibrium behaviour using limited number of experimental data.
Biodiesel, Equilibrium, Gas treatment, Infinitedilution, Thermodynamic
Techniques with Statistics for Web Page Watermarking
Information hiding, especially watermarking is a promising technique for the protection of intellectual property rights. This technology is mainly advanced for multimedia but the same has not been done for text. Web pages, like other documents, need a protection against piracy. In this paper, some techniques are proposed to show how to hide information in web pages using some features of the markup language used to describe these pages. Most of the techniques proposed here use the white space to hide information or some varieties of the language in representing elements. Experiments on a very small page and analysis of five thousands web pages show that these techniques have a wide bandwidth available for information hiding, and they might form a solid base to develop a robust algorithm for web page watermarking.
Digital Watermarking, Information Hiding, Markup Language, Text watermarking, Software Watermarking.
Unit Selection Algorithm Using Bi-grams Model For Corpus-Based Speech Synthesis
In this paper, we present a novel statistical approach to corpus-based speech synthesis. Classically, phonetic information is defined and considered as acoustic reference to be respected. In this way, many studies were elaborated for acoustical unit classification. This type of classification allows separating units according to their symbolic characteristics. Indeed, target cost and concatenation cost were classically defined for unit selection. In Corpus-Based Speech Synthesis System, when using large text corpora, cost functions were limited to a juxtaposition of symbolic criteria and the acoustic information of units is not exploited in the definition of the target cost. In this manuscript, we token in our consideration the unit phonetic information corresponding to acoustic information. This would be realized by defining a probabilistic linguistic Bi-grams model basically used for unit selection. The selected units would be extracted from the English TIMIT corpora.
Unit selection, Corpus-based Speech Synthesis, Bigram model
On the use of Ionic Liquids for CO2 Capturing

In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) for CO2 capturing in typical absorption/stripper process are considered. The use of ionic liquids is considered to be cost-effective because it requires less energy for solvent recovery compared to other conventional processes. A mathematical model is developed for the process based on Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EoS) which is validated with experimental data for various solutions involving CO2. The model is utilized to study the sorbent and energy demand for three types of ILs at specific CO2 capturing rates. The energy demand is manifested by the vapor-liquid equilibrium temperature necessary to remove the captured CO2 from the used solvent in the regeneration step. It is found that higher recovery temperature is required for solvents with higher solubility coefficient. For all ILs, the temperature requirement is less than that required by the typical monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent. The effect of the CO2 loading in the sorbent stream on the process performance is also examined.

Ionic liquid, CO2 capturing, CO2 solubility, Vaporliquid equilibrium.
Solving Inhomogeneous Wave Equation Cauchy Problems using Homotopy Perturbation Method

In this paper, He-s homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is applied to spatial one and three spatial dimensional inhomogeneous wave equation Cauchy problems for obtaining exact solutions. HPM is used for analytic handling of these equations. The results reveal that the HPM is a very effective, convenient and quite accurate to such types of partial differential equations (PDEs).

Homotopy perturbation method, Exact solution, Cauchy problem, inhomogeneous wave equation
Biometric Authentication Using Fast Correlation of Near Infrared Hand Vein Patterns
This paper presents a hand vein authentication system using fast spatial correlation of hand vein patterns. In order to evaluate the system performance, a prototype was designed and a dataset of 50 persons of different ages above 16 and of different gender, each has 10 images per person was acquired at different intervals, 5 images for left hand and 5 images for right hand. In verification testing analysis, we used 3 images to represent the templates and 2 images for testing. Each of the 2 images is matched with the existing 3 templates. FAR of 0.02% and FRR of 3.00 % were reported at threshold 80. The system efficiency at this threshold was found to be 99.95%. The system can operate at a 97% genuine acceptance rate and 99.98 % genuine reject rate, at corresponding threshold of 80. The EER was reported as 0.25 % at threshold 77. We verified that no similarity exists between right and left hand vein patterns for the same person over the acquired dataset sample. Finally, this distinct 100 hand vein patterns dataset sample can be accessed by researchers and students upon request for testing other methods of hand veins matching.
Biometrics, Verification, Hand Veins, PatternsSimilarity, Statistical Performance.
Removal of Methylene Blue Dye Using Roselle Petals from Aqueous Solutions
The present study based on removal of natural dyes of Roselle petals, then used Roselle petals powder (RPP) as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue dye (as a typical cationic or basic dye) from aqueous solutions. The present study shows that used Roselle petals powder exhibit adsorption trend for the dye. The adsorption processes were carried out at various conditions of temperatures ranging from 278 to 338 K ± 2 K , concentrations, processing time and a wide range of pH between 2.5-11. Adsorption isotherm equations such as Freundlich, and Langmuir were applied to calculate the values of respective constants. Adsorption study was found that the currently introduced adsorbent can be used to remove cationic dyes such as methylene blue from aqueous solutions.
Adsorption, methylene blue, removal of dyes, Roselle petals powder.
A Microcontroller Implementation of Model Predictive Control
Model Predictive Control (MPC) is increasingly being proposed for real time applications and embedded systems. However comparing to PID controller, the implementation of the MPC in miniaturized devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and microcontrollers has historically been very small scale due to its complexity in implementation and its computation time requirement. At the same time, such embedded technologies have become an enabler for future manufacturing enterprises as well as a transformer of organizations and markets. Recently, advances in microelectronics and software allow such technique to be implemented in embedded systems. In this work, we take advantage of these recent advances in this area in the deployment of one of the most studied and applied control technique in the industrial engineering. In fact in this paper, we propose an efficient framework for implementation of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) in the performed STM32 microcontroller. The STM32 keil starter kit based on a JTAG interface and the STM32 board was used to implement the proposed GPC firmware. Besides the GPC, the PID anti windup algorithm was also implemented using Keil development tools designed for ARM processor-based microcontroller devices and working with C/Cµ langage. A performances comparison study was done between both firmwares. This performances study show good execution speed and low computational burden. These results encourage to develop simple predictive algorithms to be programmed in industrial standard hardware. The main features of the proposed framework are illustrated through two examples and compared with the anti windup PID controller.
Embedded systems, Model Predictive Control, microcontroller, Keil tool.
Parallel Block Backward Differentiation Formulas for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations
A parallel block method based on Backward Differentiation Formulas (BDF) is developed for the parallel solution of stiff Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). Most common methods for solving stiff systems of ODEs are based on implicit formulae and solved using Newton iteration which requires repeated solution of systems of linear equations with coefficient matrix, I - hβJ . Here, J is the Jacobian matrix of the problem. In this paper, the matrix operations is paralleled in order to reduce the cost of the iterations. Numerical results are given to compare the speedup and efficiency of parallel algorithm and that of sequential algorithm.
Backward Differentiation Formula, block, ordinarydifferential equations.
A Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm forMultiobjective Image Segmentation
In this paper we present a new approach to deal with image segmentation. The fact that a single segmentation result do not generally allow a higher level process to take into account all the elements included in the image has motivated the consideration of image segmentation as a multiobjective optimization problem. The proposed algorithm adopts a split/merge strategy that uses the result of the k-means algorithm as input for a quantum evolutionary algorithm to establish a set of non-dominated solutions. The evaluation is made simultaneously according to two distinct features: intra-region homogeneity and inter-region heterogeneity. The experimentation of the new approach on natural images has proved its efficiency and usefulness.
Image segmentation, multiobjective optimization,quantum computing, evolutionary algorithms.
A Multiple-Objective Environmental Rationalization and Optimization for Material Substitution in the Production of Stone-Washed Jeans- Garments
As the Textile Industry is the second largest industry in Egypt and as small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) make up a great portion of this industry therein it is essential to apply the concept of Cleaner Production for the purpose of reducing pollution. In order to achieve this goal, a case study concerned with ecofriendly stone-washing of jeans-garments was investigated. A raw material-substitution option was adopted whereby the toxic potassium permanganate and sodium sulfide were replaced by the environmentally compatible hydrogen peroxide and glucose respectively where the concentrations of both replaced chemicals together with the operating time were optimized. In addition, a process-rationalization option involving four additional processes was investigated. By means of criteria such as product quality, effluent analysis, mass and heat balance; and cost analysis with the aid of a statistical model, a process optimization treatment revealed that the superior process optima were 50%, 0.15% and 50min for H2O2 concentration, glucose concentration and time, respectively. With these values the superior process ought to reduce the annual cost by about EGP 105 relative to the currently used conventional method.
Cleaner Production, Eco-friendly of jeans garments, Stone washing, Textile Industry, Textile Wet Processing.
Direct Block Backward Differentiation Formulas for Solving Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations
In this paper, a direct method based on variable step size Block Backward Differentiation Formula which is referred as BBDF2 for solving second order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is developed. The advantages of the BBDF2 method over the corresponding sequential variable step variable order Backward Differentiation Formula (BDFVS) when used to solve the same problem as a first order system are pointed out. Numerical results are given to validate the method.
Backward Differentiation Formula, block, secondorder.
Comparative Study of QRS Complex Detection in ECG
The processing of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal consists essentially in the detection of the characteristic points of signal which are an important tool in the diagnosis of heart diseases. The most suitable are the detection of R waves. In this paper, we present various mathematical tools used for filtering ECG using digital filtering and Discreet Wavelet Transform (DWT) filtering. In addition, this paper will include two main R peak detection methods by applying a windowing process: The first method is based on calculations derived, the second is a time-frequency method based on Dyadic Wavelet Transform DyWT.
Derived calculation methods, Electrocardiogram, R peaks, Wavelet Transform.
Collaborative E-Learning with Multiple Imaginary Co-Learner: Design, Issues and Implementation
Collaborative problem solving in e-learning can take in the form of discussion among learner, creating a highly social learning environment and characterized by participation and interactivity. This paper, designed a collaborative learning environment where agent act as co-learner, can play different roles during interaction. Since different roles have been assigned to the agent, learner will assume that multiple co-learner exists to help and guide him all throughout the collaborative problem solving process, but in fact, alone during the learning process. Specifically, it answers the questions what roles of the agent should be incorporated to contribute better learning outcomes, how agent will facilitate the communication process to provide social learning and interactivity and what are the specific instructional strategies that facilitate learner participation, increased skill acquisition and develop critical thinking.
Collaborative e-learning, collaborative problem solving,, imaginary co-learner, social learning.
Experiments on Element and Document Statistics for XML Retrieval
This paper presents an information retrieval model on XML documents based on tree matching. Queries and documents are represented by extended trees. An extended tree is built starting from the original tree, with additional weighted virtual links between each node and its indirect descendants allowing to directly reach each descendant. Therefore only one level separates between each node and its indirect descendants. This allows to compare the user query and the document with flexibility and with respect to the structural constraints of the query. The content of each node is very important to decide weither a document element is relevant or not, thus the content should be taken into account in the retrieval process. We separate between the structure-based and the content-based retrieval processes. The content-based score of each node is commonly based on the well-known Tf × Idf criteria. In this paper, we compare between this criteria and another one we call Tf × Ief. The comparison is based on some experiments into a dataset provided by INEX1 to show the effectiveness of our approach on one hand and those of both weighting functions on the other.
XML retrieval, INEX, Tf × Idf, Tf × Ief
Development of Variable Stepsize Variable Order Block Method in Divided Difference Form for the Numerical Solution of Delay Differential Equations
This paper considers the development of a two-point predictor-corrector block method for solving delay differential equations. The formulae are represented in divided difference form and the algorithm is implemented in variable stepsize variable order technique. The block method produces two new values at a single integration step. Numerical results are compared with existing methods and it is evident that the block method performs very well. Stability regions of the block method are also investigated.
block method, delay differential equations, predictor-corrector, stability region, variable stepsize variable order.
Group of Square Roots of Unity Modulo n
Let n ≥ 3 be an integer and G2(n) be the subgroup of square roots of 1 in (Z/nZ)*. In this paper, we give an algorithm that computes a generating set of this subgroup.
Group, modulo, square roots, unity.
Li4SiO4 Prepared by Sol-gel Method as Potential Host for LISICON Structured Solid Electrolytes
In this study, Li4SiO4 powder was successfully synthesized via sol gel method followed by drying at 150oC. Lithium oxide, Li2O and silicon oxide, SiO2 were used as the starting materials with citric acid as the chelating agent. The obtained powder was then sintered at various temperatures. Crystallographic phase analysis, morphology and ionic conductivity were investigated systematically employing X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscopy and AC impedance spectroscopy. XRD result showed the formation of pure monoclinic Li4SiO4 crystal structure with lattice parameters a = 5.140 Å, b = 6.094 Å, c = 5.293 Å, β = 90o in the sample sintered at 750oC. This observation was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The bulk conductivity of this sample at room temperature was 3.35 × 10-6 S cm-1 and the highest bulk conductivity of 1.16 × 10-4 S cm-1 was obtained at 100°C. The results indicated that, the Li4SiO4 compound has potential to be used as host for LISICON structured solid electrolyte for low temperature application.
Conductivity, LISICON, Li4SiO4, Solid electrolyte, Structure.
Neural-Symbolic Machine-Learning for Knowledge Discovery and Adaptive Information Retrieval
In this paper, a model for an information retrieval system is proposed which takes into account that knowledge about documents and information need of users are dynamic. Two methods are combined, one qualitative or symbolic and the other quantitative or numeric, which are deemed suitable for many clustering contexts, data analysis, concept exploring and knowledge discovery. These two methods may be classified as inductive learning techniques. In this model, they are introduced to build “long term" knowledge about past queries and concepts in a collection of documents. The “long term" knowledge can guide and assist the user to formulate an initial query and can be exploited in the process of retrieving relevant information. The different kinds of knowledge are organized in different points of view. This may be considered an enrichment of the exploration level which is coherent with the concept of document/query structure.
Information Retrieval Systems, machine learning, classification, Galois lattices, Self Organizing Map.
The Development of the Multi-Agent Classification System (MACS) in Compliance with FIPA Specifications

The paper investigates the feasibility of constructing a software multi-agent based monitoring and classification system and utilizing it to provide an automated and accurate classification of end users developing applications in the spreadsheet domain. The agents function autonomously to provide continuous and periodic monitoring of excels spreadsheet workbooks. Resulting in, the development of the MultiAgent classification System (MACS) that is in compliance with the specifications of the Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA). However, different technologies have been brought together to build MACS. The strength of the system is the integration of the agent technology with the FIPA specifications together with other technologies that are Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), and Oracle Data Mining (ODM). The Microsoft's .NET widows service based agents were utilized to develop the monitoring agents of MACS, the .NET WCF services together with SOA approach allowed the distribution and communication between agents over the WWW that is in order to satisfy the monitoring and classification of the multiple developer aspect. ODM was used to automate the classification phase of MACS.

Autonomous, Classification, MACS, Multi-Agent, SOA, WCF.
Optimization by Ant Colony Hybryde for the Bin-Packing Problem

The problem of bin-packing in two dimensions (2BP) consists in placing a given set of rectangular items in a minimum number of rectangular and identical containers, called bins. This article treats the case of objects with a free orientation of 90Ôùª. We propose an approach of resolution combining optimization by colony of ants (ACO) and the heuristic method IMA to resolve this NP-Hard problem.

Ant colony algorithm, bin-packing problem, heuristics methods.
Analysis of Self Excited Induction Generator using Particle Swarm Optimization

In this paper, Novel method, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, based technique is proposed to estimate and analyze the steady state performance of self-excited induction generator (SEIG). In this novel method the tedious job of deriving the complex coefficients of a polynomial equation and solving it, as in previous methods, is not required. By comparing the simulation results obtained by the proposed method with those obtained by the well known mathematical methods, a good agreement between these results is obtained. The comparison validates the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Evolution theory, MATLAB, optimization, PSO, SEIG.
Distributed 2-Vertex Connectivity Test of Graphs Using Local Knowledge

The vertex connectivity of a graph is the smallest number of vertices whose deletion separates the graph or makes it trivial. This work is devoted to the problem of vertex connectivity test of graphs in a distributed environment based on a general and a constructive approach. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, using a preconstructed spanning tree of the considered graph, we present a protocol to test whether a given graph is 2-connected using only local knowledge. Second, we present an encoding of this protocol using graph relabeling systems. The last contribution is the implementation of this protocol in the message passing model. For a given graph G, where M is the number of its edges, N the number of its nodes and Δ is its degree, our algorithms need the following requirements: The first one uses O(Δ×N2) steps and O(Δ×logΔ) bits per node. The second one uses O(Δ×N2) messages, O(N2) time and O(Δ × logΔ) bits per node. Furthermore, the studied network is semi-anonymous: Only the root of the pre-constructed spanning tree needs to be identified.

Distributed computing, fault-tolerance, graph relabeling systems, local computations, local knowledge, message passing system, networks, vertex connectivity.
Mycoflora of Activated Sludge with MBRs in Berlin, Germany
Thirty six samples from each (aerobic and anoxic) activated sludge were collected from two wastewater treatment plants with MBRs in Berlin, Germany. The samples were prepared for count and definition of fungal isolates; these isolates were purified by conventional techniques and identified by microscopic examination. Sixty tow species belonging to 28 genera were isolated from activated sludge samples under aerobic conditions (28 genera and 58 species) and anoxic conditions (26 genera and 52 species). The obtained data show that, Aspergillus was found at 94.4% followed by Penicillium 61.1 %, Fusarium (61.1 %), Trichoderma (44.4 %) and Geotrichum candidum (41.6 %) species were the most prevalent in all activated sludge samples. The study confirmed that fungi can thrive in activated sludge and sporulation, but isolated in different numbers depending on the effect of aeration system. Some fungal species in our study are saprophytic, and other a pathogenic to plants and animals.
Activated sludge, membrane bioreactors, aerobic,anoxic conditions, fungi
Local Steerable Pyramid Binary Pattern Sequence LSPBPS for Face Recognition Method

In this paper the problem of face recognition under variable illumination conditions is considered. Most of the works in the literature exhibit good performance under strictly controlled acquisition conditions, but the performance drastically drop when changes in pose and illumination occur, so that recently number of approaches have been proposed to deal with such variability. The aim of this work is to introduce an efficient local appearance feature extraction method based steerable pyramid (SP) for face recognition. Local information is extracted from SP sub-bands using LBP(Local binary Pattern). The underlying statistics allow us to reduce the required amount of data to be stored. The experiments carried out on different face databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Face recognition (FR), Steerable pyramid (SP), localBinary Pattern (LBP).
Scatterer Density in Edge and Coherence Enhancing Nonlinear Anisotropic Diffusion for Medical Ultrasound Speckle Reduction
This paper proposes new enhancement models to the methods of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion to greatly reduce speckle and preserve image features in medical ultrasound images. By incorporating local physical characteristics of the image, in this case scatterer density, in addition to the gradient, into existing tensorbased image diffusion methods, we were able to greatly improve the performance of the existing filtering methods, namely edge enhancing (EE) and coherence enhancing (CE) diffusion. The new enhancement methods were tested using various ultrasound images, including phantom and some clinical images, to determine the amount of speckle reduction, edge, and coherence enhancements. Scatterer density weighted nonlinear anisotropic diffusion (SDWNAD) for ultrasound images consistently outperformed its traditional tensor-based counterparts that use gradient only to weight the diffusivity function. SDWNAD is shown to greatly reduce speckle noise while preserving image features as edges, orientation coherence, and scatterer density. SDWNAD superior performances over nonlinear coherent diffusion (NCD), speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), adaptive weighted median filter (AWMF), wavelet shrinkage (WS), and wavelet shrinkage with contrast enhancement (WSCE), make these methods ideal preprocessing steps for automatic segmentation in ultrasound imaging.
Nonlinear anisotropic diffusion, ultrasound imaging, speckle reduction, scatterer density estimation, edge based enhancement, coherence enhancement.
Dual Construction of Stern-based Signature Scheme
In this paper, we propose a dual version of the first threshold ring signature scheme based on error-correcting code proposed by Aguilar et. al in [1]. Our scheme uses an improvement of Véron zero-knowledge identification scheme, which provide smaller public and private key sizes and better computation complexity than the Stern one. This scheme is secure in the random oracle model.
Stern algorithm, Véron algorithm, threshold ring signature,post-quantum cryptography.
Mobile Robot Navigation Using Local Model Networks
Developing techniques for mobile robot navigation constitutes one of the major trends in the current research on mobile robotics. This paper develops a local model network (LMN) for mobile robot navigation. The LMN represents the mobile robot by a set of locally valid submodels that are Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLPs). Training these submodels employs Back Propagation (BP) algorithm. The paper proposes the fuzzy C-means (FCM) in this scheme to divide the input space to sub regions, and then a submodel (MLP) is identified to represent a particular region. The submodels then are combined in a unified structure. In run time phase, Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) are employed as windows for the activated submodels. This proposed structure overcomes the problem of changing operating regions of mobile robots. Read data are used in all experiments. Results for mobile robot navigation using the proposed LMN reflect the soundness of the proposed scheme.
Mobile Robot Navigation, Neural Networks, Local Model Networks
CFD Analysis of Natural Ventilation Behaviour in Four Sided Wind Catcher
Wind catchers are traditional natural ventilation systems attached to buildings in order to ventilate the indoor air. The most common type of wind catcher is four sided one which is capable to catch wind in all directions. CFD simulation is the perfect way to evaluate the wind catcher performance. The accuracy of CFD results is the issue of concern, so sensitivity analyses is crucial to find out the effect of different settings of CFD on results. This paper presents a series of 3D steady RANS simulations for a generic isolated four-sided wind catcher attached to a room subjected to wind direction ranging from 0º to 180º with an interval of 45º. The CFD simulations are validated with detailed wind tunnel experiments. The influence of an extensive range of computational parameters is explored in this paper, including the resolution of the computational grid, the size of the computational domain and the turbulence model. This study found that CFD simulation is a reliable method for wind catcher study, but it is less accurate in prediction of models with non perpendicular wind directions.
Wind catcher, CFD, natural ventilation, sensitivity study.
Optimization of Lakes Aeration Process
The aeration process via injectors is used to combat the lack of oxygen in lakes due to eutrophication. A 3D numerical simulation of the resulting flow using a simplified model is presented. In order to generate the best dynamic in the fluid with respect to the aeration purpose, the optimization of the injectors location is considered. We propose to adapt to this problem the topological sensitivity analysis method which gives the variation of a criterion with respect to the creation of a small hole in the domain. The main idea is to derive the topological sensitivity analysis of the physical model with respect to the insertion of an injector in the fluid flow domain. We propose in this work a topological optimization algorithm based on the studied asymptotic expansion. Finally we present some numerical results, showing the efficiency of our approach
Quasi Stokes equations, Numerical simulation, topological optimization, sensitivity analysis.
Image Modeling Using Gibbs-Markov Random Field and Support Vector Machines Algorithm
This paper introduces a novel approach to estimate the clique potentials of Gibbs Markov random field (GMRF) models using the Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm and the Mean Field (MF) theory. The proposed approach is based on modeling the potential function associated with each clique shape of the GMRF model as a Gaussian-shaped kernel. In turn, the energy function of the GMRF will be in the form of a weighted sum of Gaussian kernels. This formulation of the GMRF model urges the use of the SVM with the Mean Field theory applied for its learning for estimating the energy function. The approach has been tested on synthetic texture images and is shown to provide satisfactory results in retrieving the synthesizing parameters.
Image Modeling, MRF, Parameters Estimation, SVM Learning.
Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flows Induced by a Permeable Continuous Surface Stretched with Prescribed Skin Friction
The boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a stretched surface moving with prescribed skin friction is studied for permeable surface. The surface temperature is assumed to vary inversely with the vertical direction x for n = -1. The skin friction at the surface scales as (x-1/2) at m = 0. The constants m and n are the indices of the power law velocity and temperature exponent respectively. Similarity solutions are obtained for the boundary layer equations subject to power law temperature and velocity variation. The effect of various governing parameters, such as the buoyancy parameter λ and the suction/injection parameter fw for air (Pr = 0.72) are studied. The choice of n and m ensures that the used similarity solutions are x independent. The results show that, assisting flow (λ > 0) enhancing the heat transfer coefficient along the surface for any constant value of fw. Furthermore, injection increases the heat transfer coefficient but suction reduces it at constant λ.
Stretching surface, Boundary layers, Prescribed skin friction, Suction or injection, similarity solutions, buoyancy effects.
Examination of Pre-Tender Budgeting Techniques for Mechanical and Electrical Services in Malaysia

The procurement and cost management approach adopted for mechanical and electrical (M&E) services in Malaysian construction industry have been criticized for its inefficiency. The study examined early cost estimating practices adopted for mechanical and electrical services (M&E) in Malaysia so as to understand the level of compliance of the current techniques with best practices. The methodology adopted for the study is a review of bidding documents used on both completed and on – going building projects awarded between 2008 – 2010 under 9th Malaysian Plan. The analysis revealed that, M&E services cost cannot be reliably estimated at pre-contract stage; the bidding techniques adopted for M&E services failed to provide uniform basis for contractors to submit tender; detailed measurement of items were not made which could complicate post contract cost control and financial management. The paper concluded that, there is need to follow a structured approach in determining the pre-contract cost estimate for M&E services which will serve as a virile tool for post contract cost control.

Cost Management, Mechanical and Electrical Services, Procurement, Standard Method of Measurement
Design of Reliable and Low Cost Substrate Heater for Thin Film Deposition

The substrate heater designed for this investigation is a front side substrate heating system. It consists of 10 conventional tungsten halogen lamps and an aluminum reflector, total input electrical power of 5 kW. The substrate is heated by means of a radiation from conventional tungsten halogen lamps directed to the substrate through a glass window. This design allows easy replacement of the lamps and maintenance of the system. Within 2 to 6 minutes the substrate temperature reaches 500 to 830 C by varying the vertical distance between the glass window and the substrate holder. Moreover, the substrate temperature can be easily controlled by controlling the input power to the system. This design gives excellent opportunity to deposit many deferent films at deferent temperatures in the same deposition time. This substrate heater was successfully used for Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of many thin films, such as Silicon, iron, etc.

CVD, Halogen Lamp, Substrate Heater, Thin Films.
Design Neural Network Controller for Mechatronic System

The main goal of the study is to analyze all relevant properties of the electro hydraulic systems and based on that to make a proper choice of the neural network control strategy that may be used for the control of the mechatronic system. A combination of electronic and hydraulic systems is widely used since it combines the advantages of both. Hydraulic systems are widely spread because of their properties as accuracy, flexibility, high horsepower-to-weight ratio, fast starting, stopping and reversal with smoothness and precision, and simplicity of operations. On the other hand, the modern control of hydraulic systems is based on control of the circuit fed to the inductive solenoid that controls the position of the hydraulic valve. Since this circuit may be easily handled by PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) signal with a proper frequency, the combination of electrical and hydraulic systems became very fruitful and usable in specific areas as airplane and military industry. The study shows and discusses the experimental results obtained by the control strategy of neural network control using MATLAB and SIMULINK [1]. Finally, the special attention was paid to the possibility of neuro-controller design and its application to control of electro-hydraulic systems and to make comparative with other kinds of control.

Neural-Network controller, Mechatronic, electrohydraulic
Cereals' Products with Red Grape and Walnut Extracts as Functional Foods for Prevention of Kidney Dysfunction

In the present research, two nutraceuticals made from red grape and walnut that showed previously to improve kidney dysfunction were incorporated separately into functional foods' bread made from barley and rice bran. The functional foods were evaluated in rats in which chronic renal failure was induced through feeding diet rich in adenine and phosphate (APD). The evaluation based on assessing kidney function, oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarkers and body weight gain. Results showed induction of chronic kidney failure reflected in significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor- α and low density lipoprotein cholesterol along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, and total antioxidant and creatinine clearance and body weight gain on feeding APD compared to control healthy group. Feeding the functional foods produced amelioration in the different biochemical parameters and body weight gain indicating improvement in kidney function.

Functional food, kidney dysfunction, rats.
Hair Mechanical Properties Depending on Age and Origin
Hair is a non homogenous complex material which can be associated with a polymer. It is made up 95% of Keratin. Hair has a great social significance for human beings. In the High Middle Ages, for example, long hairs have been reserved for kings and nobles. Most common interest in hair is focused on hair growth, hair types and hair care, but hair is also an important biomaterial which can vary depending on ethnic origin or on age, hair colour for example can be a sign of ethnic ancestry or age (dark hair for Asiatic, blond hair for Caucasian and white hair for old people in general). In this context, different approaches have been conducted to determine the differences in mechanical properties and characterize the fracture topography at the surface of hair depending on its type and its age. A tensile testing machine was especially designed to achieve tensile tests on hair. This device is composed of a microdisplacement system and a force sensor whose peak load is limited to 3N. The curves and the values extracted from each experiment, allow us to compare the evolution of the mechanical properties from one hair to another. Observations with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and with an interferometer were made on different hairs. Thus, it is possible to access the cuticle state and the fracture topography for each category.
Hair, relaxation test, SEM, interferometer,mechanical properties.
A Multi-Level WEB Based Parallel Processing System A Hierarchical Volunteer Computing Approach
Over the past few years, a number of efforts have been exerted to build parallel processing systems that utilize the idle power of LAN-s and PC-s available in many homes and corporations. The main advantage of these approaches is that they provide cheap parallel processing environments for those who cannot afford the expenses of supercomputers and parallel processing hardware. However, most of the solutions provided are not very flexible in the use of available resources and very difficult to install and setup. In this paper, a multi-level web-based parallel processing system (MWPS) is designed (appendix). MWPS is based on the idea of volunteer computing, very flexible, easy to setup and easy to use. MWPS allows three types of subscribers: simple volunteers (single computers), super volunteers (full networks) and end users. All of these entities are coordinated transparently through a secure web site. Volunteer nodes provide the required processing power needed by the system end users. There is no limit on the number of volunteer nodes, and accordingly the system can grow indefinitely. Both volunteer and system users must register and subscribe. Once, they subscribe, each entity is provided with the appropriate MWPS components. These components are very easy to install. Super volunteer nodes are provided with special components that make it possible to delegate some of the load to their inner nodes. These inner nodes may also delegate some of the load to some other lower level inner nodes .... and so on. It is the responsibility of the parent super nodes to coordinate the delegation process and deliver the results back to the user. MWPS uses a simple behavior-based scheduler that takes into consideration the current load and previous behavior of processing nodes. Nodes that fulfill their contracts within the expected time get a high degree of trust. Nodes that fail to satisfy their contract get a lower degree of trust. MWPS is based on the .NET framework and provides the minimal level of security expected in distributed processing environments. Users and processing nodes are fully authenticated. Communications and messages between nodes are very secure. The system has been implemented using C#. MWPS may be used by any group of people or companies to establish a parallel processing or grid environment.
Volunteer computing, Parallel Processing, XMLWebServices, .NET Remoting, Tuplespace.
Bone Proteome Study in Ovariectomised Rats Supplemented with Palm Vitamin E
Supplementation of palm vitamin E has been reported to prevent loss of bone density in ovariectomised female rats. The mechanism by which palm vitamin E exerts these effects is still unknown. We hypothesized that palm vitamin E may act by preventing the protein expression changes. Two dimensional poly acyrilamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and PD Quest software genomic solutions Investigator (proteomics) was used to analyze the differential protein expression profile in femoral and humeri bones harvested from three groups of rats; sham-operated rats (SO), ovariectomised rats (Ovx) and ovariectomised rats supplemented for 2 months with palm vitamin E. The results showed that there were over 300 valued spot on each of the groups PVE and OVX as compared to about 200 in SO. Comparison between the differential protein expression between OVX and PVE groups showed that ten spots were down –regulated in OVX but up-regulated in PVE. The ten differential spots were separately named P1-P10. The identification and understanding of the pathway of the differential protein expression among the groups is ongoing and may account for the molecular mechanism through which palm vitamin E exert its anti-osteoporotic effect.
Palm vitamin E, ovariectomised, osteoporosis protein expression, 2-d-page.
Combined Beamforming and Channel Estimation in WCDMA Communication Systems

We address the problem of joint beamforming and multipath channel parameters estimation in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) communication systems that employ Multiple-Access Interference (MAI) suppression techniques in the uplink (from mobile to base station). Most of the existing schemes rely on time multiplex a training sequence with the user data. In WCDMA, the channel parameters can also be estimated from a code multiplexed common pilot channel (CPICH) that could be corrupted by strong interference resulting in a bad estimate. In this paper, we present new methods to combine interference suppression together with channel estimation when using multiple receiving antennas by using adaptive signal processing techniques. Computer simulation is used to compare between the proposed methods and the existing conventional estimation techniques.

Adaptive arrays, channel estimation, interferencecancellation, wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA).
Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Soil Plant-Atmosphere. Influence of the Spatial Variability of Soil Hydrodynamic
The modeling of water transfer in the unsaturated zone uses techniques and methods of the soil physics to solve the Richards-s equation. However, there is a disaccord between the size of the measurements provided by the soil physics and the size of the fields of hydrological modeling problem, to which is added the strong spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties. The objective of this work was to develop a methodology to estimate the hydrodynamic parameters for modeling water transfers at different hydrological scales in the soil-plant atmosphere systems.
Hydraulic properties, Modeling, Unsaturated zone, Transfer, Water
Effect of Cladding and Secondary Members on the Elastic Stability of Main Columns
The corrugated steel cladding used to cover most of steel buildings is considered as non-structural element. This research will reflect the effect of cladding as a shear diaphragm in increasing the normal elastic capacity of columns. This study is important because of the lack of information of the behavior of cladding and secondary members in various codes. Mathematical models for six different cases are carried by software. The results extracted from the program have been plotted showing the effects of different variables on the ultimate load of column. The variables considered in our research are the spacing between columns and the thickness of the corrugated sheet representing the sheet stiffness.
Stability of frames about minor axis, The effective length factor, Effect of secondary members on elastic buckling load column, The stiffness of sheeting.
Expansion of A Finit Size Partially Ionized Laser-Plasma

The expansion mechanism of a partially ionized plasma produced by laser interaction with solid target (copper) is studied. For this purpose we use a hydrodynamical model which includes a source term combined with Saha's equation. The obtained self-similar solution in the limit of quasi-neutrality shows that the expansion, at the earlier stage, is driven by the combination of thermal pressure and electrostatic potential. They are of the same magnitude. The initial ionized fraction and the temperature are the leading parameters of the expanding profiles,

expansion, quasi-neutral, laser-ablated plasma, self- similar.
Prediction of the Characteristics of Transformer Oil under Different Operation Conditions

Power systems and transformer are intrinsic apparatus, therefore its reliability and safe operation is important to determine their operation conditions, and the industry uses quality control tests in the insulation design of oil filled transformers. Hence the service period effect on AC dielectric strength is significant. The effect of aging on transformer oil physical, chemical and electrical properties was studied using the international testing methods for the evaluation of transformer oil quality. The study was carried out on six transformers operate in the field and for monitoring periods over twenty years. The properties which are strongly time dependent were specified and those which have a great impact on the transformer oil acidity, breakdown voltage and dissolved gas analysis were defined. Several tests on the transformers oil were studied to know the time of purifying or changing it, moreover prediction of the characteristics of it under different operation conditions.

Dissolved Gas Analysis, Prediction, Purifying and Changing.
A Unified Robust Algorithm for Detection of Human and Non-human Object in Intelligent Safety Application
This paper presents a general trainable framework for fast and robust upright human face and non-human object detection and verification in static images. To enhance the performance of the detection process, the technique we develop is based on the combination of fast neural network (FNN) and classical neural network (CNN). In FNN, a useful correlation is exploited to sustain high level of detection accuracy between input image and the weight of the hidden neurons. This is to enable the use of Fourier transform that significantly speed up the time detection. The combination of CNN is responsible to verify the face region. A bootstrap algorithm is used to collect non human object, which adds the false detection to the training process of the human and non-human object. Experimental results on test images with both simple and complex background demonstrate that the proposed method has obtained high detection rate and low false positive rate in detecting both human face and non-human object.
Algorithm, detection of human and non-human object, FNN, CNN, Image training.
Effect of Addition of Separan at Different Concentrations as a Flocculants on Quality of Sugar Cane Juice
The study was designed to evaluate the use of low concentrations of separan flocculent (Less than 3 ppm) on physicochemical properties of sugar cane juice. Colour, pH, purity, turbidity, pol, brix, reducing sugars tannins and polyphenols of crushed cane (green and burned) juice, mixed juice and clarified juice were studied. The results showed that pol, brix, reducing sugar and turbidity are higher in crushed cane juice. Clarified burned juice had low turbidity, reducing sugars, pol and brix but had significantly lower pH, purity and colour when compared to crushed juice. Polyphenols of the crushed juice (1.19%) decreased significantly in the clarified juice to 0.006%. Addition of separan at a concentration of 0.015 ppm reduced significantly colour, polyphenols and tannins and reducing sugar compared to the control.
Separan, Sugar cane, Reducing sugar, Polyphenols, Clarified juice.
Properties of SMA Mixtures Containing Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate
Utilization of waste material in asphalt pavement would be beneficial in order to find an alternative solution to increase service life of asphalt pavement and reduce environmental pollution as well. One of these waste materials is Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) which is a type of polyester material and is produced in a large extent. This research program is investigating the effects of adding waste PET particles into the asphalt mixture with a maximum size of 2.36 mm. Different percentages of PET were added into the mixture during dry process. Gap-graded mixture (SMA 14) and PG 80-100 asphalt binder have been used for this study. To evaluate PET reinforced asphalt mixture different laboratory investigations have been conducted on specimens. Marshall Stability test was carried out. Besides, stiffness modulus test and indirect tensile fatigue test were conducted on specimens at optimum asphalt content. It was observed that in many cases PET reinforced SMA mixture had better mechanical properties in comparison with control mixture.
Asphalt mixture, Environment, Mix properties, Polyethylene terephthalate
Automatic Discrimimation of the Modes of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood
In order to be able to automatically differentiate between two modes of permanent flow of a liquid simulating blood, it was imperative to put together a data bank. Thus, the acquisition of the various amplitude spectra of the Doppler signal of this liquid in laminar flow and other spectra in turbulent flow enabled us to establish an automatic difference between the two modes. According to the number of parameters and their nature, a comparative study allowed us to choose the best classifier.
Doppler spectrum, flow mode, pattern recognition, permanent flow.
Using Low Permeability Sand-Fadr Mixture Membrane for Isolated Swelling Soil
Desert regions around the Nile valley in Upper Egypt contain great extent of swelling soil. Many different comment procedures of treatment of the swelling soils for construction such as pre-swelling, load balance OR soil replacement. One of the measure factors which affect the level of the aggressiveness of the swelling soil is the direction of the infiltration water directions within the swelling soils. In this paper a physical model was installed to measure the effect of water on the swelling soil with replacement using fatty acid distillation residuals (FADR) mixed with sand as thick sand-FADR mixture to prevent the water pathway arrive to the swelling soil. Testing program have been conducted on different artificial samples with different sand to FADR contents ratios (4%, 6%, and 9%) to get the optimum value fulfilling the impermeable replacement. The tests show that a FADR content of 9% is sufficient to produce impermeable replacement.
Swelling soil, FADR, soil improvement, permeability
Group of p-th Roots of Unity Modulo n

Let n ≥ 3 be an integer and p be a prime odd number. Let us consider Gp(n) the subgroup of (Z/nZ)* defined by : Gp(n) = {x ∈ (Z/nZ)* / xp = 1}. In this paper, we give an algorithm that computes a generating set of this subgroup.

Group, p-th roots, modulo, unity.
Density Estimation using Generalized Linear Model and a Linear Combination of Gaussians

In this paper we present a novel approach for density estimation. The proposed approach is based on using the logistic regression model to get initial density estimation for the given empirical density. The empirical data does not exactly follow the logistic regression model, so, there will be a deviation between the empirical density and the density estimated using logistic regression model. This deviation may be positive and/or negative. In this paper we use a linear combination of Gaussian (LCG) with positive and negative components as a model for this deviation. Also, we will use the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the parameters of LCG. Experiments on real images demonstrate the accuracy of our approach.

Logistic regression model, Expectationmaximization, Segmentation.
Practical Applications and Connectivity Algorithms in Future Wireless Sensor Networks
Like any sentient organism, a smart environment relies first and foremost on sensory data captured from the real world. The sensory data come from sensor nodes of different modalities deployed on different locations forming a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Embedding smart sensors in humans has been a research challenge due to the limitations imposed by these sensors from computational capabilities to limited power. In this paper, we first propose a practical WSN application that will enable blind people to see what their neighboring partners can see. The challenge is that the actual mapping between the input images to brain pattern is too complex and not well understood. We also study the connectivity problem in 3D/2D wireless sensor networks and propose distributed efficient algorithms to accomplish the required connectivity of the system. We provide a new connectivity algorithm CDCA to connect disconnected parts of a network using cooperative diversity. Through simulations, we analyze the connectivity gains and energy savings provided by this novel form of cooperative diversity in WSNs.
Wireless Sensor Networks, Pervasive Computing,Eye Vision Application, 3D Connectivity, Clusters, Energy Efficient,Cooperative diversity.
Using Genetic Algorithms in Closed Loop Identification of the Systems with Variable Structure Controller

This work presents a recursive identification algorithm. This algorithm relates to the identification of closed loop system with Variable Structure Controller. The approach suggested includes two stages. In the first stage a genetic algorithm is used to obtain the parameters of switching function which gives a control signal rich in commutations (i.e. a control signal whose spectral characteristics are closest possible to those of a white noise signal). The second stage consists in the identification of the system parameters by the instrumental variable method and using the optimal switching function parameters obtained with the genetic algorithm. In order to test the validity of this algorithm a simulation example is presented.

Closed loop identification, variable structure controller, pseud-random binary sequence, genetic algorithms.
Efficient Scheduling Algorithm for QoS Support in High Speed Downlink Packet Access Networks
In this paper, we propose APO, a new packet scheduling scheme with Quality of Service (QoS) support for hybrid of real and non-real time services in HSDPA networks. The APO scheduling algorithm is based on the effective channel anticipation model. In contrast to the traditional schemes, the proposed method is implemented based on a cyclic non-work-conserving discipline. Simulation results indicated that proposed scheme has good capability to maximize the channel usage efficiency in compared to another exist scheduling methods. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Scheduling Algorithm, Quality of Service, HSDPA.
Agrowaste: Phytosterol from Durian Seed
Presence of phytosterol compound in Durian seed (Durio zibethinus) or known as King of fruits has been discovered from screening work using reagent test. Further analysis work has been carried out using mass spectrometer in order to support the priliminary finding. Isolation and purification of the major phytosterol has been carried out using an open column chromatography. The separation was monitored using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Major isolated compounds and purified phytosterol were identified using mass spectrometer and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This novel finding could promote utilization of durian seeds as a functional ingredient in food products through production of standardized extract based on phytosterol content.
Agrowaste, durian, seed, phytosterol
The Knowledge Representation of the Genetic Regulatory Networks Based on Ontology

The understanding of the system level of biological behavior and phenomenon variously needs some elements such as gene sequence, protein structure, gene functions and metabolic pathways. Challenging problems are representing, learning and reasoning about these biochemical reactions, gene and protein structure, genotype and relation between the phenotype, and expression system on those interactions. The goal of our work is to understand the behaviors of the interactions networks and to model their evolution in time and in space. We propose in this study an ontological meta-model for the knowledge representation of the genetic regulatory networks. Ontology in artificial intelligence means the fundamental categories and relations that provide a framework for knowledge models. Domain ontology's are now commonly used to enable heterogeneous information resources, such as knowledge-based systems, to communicate with each other. The interest of our model is to represent the spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal knowledge. We validated our propositions in the genetic regulatory network of the Aarbidosis thaliana flower

Ontological model, spatio-temporal modeling,Genetic Regulatory Networks (GRNs), knowledge representation.
Mobile Learning Adoption in Saudi Arabia
This paper investigates the use of mobile phones and tablets for learning purposes among university students in Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is proposed to analyze the adoption of mobile devices and smart phones by Saudi university students for accessing course materials, searching the web for information related to their discipline, sharing knowledge, conducting assignments etc.
Saudi Arabia, TAM, Mobile learning, e-learning, smart phones.
Assessment of Reliability and Quality Measures in Power Systems
The paper presents new results of a recent industry supported research and development study in which an efficient framework for evaluating practical and meaningful power system reliability and quality indices was applied. The system-wide integrated performance indices are capable of addressing and revealing areas of deficiencies and bottlenecks as well as redundancies in the composite generation-transmission-demand structure of large-scale power grids. The technique utilizes a linear programming formulation, which simulates practical operating actions and offers a general and comprehensive framework to assess the harmony and compatibility of generation, transmission and demand in a power system. Practical applications to a reduced system model as well as a portion of the Saudi power grid are also presented in the paper for demonstration purposes.
Power systems, Linear programming, Quality assessment, Reliability.
Analysis of Conduction-Radiation Heat Transfer in a Planar Medium: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

In this paper, the 1-D conduction-radiation problem is solved by the lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of various parameters such as the scattering albedo, the conduction–radiation parameter and the wall emissivity are studied. In order to check on the accuracy of the numerical technique employed for the solution of the considered problem, the present numerical code was validated with the published study. The found results are in good agreement with those published

Conduction, lattice Boltzmann method, planar medium, radiation.
Using Support Vector Machine for Prediction Dynamic Voltage Collapse in an Actual Power System
This paper presents dynamic voltage collapse prediction on an actual power system using support vector machines. Dynamic voltage collapse prediction is first determined based on the PTSI calculated from information in dynamic simulation output. Simulations were carried out on a practical 87 bus test system by considering load increase as the contingency. The data collected from the time domain simulation is then used as input to the SVM in which support vector regression is used as a predictor to determine the dynamic voltage collapse indices of the power system. To reduce training time and improve accuracy of the SVM, the Kernel function type and Kernel parameter are considered. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed SVM method, its performance is compared with the multi layer perceptron neural network (MLPNN). Studies show that the SVM gives faster and more accurate results for dynamic voltage collapse prediction compared with the MLPNN.
Dynamic voltage collapse, prediction, artificial neural network, support vector machines
Functional Food Knowledge and Perceptions among Young Consumers in Malaysia
Changing in consumers lifestyles and food consumption patterns provide a great opportunity in developing the functional food sector in Malaysia. There is only a little knowledge about whether Malaysian consumers are aware of functional food and if so what image consumers have of this product. The objective of this research is to determine the extent to which selected socioeconomic characteristics and attitudes influence consumers- awareness of functional food. A survey was conducted in the Klang Valley, Malaysia where 439 respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The result shows that most respondents have a positive attitude towards functional food. For the binary logistic estimation, the results indicate that age, income and other factors such as concern about food safety, subscribing to cooking or health magazines, being a vegetarian and consumers who have been involved in a food production company significantly influence Malaysian consumers- awareness towards functional food.
Binary logistic model, functional foods, knowledge and awareness, perception
Measurement and Estimation of Evaporation from Water Surfaces: Application to Dams in Arid and Semi Arid Areas in Algeria
Many methods exist for either measuring or estimating evaporation from free water surfaces. Evaporation pans provide one of the simplest, inexpensive, and most widely used methods of estimating evaporative losses. In this study, the rate of evaporation starting from a water surface was calculated by modeling with application to dams in wet, arid and semi arid areas in Algeria. We calculate the evaporation rate from the pan using the energy budget equation, which offers the advantage of an ease of use, but our results do not agree completely with the measurements taken by the National Agency of areas carried out using dams located in areas of different climates. For that, we develop a mathematical model to simulate evaporation. This simulation uses an energy budget on the level of a vat of measurement and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (Fluent). Our calculation of evaporation rate is compared then by the two methods and with the measures of areas in situ.
Evaporation, Energy budget, Surface water temperature, CFD, Dams
GeoSEMA: A Modelling Platform, Emerging “GeoSpatial-based Evolutionary and Mobile Agents“
Spatial and mobile computing evolves. This paper describes a smart modeling platform called “GeoSEMA". This approach tends to model multidimensional GeoSpatial Evolutionary and Mobile Agents. Instead of 3D and location-based issues, there are some other dimensions that may characterize spatial agents, e.g. discrete-continuous time, agent behaviors. GeoSEMA is seen as a devoted design pattern motivating temporal geographic-based applications; it is a firm foundation for multipurpose and multidimensional special-based applications. It deals with multipurpose smart objects (buildings, shapes, missiles, etc.) by stimulating geospatial agents. Formally, GeoSEMA refers to geospatial, spatio-evolutive and mobile space constituents where a conceptual geospatial space model is given in this paper. In addition to modeling and categorizing geospatial agents, the model incorporates the concept of inter-agents event-based protocols. Finally, a rapid software-architecture prototyping GeoSEMA platform is also given. It will be implemented/ validated in the next phase of our work.
Location-Trajectory management, GIS, Mobile- Moving Objects/Agents, Multipurpose/Spatiotemporal data, Multi- Agent Systems.
Cost of Road Traffic Accidents in Egypt

The main objective of this paper is to estimate the cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt. The Human Capital (HC) approach, specifically the Gross-Loss-of-Output methodology, is adopted for estimation. Moreover, cost values obtained by previous national literature are updated using the inflation rates. The results indicate an estimated cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt of approximately 10 billion Egyptian Pounds (about $US 1.8 billion) for the year 2008. In addition, it is expected that this cost will rise in 2009 to 11.8 billion Egyptian Pounds (about $US 2.1 billion).

Cost, Gross-Loss-of-Output, Human CapitalApproach, Road Traffic Accidents.
Teachers- Perceptions on the Use of E-Books as Textbooks in the Classroom
At the time where electronic books, or e-Books, offer students a fun way of learning , teachers who are used to the paper text books may find it as a new challenge to use it as a part of learning process. Precisely, there are various types of e-Books available to suit students- knowledge, characteristics, abilities, and interests. The paper discusses teachers- perceptions on the use of ebooks as a paper text book in the classroom. A survey was conducted on 72 teachers who use e-books as textbooks. It was discovered that a majority of these teachers had good perceptions on the use of ebooks. However, they had little problems using the devices. It can be overcome with some strategies and a suggested framework.
Classroom, E-books, perception, teacher.
Investigation of a Wearable Textile Monopole Antenna on Specific Absorption Rate at 2.45 GHz
This paper discusses the investigation of a wearable textile monopole antenna on specific absorption rate (SAR) for bodycentric wireless communication applications at 2.45 GHz. The antenna is characterized on a realistic 8 x 8 x 8 mm3 resolution truncated Hugo body model in CST Microwave Studio software. The result exhibited that the simulated SAR values were reduced significantly by 83.5% as the position of textile monopole was varying between 0 mm and 15 mm away from the human upper arm. A power absorption reduction of 52.2% was also noticed as the distance of textile monopole increased.
Monopole antenna, specific absorption rate, textile antenna.
Probability Density Estimation Using Advanced Support Vector Machines and the Expectation Maximization Algorithm

This paper presents a new approach for the prob-ability density function estimation using the Support Vector Ma-chines (SVM) and the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithms.In the proposed approach, an advanced algorithm for the SVM den-sity estimation which incorporates the Mean Field theory in the learning process is used. Instead of using ad-hoc values for the para-meters of the kernel function which is used by the SVM algorithm,the proposed approach uses the EM algorithm for an automatic optimization of the kernel. Experimental evaluation using simulated data set shows encouraging results.

Density Estimation, SVM, Learning Algorithms,Parameters Estimation.
An Improved QRS Complex Detection for Online Medical Diagnosis
This paper presents the work of signal discrimination specifically for Electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform. ECG signal is comprised of P, QRS, and T waves in each normal heart beat to describe the pattern of heart rhythms corresponds to a specific individual. Further medical diagnosis could be done to determine any heart related disease using ECG information. The emphasis on QRS Complex classification is further discussed to illustrate the importance of it. Pan-Tompkins Algorithm, a widely known technique has been adapted to realize the QRS Complex classification process. There are eight steps involved namely sampling, normalization, low pass filter, high pass filter (build a band pass filter), derivation, squaring, averaging and lastly is the QRS detection. The simulation results obtained is represented in a Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed using MATLAB.
ECG, Pan Tompkins Algorithm, QRS Complex, Simulation
Identification of Differentially Expressed Gene(DEG) in Atherosclerotic Lesion by Annealing Control Primer (ACP)-Based Genefishing™ PCR

Atherosclerosis was identified as a chronic inflammatory process resulting from interactions between plasma lipoproteins, cellular components (monocyte, macrophages, T lymphocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells) and the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall. Several types of genes were known to express during formation of atherosclerosis. This study is carried out to identify unknown differentially expressed gene (DEG) in atherogenesis. Rabbit’s aorta tissues were stained by H&E for histomorphology. GeneFishing™ PCR analysis was performed from total RNA extracted from the aorta tissues. The DNA fragment from DEG was cloned, sequenced and validated by Real-time PCR. Histomorphology showed intimal thickening in the aorta. DEG detected from ACP-41 was identified as cathepsin B gene and showed upregulation at week-8 and week-12 of atherogenesis. Therefore, ACP-based GeneFishing™ PCR facilitated identification of cathepsin B gene which was differentially expressed during development of atherosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis, GeneFishing™ PCR, cathepsin B gene.
DMC with Adaptive Weighted Output
This paper presents a new adaptive DMC controller that improves the controller performance in case of plant-model mismatch. The new controller monitors the plant measured output, compares it with the model output and calculates weights applied to the controller move. Simulations show that the new controller can help improve control performance and avoid instability in case of severe model mismatches.
Adaptive control, dynamic matrix control, DMC, model predictive control
Analysis of Driver Point of Regard Determinations with Eye-Gesture Templates Using Receiver Operating Characteristic

An Advance Driver Assistance System (ADAS) is a computer system on board a vehicle which is used to reduce the risk of vehicular accidents by monitoring factors relating to the driver, vehicle and environment and taking some action when a risk is identified. Much work has been done on assessing vehicle and environmental state but there is still comparatively little published work that tackles the problem of driver state. Visual attention is one such driver state. In fact, some researchers claim that lack of attention is the main cause of accidents as factors such as fatigue, alcohol or drug use, distraction and speeding all impair the driver-s capacity to pay attention to the vehicle and road conditions [1]. This seems to imply that the main cause of accidents is inappropriate driver behaviour in cases where the driver is not giving full attention while driving. The work presented in this paper proposes an ADAS system which uses an image based template matching algorithm to detect if a driver is failing to observe particular windscreen cells. This is achieved by dividing the windscreen into 24 uniform cells (4 rows of 6 columns) and matching video images of the driver-s left eye with eye-gesture templates drawn from images of the driver looking at the centre of each windscreen cell. The main contribution of this paper is to assess the accuracy of this approach using Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis. The results of our evaluation give a sensitivity value of 84.3% and a specificity value of 85.0% for the eye-gesture template approach indicating that it may be useful for driver point of regard determinations.

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, Eye-Tracking, Hazard Detection.
Development of a Brain Glutamate Microbiosensor

This work attempts to improve the permselectivity of poly-ortho-phenylenediamine (PPD) coating for glutamate biosensor applications on Pt microelectrode, using constant potential amperometry and cyclic voltammetry. Percentage permeability of the modified PPD microelectrode was carried out towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbic acid (AA) whereas permselectivity represents the percentage interference by AA in H2O2 detection. The 50-μm diameter Pt disk microelectrode showed a good permeability value toward H2O2 (95%) and selectivity against AA (0.01%) compared to other sizes of electrode studied here. The electrode was further modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx) that was immobilized and cross linked with glutaraldehyde (GA, 0.125%), resulting in Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrode design. The maximum current density Jmax and apparent Michaelis constant, KM, obtained on Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrodes were 48 μA cm-2 and 50 μM, respectively. The linear region slope (LRS) was 0.96 μA cm-2 mM-1. The detection limit (LOD) for glutamate was 3.0 ± 0.6 μM. This study shows a promising glutamate microbiosensor for brain glutamate detection. 

Brain, Glutamate, Microbiosensor.
Numerical Method Based On Initial Value-Finite Differences for Free Vibration of Stepped Thickness Plates

The main objective of the present paper is to derive an easy numerical technique for the analysis of the free vibration through the stepped regions of plates. Based on the utilities of the step by step integration initial values IV and Finite differences FD methods, the present improved Initial Value Finite Differences (IVFD) technique is achieved. The first initial conditions are formulated in convenient forms for the step by step integrations while the upper and lower edge conditions are expressed in finite difference modes. Also compatibility conditions are created due to the sudden variation of plate thickness. The present method (IVFD) is applied to solve the fourth order partial differential equation of motion for stepped plate across two different panels under the sudden step compatibility in addition to different types of end conditions. The obtained results are examined and the validity of the present method is proved showing excellent efficiency and rapid convergence.

Vibrations, Step by Step Integration, Stepped plate, Boundary.
A Multilanguage Source Code Retrieval System Using Structural-Semantic Fingerprints
Source code retrieval is of immense importance in the software engineering field. The complex tasks of retrieving and extracting information from source code documents is vital in the development cycle of the large software systems. The two main subtasks which result from these activities are code duplication prevention and plagiarism detection. In this paper, we propose a Mohamed Amine Ouddan, and Hassane Essafi source code retrieval system based on two-level fingerprint representation, respectively the structural and the semantic information within a source code. A sequence alignment technique is applied on these fingerprints in order to quantify the similarity between source code portions. The specific purpose of the system is to detect plagiarism and duplicated code between programs written in different programming languages belonging to the same class, such as C, Cµ, Java and CSharp. These four languages are supported by the actual version of the system which is designed such that it may be easily adapted for any programming language.
Source code retrieval, plagiarism detection, clonedetection, sequence alignment.
The Synergistic Effects of Using Silicon and Selenium on Fruiting of Zaghloul Date Palm (Phoenix dectylifera L.)

During 2011 and 2012 seasons, Zaghloul date palms received four sprays of silicon (Si) at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium (Se) at 0.01 to 0.02%. Growth, nutritional status, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in response to application of silicon and selenium were investigated. Single and combined applications of silicon at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium at 0.01 to 0.02% was very effective in enhancing the leaf area, total chlorophylls, percentages of N, P and K in the leaves, yield, bunch weight as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in relative to the check treatment. Silicon was superior to selenium in this respect. Combined application was favorable than using each alone in this connection. Treating Zaghloul date palms four times with a mixture of silicon at 0.05% + selenium at 0.01% resulted in an economical yield and producing better fruit quality.

Date Palms, Zaghloul, Silicon, Selenium, leaf area.
Identification of Anaerobic Microorganisms for Converting Kitchen Waste to Biogas
Anaerobic digestion process is one of the alternative methods to convert organic waste into methane gas which is a fuel and energy source. Activities of various kinds of microorganisms are the main factor for anaerobic digestion which produces methane gas. Therefore, in this study a modified Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with working volume of 50 liters was designed to identify the microorganisms through biogas production. The mixture of 75% kitchen waste and 25% sewage sludge was used as substrate. Observations on microorganisms in the ABR showed that there exists a small amount of protozoa (5%) and fungi (2%) in the system, but almost 93% of the microorganism population consists of bacteria. It is definitely clear that bacteria are responsible for anaerobic biodegradation of kitchen waste. Results show that in the acidification zone of the ABR (front compartments of reactor) fast growing bacteria capable of growth at high substrate levels and reduced pH was dominant. A shift to slower growing scavenging bacteria that grow better at higher pH was occurring towards the end of the reactor. Due to the ability of activity in acetate environment the percentages of Methanococcus, Methanosarcina and Methanotrix were higher than other kinds of methane former in the system.
Anaerobic microorganism identification, Kitchenwaste, Biogas.
Optical Characterization of a Microwave Plasma Torch for Hydrogen Production

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a very toxic gas that is produced in very large quantities in the oil and gas industry. It cannot be flared to the atmosphere and Claus process based gas plants are used to recover the sulfur and convert the hydrogen to water. In this paper, we present optical characterization of an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch for H2S dissociation into hydrogen and sulfur. The torch is operated at 2.45 GHz with power up to 2 kW. Three different gases can simultaneously be injected in the plasma torch. Visual imaging and optical emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the plasma for varying gas flow rates and microwave power. The plasma length, emission spectra and temperature are presented. The obtained experimental results validate our earlier published simulation results of plasma torch.

Atmospheric pressure microwave plasma, gas dissociation, optical emission spectroscopy.
An Energy-Latency-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Because nodes are usually battery-powered, the energy presents a very scarce resource in wireless sensor networks. For this reason, the design of medium access control had to take energy efficiency as one of its hottest concerns. Accordingly, in order to improve the energy performance of MAC schemes in wireless sensor networks, several ways can be followed. In fact, some researchers try to limit idle listening while others focus on mitigating overhearing (i.e. a node can hear a packet which is destined to another node) or reducing the number of the used control packets. We, in this paper, propose a new hybrid MAC protocol termed ELE-MAC (i.e. Energy Latency Efficient MAC). The ELE-MAC major design goals are energy and latency efficiencies. It adopts less control packets than SMAC in order to preserve energy. We carried out ns- 2 simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol. Thus, our simulation-s results prove the ELE-MAC energy efficiency. Additionally, our solution performs statistically the same or better latency characteristic compared to adaptive SMAC.
Control packet, energy efficiency, medium access control,wireless sensor networks.
Towards Cloud Computing Anatomy
Cloud Computing has recently emerged as a compelling paradigm for managing and delivering services over the internet. The rise of Cloud Computing is rapidly changing the landscape of information technology, and ultimately turning the longheld promise of utility computing into a reality. As the development of Cloud Computing paradigm is speedily progressing, concepts, and terminologies are becoming imprecise and ambiguous, as well as different technologies are interfering. Thus, it becomes crucial to clarify the key concepts and definitions. In this paper, we present the anatomy of Cloud Computing, covering its essential concepts, prominent characteristics, its affects, architectural design and key technologies. We differentiate various service and deployment models. Also, significant challenges and risks need are tackled in order to guarantee the long-term success of Cloud Computing. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the anatomy of Cloud Computing and pave the way for further research in this area.
Anatomy, Aspects, Cloud Computing, Challenges.
Synthesis and Reactions of Sulphone Hydrazides

The chemistry of sulphone hydrazide has gained increase interest in both synthetic organic chemistry and biological fields and has considerable value. The therapeutic importance of these compounds is the attractive force to continue research in such a point. The present review covers the literature up to date for the synthesis, reactions and applications of such compounds.

Sulphone hydrazide compounds, Reactions, Synthesis, Biological activities.
Decision Algorithm for Smart Airbag Deployment Safety Issues
Airbag deployment has been known to be responsible for huge death, incidental injuries and broken bones due to low crash severity and wrong deployment decisions. Therefore, the authorities and industries have been looking for more innovative and intelligent products to be realized for future enhancements in the vehicle safety systems (VSSs). Although the VSSs technologies have advanced considerably, they still face challenges such as how to avoid unnecessary and untimely airbag deployments that can be hazardous and fatal. Currently, most of the existing airbag systems deploy without regard to occupant size and position. As such, this paper will focus on the occupant and crash sensing performances due to frontal collisions for the new breed of so called smart airbag systems. It intends to provide a thorough discussion relating to the occupancy detection, occupant size classification, occupant off-position detection to determine safe distance zone for airbag deployment, crash-severity analysis and airbag decision algorithms via a computer modeling. The proposed system model consists of three main modules namely, occupant sensing, crash severity analysis and decision fusion. The occupant sensing system module utilizes the weight sensor to determine occupancy, classify the occupant size, and determine occupant off-position condition to compute safe distance for airbag deployment. The crash severity analysis module is used to generate relevant information pertinent to airbag deployment decision. Outputs from these two modules are fused to the decision module for correct and efficient airbag deployment action. Computer modeling work is carried out using Simulink, Stateflow, SimMechanics and Virtual Reality toolboxes.
Crash severity analysis, occupant size classification, smart airbag, vehicle safety system.
Comparing Spontaneous Hydrolysis Rates of Activated Models of DNA and RNA

This research project aims to investigate difference in relative rates concerning phosphoryl transfer relevant to biological catalysis of DNA and RNA in the pH-independent reactions. Activated Models of DNA and RNA for alkyl-aryl phosphate diesters (with 4-nitrophenyl as a good leaving group) have successfully been prepared to gather kinetic parameters. Eyring plots for the pH– independent hydrolysis of 1 and 2 were established at different temperatures in the range 100–160 °C. These measurements have been used to provide a better estimate for the difference in relative rates between the reactivity of DNA and RNA cleavage. Eyring plot gave an extrapolated rate of kH2O = 1 × 10-10 s -1 for 1 (RNA model) and 2 (DNA model) at 25°C. Comparing the reactivity of RNA model and DNA model shows that the difference in relative rates in the pH-independent reactions is surprisingly very similar at 25°. This allows us to obtain chemical insights into how biological catalysts such as enzymes may have evolved to perform their current functions.

DNA & RNA Models, Relative Rates, Reactivity.
Comparative Analysis of Vibration between Laminated Composite Plates with and without Holes under Compressive Loads
In this study, a vibration analysis was carried out of symmetric angle-ply laminated composite plates with and without square hole when subjected to compressive loads, numerically. A buckling analysis is also performed to determine the buckling load of laminated plates. For each fibre orientation, the compression load is taken equal to 50% of the corresponding buckling load. In the analysis, finite element method (FEM) was applied to perform parametric studies, the effects of degree of orthotropy and stacking sequence upon the fundamental frequencies and buckling loads are discussed. The results show that the presence of a constant compressive load tends to reduce uniformly the natural frequencies for materials which have a low degree of orthotropy. However, this reduction becomes non-uniform for materials with a higher degree of orthotropy.
Vibration, Buckling, Cutout, Laminated composite, FEM
Design of a Hybrid Fuel Cell with Battery Energy Storage for Stand-Alone Distributed Generation Applications

This paper presents the modeling and simulation of a hybrid proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with an energy storage system for use in a stand-alone distributed generation (DG) system. The simulation model consists of fuel cell DG, lead-acid battery, maximum power point tracking and power conditioning unit which is modeled in the MATLAB/Simulink platform. Poor loadfollowing characteristics and slow response to rapid load changes are some of the weaknesses of PEMFC because of the gas processing reaction and the fuel cell dynamics. To address the load-tracking issues in PEMFC, a hybrid PEMFC and battery storage system is considered and modelled. The model utilizes PEMFC as the main energy source whereas the battery functions as energy storage to compensate for the limitations of PEMFC.Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance under light and heavyloading conditions.

Hybrid, Lead–Acid Battery, Maximum Power Point Tracking, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell.
Attenuation in Transferred RF Power to a Biomedical Implant due to the Absorption of Biological Tissue
In a transcutanious inductive coupling of a biomedical implant, a new formula is given for the study of the Radio Frequency power attenuation by the biological tissue. The loss of the signal power is related to its interaction with the biological tissue and the composition of this one. A confrontation with the practical measurements done with a synthetic muscle into a Faraday cage, allowed a checking of the obtained theoretical results. The supply/data transfer systems used in the case of biomedical implants, can be well dimensioned by taking in account this type of power attenuation.
Biological tissue, coupled coils, implanted device,power attenuation.
Sustainability of Urban Cemeteries and the Transformation of Malay Burial Practices in Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Region

Land shortage for burials is one of many issues that emerge out of accelerated urban growth in most developing Asian cities, including Kuala Lumpur. Despite actions taken by the federal government and local authorities in addressing this issue, there is no strategic solution being formulated. Apart from making provisions for land to be developed as new cemeteries, the future plan is merely to allocate reserve land to accommodate the increasing demands of burial grounds around the city. This paper examines problems that arise from the traditional practices of Malay funerary as well as an insight to current urban practices in managing Muslim burial spaces around Kuala Lumpur metropolitan region. This paper will also provide some solutions through design approach that can be applied to counter the existing issues.

Kuala Lumpur metropolitan region, Malay burial practices, sustainable development, urban cemeteries.
A Lossless Watermarking Based Authentication System For Medical Images
In this paper we investigate the watermarking authentication when applied to medical imagery field. We first give an overview of watermarking technology by paying attention to fragile watermarking since it is the usual scheme for authentication.We then analyze the requirements for image authentication and integrity in medical imagery, and we show finally that invertible schemes are the best suited for this particular field. A well known authentication method is studied. This technique is then adapted here for interleaving patient information and message authentication code with medical images in a reversible manner, that is using lossless compression. The resulting scheme enables on a side the exact recovery of the original image that can be unambiguously authenticated, and on the other side, the patient information to be saved or transmitted in a confidential way. To ensure greater security the patient information is encrypted before being embedded into images.
Medical Imaging, Invertible Watermarking,Authentication, Integrity.
Eye Gesture Analysis with Head Movement for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

Road traffic accidents are a major cause of death worldwide. In an attempt to reduce accidents, some research efforts have focused on creating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) able to detect vehicle, driver and environmental conditions and to use this information to identify cues for potential accidents. This paper presents continued work on a novel Non-intrusive Intelligent Driver Assistance and Safety System (Ni-DASS) for assessing driver point of regard within vehicles. It uses an on-board CCD camera to observe the driver-s face. A template matching approach is used to compare the driver-s eye-gaze pattern with a set of eye-gesture templates of the driver looking at different focal points within the vehicle. The windscreen is divided into cells and comparison of the driver-s eye-gaze pattern with templates of a driver-s eyes looking at each cell is used to determine the driver-s point of regard on the windscreen. Results indicate that the proposed technique could be useful in situations where low resolution estimates of driver point of regard are adequate. For instance, To allow ADAS systems to alert the driver if he/she has positively failed to observe a hazard.

Head rotation, Eye-gestures,Windscreen, Template matching.
The Haar Wavelet Transform of the DNA Signal Representation

The Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) which is a doublestranded helix of nucleotides consists of: Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G) and Thymine (T). In this work, we convert this genetic code into an equivalent digital signal representation. Applying a wavelet transform, such as Haar wavelet, we will be able to extract details that are not so clear in the original genetic code. We compare between different organisms using the results of the Haar wavelet Transform. This is achieved by using the trend part of the signal since the trend part bears the most energy of the digital signal representation. Consequently, we will be able to quantitatively reconstruct different biological families.

Digital Signal, DNA, Fluctuation part, Haar wavelet, Nucleotides, Trend part.
Feasibility Study for a Castor oil Extraction Plant in South Africa
A feasibility study for the design and construction of a pilot plant for the extraction of castor oil in South Africa was conducted. The study emphasized the four critical aspects of project feasibility analysis, namely technical, financial, market and managerial aspects. The technical aspect involved research on existing oil extraction technologies, namely: mechanical pressing and solvent extraction, as well as assessment of the proposed production site for both short and long term viability of the project. The site is on the outskirts of Nkomazi village in the Mpumalanga province, where connections for water and electricity are currently underway, potential raw material supply proves to be reliable since the province is known for its commercial farming. The managerial aspect was evaluated based on the fact that the current producer of castor oil will be fully involved in the project while receiving training and technical assistance from Sasol Technology, the TSC and SEDA. Market and financial aspects were evaluated and the project was considered financially viable with a Net Present Value (NPV) of R2 731 687 and an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 18% at an annual interest rate of 10.5%. The payback time is 6years for analysis over the first 10 years with a net income of R1 971 000 in the first year. The project was thus found to be feasible with high chance of success while contributing to socio-economic development. It was recommended for lab tests to be conducted to establish process kinetics that would be used in the initial design of the plant.
Mechanical pressing, Net Present Value, Oilextraction, Project feasibility, Solvent extraction
Incorporation of Long-Term Redundancy in ECG Time Domain Compression Methods through Curve Simplification and Block-Sorting
We suggest a novel method to incorporate longterm redundancy (LTR) in signal time domain compression methods. The proposition is based on block-sorting and curve simplification. The proposition is illustrated on the ECG signal as a post-processor for the FAN method. Test applications on the new so-obtained FAN+ method using the MIT-BIH database show substantial improvement of the compression ratio-distortion behavior for a higher quality reconstructed signal.
ECG compression, Long-term redundancy, Block-sorting, Curve Simplification.
Activation of Prophenoloxidase during Bacterial Injection into the Desert Locust, Schistocerca Gregaria
The present study has been conducted to characterize the prophenoloxidase (PPO) system of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria following injection of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Bt). The bulk of PPO system was associated with haemocytes and a little amount was found in plasma. This system was activated by different activators such as laminarin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and trypsin suggesting that the stimulatory mechanism may involve an enzyme cascade of one or more associated molecules. These activators did not activate all the molecules of the cascade. Presence of phenoloxidase activity (PO) coincides with the appearance of protein band with molecular weight (MW) 70.154 KD (Kilo Dalton).
Schistocerca gregaria, haemolymph, proteins, prophenoloxidase system, phenoloxidase
BIDENS: Iterative Density Based Biclustering Algorithm With Application to Gene Expression Analysis
Biclustering is a very useful data mining technique for identifying patterns where different genes are co-related based on a subset of conditions in gene expression analysis. Association rules mining is an efficient approach to achieve biclustering as in BIMODULE algorithm but it is sensitive to the value given to its input parameters and the discretization procedure used in the preprocessing step, also when noise is present, classical association rules miners discover multiple small fragments of the true bicluster, but miss the true bicluster itself. This paper formally presents a generalized noise tolerant bicluster model, termed as μBicluster. An iterative algorithm termed as BIDENS based on the proposed model is introduced that can discover a set of k possibly overlapping biclusters simultaneously. Our model uses a more flexible method to partition the dimensions to preserve meaningful and significant biclusters. The proposed algorithm allows discovering biclusters that hard to be discovered by BIMODULE. Experimental study on yeast, human gene expression data and several artificial datasets shows that our algorithm offers substantial improvements over several previously proposed biclustering algorithms.
Machine learning, biclustering, bi-dimensional clustering, gene expression analysis, data mining.
Thermomechanical Studies in Glass/Epoxy Composite Specimen during Tensile Loading
This paper presents the results of thermo-mechanical characterization of Glass/Epoxy composite specimens using Infrared Thermography technique. The specimens used for the study were fabricated in-house with three different lay-up sequences and tested on a servo hydraulic machine under uni-axial loading. Infrared Camera was used for on-line monitoring surface temperature changes of composite specimens during tensile deformation. Experimental results showed that thermomechanical characteristics of each type of specimens were distinct. Temperature was found to be decreasing linearly with increasing tensile stress in the elastic region due to thermo-elastic effect. Yield point could be observed by monitoring the change in temperature profile during tensile testing and this value could be correlated with the results obtained from stress-strain response. The extent of prior plastic deformation in the post-yield region influenced the slopes of temperature response during tensile loading. Partial unloading and reloading of specimens post-yield results in change in slope in elastic and plastic regions of composite specimens.
Glass/Epoxy composites, Thermomechanical behavior, Infrared Thermography, Thermoelastic slope, Thermoplastic slope.
Operational Risks for Highway Projects in Malaysia
The Malaysia Highway Authority (MHA) was established by the Government in 1980 for the purpose of designing, constructing and maintaining toll highways in Malaysia that include the North-South Expressway and the Penang Bridge, which were procured using the publicly-funded traditional procurement. However following a recession in the mid 80-s, the operations of these tolledhighways had been privatized to ensure that their operational services continue through private financing as a result of long-term concession agreement concurred between the Malaysian Government and private operators. The change in the contract strategy for highway projects in Malaysia would have a great tendency to dictate a significant risk exposure towards the key parties involved, particularly the Malaysian Government as project principal, unless operational risks are clearly identified and managed via appropriate mitigation measures prior to a contract signing. This research identifies potential operational risks that have a possibility to occur in highway projects in Malaysia from the perspective of public sector clients. Since this research focuses on the operational risks for highway projects in Malaysia, the initial results acquired from literature review on the operational risks of highway projects in some Asian countries are then justified by a number of key individuals from the MHA through interviews. As a result, among key operational risks that have possibility to occur in the highway projects in Malaysia include initial toll-tariff decided by the Government, traffic congestion, change of road network and overloaded freight transportation, which could cause damage to the road surface and hence affecting the operation of a particular highway.
Malaysia, operating highway project, operational risk.
A Comparison Study of a Symmetry Solution of Magneto-Elastico-Viscous Fluid along a Semi- Infinite Plate with Homotopy Perturbation Method and4th Order Runge–Kutta Method

The equations governing the flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible viscous fluid over an infinite flat plate in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) with Padé approximants (PA) and 4th order Runge–Kutta method (4RKM). Approximate analytical and numerical solutions for the velocity field and heat transfer are obtained and compared with each other, showing excellent agreement. The effects of the magnetic parameter and Prandtl number on velocity field, shear stress, temperature and heat transfer are discussed as well.

Electrically conducting elastico-viscous fluid, symmetry solution, Homotopy perturbation method, Padé approximation, 4th order Runge–Kutta, Maple
Extremal Properties of Generalized Class of Close-to-convex Functions
Let Gα ,β (γ ,δ ) denote the class of function f (z), f (0) = f ′(0)−1= 0 which satisfied e δ {αf ′(z)+ βzf ′′(z)}> γ i Re in the open unit disk D = {z ∈ı : z < 1} for some α ∈ı (α ≠ 0) , β ∈ı and γ ∈ı (0 ≤γ 0 . In this paper, we determine some extremal properties including distortion theorem and argument of f ′( z ) .
Argument of f ′(z) , Carathéodory Function, Closeto- convex Function, Distortion Theorem, Extremal Properties
Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Control of Induction Motor

This paper deals with the synthesis of fuzzy state feedback controller of induction motor with optimal performance. First, the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is employed to approximate a non linear system in the synchronous d-q frame rotating with electromagnetic field-oriented. Next, a fuzzy controller is designed to stabilise the induction motor and guaranteed a minimum disturbance attenuation level for the closed-loop system. The gains of fuzzy control are obtained by solving a set of Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI). Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate the controller-s effectiveness.

Rejection disturbance, fuzzy modelling, open-loop control, Fuzzy feedback controller, fuzzy observer, Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI)
Preservation of Millet Flour by Refrigeration: Changes in Total Protein and Amino Acids Composition During Storage

This work describes refrigeration effects during storage on total protein and amino acids composition of raw and processed flour of two pearl millet cultivars (Ashana and Dembi). The protein content of the whole raw flour was found to be 14.46 and 13.38% for Ashana and Dembi cultivars, respectively. Dehulling of the grains reduced the protein content to 13.38 and 12.67% for the cultivars, respectively. For both cultivars, the protein content of the whole and dehulled raw flour before and after cooking was slightly decreased when the flour was stored for 60 days even after refrigeration. The effect of refrigeration process in combination with the storage period, cooking or dehulling was found to be vary between amino acids and even between cultivars. Regardless of the storage period and processing method, the amino acids content was remained unchanged after refrigeration for both cultivars.

Amino acids, dehulling, Irradiation, Millet, protein content.
Study of Natural Convection in a Triangular Cavity Filled with Water: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with double populations is applied to solve the steady-state laminar natural convective heat transfer in a triangular cavity filled with water. The bottom wall is heated, the vertical wall is cooled, and the inclined wall is kept adiabatic. The buoyancy effect was modeled by applying the Boussinesq approximation to the momentum equation. The fluid velocity is determined by D2Q9 LBM and the energy equation is discritized by D2Q4 LBM to compute the temperature field. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and found to be in excellent agreement. Numerical results are obtained for a wide range of parameters: the Rayleigh number from  to  and the inclination angle from 0° to 360°. Flow and thermal fields were exhibited by means of streamlines and isotherms. It is observed that inclination angle can be used as a relevant parameter to control heat transfer in right-angled triangular enclosures.


Heat transfer, inclination angle, Lattice Boltzmann Method, Nusselt number, Natural convection, Rayleigh number.
Parallel Direct Integration Variable Step Block Method for Solving Large System of Higher Order Ordinary Differential Equations
The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of the developed two point block method designed for two processors for solving directly non stiff large systems of higher order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The method calculates the numerical solution at two points simultaneously and produces two new equally spaced solution values within a block and it is possible to assign the computational tasks at each time step to a single processor. The algorithm of the method was developed in C language and the parallel computation was done on a parallel shared memory environment. Numerical results are given to compare the efficiency of the developed method to the sequential timing. For large problems, the parallel implementation produced 1.95 speed-up and 98% efficiency for the two processors.
Numerical methods, parallel method, block method,higher order ODEs.
E-Books in Malaysian Primary Schools: The Terengganu Chapter

After the Terengganu state government decided to give a boost in teaching and learning through the allocation of free ebooks to all Primary five and six students; it was time to examine the presence of e-books in the classrooms. A survey was conducted on 101 students to determine how they felt about using the e-book and their experiences. It was discovered that a majority of these students liked using the e-book. However, although they had little problems using the e-book and the e-book helped to lighten the schoolbags, these new-age textbooks were not fully utilized. It is implied that perhaps the school administrators, teachers and students may not be able to overcome the unfamiliar characteristics of the e-book and its limitations.

E-books, students, classroom, limitations
Quality Estimation of Video Transmitted overan Additive WGN Channel based on Digital Watermarking and Wavelet Transform
This paper presents an evaluation for a wavelet-based digital watermarking technique used in estimating the quality of video sequences transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel in terms of a classical objective metric, such as Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) without the need of the original video. In this method, a watermark is embedded into the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain of the original video frames using a quantization method. The degradation of the extracted watermark can be used to estimate the video quality in terms of PSNR with good accuracy. We calculated PSNR for video frames contaminated with AWGN and compared the values with those estimated using the Watermarking-DWT based approach. It is found that the calculated and estimated quality measures of the video frames are highly correlated, suggesting that this method can provide a good quality measure for video frames transmitted over AWGN channel without the need of the original video.
AWGN, DWT, PSNR, Watermarking, VideoQuality.
Corporate Governance Practices and Audit Quality: An Empirical Study of the Listed Companies in Egypt

Recent financial international scandals around the world have led to a number of investigations into the effectiveness of corporate governance practices and audit quality. Although evidence of corporate governance practices and audit quality exists from developed economies, very scanty studies have been conducted in Egypt where corporate governance is just evolving. Therefore, this study provides evidence on the effectiveness of corporate governance practices and audit quality from a developing country. The data for analysis are gathered from the top 50 most active companies in the Egyptian Stock Exchange, covering the three year period 2007-2009. Logistic regression was used in investigating the questions that were raised in the study. Findings from the study show that board independence; CEO duality and audit committees significantly have relationship with audit quality. The results also, indicate that institutional investor and managerial ownership have no significantly relationship with audit quality. Evidence also exist that size of the company; complexity and business leverage are important factors in audit quality for companies quoted on the Egypt Stock Exchange.

Corporate governance, Boards of directors, corporate ownership, Audit Committees, Audit quality, and Egypt.
Effect of Consumer Demographic Factors on Purchasing Herbal Products Online in Malaysia

The availability of broadband internet and increased access to computers has been instrumental in the rise of internet literacy in Malaysia. This development has led to the adoption of online shopping by many Malaysians. On another note, the Government has supported the development and production of local herbal products. This has resulted in an increase in the production and diversity of products by SMEs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of the Malaysian demographic factors and selected attitudinal characteristics in relation to the online purchasing of herbal products. In total, 1054 internet users were interviewed online and Chi-square analysis was used to determine the relationship between demographic variables and different aspects of online shopping for herbal products. The overall results show that the demographic variables such as age, gender, education level, income and ethnicity were significant when considering the online shopping antecedents of trust, quality of herbal products, perceived risks and perceived benefits.

Demographic factors, herbal products, Malaysian consumers, online shopping, Chi-square analysis
Experimental Study of Eccentrically Loaded Columns Strengthened Using a Steel Jacketing Technique

An experimental study of Reinforced Concrete, RC, columns strengthened using a steel jacketing technique was conducted. The jacketing technique consisted of four steel vertical angles installed at the corners of the column joined by horizontal steel straps confining the column externally. The effectiveness of the technique was evaluated by testing the RC column specimens under eccentric monotonic loading until failure occurred. Strain gauges were installed to monitor the strains in the internal reinforcement as well as the external jacketing system. The effectiveness of the jacketing technique was demonstrated, and the parameters affecting the technique were studied.

Reinforced Concrete Columns, Steel Jacketing, Strengthening, Eccentric Load.
Effect of Rotation Rate on Chemical Segragation during Phase Change

Numerical parametric study is conducted to study the effects of ampoule rotation on the flows and the dopant segregation in vertical bridgman (vb) crystal growth. Calculations were performed in unsteady state. The extended darcy model, which includes the time derivative and coriolis terms, has been employed in the momentum equation. It’s found that the convection, and dopant segregation can be affected significantly by ampoule rotation, and the effect is similar to that by an axial magnetic field. Ampoule rotation decreases the intensity of convection and stretches the flow cell axially. When the convection is weak, the flow can be suppressed almost completely by moderate ampoule rotation and the dopant segregation becomes diffusion-controlled. For stronger convection, the elongated flow cell by ampoule rotation may bring dopant mixing into the bulk melt reducing axial segregation at the early stage of the growth. However, if the cellular flow cannot be suppressed completely, ampoule rotation may induce larger radial segregation due to poor mixing.

Numerical Simulation, Heat and mass transfer, vertical solidification, chemical segregation.
New Feed-Forward/Feedback Generalized Minimum Variance Self-tuning Pole-placement Controller
A new Feed-Forward/Feedback Generalized Minimum Variance Pole-placement Controller to incorporate the robustness of classical pole-placement into the flexibility of generalized minimum variance self-tuning controller for Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) has been proposed in this paper. The design, which provides the user with an adaptive mechanism, which ensures that the closed loop poles are, located at their pre-specified positions. In addition, the controller design which has a feed-forward/feedback structure overcomes the certain limitations existing in similar poleplacement control designs whilst retaining the simplicity of adaptation mechanisms used in other designs. It tracks set-point changes with the desired speed of response, penalizes excessive control action, and can be applied to non-minimum phase systems. Besides, at steady state, the controller has the ability to regulate the constant load disturbance to zero. Example simulation results using both simulated and real plant models demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Pole-placement, Minimum variance control, self-tuning control and feedforward control.
Effect of Transglutaminase Cross Linking on the Functional Properties as a Function of NaCl Concentration of Legumes Protein Isolate
The effect of cross linking of the protein isolates of three legumes with the microbial enzyme transglutaminase (EC on the functional properties at different NaCl concentration was studied. The reduction in the total free amino groups (OD340) of the polymerized protein showed that TGase treatment cross-linking the protein subunit of each legume. The solubility of the protein polymer of each legume was greatly improved at high concentration of NaCl. At 1.2 M NaCl the solubility of the native legumes protein was significantly decreased but after polymerization slightly improved. Cross linked proteins were less turbid on heating to higher temperature as compared to native proteins and the temperature at which the protein turns turbid also increased in the polymerized proteins. The emulsifying and foaming properties of the protein polymer were greatly improved at all concentrations of NaCl for all legumes.
Functional properties, Legumes, Protein isolate,NaCl, Transglutaminase.
Nutritional Evaluation of Sorghum Flour (Sorghumbicolor L. Moench) During Processing of Injera
The present study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional value of sorghum flour during processing of injera (unleavened thick bread). The proximate composition of sorghum flour before and after fermentation and that of injera was determined. Compared to the raw flour and fermented one, injera had low protein (11.55%), ash (1.57%) and fat (2.40%) contents but high in fiber content. Moreover, injera was found to have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher energy (389.08 Kcal/100g) compared to raw and fermented sorghum flour. Injera contained lower levels of anti-nutritional factors (polyphenols, phytate and tannins) compared to raw and fermented sorghum. Also it was found to be rich in Ca (4.75mg/100g), Fe (3.95 mg/100g), and Cu (0.7 mg/100g) compared to that of raw and fermented flour. Moreover, both the extractable minerals and protein digestibility were high for injera due to low amount of anti-nutrients. Injera was found to contain an appreciable amount of amino acids except arginine and tyrosine.
Cooking, Fermentation, Malt, Protein fractions,Sorghum.
Floating-Point Scaling for BSS Gain Control
In Blind Source Separation (BSS) processing, taking advantage of scaling factor indetermination and based on the floatingpoint representation, we propose a scaling technique applied to the separation matrix, to avoid the saturation or the weakness in the recovered source signals. This technique performs an Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in an on-line BSS environment. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique by using the implementation of a division free BSS algorithm with two input, two output. This technique is computationally cheaper and efficient for a hardware implementation.
Automatic Gain Control, Blind Source Separation, Floating-Point Representation, FPGA Implementation.
A Perceptual Image Coding method of High Compression Rate
In the framework of the image compression by Wavelet Transforms, we propose a perceptual method by incorporating Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics in the quantization stage. Indeed, human eyes haven-t an equal sensitivity across the frequency bandwidth. Therefore, the clarity of the reconstructed images can be improved by weighting the quantization according to the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF). The visual artifact at low bit rate is minimized. To evaluate our method, we use the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and a new evaluating criteria witch takes into account visual criteria. The experimental results illustrate that our technique shows improvement on image quality at the same compression ratio.
Contrast Sensitivity Function, Human Visual System, Image compression, Wavelet transforms.
Detection and Classification of Power Quality Disturbances Using S-Transform and Wavelet Algorithm
Detection and classification of power quality (PQ) disturbances is an important consideration to electrical utilities and many industrial customers so that diagnosis and mitigation of such disturbance can be implemented quickly. S-transform algorithm and continuous wavelet transforms (CWT) are time-frequency algorithms, and both of them are powerful in detection and classification of PQ disturbances. This paper presents detection and classification of PQ disturbances using S-transform and CWT algorithms. The results of detection and classification, provides that S-transform is more accurate in detection and classification for most PQ disturbance than CWT algorithm, where as CWT algorithm more powerful in detection in some disturbances like notching
CWT, Disturbances classification, Disturbances detection, Power quality, S-transform.
Multimodal Biometric System Based on Near- Infra-Red Dorsal Hand Geometry and Fingerprints for Single and Whole Hands
Prior research evidenced that unimodal biometric systems have several tradeoffs like noisy data, intra-class variations, restricted degrees of freedom, non-universality, spoof attacks, and unacceptable error rates. In order for the biometric system to be more secure and to provide high performance accuracy, more than one form of biometrics are required. Hence, the need arise for multimodal biometrics using combinations of different biometric modalities. This paper introduces a multimodal biometric system (MMBS) based on fusion of whole dorsal hand geometry and fingerprints that acquires right and left (Rt/Lt) near-infra-red (NIR) dorsal hand geometry (HG) shape and (Rt/Lt) index and ring fingerprints (FP). Database of 100 volunteers were acquired using the designed prototype. The acquired images were found to have good quality for all features and patterns extraction to all modalities. HG features based on the hand shape anatomical landmarks were extracted. Robust and fast algorithms for FP minutia points feature extraction and matching were used. Feature vectors that belong to similar biometric traits were fused using feature fusion methodologies. Scores obtained from different biometric trait matchers were fused using the Min-Max transformation-based score fusion technique. Final normalized scores were merged using the sum of scores method to obtain a single decision about the personal identity based on multiple independent sources. High individuality of the fused traits and user acceptability of the designed system along with its experimental high performance biometric measures showed that this MMBS can be considered for med-high security levels biometric identification purposes.
Unimodal, Multi-Modal, Biometric System, NIR Imaging, Dorsal Hand Geometry, Fingerprint, Whole Hands, Feature Extraction, Feature Fusion, Score Fusion
Some Biochemical Changes Followed Experimental Gastric Ulceration

Gastric ulceration is a discontinuity in gastric mucosa, usually occurs due to imbalance between the gastric mucosal protective factors, that is called gastric mucosal barrier, and the aggressive factors, to which the mucosa is exposed. This study was carried out on sixty male Sprague-Dowely rats (12- 16 weeks old) allocated into two groups. The first control group and the second Gastric lesion group which induced by oral administration of a single daily dose of aspirin at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive-days (6% aspirin solution will be prepared and each rat will be given 5 ml of that solution/kg body weight). Blood is collected 1, 2 and 3 weeks after induction of gastric ulceration. Significant increase in serum copper, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 all over the period of experiment. Significant decrease in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) activities, serum (calcium, phosphorus, glucose and insulin) levels. Non-significant changes in serum sodium and potassium levels are obtained.

Aspirin, Gastric Ulcer, Prostaglandin E2, Superoxide dismutase
Automatic Text Summarization
This work proposes an approach to address automatic text summarization. This approach is a trainable summarizer, which takes into account several features, including sentence position, positive keyword, negative keyword, sentence centrality, sentence resemblance to the title, sentence inclusion of name entity, sentence inclusion of numerical data, sentence relative length, Bushy path of the sentence and aggregated similarity for each sentence to generate summaries. First we investigate the effect of each sentence feature on the summarization task. Then we use all features score function to train genetic algorithm (GA) and mathematical regression (MR) models to obtain a suitable combination of feature weights. The proposed approach performance is measured at several compression rates on a data corpus composed of 100 English religious articles. The results of the proposed approach are promising.
Automatic Summarization, Genetic Algorithm,Mathematical Regression, Text Features.
Secure Block-Based Video Authentication with Localization and Self-Recovery
Because of the great advance in multimedia technology, digital multimedia is vulnerable to malicious manipulations. In this paper, a public key self-recovery block-based video authentication technique is proposed which can not only precisely localize the alteration detection but also recover the missing data with high reliability. In the proposed block-based technique, multiple description coding MDC is used to generate two codes (two descriptions) for each block. Although one block code (one description) is enough to rebuild the altered block, the altered block is rebuilt with better quality by the two block descriptions. So using MDC increases the ratability of recovering data. A block signature is computed using a cryptographic hash function and a doubly linked chain is utilized to embed the block signature copies and the block descriptions into the LSBs of distant blocks and the block itself. The doubly linked chain scheme gives the proposed technique the capability to thwart vector quantization attacks. In our proposed technique , anyone can check the authenticity of a given video using the public key. The experimental results show that the proposed technique is reliable for detecting, localizing and recovering the alterations.
Authentication, hash function, multiple descriptioncoding, public key encryption, watermarking.
NGN and WiMAX: Putting the Pieces Together
With the exponential rise in the number of multimedia applications available, the best-effort service provided by the Internet today is insufficient. Researchers have been working on new architectures like the Next Generation Network (NGN) which, by definition, will ensure Quality of Service (QoS) in an all-IP based network [1]. For this approach to become a reality, reservation of bandwidth is required per application per user. WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless communication technology which has predefined levels of QoS which can be provided to the user [4]. IPv6 has been created as the successor for IPv4 and resolves issues like the availability of IP addresses and QoS. This paper provides a design to use the power of WiMAX as an NSP (Network Service Provider) for NGN using IPv6. The use of the Traffic Class (TC) field and the Flow Label (FL) field of IPv6 has been explained for making QoS requests and grants [6], [7]. Using these fields, the processing time is reduced and routing is simplified. Also, we define the functioning of the ASN gateway and the NGN gateway (NGNG) which are edge node interfaces in the NGNWiMAX design. These gateways ensure QoS management through built in functions and by certain physical resources and networking capabilities.
WiMAX, NGN, QoS, IPv6, Flow Label, ASNGateway
Environmental Friendly Polyurethane Coatings Based On Hyperbranched Resin
Water borne polyurethane (PU) based on newly prepared hyperbranched poly (amine-ester) (HBPAE) was applied and evaluated as organic coating material. HBPAE was prepared through one-pot synthesis between trimethylol propane as a core and AB2 branched monomer which was obtained via Michal addition of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and diethanol amine (DEA). PU was prepared from HBPAE using different ratios of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) to form cured coating film. The prepared HBPAE was characterized using; GPC, FT-IR and 1H-NMR. The mechanical properties (impact, hardness, adhesion, and flexibility), thermal properties (DSC and TGA) and chemical resistance of the applied film were estimated. The results indicated 50% of TDI is the selected ratio. This formulation represents a promising candidate to be used as coating material.
Curing, Hyperbranched polymer, Polyurethane, Urethane-acrylates, water borne Coatings.
Fluid Flow Analysis and Design of a Flow Distributor in a Domestic Gas Boiler Using a Commercial CFD Software
The aim of the study was to investigate the possible use of commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software in the design process of a domestic gas boiler. Because of the limited computational resources some simplifications had to be made in order to contribute to the design in a reasonable timescale. The porous media model was used in order to simulate the influence of the pressure drop characteristic of particular elements of a heat transfer system on the water-flow distribution in the system. Further, a combination of CFD analyses and spread sheet calculations was used in order to solve the flow distribution problem.
CFD, domestic gas boilers, flow distribution, heatexchanger, porous media
Eye-Gesture Analysis for Driver Hazard Awareness
Because road traffic accidents are a major source of death worldwide, attempts have been made to create Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) able to detect vehicle, driver and environmental conditions that are cues for possible potential accidents. This paper presents continued work on a novel Nonintrusive Intelligent Driver Assistance and Safety System (Ni-DASS) for assessing driver attention and hazard awareness. It uses two onboard CCD cameras – one observing the road and the other observing the driver-s face. The windscreen is divided into cells and analysis of the driver-s eye-gaze patterns allows Ni-DASS to determine the windscreen cell the driver is focusing on using eye-gesture templates. Intersecting the driver-s field of view through the observed windscreen cell with subsections of the camera-s field of view containing a potential hazard allows Ni-DASS to estimate the probability that the driver has actually observed the hazard. Results have shown that the proposed technique is an accurate enough measure of driver observation to be useful in ADAS systems.
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), Driver Hazard Awareness, Driver Vigilance, Eye Tracking
The Impact of Self-Phase Modulation on Dispersion Compensated Mapping Multiplexing Technique (MMT)

An exploration in the competency of the optical multilevel Mapping Multiplexing Technique (MMT) system in tolerating to the impact of nonlinearities as Self Phase Modulation (SPM) during the presence of dispersion compensation methods. The existence of high energy pulses stimulates deterioration in the chirp compression process attained by SPM which introduces an upper power boundary limit. An evaluation of the post and asymmetric prepost fiber compensation methods have been deployed on the MMT system compared with others of the same bit rate modulation formats. The MMT 40 Gb/s post compensation system has 1.4 dB enhancements to the 40 Gb/s 4-Arysystem and less than 3.9 dB penalty compared to the 40 Gb/s OOK-RZsystem. However, the optimized Pre-Post asymmetric compensation has an enhancement of 4.6 dB compared to the Post compensation MMT configuration for a 30% pre compensation dispersion.

Dispersion compensation, mapping multiplexing technique, self-phase modulation.
Poverty Measurement by Islamic Institutions
Islamic institutions in Malaysia play a variety of socioeconomic roles such as poverty alleviation. To perform this role, these institutions face a major task in identifying the poverty group. Most of these institutions measure and operationalize poverty from the monetary perspective using variables such as income, expenditure or consumption. In practice, most Islamic institutions in Malaysia use the monetary approach in measuring poverty through the conventional Poverty Line Income (PLI) method and recently, the had al kifayah (HAK) method using total necessities of a household from an Islamic perspective. The objective of this paper is to present the PLI and also the HAK method. This micro-data study would highlight the similarities and differences of both the methods.A survey aided by a structured questionnaire was carried out on 260 selected head of households in the state of Selangor. The paper highlights several demographic factors that are associated with the three monetary indicators in the study, namely income, PLI and HAK. In addition, the study found that these monetary variables are significantly related with each other.
Poverty line, multidimensional, necessities, monetary
Incorporating Semantic Similarity Measure in Genetic Algorithm : An Approach for Searching the Gene Ontology Terms
The most important property of the Gene Ontology is the terms. These control vocabularies are defined to provide consistent descriptions of gene products that are shareable and computationally accessible by humans, software agent, or other machine-readable meta-data. Each term is associated with information such as definition, synonyms, database references, amino acid sequences, and relationships to other terms. This information has made the Gene Ontology broadly applied in microarray and proteomic analysis. However, the process of searching the terms is still carried out using traditional approach which is based on keyword matching. The weaknesses of this approach are: ignoring semantic relationships between terms, and highly depending on a specialist to find similar terms. Therefore, this study combines semantic similarity measure and genetic algorithm to perform a better retrieval process for searching semantically similar terms. The semantic similarity measure is used to compute similitude strength between two terms. Then, the genetic algorithm is employed to perform batch retrievals and to handle the situation of the large search space of the Gene Ontology graph. The computational results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Gene Ontology, Semantic similarity measure,Genetic algorithm, Ontology search
Optimization of Kinematics for Birds and UAVs Using Evolutionary Algorithms

The aim of this work is to present a multi-objective optimization method to find maximum efficiency kinematics for a flapping wing unmanned aerial vehicle. We restrained our study to rectangular wings with the same profile along the span and to harmonic dihedral motion. It is assumed that the birdlike aerial vehicle (whose span and surface area were fixed respectively to 1m and 0.15m2) is in horizontal mechanically balanced motion at fixed speed. We used two flight physics models to describe the vehicle aerodynamic performances, namely DeLaurier-s model, which has been used in many studies dealing with flapping wings, and the model proposed by Dae-Kwan et al. Then, a constrained multi-objective optimization of the propulsive efficiency is performed using a recent evolutionary multi-objective algorithm called є-MOEA. Firstly, we show that feasible solutions (i.e. solutions that fulfil the imposed constraints) can be obtained using Dae-Kwan et al.-s model. Secondly, we highlight that a single objective optimization approach (weighted sum method for example) can also give optimal solutions as good as the multi-objective one which nevertheless offers the advantage of directly generating the set of the best trade-offs. Finally, we show that the DeLaurier-s model does not yield feasible solutions.

Flight physics, evolutionary algorithm, optimization, Pareto surface.
An Optimal Unsupervised Satellite image Segmentation Approach Based on Pearson System and k-Means Clustering Algorithm Initialization

This paper presents an optimal and unsupervised satellite image segmentation approach based on Pearson system and k-Means Clustering Algorithm Initialization. Such method could be considered as original by the fact that it utilised K-Means clustering algorithm for an optimal initialisation of image class number on one hand and it exploited Pearson system for an optimal statistical distributions- affectation of each considered class on the other hand. Satellite image exploitation requires the use of different approaches, especially those founded on the unsupervised statistical segmentation principle. Such approaches necessitate definition of several parameters like image class number, class variables- estimation and generalised mixture distributions. Use of statistical images- attributes assured convincing and promoting results under the condition of having an optimal initialisation step with appropriated statistical distributions- affectation. Pearson system associated with a k-means clustering algorithm and Stochastic Expectation-Maximization 'SEM' algorithm could be adapted to such problem. For each image-s class, Pearson system attributes one distribution type according to different parameters and especially the Skewness 'β1' and the kurtosis 'β2'. The different adapted algorithms, K-Means clustering algorithm, SEM algorithm and Pearson system algorithm, are then applied to satellite image segmentation problem. Efficiency of those combined algorithms was firstly validated with the Mean Quadratic Error 'MQE' evaluation, and secondly with visual inspection along several comparisons of these unsupervised images- segmentation.

Unsupervised classification, Pearson system, Satellite image, Segmentation.
The Influence of the Inlet Conditions on the Airside Heat Transfer Performance of Plain Finned Evaporator

A numerical study has been conducted to investigate the influence of fin pitch and relative humidity on the heat transfer performance of the fin-and-tube heat exchangers having plain fin geometry under dehumidifying conditions. The analysis is done using the ratio between the heat transfer coefficients in totally wet conditions and those in totally dry conditions using the appropriate correlations for both dry and wet conditions. For a constant relative humidity, it is found that the heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of the air frontal velocity. By contrast, the fin efficiency decreases when the face velocity is increased. Apparently, this phenomenon is attributed to the path of condensate drainage. For the influence of relative humidity, the results showed an increase in heat transfer performance and a decrease in wet fin efficiency when relative humidity increases. This is due to the higher amount of mass transfer encountered at higher relative humidity. However, it is found that the effect of fin pitch on the heat transfer performance depends strongly on the face velocity. At lower frontal velocity the heat transfer increases with fin pitch. Conversely, an increase in fin pitch gives lower heat transfer coefficients when air velocity is increased.

Dehumidifying conditions, Fin efficiency, Heat andmass transfer, Heat exchangers.
Comparison between Haar and Daubechies Wavelet Transformations on FPGA Technology

Recently, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology offers the potential of designing high performance systems at low cost. The discrete wavelet transform has gained the reputation of being a very effective signal analysis tool for many practical applications. However, due to its computation-intensive nature, current implementation of the transform falls short of meeting real-time processing requirements of most application. The objectives of this paper are implement the Haar and Daubechies wavelets using FPGA technology. In addition, the Bit Error Rate (BER) between the input audio signal and the reconstructed output signal for each wavelet is calculated. From the BER, it is seen that the implementations execute the operation of the wavelet transform correctly and satisfying the perfect reconstruction conditions. The design procedure has been explained and designed using the stat-ofart Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools for system design on FPGA. Simulation, synthesis and implementation on the FPGA target technology has been carried out.

Daubechies wavelet, discrete wavelet transform,Haar wavelet, Xilinx FPGA.
Implementation of an Improved Secure System Detection for E-passport by using EPC RFID Tags

Current proposals for E-passport or ID-Card is similar to a regular passport with the addition of tiny contactless integrated circuit (computer chip) inserted in the back cover, which will act as a secure storage device of the same data visually displayed on the photo page of the passport. In addition, it will include a digital photograph that will enable biometric comparison, through the use of facial recognition technology at international borders. Moreover, the e-passport will have a new interface, incorporating additional antifraud and security features. However, its problems are reliability, security and privacy. Privacy is a serious issue since there is no encryption between the readers and the E-passport. However, security issues such as authentication, data protection and control techniques cannot be embedded in one process. In this paper, design and prototype implementation of an improved E-passport reader is presented. The passport holder is authenticated online by using GSM network. The GSM network is the main interface between identification center and the e-passport reader. The communication data is protected between server and e-passport reader by using AES to encrypt data for protection will transferring through GSM network. Performance measurements indicate a 19% improvement in encryption cycles versus previously reported results.

RFID "Radio Frequency Identification", EPC"Electronic Product Code", ICAO "International Civil Aviation Organization", IFF "Identify Friend or Foe"
Effective Collaboration in Product Development via a Common Sharable Ontology
To achieve competitive advantage nowadays, most of the industrial companies are considering that success is sustained to great product development. That is to manage the product throughout its entire lifetime ranging from design, manufacture, operation and destruction. Achieving this goal requires a tight collaboration between partners from a wide variety of domains, resulting in various product data types and formats, as well as different software tools. So far, the lack of a meaningful unified representation for product data semantics has slowed down efficient product development. This paper proposes an ontology based approach to enable such semantic interoperability. Generic and extendible product ontology is described, gathering main concepts pertaining to the mechanical field and the relations that hold among them. The ontology is not exhaustive; nevertheless, it shows that such a unified representation is possible and easily exploitable. This is illustrated thru a case study with an example product and some semantic requests to which the ontology responds quite easily. The study proves the efficiency of ontologies as a support to product data exchange and information sharing, especially in product development environments where collaboration is not just a choice but a mandatory prerequisite.
Information exchange, product lifecyclemanagement, product ontology, semantic interoperability.
Fuzzy Logic Based Coordinated Voltage Control for Distribution Network with Distributed Generations

This paper discusses the implementation of a fuzzy logic based coordinated voltage control for a distribution system connected with distributed generations (DGs). The connection of DGs has created a challenge for the distribution network operators to keep the voltage in the system within its acceptable limits. Intelligent centralized or coordinated voltage control schemes have proven to be more reliable due to its ability to provide more control and coordination with the communication with other network devices. In this work, voltage control using fuzzy logic by coordinating three methods of control, power factor control, on load tap changer and generation curtailment is implemented on a distribution network test system. The results show that the fuzzy logic based coordination is able to keep the voltage within its allowable limits. 

Coordinated control, Distributed generation, Fuzzy logic, Voltage control.
A Study of Calcination and Carbonation of Cockle Shell
Calcium oxide (CaO) as carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbent at the elevated temperature has been very well-received thus far. The CaO can be synthesized from natural calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sources through the reversible calcination-carbonation process. In the study, cockle shell has been selected as CaO precursors. The objectives of the study are to investigate the performance of calcination and carbonation with respect to different temperature, heating rate, particle size and the duration time. Overall, better performance is shown at the calcination temperature of 850oC for 40 minutes, heating rate of 20oC/min, particle size of < 0.125mm and the carbonation temperature is at 650oC. The synthesized materials have been characterized by nitrogen physisorption and surface morphology analysis. The effectiveness of the synthesized cockle shell in capturing CO2 (0.72 kg CO2/kg adsorbent) which is comparable to the commercialized adsorbent (0.60 kg CO2/kg adsorbent) makes them as the most promising materials for CO2 capture.
Calcination, Calcium oxide, Carbonation, Cockle shell
Analytical Prediction of Seismic Response of Steel Frames with Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy
Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is accepted when it used as connection in steel structures. The seismic behaviour of steel frames with SMA is being assessed in this study. Three eightstorey steel frames with different SMA systems are suggested, the first one of which is braced with diagonal bracing system, the second one is braced with nee bracing system while the last one is which the SMA is used as connection at the plastic hinge regions of beams. Nonlinear time history analyses of steel frames with SMA subjected to two different ground motion records have been performed using Seismostruct software. To evaluate the efficiency of suggested systems, the dynamic responses of the frames were compared. From the comparison results, it can be concluded that using SMA element is an effective way to improve the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations. Implementing the SMA braces can lead to a reduction in residual roof displacement. The shape memory alloy is effective in reducing the maximum displacement at the frame top and it provides a large elastic deformation range. SMA connections are very effective in dissipating energy and reducing the total input energy of the whole frame under severe seismic ground motion. Using of the SMA connection system is more effective in controlling the reaction forces at the base frame than other bracing systems. Using SMA as bracing is more effective in reducing the displacements. The efficiency of SMA is dependant on the input wave motions and the construction system as well.
Finite element analysis, seismic response, shapesmemory alloy, steel frame, superelasticity
Structural Sustainability Techniques for RC High Rise Buildings
Over the early years of the 21st century, cities throughout the Middle East, particularly in the Gulf region have expanded more rapidly than ever before. Given the presence of a large volume of high-rise buildings allover the region, the local authority aims to set a new standard for sustainable development; with an integrated approach to maintain a balance between economy, quality, environmental protection and safety of life. In the very near future, as mandatory requirements, sustainability will be the criteria that should be included in all building projects. It is well known in the building sustainability topics that structural design engineers do not have a key role in this matter. In addition, the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) has looked almost exclusively on the environmental components and materials specifications. The objective of this paper is to focus and establish groundwork for sustainability techniques and applications related to the RC high-rise buildings design, from the structural point of view. A set of recommendations related to local conditions, structural modeling and analysis is given, and some helpful suggestions for structural design team work are addressed. This paper attempts to help structural engineers in identifying the building sustainability design, in order to meet local needs and achieve alternative solutions at an early stage of project design.
Building, Design, High-rise, Middle East, Structural,Sustainability.
Shot Transition Detection with Minimal Decoding of MPEG Video Streams
Digital libraries become more and more necessary in order to support users with powerful and easy-to-use tools for searching, browsing and retrieving media information. The starting point for these tasks is the segmentation of video content into shots. To segment MPEG video streams into shots, a fully automatic procedure to detect both abrupt and gradual transitions (dissolve and fade-groups) with minimal decoding in real time is developed in this study. Each was explored through two phases: macro-block type's analysis in B-frames, and on-demand intensity information analysis. The experimental results show remarkable performance in detecting gradual transitions of some kinds of input data and comparable results of the rest of the examined video streams. Almost all abrupt transitions could be detected with very few false positive alarms.
Adaptive threshold, abrupt transitions, gradual transitions, MPEG video streams.
Some Physiological Effects of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum-graecum Extracts in Diabetic Rats as Compared with Cidophage®
This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diabetic properties of ethanolic extract of two plants commonly used in folk medicine, Mormodica charantia (bitter melon) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek). The study was performed on STZinduced diabetic rats (DM type-I). Plant extracts of these two plants were given to STZ diabetic rats at the concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight ,50 mg/kg body weight respectively. Cidophage® (metformin HCl) were administered to another group to support the results at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight, the ethanolic extracts and Cidophage administered orally once a day for four weeks using a stomach tube and; serum samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. The extracts caused significant decreases in glucose levels compared with diabetic control rats. Insulin secretions were increased after 4 weeks of treatment with Cidophage® compared with the control non-diabetic rats. Levels of AST and ALT liver enzymes were normalized by all treatments. Decreases in liver cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL in diabetic rats were observed with all treatments. HDL levels were increased by the treatments in the following order: bitter melon, Cidophage®, and fenugreek. Creatinine levels were reduced by all treatments. Serum nitric oxide and malonaldehyde levels were reduced by all extracts. GSH levels were increased by all extracts. Extravasation as measured by the Evans Blue test increased significantly in STZ-induced diabetic animals. This effect was reversed by ethanolic extracts of bitter melon or fenugreek.
Cidophage®, Diabetic rats, Mormodica charantia, Trigonella foenum-graecum
Attenuation in Transferred RF Power to a Biomedical Implant due to the Misalignment Coils
In biomedical implant field, a new formula is given for the study of Radio Frequency power attenuation by simultaneous effects of side and angular misalignment of the supply/data transfer coils. A confrontation with the practical measurements done into a Faraday cage, allowed a checking of the obtained theoretical results. The DC supply systems without material connection and the data transmitters used in the case of biomedical implants, can be well dimensioned by taking into account the possibility of power attenuation by misalignment of transfer coils
Biomedical implant field, misalignment coils, powerattenuation, transmitter and receiver coils.
Experimental Investigation of Surface Roughness Effect on Single Phase Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Micro-Tube

An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of surface roughness on friction factor and heat transfer characteristics in single-phase fluid flow in a stainless steel micro-tube having diameter of 0.85 mm and average internal surface roughness of 1.7 μm with relative surface roughness of 0.002. Distilled water and R134a liquids were used as the working fluids and testing was conducted with Reynolds numbers ranging from 100 to 10,000 covering laminar, transition and turbulent flow conditions. The experiments were conducted with the micro-tube oriented horizontally with uniform heat fluxes applied at the test section. The results indicated that the friction factor of both water and R134a can be predicted by the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for laminar flow and the modified Miller correlation for turbulent flow and early transition from laminar to turbulent flows. The heat transfer results of water and R134a were in good agreement with the conventional theory in the laminar flow region and lower than the Adam’s correlation for turbulent flow region which deviates from conventional theory.

Pressure drop, heat transfer, distilled water, R134a, micro-tube, laminar and turbulent flow.
Evaluation of the Acoustic Performance of Classrooms in Algerian Teaching Schools

This paper presents the results of an evaluation of acoustic comfort such as background noise and reverberation time in teaching rooms in Height National School of Civil Engineering, Algeria. Four teaching rooms are evaluated: conference room, two classroom and amphitheatre. The acoustic quality of the classrooms has been analyzed based on measurements of sound pressure level inside room and reverberations time. The measurement results show that impulse decays dependent on the position of the microphone inside room and the background noise is with agreement of National Official Journal of Algeria published in July 1993. Therefore there exists a discrepancy between the obtained reverberation time value and recommended reverberation time in some classrooms. Three methods have been proposed to reduce the reverberation time values in such room. We developed a program with FORTRAN 6.0 language based on the absorption acoustic values of the Technical Document Regulation (DTR C3.1.1). The important results of this paper can be used to regulate the construction and execute the acoustic rehabilitations of teaching room in Algeria, especially the classrooms of the pupils in primary and secondary schools.

Room acoustic, reverberation time, background noise, absorptions materials.
Genetic Algorithm for In-Theatre Military Logistics Search-and-Delivery Path Planning

Discrete search path planning in time-constrained uncertain environment relying upon imperfect sensors is known to be hard, and current problem-solving techniques proposed so far to compute near real-time efficient path plans are mainly bounded to provide a few move solutions. A new information-theoretic –based open-loop decision model explicitly incorporating false alarm sensor readings, to solve a single agent military logistics search-and-delivery path planning problem with anticipated feedback is presented. The decision model consists in minimizing expected entropy considering anticipated possible observation outcomes over a given time horizon. The model captures uncertainty associated with observation events for all possible scenarios. Entropy represents a measure of uncertainty about the searched target location. Feedback information resulting from possible sensor observations outcomes along the projected path plan is exploited to update anticipated unit target occupancy beliefs. For the first time, a compact belief update formulation is generalized to explicitly include false positive observation events that may occur during plan execution. A novel genetic algorithm is then proposed to efficiently solve search path planning, providing near-optimal solutions for practical realistic problem instances. Given the run-time performance of the algorithm, natural extension to a closed-loop environment to progressively integrate real visit outcomes on a rolling time horizon can be easily envisioned. Computational results show the value of the approach in comparison to alternate heuristics.

Search path planning, false alarm, search-and-delivery, entropy, genetic algorithm.
Design of Coherent Thermal Emission Source by Excitation of Magnetic Polaritons between Metallic Gratings and an Opaque Metallic Film

The present paper studies a structure consisting of a periodic metallic grating, coated on a dielectric spacer atop an opaque metal substrate, using coherent thermal emission source in the infrared region. It has been theoretically demonstrated that by exciting surface magnetic polaritons between metallic gratings and an opaque metallic film, separated by a dielectric spacer, large emissivity peaks are almost independent of the emission angle and they can be achieved at the resonance frequencies. The reflectance spectrum of the proposed structure shows two resonances dip, which leads to a sharp emissivity peak. The relations of the reflection and absorption properties and the influence of geometric parameters on the radiative properties are investigated by rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). The proposed structure can be easily constructed, using micro/nanofabrication and can be used as the coherent thermal emission source.

Coherent thermal emission, Polartons, Reflectance, Resonance frequency, Rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA).
Design of One – Dimensional Tungsten Gratings for Thermophotovoltaic Emitters

In this paper, a one - dimensional microstructure tungsten grating (pyramids) is optimized for potential application as thermophotovoltaic (TPV) emitter. The influence of gratings geometric parameters on the spectral emittance are studied by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA).The results show that the spectral emittance is affected by the gratings geometrical parameters. The optimum parameters are grating period of 0.5µm, a filling ratio of 0.8 and grating height of h=0.2µm. A broad peak of high emittance is obtained at wavelengths between 0.5 and 1.8µm. The emittance drops below 0.2 at wavelengths above 1.8µm. This can be explained by the surface plasmon polaritons excitation coupled with the grating microstructures. At longer wavelengths, the emittance remains low and this is highly desired for thermophotovoltaic applications to reduce the thermal leakage due to low-energy photons that do not produce any photocurrent. The proposed structure can be used as a selective emitter for a narrow band gap cell such as GaSb. The performance of this simple 1-D emitter proved to be superior to that from more complicated structures. Almost all the radiation from the emitter incident, at angles up to 40°, on the cell, could be utilized to produce a photocurrent. There is no need for a filter.

Thermophotovoltaic, RCWA, Grating, Emittance, Surface plasmon polaritons
An Educational Data Mining System for Advising Higher Education Students

Educational  data mining  is  a  specific  data   mining field applied to data originating from educational environments, it relies on different  approaches to discover hidden knowledge  from  the  available   data. Among these approaches are   machine   learning techniques which are used to build a system that acquires learning from previous data. Machine learning can be applied to solve different regression, classification, clustering and optimization problems.

In  our  research, we propose  a “Student  Advisory  Framework” that  utilizes  classification  and  clustering  to  build  an  intelligent system. This system can be used to provide pieces of consultations to a first year  university  student to  pursue a  certain   education   track   where  he/she  will  likely  succeed  in, aiming  to  decrease   the  high  rate   of  academic  failure   among these  students.  A real case study  in Cairo  Higher  Institute  for Engineering, Computer  Science  and  Management  is  presented using  real  dataset   collected  from  2000−2012.The dataset has two main components: pre-higher education dataset and first year courses results dataset. Results have proved the efficiency of the suggested framework.

Classification, Clustering, Educational Data Mining (EDM), Machine Learning.
Numerical Simulation of High Pressure Hydrogen Emerges to Air

Numerical simulation performed to investigate the behavior of the high pressure hydrogen jetting of air. High pressure hydrogen (30–40 MPa) was injected to air at atmospheric pressure through 2mm orifice. Numerical simulations were performed with Kiva3V code with 2D axisymmetric geometry. Numerical simulations showed that auto ignition of high pressure hydrogen to air are possible due to molecular diffusion. Auto ignition was predicted at hydrogen-air contact surface due to mass and energy exchange between high temperature hydrogen and air heated by shock wave.

Spontaneous Ignition, Diffusion Ignition, Hydrogen ignition, Hydrogen Jet.
The Implementation of the Multi-Agent Classification System (MACS) in Compliance with FIPA Specifications

The paper discusses the implementation of the MultiAgent classification System (MACS) and utilizing it to provide an automated and accurate classification of end users developing applications in the spreadsheet domain. However, different technologies have been brought together to build MACS. The strength of the system is the integration of the agent technology with the FIPA specifications together with other technologies, which are the .NET widows service based agents, the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services, the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), and Oracle Data Mining (ODM). The Microsoft's .NET widows service based agents were utilized to develop the monitoring agents of MACS, the .NET WCF services together with SOA approach allowed the distribution and communication between agents over the WWW. The Monitoring Agents (MAs) were configured to execute automatically to monitor excel spreadsheets development activities by content. Data gathered by the Monitoring Agents from various resources over a period of time was collected and filtered by a Database Updater Agent (DUA) residing in the .NET client application of the system. This agent then transfers and stores the data in Oracle server database via Oracle stored procedures for further processing that leads to the classification of the end user developers.

MACS, Implementation, Multi-Agent, SOA, Autonomous, WCF.
An Effective Genetic Algorithm for a Complex Real-World Scheduling Problem

We address a complex scheduling problem arising in the wood panel industry with the objective of minimizing a quadratic function of job tardiness. The proposed solution strategy, which is based on an effective genetic algorithm, has been coded and implemented within a major Tunisian company, leader in the wood panel manufacturing. Preliminary experimental results indicate significant decrease of delivery times.

Genetic algorithm, heuristic, hybrid flowshop, total weighted squared tardiness.
Effect of Silica Fume on the Properties of Steel-Fiber Reinforced Self-compacting Concrete

Implementing significant advantages in the supply of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is necessary because of the, negative features of SCC. Examples of these features are the ductility problem along with the very high cost of its constituted materials. Silica fume with steel fiber can fix this matter by improving the ductility and decreasing the total cost of SCC by varying the cement ingredients. Many different researchers have found that there have not been enough research carried out on the steel fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) produced with silica fume. This paper inspects both the fresh and the mechanical properties of SFRSCC with silica fume, the fresh qualities where slump flow, slump T50 and V- funnel. While, the mechanical characteristics were the compressive strength, ultrasound pulse velocity (UPV) and elastic modulus of the concrete samples. The experimental results have proven that steel fiber can enhance the mechanical features. In addition, the silica fume within the entire hybrid mix may possibly adapt the fiber dispersion and strengthen deficits due to the fibers. It could also improve the strength plus the bond between the fiber and the matrix with a dense calcium silicate-hydrate gel in SFRSCC. The concluded result was predicted using linear mathematical models and was found to be in great agreement with the experimental results.

Self-compacting concrete, silica fume, steel fiber, fresh and mechanical properties.
The Use of Seashell by-Products in Pervious Concrete Pavers

Pervious concrete is a green alternative to conventional pavements with minimal fine aggregate and a high void content. Pervious concrete allows water to infiltrate through the pavement, thereby reducing the runoff and the requirement for stormwater management systems.

Seashell By-Products (SBP) are produced in an important quantity in France and are considered as waste. This work investigated to use SBP in pervious concrete and produce an even more environmentally friendly product, Pervious Concrete Pavers.

The research methodology involved substituting the coarse aggregate in the previous concrete mix design with 20%, 40% and 60% SBP. The testing showed that pervious concrete containing less than 40% SBP had strengths, permeability and void content which are comparable to the pervious concrete containing with only natural aggregate. The samples that contained 40% SBP or higher had a significant loss in strength and an increase in permeability and a void content from the control mix pervious concrete. On the basis of the results in this research, it was found that the natural aggregate can be substituted by SBP without affecting the delicate balance of a pervious concrete mix. Additional, it is recommended that the optimum replacement percentage for SBP in pervious concrete is 40 % direct replacement of natural coarse aggregate while maintaining the structural performance and drainage capabilities of the pervious concrete.

Seashell by-products, pervious concrete pavers, permeability and mechanical strength.
Strengthen of Cold-Formed Steel Column with Ferrocement Jacket: Push out Tests

The population growth in the world requires an increase in demand of residential and housing construction. Using lightweight construction materials such as cold formed steel sections and ferrocement could be an alternate solution to foster the construction industry. In this study, a new composite column is introduced. It consists of cold formed steel section and ferrocement jacket. The ferrocement jacket was constructed using self-compacting mortar with two wire steel mesh of 550 MPa yield strength. Experimental push out tests was conducted to investigate the strength capacities and behavior of proposed shear connectors namely, bolt, bar-angle and self-drilling screw shear connectors. It was found that bolt connector showed the best behavior followed by bar-angle. Also, it was concluded that the ferrocement could be used to strength and improve the behavior of cold formed steel column.

Cold formed steel, composite column, push out test, shear connector, ferrocement, strengthen method.
Reduction of Rotor-Bearing-Support Finite Element Model through Substructuring

Due to simplicity and low cost, rotordynamic system is often modeled by using lumped parameters. Recently, finite elements have been used to model rotordynamic system as it offers higher accuracy. However, it involves high degrees of freedom. In some applications such as control design, this requires higher cost. For this reason, various model reduction methods have been proposed. This work demonstrates the quality of model reduction of rotor-bearing-support system through substructuring. The quality of the model reduction is evaluated by comparing some first natural frequencies, modal damping ratio, critical speeds, and response of both the full system and the reduced system. The simulation shows that the substructuring is proven adequate to reduce finite element rotor model in the frequency range of interest as long as the number and the location of master nodes are determined appropriately. However, the reduction is less accurate in an unstable or nearly-unstable system.

Finite element model, rotordynamic system, model reduction, substructuring.
Experimental Investigation of On-Body Channel Modelling at 2.45 GHz

This paper presents the experimental investigation of on-body channel fading at 2.45 GHz considering two effects of the user body movement; stationary and mobile. A pair of body-worn antennas was utilized in this measurement campaign. A statistical analysis was performed by comparing the measured on-body path loss to five well-known distributions; lognormal, normal, Nakagami, Weibull and Rayleigh. The results showed that the average path loss of moving arm varied higher than the path loss in sitting position for upper-arm-to-left-chest link, up to 3.5 dB. The analysis also concluded that the Nakagami distribution provided the best fit for most of on-body static link path loss in standing still and sitting position, while the arm movement can be best described by log-normal distribution.

On-Body channel communications, fading characteristics, statistical model.
Assessing Psycho-Social Stressors for Chronically Infected Hepatitis C Virus Patients in Egypt

People with hepatitis C are likely to experience psychological distress related to adjustment issues following diagnosis. Objective: The study was conducted to determine the psycho-social stressors accompanying Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection. The study focused on immediate and later on reactions to being diagnosed as infected HCV patients. Effect of HCV on disruption of patients’ relationships in term of family relationship and friendship, employment and financial status was assessed. The magnitude and causes of the social stigma and its relation to awareness about illness, level of education were also assessed. Methods: During this study the subjective experiences of people having HCV was explored through a designed questionnaire targeted 540 cases; 359 males and 181 females from ten out of 21 National Treatment Reference Centers of National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institutes of Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals. The study was conducted along a period of six months from September 2011 to March 2012. Results: The study revealed that the financial problems are the commonest problems faced by 75.5% of the cases. More than 70% of the cases suffered from immediate sadness versus 67.4% suffered from worry. Social stigma was reported by 13 % of HCV +patients, the majority of which were females. Conclusions: Exploring the psychosocial consequences of HCV infection can act as pressing motivators for behavior change needed for limiting HCV endemicity in Egypt.

Egypt, HCV infection, psychosocial adjustment, stigma.
Level of Behavioral Development for Hepatitis C Virus Cases versus Their Contacts: Does Infection Make a Difference and What Is Beyond?

Hepatitis C virus infection is a public health threat in Egypt. To control infection, efforts should be spent to encourage healthy behavior. This study aimed to assess the level of behavioral development in order to create a positive environment for the adoption of the recommended behaviors. The study was conducted over one year from Jan. 2011 till Jan. 2012.Knowledge, attitude and behavior of 540 HCV patients and 102 of their contacts were assessed and the level of behavioral development was determined. The study revealed that the majority of patients and contacts knew that HCV infection is dangerous with perceived concern for early diagnosis and treatment. More than 75% knew the correct modes of transmission. The assessment showed positive attitudes towards the recommended practices with intention to adopt those practices. Strategies of creating opportunities to continue the recommended behaviors should be adopted together with the reinforcement of social support.

Hepatitis C virus, Level of behavioral development, recommended behaviors.
Study on the Heat Transfer Performance of the Annular Fin under Condensing Conditions

A numerical investigation of the fin efficiency and temperature distribution of an annular fin under dehumidification has been presented in this paper. The non-homogeneous second order differential equation that describes the temperature distribution from the fin base to the fin tip has been solved using the central finite difference method. The effects of variations in parameters including relative humidity, air temperature, air face velocity on temperature distribution and fin efficiency are investigated and compared with those under fully dry fin conditions. Also, the effect of fin pitch on the dimensionless temperature has been studied.

Annular fin, Dehumidification, Fin efficiency, Heat and mass transfer, Wet fin.
Cross-Border Shopping Motivation, Behaviours and Ethnocentrism of Malaysian in Hatyai, Thailand

There have been few studies of cross-border shopping. However, many have focused on macroeconomic effects rather than on discovering the motivation and behaviour of cross-border shoppers who purchase abroad. Hatyai, Thailand is located about 30 km from the Malaysian border. The statistics reports that each year more than 400,000 Malaysian visitors visited Hatyai. The aims of this study are fourfold: (1) to investigate factors motivating cross-border shoppers to shop in Hatyai, Thailand; (2) to examine the relationship between ethnicity and shopper ethnocentrism; (3) to discover the impact of shopper ethnocentrism on foreign product judgment; and (4) to explore the impact of shopper ethnocentrism on the willingness to buy foreign products. The results reveal that the three most popular consumption items were food and beverages, clothing, and grocery products. Factor analysis shows that the three key reasons for choosing Hatyai as the cross-border shopping destination included product and store, close distance, and low exchange rate. Moreover, there were significant differences in ethnocentrism by three ethnic groups. Shopper ethnocentrism had a significant negative correlation with foreign product judgment, while shopper ethnocentrism was not significantly correlated with willingness to buy foreign products.

Cross-border shopping behaviours, Malaysian shoppers, Ethnocentrism, Hatyai, Thailand.
Optical Switching Based On Bragg Solitons in A Nonuniform Fiber Bragg Grating

In this paper, we consider the nonlinear pulse propagation through a nonuniform birefringent fiber Bragg grating (FBG) whose index modulation depth varies along the propagation direction. Here, the pulse propagation is governed by the nonlinear birefringent coupled mode (NLBCM) equations. To form the Bragg soliton outside the photonic bandgap (PBG), the NLBCM equations are reduced to the well known NLS type equation by multiple scale analysis. As we consider the pulse propagation in a nonuniform FBG, the pulse propagation outside the PBG is governed by inhomogeneous NLS (INLS) rather than NLS. We then discuss the formation of soliton in the FBG known as Bragg soliton whose central frequency lies outside but close to the PBG of the grating structure. Further, we discuss Bragg soliton compression due to a delicate balance between the SPM and the varying grating induced dispersion. In addition, Bragg soliton collision, Bragg soliton switching and possible logic gates have also been discussed.

Bragg grating, Nonuniform fiber, Nonlinear pulse.
Diagnosis of Static, Dynamic and Mixed Eccentricity in Line Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor by Using FEM

In Line start permanent magnet synchronous motor,  eccentricity is a common fault that can make it necessary to remove  the motor from the production line. However, because the motor may  be inaccessible, diagnosing the fault is not easy. This paper presents  an FEM that identifies different models, static eccentricity, dynamic  eccentricity, and mixed eccentricity, at no load and full load. The  method overcomes the difficulty of applying FEMs to transient  behavior. It simulates motor speed, torque and flux density  distribution along the air gap for SE,DE, and ME. This paper  represents the various effects of different eccentricitiestypes on the  transient performance.

Line Start Permanent magnet, synchronous machine, Static Eccentricity, Dynamic Eccentricity, Mixed Eccentricity.
Buzan Mind Mapping: An Efficient Technique for Note-Taking

Buzan mind mapping is an efficient system of note-taking that makes revision a fun thing to do for students. Tony Buzan has been teaching children all over the world for the past thirty years and has proved that mind maps are the magic formula in the classroom for everyone. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of Buzan mind mapping as a note-taking technique for the secondary school students. This paper also examines the mind mapping technique, advantages and disadvantages of hand-drawn mind maps. Samples of students’ mind maps were presented and discussed.

Buzan Mind Mapping, note-taking technique, hand-drawn mind maps.
Improved MARS Ciphering Using a Metamorphic-Enhanced Function

MARS is a shared-key (symmetric) block cipher algorithm supporting 128-bit block size and a variable key size of between 128 and 448 bits. MARS has a several rounds of cryptographic core that is designed to take advantage of the powerful results for improving security/performance tradeoff over existing ciphers. In this work, a new function added to improve the ciphering process it is called, Meta-Morphic function. This function use XOR, Rotating, Inverting and No-Operation logical operations before and after encryption process. The aim of these operations is to improve MARS cipher process and makes a high confusion criterion for the Ciphertext.

AES, MARS, Metamorphic, Cryptography, Block Cipher.
Interfacing and Replication of Electronic Machinery Using MATLAB / SIMULINK

This paper introduces Interfacing and Replication of electronic tools based on the MATLAB/ SIMULINK mock-up package. Mock-up components contain dc-dc converters, power issue rectifiers, motivation machines, dc gear, synchronous gear, and more entire systems. The power issue rectifier model includes solid state device models. The tools provide clear-cut structures and mock-up of complex energy systems, connecting with power electronic machines.

Power electronics, Machine, Matlab/Simulink.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of MHD Natural Convection in a Nanofluid-Filled Enclosure with Non-Uniform Heating on Both Side Walls

This paper examines the natural convection in a square enclosure filled with a water-Al2O3 nanofluid and is subjected to a magnetic field. The side walls of the cavity have spatially varying sinusoidal temperature distributions. The horizontal walls are adiabatic. Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied to solve the coupled equations of flow and temperature fields. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number of the base fluid, Ra=103 to 106, Hartmann number varied from Ha=0 to 90, phase deviation (γ=0, π/4, π/2, 3π/4 and π) and the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles between Ø = 0 and 6%. The results show that the heat transfer rate increases with an increase of the Rayleigh number but it decreases with an increase of the Hartmann number. For γ=π/2 and Ra=105 the magnetic field augments the effect of nanoparticles. At Ha=0, the greatest effects of nanoparticles are obtained at γ = 0 and π/4 for Ra=104 and 105 respectively.


Lattice Boltzmann Method, magnetic field, Natural convection, nanofluid, Sinusoidal temperature distribution.
Seismic Response of Braced Steel Frames with Shape Memory Alloy and Mega Bracing Systems

Steel bracing members are widely used in steel  structures to reduce lateral displacement and dissipate energy during  earthquake motions. Concentric steel bracing provide an excellent  approach for strengthening and stiffening steel buildings. Using these  braces the designer can hardly adjust the stiffness together with  ductility as needed because of buckling of braces in compression. In  this study the use of SMA bracing and steel bracing (Mega) utilized  in steel frames are investigated. The effectiveness of these two  systems in rehabilitating a mid-rise eight-storey steel frames were  examined using time-history nonlinear analysis utilizing seismostruct  software. Results show that both systems improve the strength and  stiffness of the original structure but due to excellent behavior of  SMA in nonlinear phase and under compressive forces this system  shows much better performance than the rehabilitation system of  Mega bracing.


Finite element analysis, seismic response, shapes memory alloy, steel frame, mega bracing.
Investigating Interference Errors Made by Azzawia University 1st year Students of English in Learning English Prepositions

The main focus of this study is investigating the interference of Arabic in the use of English prepositions by Libyan university students. Prepositions in the tests used in the study were categorized, according to their relation to Arabic, into similar Arabic and English prepositions (SAEP), dissimilar Arabic and English prepositions (DAEP), Arabic prepositions with no English counterparts (APEC), and English prepositions with no Arabic counterparts (EPAC).

The subjects of the study were the first year university students of the English department, Sabrata Faculty of Arts, Azzawia University; both males and females, and they were 100 students. The basic tool for data collection was a test of English prepositions; students are instructed to fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions and to put a zero (0) if no preposition was needed. The test was then handed to the subjects of the study.

The test was then scored and quantitative as well as qualitative results were obtained. Quantitative results indicated the number, percentages and rank order of errors in each of the categories and qualitative results indicated the nature and significance of those errors and their possible sources. Based on the obtained results the researcher could detect that students made more errors in the EPAC category than the other three categories and these errors could be attributed to the lack of knowledge of the different meanings of English prepositions. This lack of knowledge forced the students to adopt what is called the strategy of transfer.

Foreign language acquisition, foreign language learning, interference system, interlanguage system, mother tongue interference.
Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol in Aqueous Solutions Using Titanium Dioxide

In this study, photocatalytic degradation of phenol by  titanium dioxide (TiO2) in aqueous solution was evaluated. The UV  energy of solar light was utilized by compound parabolic collectors  (CPCs) technology. The effect of irradiation time, initial pH, and  dosage of TiO2 were investigated. Aromatic intermediates (catechol,  benzoquinone, and hydroquinone) were quantified during the reaction  to study the pathways of the oxidation process. 94.5% degradation  efficiency of phenol was achieved after 150 minutes of irradiation  when the initial concentration was 100 mg/L. The dosage of TiO2  significantly affected the degradation efficiency of phenol. The  observed optimum pH for the reaction was 5.2. Phenol photocatalytic  degradation fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic according to  Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.


Compound parabolic collectors, phenol, photocatalytic, titanium dioxide.
Prediction of Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Dynamics in an Iowan Agriculture Watershed

In this study, a physically-based, modeling framework was developed to predict saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) dynamics in the Clear Creek Watershed (CCW), Iowa. The modeling framework integrated selected pedotransfer functions and watershed models with geospatial tools. A number of pedotransfer functions and agricultural watershed models were examined to select the appropriate models that represent the study site conditions. Models selection was based on statistical measures of the models’ errors compared to the Ksat field measurements conducted in the CCW under different soil, climate and land use conditions. The study has shown that the predictions of the combined pedotransfer function of Rosetta and the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) provided the best agreement to the measured Ksat values in the CCW compared to the other tested models. Therefore, Rosetta and WEPP were integrated with the Geographic Information System (GIS) tools for visualization of the data in forms of geospatial maps and prediction of Ksat variability in CCW due to the seasonal changes in climate and land use activities. 

Saturated hydraulic conductivity, pedotransfer functions, watershed models, geospatial tools.
Improving Concrete Properties with Fibers Addition

This study investigated the improvement in concrete properties with addition of cellulose, steel, carbon and PET fibers. Each fiber was added at four percentages to the fresh concrete, which was moist-cured for 28-days and then tested for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Changes in strength and increases in cost were analyzed. Results showed that addition of cellulose caused a decrease between 9.8% and 16.4% in compressive strength. This range may be acceptable as cellulose fibers can significantly increase the concrete resistance to fire, and freezing and thawing cycles. Addition of steel fibers to concreteincreased the compressive strength by up to 20%. Increases 121.5% and 80.7% were reported in tensile and flexural strengths respectively. Carbon fibers increased flexural and tensile strengths by up to 11% and 45%, respectively. Concrete strength properties decreased after the addition of PET fibers. Results showed that improvement in strength after addition of steel and carbon fibers may justify the extra cost of fibers.

Concrete,compressive strength, fibers, flexural strength, tensile strength.
Application of Universal Distribution Factors for Real-Time Complex Power Flow Calculation

Complex power flow distribution factors, which relate line complex power flows to the bus injected complex powers, have been widely used in various power system planning and analysis studies. In particular, AC distribution factors have been used extensively in the recent power and energy pricing studies in free electricity market field. As was demonstrated in the existing literature, many of the electricity market related costing studies rely on the use of the distribution factors. These known distribution factors, whether the injection shift factors (ISF’s) or power transfer distribution factors (PTDF’s), are linear approximations of the first order sensitivities of the active power flows with respect to various variables. This paper presents a novel model for evaluating the universal distribution factors (UDF’s), which are appropriate for an extensive range of power systems analysis and free electricity market studies. These distribution factors are used for the calculations of lines complex power flows and its independent of bus power injections, they are compact matrix-form expressions with total flexibility in determining the position on the line at which line flows are measured. The proposed approach was tested on IEEE 9-Bus system. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed approach is very accurate compared with exact method.

Distribution Factors, Power System, Sensitivity Factors, Electricity Market.
Migration of the Relational Data Base (RDB) to the Object Relational Data Base (ORDB)

This paper proposes an approach for translating an existing relational database (RDB) schema into ORDB. The transition is done with methods that can extract various functions from a RDB which is based on aggregations, associations between the various tables, and the reflexive relationships. These methods can extract even the inheritance knowing that no process of reverse engineering can know that it is an Inheritance; therefore, our approach exceeded all of the previous studies made for ​​the transition from RDB to ORDB. In summation, the creation of the New Data Model (NDM) that stocks the RDB in a form of a structured table, and from the NDM we create our navigational model in order to simplify the implementation object from which we develop our different types. Through these types we precede to the last step, the creation of tables.

The step mentioned above does not require any human interference. All this is done automatically, and a prototype has already been created which proves the effectiveness of this approach.

Relational databases, Object-relational databases, Semantic enrichment.
The Effect of the Crystal Field Interaction on the Critical Temperatures and the Sublattice Magnetizations of a Mixed Spin-3/2 and Spin-5/2 Ferrimagnetic System

The influence of the crystal field interactions on the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 ferrimagnetic Ising system is considered by using the mean field theory based on Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The ground-state phase diagram is constructed, the phase diagrams of the second-order critical temperatures are obtained, and the thermal variation of the sublattice magnetizations is investigated in detail. We find some interesting phenomena for the sublattice magnetizations at particular values of the crystal field interactions.

Crystal field, Ising system, Ferrimagnetic, magnetization, phase diagrams.
Radiation Heat Transfer Effect in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

The radiation effect within the solid anode, electrolyte, and cathode SOFC layers problem has been investigated in this paper. Energy equation is solved by the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The Rosseland method is used to model the radiative transfer in the electrodes. The Schuster-Schwarzschild method is used to model the radiative transfer in the electrolyte. Without radiative effect, the found results are in good agreement with those published. The obtained results show that the radiative effect can be neglected.

SOFC, lattice Boltzmann method, conduction, radiation.
Restructuring of XML Documents in the Form of Ontologies

The intense use of the web has made it a very changing environment, its content is in permanent evolution to adapt to the demands. The standards have accompanied this evolution by passing from standards that regroup data with their presentations without any structuring such as HTML, to standards that separate both and give more importance to the structural aspect of the content such as XML standard and its derivatives. Currently, with the appearance of the Semantic Web, ontologies become increasingly present on the web and standards that allow their representations as OWL and RDF/RDFS begin to gain momentum. This paper provided an automatic method that converts XML schema document to ontologies represented in OWL.

XML Schema, OWL, RDB, Mapping, Ontology.
Radiation Heat Transfer in Planar SOFC Components: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Thermal radiation plays a very important role in the heat transfer combination through the various components of the SOFC fuel cell operating at high temperatures. Lattice Boltzmann method is used for treating conduction-radiation heat transfer in the electrolyte. The thermal radiation heat transfer is coupled to the overall energy conservation equations through the divergence of the local radiative flux. The equation of energy in one dimension is numerically resolved by using the Lattice Boltzmann method. A computing program (FORTRAN) is developed locally for this purpose in order to obtain fields of temperature in every element of the cell. The parameters investigated are: functioning temperature, cell voltages and electrolyte thickness. The results show that the radiation effect increases with increasing the electrolyte thickness, also increases with increasing the functioning temperature and decreases with the increase of the voltage of the cell.

SOFC, lattice Boltzmann method, conduction, radiation, planar medium.
Blind Identification Channel Using Higher Order Cumulants with Application to Equalization for MC−CDMA System

In this paper we propose an algorithm based on higher order cumulants, for blind impulse response identification of frequency radio channels and downlink (MC−CDMA) system Equalization. In order to test its efficiency, we have compared with another algorithm proposed in the literature, for that we considered on theoretical channel as the Proakis’s ‘B’ channel and practical frequency selective fading channel, called Broadband Radio Access Network (BRAN C), normalized for (MC−CDMA) systems, excited by non-Gaussian sequences. In the part of (MC−CDMA), we use the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) equalizer after the channel identification to correct the channel’s distortion. The simulation results, in noisy environment and for different signal to noise ratio (SNR), are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the proposed algorithm.

Blind identification and equalization, Higher Order Cumulants, (MC−CDMA) system, MMSE equalizer.
Removal of Lead in High Rate Activated Sludge System

The heavy metals pollution in water, sediments and fish of Lake Manzala affected form the disposal of wastewater, industrial and agricultural drainage water into the lake on the environmental situation. A pilot plant with an industrial discharge flow of 135L/h designed according to the activated sludge plant to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of alum to the aeration tank with dosages of 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. The industrial discharge had concentrations of Lead and BOD5 with an average range 1.22, 145mg/L respectively. That means the average Pb was high up to 25 times than the allowed permissible concentration. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using 200mg/L Alum dosage compared has improvement of Lead and BOD5 removal efficiency to 61.76% and 56% respectively.

Industrial wastewater, Activated sludge, BOD5, Lead, Alum salt.
Large Eddy Simulation of Compartment Fire with Gas Combustible

The objective of this work is to use the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) to investigate the behavior of a kerosene small-scale fire. FDS is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool developed specifically for fire applications. Throughout its development, FDS is used for the resolution of practical problems in fire protection engineering. At the same time FDS is used to study fundamental fire dynamics and combustion. Predictions are based on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a Smagorinsky turbulence model. LES directly computes the large-scale eddies and the sub-grid scale dissipative processes are modeled. This technique is the default turbulence model which was used in this study. The validation of the numerical prediction is done using a direct comparison of combustion output variables to experimental measurements. Effect of the mesh size on the temperature evolutions is investigated and optimum grid size is suggested. Effect of width openings is investigated. Temperature distribution and species flow are presented for different operating conditions. The effect of the composition of the used fuel on atmospheric pollution is also a focus point within this work. Good predictions are obtained where the size of the computational cells within the fire compartment is less than 1/10th of the characteristic fire diameter.

Large eddy simulation, Radiation, Turbulence, combustion, pollution.
The Design of the Multi-Agent Classification System (MACS)

The paper discusses the design of a .NET Windows Service based agent system called MACS (Multi-Agent Classification System). MACS is a system aims to accurately classify spreadsheet developers competency over a network. It is designed to automatically and autonomously monitor spreadsheet users and gather their development activities based on the utilization of the software multi-agent technology (MAS). This is accomplished in such a way that makes management capable to efficiently allow for precise tailor training activities for future spreadsheet development. The monitoring agents of MACS are intended to be distributed over the WWW in order to satisfy the monitoring and classification of the multiple developer aspect. The Prometheus methodology is used for the design of the agents of MACS. Prometheus has been used to undertake this phase of the system design because it is developed specifically for specifying and designing agent-oriented systems. Additionally, Prometheus specifies also the communication needed between the agents in order to coordinate to achieve their delegated tasks.

Classification, Design, MACS, MAS, Prometheus.
Modeling of Radiative Heat Transfer in 2D Complex Heat Recuperator of Biomass Pyrolysis Furnace: A Study of Baffles Shadow and Soot Volume Fraction Effects

The radiative heat transfer problem is investigated numerically for 2D complex geometry biomass pyrolysis reactor composed of two pyrolysis chambers and a heat recuperator. The fumes are a mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor charged with absorbing and scattering particles and soot. In order to increase gases residence time and heat transfer, the heat recuperator is provided with many inclined, vertical, horizontal, diffuse and grey baffles of finite thickness and has a complex geometry. The Finite Volume Method (FVM) is applied to study radiative heat transfer. The blocked-off region procedure is used to treat the geometrical irregularities. Eight cases are considered in order to demonstrate the effect of adding baffles on the walls of the heat recuperator and on the walls of the pyrolysis rooms then choose the best case giving the maximum heat flux transferred to the biomass in the pyrolysis chambers. Ray effect due to the presence of baffles is studied and demonstrated to have a crucial effect on radiative heat flux on the walls of the pyrolysis rooms. Shadow effect caused by the presence of the baffles is also studied. The non grey radiative heat transfer is studied for the real existent configuration. The Weighted Sum of The Grey Gases (WSGG) Model of Kim and Song is used as non grey model. The effect of soot volumetric fraction on the non grey radiative heat flux is investigated and discussed.

Baffles, Blocked-off region procedure, FVM, Heat recuperation, Radiative heat transfer, Shadow effect.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of the Carbonization of Wood Particle

A numerical study based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is proposed to solve one, two and three dimensional heat and mass transfer for isothermal carbonization of thick wood particles. To check the validity of the proposed model, computational results have been compared with the published data and a good agreement is obtained. Then, the model is used to study the effect of reactor temperature and thermal boundary conditions, on the evolution of the local temperature and the mass distributions of the wood particle during carbonization

Lattice Boltzmann Method, pyrolysis conduction, carbonization, Heat and mass transfer.
Computable Difference Matrix for Synonyms in the Holy Quran

In the field of Quran Studies known as GHAREEB AL QURAN (The study of the meanings of strange words and structures in Holy Quran), it is difficult to distinguish some pragmatic meanings from conceptual meanings. One who wants to study this subject may need to look for a common usage between any two words or more; to understand general meaning, and sometimes may need to look for common differences between them, even if there are synonyms (word sisters).

Some of the distinguished scholars of Arabic linguistics believe that there are no synonym words, they believe in varieties of meaning and multi-context usage. Based on this viewpoint, our method was designedto look for synonyms of a word, then the differences that distinct the word and their synonyms.

There are many available books that use such a method e.g. synonyms books, dictionaries, glossaries, and some books on the interpretations of strange vocabulary of the Holy Quran, but it is difficult to look up words in these written works.

For that reason, we proposed a logical entity, which we called Differences Matrix (DM).

DM groups the synonyms words to extract the relations between them and to know the general meaning, which defines the skeleton of all word synonyms; this meaning is expressed by a word of its sisters.

In Differences Matrix, we used  the sisters(words) as titles for rows and columns, and in the obtained  cells we tried to define the row title (word) by using column title (her sister), so the relations between sisters appear, the expected result is well defined groups of sisters for each word. We represented the obtained results formally, and used the defined groups as a base for building the ontology of the Holy Quran synonyms.

Quran, synonyms, Differences Matrix, ontology
Levels of Some Antinutritional Factors in Tempeh Produced From Some Legumes and Jojobas Seeds

Three legumes i.e. soybean, kidney bean and mung bean, and jojoba seed as an oil seed were processed into tempeh, a fermented food. Changes in phytic acid, total phenols and trypsin inhibitor were monitored during the pretreatments (soaking, soaking– dehulling, washing and cooking) and fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus. Soaking was found to reduce total phenol and trypsin inhibitor levels in soybean, kidney bean and mung bean. However, phytic acid was reduced by soaking in kidney bean and mung bean. Cooking was the most effective in reducing the activity of trypsin inhibitor. During fermentation, a slight increase in the level of trypsin inhibitor was noticed in soybean. Phytic acid and total phenols were decreased during fermentation in soybean, kidney bean but mung bean faild to form tempeh because the antifungal activity of herein a protein in mung bean, which exerts both chitinase activity and antifungal activity against a variety of fungal species. On the other hand, solid- state fermentation of jojoba seeds was not effective in reducing their content from cyanogenic glycosides (simmondsin).

Antinutritional factors, cyanogenic glycosides (Simmondsin), tempeh.
Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. ThereforeRFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25cm2 and 100cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Electric vehicle, Redox flow battery, Packaging, Vanadium.
Hit-or-Miss Transform as a Tool for Similar Shape Detection

This paper describes an identification of specific shapes within binary images using the morphological Hit-or-Miss Transform (HMT). Hit-or-Miss transform is a general binary morphological operation that can be used in searching of particular patterns of foreground and background pixels in an image. It is actually a basic operation of binary morphology since almost all other binary morphological operators are derived from it. The input of this method is a binary image and a structuring element (a template which will be searched in a binary image) while the output is another binary image. In this paper a modification of Hit-or-Miss transform has been proposed. The accuracy of algorithm is adjusted according to the similarity of the template and the sought template. The implementation of this method has been done by C language. The algorithm has been tested on several images and the results have shown that this new method can be used for similar shape detection.

Hit-or/and-Miss Operator/Transform, HMT, binary morphological operation, shape detection, binary images processing.
Evaluation Performance of PID, LQR, Pole Placement Controllers for Heat Exchanger

In industrial environments, the heat exchanger is a necessary component to any strategy of energy conversion. Much of thermal energy used in industrial processes passes at least one times by a heat exchanger, and methods systems recovering thermal energy. This survey paper tries to presents in a systemic way an sample control of a heat exchanger by comparison between three controllers LQR (linear quadratic regulator), PID (proportional, integrator and derivate) and Pole Placement. All of these controllers are used mainly in industrial sectors (chemicals, petrochemicals, steel, food processing, energy production, etc…) of transportation (automotive, aeronautics), but also in the residential sector and tertiary (heating, air conditioning, etc...) The choice of a heat exchanger, for a given application depends on many parameters: field temperature and pressure of fluids, and physical properties of aggressive fluids, maintenance and space. It is clear that the fact of having an exchanger appropriate, well-sized, well made and well used allows gain efficiency and energy processes.

LQR linear-quadratic regulator, PID control, Pole Placement, Heat exchanger.
Fast Accurate Detection of Frequency Jumps Using Kalman Filter with Non Linear Improvements

In communication systems, frequency jump is a serious problem caused by the oscillators used. Kalman filters are used to detect that jump, despite the tradeoff between the noise level and the speed of the detection. In this paper, an improvement is introduced in the Kalman filter, through a nonlinear change in the bandwidth of the filter. Simulation results show a considerable improvement in the filter speed with a very low noise level. Additionally, the effect on the response to false alarms is also presented and false alarm rate show improvement.

Kalman Filter, Innovation, False Detection.
Higher Order Statistics for Identification of Minimum Phase Channels

This paper describes a blind algorithm, which is compared with two another algorithms proposed in the literature, for estimating of the minimum phase channel parameters. In order to identify blindly the impulse response of these channels, we have used Higher Order Statistics (HOS) to build our algorithm. The simulation results in noisy environment, demonstrate that the proposed method could estimate the phase and magnitude with high accuracy of these channels blindly and without any information about the input, except that the input excitation is identically and independent distribute (i.i.d) and non-Gaussian.

System Identification, Higher Order Statistics, Communication Channels.
Preparation and in vivo Assessment of Nystatin-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Topical Delivery against Cutaneous Candidiasis

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have gained great attention for the topical treatment of skin associated fungal infection as they facilitate the skin penetration of loaded drugs. Our work deals with the preparation of nystatin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (NystSLNs) using the hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The prepared NystSLNs were characterized in terms of entrapment efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, rheological behavior and in vitro drug release. A stability study for 6 months was performed. A microbiological study was conducted in male rats infected with Candida albicans, by counting the colonies and examining the histopathological changes induced on the skin of infected rats. The results showed that SLNs dispersions are spherical in shape with particle size ranging from 83.26±11.33 to 955.04±1.09 nm. The entrapment efficiencies are ranging from 19.73±1.21 to 72.46±0.66% with zeta potential ranging from -18.9 to -38.8 mV and shear-thinning rheological Behavior. The stability studies done for 6 months showed that nystatin (Nyst) is a good candidate for topical SLN formulations. A least number of colony forming unit/ ml (cfu/ml) was recorded for the selected NystSLN compared to the drug solution and the commercial Nystatin® cream present in the market. It can be fulfilled from this work that SLNs provide a good skin targeting effect and may represent promising carrier for topical delivery of Nyst offering the sustained release and maintaining the localized effect, resulting in an effective treatment of cutaneous fungal infection.

Candida infections, Hot homogenization, Nystatin, Solid lipid nanoparticles, Stability, Topical delivery.
Influence of Optical Fluence Distribution on Photoacoustic Imaging

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging modality that combines the absorption contrast of light with ultrasound resolution. Laser is used to deposit optical energy into a target (i.e., optical fluence). Consequently, the target temperature rises, and then thermal expansion occurs that leads to generating a PA signal. In general, most image reconstruction algorithms for PAI assume uniform fluence within an imaging object. However, it is known that optical fluence distribution within the object is non-uniform. This could affect the reconstruction of PA images. In this study, we have investigated the influence of optical fluence distribution on PA back-propagation imaging using finite element method. The uniform fluence was simulated as a triangular waveform within the object of interest. The non-uniform fluence distribution was estimated by solving light propagation within a tissue model via Monte Carlo method. The results show that the PA signal in the case of non-uniform fluence is wider than the uniform case by 23%. The frequency spectrum of the PA signal due to the non-uniform fluence has missed some high frequency components in comparison to the uniform case. Consequently, the reconstructed image with the non-uniform fluence exhibits a strong smoothing effect.

Finite Element Method, Fluence Distribution, Monte Carlo Method, Photoacoustic Imaging.
A New Algorithm for Solving Isothermal Carbonization of Wood Particle

A new algorithm based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed as a potential solver for one-dimensional heat and mass transfer for isothermal carbonization of wood particles. To check the validity of this algorithm, the LBM results have been compared with the published data and a good agreement is obtained. Then, the model is used to study the effect of reactor temperature and particle size on the evolution of the local temperature and mass loss inside the wood particle.

Lattice Boltzmann Method, pyrolysis, conduction, carbonization.
Use of Hair as an Indicator of Environmental Lead Pollution: Changes after Twenty Years of Phasing Out Leaded Gasoline

Lead (Pb) poisoning is one of the most common and preventable environmental health problems. There are different sources of environmental pollution with lead as lead alkyl additives in petrol and manufacturing processes. Pb in the atmosphere can be deposited in urban soils, and may then be re-suspended to re-enter the atmosphere. This could increase human exposure to Pb and cause long-term health effects. Thus, monitoring Pb pollution is considered one of the major tasks in controlling pollution. Scalp hair can be utilized for the determination of lead (Pb) concentration. It provides a lasting record of metal intakes of weeks or even months, and for most metals, their accumulation in hair reflects their accumulation in the whole body. This work was conducted to investigate the concentration of lead in male scalp hair of Cairo (residential-traffic and residential-industrial) and rural residents after twenty years of phasing out of leaded gasoline. Results indicated that the mean concentration of lead in hair of residential-traffic (9.7552 μg/g ±0.71) and residential-industrial (12.3288 μg/g ±1.13) was significantly higher than that in rural residents (4.7327 μg/g ±0.67). The mean concentration of lead in hair of resident’s industrial areas was the highest among Cairo residents and not the traffic areas as it was before phasing out of leaded gasoline. Twenty years of phasing out of leaded gasoline in Cairo has greatly improved the lead pollution among residents of traffic areas, but industrial areas residents were still suffering from lead pollution, which needs more efforts to control the sources of lead pollution.

Heavy metals, lead, hair, biological sample, urban pollution, rural pollution.
Power Quality Evaluation of Electrical Distribution Networks

Researches and concerns in power quality gained significant momentum in the field of power electronics systems over the last two decades globally. This sudden increase in the number of concerns over power quality problems is a result of the huge increase in the use of non-linear loads. In this paper, power quality evaluation of some distribution networks at Misurata - Libya has been done using a power quality and energy analyzer (Fluke 437 Series II). The results of this evaluation are used to minimize the problems of power quality. The analysis shows the main power quality problems that exist and the level of awareness of power quality issues with the aim of generating a start point which can be used as guidelines for researchers and end users in the field of power systems.

Power Quality Disturbances, Power Quality Evaluation, Statistical Analysis.
Survey to Assess the Feasibility of Executing the Web-Based Collaboration Process Using WBCS

The importance of the formal specification in the software life cycle is barely concealing to anyone. Formal specifications use mathematical notation to describe the properties of information system precisely, without unduly constraining the way in how these properties are achieved. Having a correct and quality software specification is not easy task. This study concerns with how a group of rectifiers can communicate with each other and work to prepare and produce a correct formal software specification. WBCS has been implemented based mainly in the proposed supported cooperative work model and a survey conducted on the existing Webbased collaborative writing tools. This paper aims to assess the feasibility of executing the web-based collaboration process using WBCS. The purpose of conducting this test is to test the system as a whole for functionality and fitness for use based on the evaluation test plan.

Formal methods, Formal specifications, collaborative writing, Usability testing.
Influence of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) on Dimethoate Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an ancient fruit of great medical interest and rich source of antioxidants. Pesticides as dimethoate play a crucial role in the occurrence many diseases in plants, animal and human. Therefore the ability of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) to alleviate hepatotoxicity induced by organophosphate pesticide dimethoate was investigated. Albino male rats were divided randomly into 4 groups and kept at 7 animals per group in an environmentally controlled condition for 6 weeks. The first group was served as a control group (basal diet), the second group fed on basal diet supplemented with 5% freeze dried pomegranate seeds, the third group fed on 20 ppm dimethoate contaminated diet and the last group fed on dimethoate contaminated diet supplemented with 5% freeze dried pomegranate seeds. The results revealed that administration of dimethoate caused high significant increased in liver functions: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as lipid peroxide (malonaldhyde, MDA); on the other hand high significant decreased on glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), albumin and total protein were observed. However addition of 5% freeze dried pomegranate seeds significantly improved all previously mentioned parameters. These results indicate the dimethoate induced hepatotoxicity and highlight the protective effect of pomegranate seeds as a potential protective agent against dimethoate induced hepatotoxicity. This may be attributed to the powerful antioxidants (polyphenols, total phenols, and total flavonoids) which present in high levels in pomegranate as well as improving the immunity by activation of antioxidant enzymes GSH and GPx.

Pomegranate, organophosphate pesticides, dimethoate, liver toxicity, free radicals, antioxidants.
Protective Effect of Melissa officinalis L. against Malathion Toxicity and Reproductive Impairment in Male Rats

Malathion (ML) is a well known pesticide commonly used in many agricultural and non-agricultural processes. Its toxicity has been attributed primarily to the accumulation of acetylcholine (Ach) at nerve junctions, due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The aim of the current research was to study the protective effect of the melissa plant extract against reproductive impairment induced by malathion in 32 male albino rats, and the biological experiment was divided into four groups (8 in each) that given malathion (27 mg/kg; 1/50 of the LD50 for an oral dose) and/or Melissa officinalis (MO) extract (200mg/kg/day) by gavages technique. The sperm counts, sperm motility, sperm morphology, FSH, LH, and testosterone levels had been determined in testes homogenate at the end of the experiment. It is worthy to report that, rats treated with melissa extract did not show a significant difference when compared with the control group, while rats given malathion alone had significantly lower sperm count, sperm motility, and significantly higher abnormal sperm numbers, than the untreated control rats as well as having significantly lower serum FSH, LH, and testosterone levels compared with the control group. Administrations of melissa extract restore all mentioned histological parameters towards the control group and the melissa extract had a strong positive protective effect against malathion toxicity. Results the of biological parameters were confirmed by the histological examination of rat testes and indicated that, both control and melissa groups showing normal seminiferous tubules, while malathion group testicular tissues had necrosis, edema in the seminiferous tubules and degeneration of spermatogonial cells lining the seminiferous tubules with incomplete spermatogenesis. The use of melissa against malathion improved the histological picture and showing normal seminiferous tubules with complete spermatogenesis and almost there was no histopathological changes could be noted.

Malathion, Melissa officinalis L., Reproductive toxicity, Rats.
Dual Band Fractal Antenna for Wireless Sensor Network Application

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a collection of sensor nodes organized into a cooperative network. These nodes communicate through a wireless antenna. Reduction in physical size and multiband operation is an important requirement of WSN antenna. Fractal antenna is used for miniaturization and multiband operation. The self-similar or self-affine and space filling property of fractal geometry increases the effective electrical length of the antenna, reduces the size and make them frequency independent. This paper elaborates on Dual band fractal antenna with Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) feed for WSN. The proposed antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate with the dimension of 27mm x 28.5mm x 1.6mm, resonates at 2.4GHz and 5.2GHz with a return loss less than -10dB. The design and simulation process is carried out using IE3D simulation software. The simulated and measured results are found in good agreement.

CPW, Fractal, Iterations, Miniaturization, Space filling, Self Similar, WSN, WLAN.
A Multi-Attribute Utility Model for Performance Evaluation of Sustainable Banking

In this study, we develop a performance evaluation model based on a multi-attribute utility approach aiming at reaching the sustainable banking (SB) status. This model is built accounting for various banks’ stakeholders in a win-win paradigm. In addition, it offers the opportunity for adopting a global measure of performance as an indication of a bank’s sustainability degree. This measure is referred to as banking sustainability performance index (BSPI). This index may constitute a basis for ranking banks. Moreover, it may constitute a bridge between the assessment types of financial and extra-financial rating agencies. A real application is performed on three French banks.

Multi-attribute utility theory, Performance, Sustainable banking.
Handwriting Velocity Modeling by Artificial Neural Networks

The handwriting is a physical demonstration of a complex cognitive process learnt by man since his childhood. People with disabilities or suffering from various neurological diseases are facing so many difficulties resulting from problems located at the muscle stimuli (EMG) or signals from the brain (EEG) and which arise at the stage of writing. The handwriting velocity of the same writer or different writers varies according to different criteria: age, attitude, mood, writing surface, etc. Therefore, it is interesting to reconstruct an experimental basis records taking, as primary reference, the writing speed for different writers which would allow studying the global system during handwriting process. This paper deals with a new approach of the handwriting system modeling based on the velocity criterion through the concepts of artificial neural networks, precisely the Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural networks. The obtained simulation results show a satisfactory agreement between responses of the developed neural model and the experimental data for various letters and forms then the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

ElectroMyoGraphic (EMG) signals, Experimental approach, Handwriting process, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural networks, Velocity Modeling.
Automatic Generation of Ontology from Data Source Directed by Meta Models

Through this paper we present a method for automatic generation of ontological model from any data source using Model Driven Architecture (MDA), this generation is dedicated to the cooperation of the knowledge engineering and software engineering. Indeed, reverse engineering of a data source generates a software model (schema of data) that will undergo transformations to generate the ontological model. This method uses the meta-models to validate software and ontological models.

Meta model, model, ontology, data source.
Evaluation of Biomass Introduction Methods in Coal Co-Gasification

Heightened concerns over the amount of carbon emitted from coal-related processes are generating shifts to the application of biomass. In co-gasification, where coal is gasified along with biomass, the biomass may be fed together with coal (cofeeding) or an independent biomass gasifier needs to be integrated with the coal gasifier. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the biomass introduction methods in coal co-gasification. This includes the evaluation of biomass concentration input (B0 to B100) and its gasification performance. A process model is developed and simulated in Aspen HYSYS, where both coal and biomass are modelled according to its ultimate analysis. It was found that the syngas produced increased with increasing biomass content for both co-feeding and independent schemes. However, the heating values and heat duties decreases with biomass concentration as more CO2 are produced from complete combustion.

Aspen HYSYS, biomass, coal, co-gasification modelling and simulation.
A Primer to the Learning Readiness Assessment to Raise the Sharing of e-Health Knowledge amongst Libyan Nurses

The usage of e-health facilities is seen to be the first priority by the Libyan government. As such this paper focuses on how the key factors or elements of working size in terms of technological availability, structural environment, and other competence-related matters may affect nurses’ sharing of knowledge in e-health. Hence, this paper investigates learning readiness assessment to raise e-health for Libyan regional hospitals by using ehealth services in nursing education.

Libyan nurses, e-Learning readiness, e-Health.
DNA Polymorphism Studies of β-Lactoglobulin Gene in Saudi Goats

Domestic goats (Capra hircus) are extremely diverse species and principal animal genetic resource of the developing world. These facilitate a persistent supply of meat, milk, fibre, and skin and are considered as important revenue generators in small pastoral environments. This study aimed to fingerprint β-LG gene at PCR-RFLP level in native Saudi goat breeds (Ardi, Habsi and Harri) in an attempt to have a preliminary image of β-LG genotypic patterns in Saudi breeds as compared to other foreign breeds such as Indian and Egyptian. Also, the Phylogenetic analysis was done to investigate evolutionary trends and similarities among the caprine β-LG gene with that of the other domestic specie, viz. cow, buffalo and sheep. Blood samples were collected from 300 animals (100 for each breed) and genomic DNA was extracted. A fragment of the β-LG gene (427bp) was amplified using specific primers. Subsequent digestion with Sac II restriction endonuclease revealed two alleles (A and B) and three different banding patterns or genotypes i.e. AA, AB and BB. The statistical analysis showed a general trend that β-LG AA genotype had higher milk yield than β-LG AB and β-LG BB genotypes. Nucleotide sequencing of the selected β-LG fragments was done and submitted to GenBank NCBI (Accession No. KJ544248, KJ588275, KJ588276, KJ783455, KJ783456 and KJ874959). Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of nucleotide sequences of native Saudi goats indicated evolutional similarity with the GenBank reference sequences of goat, Bubalus bubalis and Bos taurus. However, the origin of sheep which is the most closely related from the evolutionary point of view, was located some distance away.

β-Lactoglobulin, Saudi goats, PCR-RFLP, Phylogenetic analysis.
Isolation and Identification of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Type- 2 (GAT2) Genes from Three Egyptian Olive Cultivars

Aim of this work was to study the genetic basis for oil accumulation in olive fruit via tracking DGAT2 (Diacylglycerol acyltransferase type-2) gene in three Egyptian Origen Olive cultivars namely Toffahi, Hamed and Maraki using molecular marker techniques and bioinformatics tools. Results illustrate that, firstly: specific genomic band of Maraki cultivars was identified as DGAT2 (Diacylglycerol acyltransferase type-2) and identical for this gene in Olea europaea with 100% of similarity. Secondly, differential genomic band of Maraki cultivars which produced from RAPD fingerprinting technique reflected predicted distinguished sequence which identified as DGAT2 (Diacylglycerol acyltransferase type-2) in Fragaria vesca subsp. Vesca with 76% of sequential similarity. Third and finally, specific genomic specific band of Hamed cultivars was identified as two fragments, 1- Olea europaea cultivar Koroneiki diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 mRNA, complete cds with two matches regions with 99% or 2- Predicted: Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2-like (LOC101313050), mRNA with 86 % of similarity.

Olea europaea, fingerprinting, Diacylglycerol acyltransferase type- 2 (DGAT2).
Development of Multimedia Learning Application for Mastery Learning Style: A Graduated Difficulty Strategy

Guided by the theory of learning styles, this study is based on the development of a multimedia learning application for students with mastery learning style. The learning material was developed by applying a graduated difficulty learning strategy. Algebra was chosen as the learning topic for this application. The effectiveness of this application in helping students learn is measured by giving a pre- and post-test. The result shows that students who learn using the learning material that matches their preferred learning style perform better than the students with a non-personalized learning material.

Algebraic Fractions, Graduated Difficulty, Mastery Learning Style, Multimedia.
Video Shot Detection and Key Frame Extraction Using Faber Shauder DWT and SVD

Key frame extraction methods select the most representative frames of a video, which can be used in different areas of video processing such as video retrieval, video summary, and video indexing. In this paper we present a novel approach for extracting key frames from video sequences. The frame is characterized uniquely by his contours which are represented by the dominant blocks. These dominant blocks are located on the contours and its near textures. When the video frames have a noticeable changement, its dominant blocks changed, then we can extracte a key frame. The dominant blocks of every frame is computed, and then feature vectors are extracted from the dominant blocks image of each frame and arranged in a feature matrix. Singular Value Decomposition is used to calculate sliding windows ranks of those matrices. Finally the computed ranks are traced and then we are able to extract key frames of a video. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust against a large range of digital effects used during shot transition.

Key Frame Extraction, Shot detection, FSDWT, Singular Value Decomposition.
Improved Skin Detection Using Colour Space and Texture

Skin detection is an important task for computer vision systems. A good method of skin detection means a good and successful result of the system. The colour is a good descriptor for image segmentation and classification; it allows detecting skin colour in the images. The lighting changes and the objects that have a colour similar than skin colour make the operation of skin detection difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method using the YCbCr colour space for skin detection and lighting effects elimination, then we use the information of texture to eliminate the false regions detected by the YCbCr skin model.

Skin detection, YCbCr, GLCM, Texture, Human skin.
Modeling of Single Bay Precast Residential House Using Ruaumoko 2D Program

Precast residential houses are normally constructed in Malaysia using precast shear-key wall panel and this panel is designed using BS8110 where there is no provision for earthquake. However, the safety of this house under moderate and strong earthquake is still questionable. Consequently, the full-scale of residential house are designed, constructed, tested and analyzed under in-plane lateral quasi-static cyclic loading. Hysteresis loops are plotted based on the experimental work and compared with modeling of hysteresis loops using HYSTERES in RUAUMOKO 2D program. Modified Takeda hysteresis model is chosen to behave a similar pattern with experimental work. This program will display the earthquake excitations, spectral displacements, pseudo spectral acceleration, mode shape and deformation of the structure. It can be concluded that this building is suffering severe cracks and damage under moderate and severe earthquake.

Deformation shape, hysteresis loops, precast shear-key, spectral displacement.
Preliminary Study for Separation of Heavy Rare Earth Concentrates from Egyptian Crude Monazite

Heavy rare earth (HRE) oxalate concentrates were prepared from the Egyptian crude monazite sand (graded about 47%). The concentrates were specified quantitatively for their constituents of individual rare earth elements using ion chromatograph (IC) and qualitatively by scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the other major constituents. The 1st concentrate was composed of 10.5% HREE where 7.25% of them represented yttrium. The 2nd concentrate contained about 41.7% LREE, 17.5% HREE and 13.6% Th. The LREE involved 18.3% Ce, 10.5% La and 8% Nd while the HREE were 8.7% Y, 3.5% Gd and 2.9% Dy. The 3rd concentrate was containing about 8.0% LREE (3.7% Ce, 2.0% La and 1.5% Nd), 10.2% HREE (6.4% yttrium and 2.0% Dy) and 2.1% uranium. The final concentrate comprised 0.84% uranium beside iron, chromium and traces of REE.

Oxalic Acid Precipitation, Rare Earth Concentrates, Thorium, Uranium.
Use of Hair as an Indicator of Environmental Lead Pollution: Characteristics and Seasonal Variation of Lead Pollution in Egypt

Lead being a toxic heavy metal that mankind is exposed to the highest levels of this metal from environmental pollutants. A total of 180 Male scalp hair samples were collected from different environments in Greater Cairo (GC), i.e. industrial, heavy traffic and rural areas (60 samples from each) having different activities during the period of, 1/5/2010 to 1/11/2012. Hair samples were collected during five stages. Data proved that the concentration of lead in male industrial areas of Cairo ranged between 6.2847 to 19.0432 μg/g, with mean value of 12.3288 μg/g. On the other hand, lead content of hair samples of residential-traffic areas ranged between 2.8634 to 16.3311 μg/g with mean value of 9.7552 μg/g. While lead concentration on the hair of the male residents living in rural area ranged between 1.0499-9.0402μg/g with mean value of 4.7327 μg/g. The Pb concentration in scalp hair of Cairo residents of residential-traffic and rural traffic areas was observed to follow the same pattern. The pattern was that of decrease concentration of summer and its increase in winter. Then, there was a marked increase in Pb concentration of summer 2012, and this increase was significant. These were obviously seen for the residential-traffic and rural areas residents. Pb pollution in residents of industrial areas showed the same seasonal pattern, but there was marked to decrease in Pb concentration of summer 2012, and this decrease was significant. Lead pollution in residents of GC was serious. It is worth noting that the atmosphere is still contaminated by lead despite a decade of using unleaded gasoline. Strong seasonal variation in higher Pb concentration on winter than in summer was found. Major contributions to the pollution with Pb could include industry emissions, motor vehicle emissions and long transported dust from outside Cairo. More attention should be paid to the reduction of Pb content of the urban aerosol and to the Pb pollution health.

Hair, lead, environmental exposure, seasonal variations, Egypt.
Sol-gel Synthesis and Optical Characterisation of TiO2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Application

TiO2 thin films have been prepared by the sol-gel dipcoating technique in order to elaborate antireflective thin films for monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si). The titanium isopropoxyde was chosen as a precursor with hydrochloric acid as a catalyser for preparing a stable solution. The optical properties have been tailored with varying the solution concentration, the withdrawn speed, and the heat-treatment. We showed that using a TiO2 single layer with 64.5 nm in thickness, heat-treated at 450°C or 300°C reduces the mono-Si reflection at a level lower than 3% over the broadband spectral domains [669-834] nm and [786-1006] nm respectively. Those latter performances are similar to the ones obtained with double layers of low and high refractive index glasses respectively.

Dip coating, mono-Si, titanium oxide, thin film.
Harmony Search-based K-Coverage Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks

Many wireless sensor network applications require K-coverage of the monitored area. In this paper, we propose a scalable harmony search based algorithm in terms of execution time, K-Coverage Enhancement Algorithm (KCEA), it attempts to enhance initial coverage, and achieve the required K-coverage degree for a specific application efficiently. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves coverage improvement of 5.34% compared to K-Coverage Rate Deployment (K-CRD), which achieves 1.31% when deploying one additional sensor. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is more time efficient.

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Harmony Search Algorithms, K-Coverage, Mobile WSN.
Recording Video in the CAVE

Evaluating the performance of a simulator in the CAVE has to be confirmed by encouraging people to live the experience of virtual reality. In this paper, a detailed procedure of recording video is presented. Limitations of the experimental device are firstly exposed. Then, solutions for improving this idea are finally described.

Virtual reality, CAVE, stereoscopic, camera.
Electric Field Investigation in MV PILC Cables with Void Defect

Worldwide, most PILC MV underground cables in use are approaching the end of their design life; hence, failures are likely to increase. This paper studies the electric field and potential distributions within the PILC insulted cable containing common void-defect. The finite element model of the performance of the belted PILC MV underground cable is presented. The variation of the electric field stress within the cable using the Finite Element Method (FEM) is concentrated. The effects of the void-defect within the insulation are given. Outcomes will lead to deeper understanding of the modeling of Paper Insulated Lead Covered (PILC) and electric field response of belted PILC insulted cable containing void defect.

MV PILC cables, Finite Element Method /COMSOL Multiphysics, Electric Field Stress, Partial Discharge Degradation.
Optimal Grid Scheduling Using Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Job Scheduling plays an important role for efficient utilization of grid resources available across different domains and geographical zones. Scheduling of jobs is challenging and NPcomplete. Evolutionary / Swarm Intelligence algorithms have been extensively used to address the NP problem in grid scheduling. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) has been proposed for optimization problems based on foraging behaviour of bees. This work proposes a modified ABC algorithm, Cluster Heterogeneous Earliest First Min- Min Artificial Bee Colony (CHMM-ABC), to optimally schedule jobs for the available resources. The proposed model utilizes a novel Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time (HEFT) Heuristic Algorithm along with Min-Min algorithm to identify the initial food source. Simulation results show the performance improvement of the proposed algorithm over other swarm intelligence techniques.

Grid Computing, Grid Scheduling, Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time (HEFT), Artificial Bee colony (ABC) Algorithm, Resource Management.
Effects of Arcing in Air on the Microstructure, Morphology and Photoelectric Work Function of Ag- Ni (60/40) Contact Materials

The present work aims to throw light on the effects of arcing in air on the surface state of contact pastilles made of silvernickel Ag-Ni (60/40). Also, the photoelectric emission from these electrical contacts has been investigated in the spectral range of 196- 256 nm. In order to study the effects of arcing on the EWF, the metallic samples were subjected to electrical arcs in air, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, after that, they have been introduced into the vacuum chamber of an experimental UHV set-up for EWF measurements. Both Fowler method of isothermal curves and linearized Fowler plots were used for the measurement of the EWF by the photoelectric effect. It has been found that the EWF varies with the number of applied arcs. Thus, after 500 arcs in air, the observed EWF increasing is probably due to progressive inclusion of oxide on alloy surface. Microscopic examination is necessary to get better understandings on EWF of silver alloys, for both virgin and arced electrical contacts.

Ag-Ni contact materials, arcing effects, electron work function, Fowler methods, photoemission.
Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting

A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a microstrip-line is proposed. The new design consist of a rectangular patch with symmetric l-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5% (1.875 – 7.115 GHz) with stable radiation pattern is achieved. The proposed antenna has excellent characteristics, low profile and costeffective compared to existing UWB antennas. The UWB antenna is designed and analyzed using CST Microwave Studio in transient mode to verify antenna parameters improvements.

UWB Planar Antenna, L-shaped Slots, Wireless Applications, impedance band-width, radiation pattern, CST Microwave Studio.
Producing Graphical User Interface from Activity Diagrams

Graphical User Interface (GUI) is essential to programming, as is any other characteristic or feature, due to the fact that GUI components provide the fundamental interaction between the user and the program. Thus, we must give more interest to GUI during building and development of systems. Also, we must give a greater attention to the user who is the basic corner in the dealing with the GUI. This paper introduces an approach for designing GUI from one of the models of business workflows which describe the workflow behavior of a system, specifically through Activity Diagrams (AD).

Activity Diagram, Graphical User Interface.
Selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Tolerant to Lead and Cadmium Toxicity

The aim of this study was to select the best strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae able to resist lead and cadmium. Ten strains were screened on the basis of their resistance at different concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 ppm for Pb and 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ppm for Cd. The properties of baker's yeast quality were decreased by the increase of Pb or Cd in growth medium. The slope values of yield, total viable cells and gassing power of produced baker's yeast were investigated as an indicator of metal resistant. In addition, concentrations of Pb and Cd in produced baker's yeast were determined. The strain of S. cerevisiae FH-620 had the highest resistance against Pb and Cd and had the minimum levels of both two investigated metals in produced baker's yeast.

Cadmium, lead, S. cerevisiae, tolerant.
The Effect of Drug Prevention Programme Based On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (Cbt) and Multidimensional Self Concept Module towards Resiliency and Aggression among At-Risk Youth in Malaysia

This experimental study evaluates the effect of using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self- Concept Model (MSCM) in a drug prevention programme to increase resiliency and reduce aggression among at-risk youth in Malaysia. A number of 60 (N=60) university students who were at-risk of taking drugs were involved in this study. Participants were identified with self-rating scales, Adolescent Resilience Attitude Scale (ARAS) and Aggression Questionnaire. Based on the mean score of these instruments, the participants were divided into the treatment group, and the control group. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding showed that the mean score of resiliency was increased in the treatment group compared to the control group. It also shows that the mean score of aggression was reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group. Drug Prevention Programme was found to help in enhancing resiliency and reducing aggression among participants in the treatment group compared to the controlled group. Implications were given regarding the preventive actions on drug abuse among youth in Malaysia.

Drug Prevention Programme, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Multidimensional Self Concept Model (MSCM), resiliency, aggression, at-risk youth.
Modeling of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are playing increasingly prominent roles in defense programs and defense strategies around the world. Technology advancements have enabled the development of it to do many excellent jobs as reconnaissance, surveillance, battle fighters, and communications relays. Simulating a small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV) dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the preflight stage is too important and more efficient. The first step in the UAV design is the mathematical modeling of the nonlinear equations of motion. . In this paper, a survey with a standard method to obtain the full non-linear equations of motion is utilized, and then the linearization of the equations according to a steady state flight condition (trimming) is derived. This modeling technique is applied to an Ultrastick-25e fixed wing UAV to obtain the valued linear longitudinal and lateral models. At the end the model is checked by matching between the behavior of the states of the nonlinear UAV and the resulted linear model with doublet at the control surfaces.

Equations of motion, linearization, modeling, nonlinear model, UAV.
Maximum Power Point Tracking Using FLC Tuned with GA

The pursuit of the MPPT has led to the development of many kinds of controllers, one of which is the Fuzzy Logic controller, which has proven its worth. To further tune this controller this paper will discuss and analyze the use of Genetic Algorithms to tune the Fuzzy Logic Controller. It will provide an introduction to both systems, and test their compatibility and performance.

Fuzzy logic controller (FLC), fuzzy logic (FL), genetic algorithm (GA), maximum power point (MPP), maximum power point tracking (MPPT).
Geochemical Study of Natural Bitumen, Condensate and Gas Seeps from Sousse Area, Central Tunisia

Natural hydrocarbon seepage has helped petroleum exploration as a direct indicator of gas and/or oil subsurface accumulations. Surface macro-seeps are generally an indication of a fault in an active Petroleum Seepage System belonging to a Total Petroleum System. This paper describes a case study in which multiple analytical techniques were used to identify and characterize trace petroleum-related hydrocarbons and other volatile organic compounds in groundwater samples collected from Sousse aquifer (Central Tunisia). The analytical techniques used for analyses of water samples included gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), capillary GC with flame-ionization detection, Compound Specific Isotope Analysis, Rock Eval Pyrolysis. The objective of the study was to confirm the presence of gasoline and other petroleum products or other volatile organic pollutants in those samples in order to assess the respective implication of each of the potentially responsible parties to the contamination of the aquifer. In addition, the degree of contamination at different depths in the aquifer was also of interest. The oil and gas seeps have been investigated using biomarker and stable carbon isotope analyses to perform oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations. The seepage gases are characterized by high CH4 content, very low δ13CCH4 values (-71,9 ‰) and high C1/C1–5 ratios (0.95–1.0), light deuterium–hydrogen isotope ratios (- 198 ‰) and light δ13CC2 and δ13CCO2 values (-23,8‰ and-23,8‰ respectively) indicating a thermogenic origin with the contribution of the biogenic gas. An organic geochemistry study was carried out on the more ten oil seep samples. This study includes light hydrocarbon and biomarkers analyses (hopanes, steranes, n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and aromatic steroids) using GC and GC-MS. The studied samples show at least two distinct families, suggesting two different types of crude oil origins: the first oil seeps appears to be highly mature, showing evidence of chemical and/or biological degradation and was derived from a clay-rich source rock deposited in suboxic conditions. It has been sourced mainly by the lower Fahdene (Albian) source rocks. The second oil seeps was derived from a carbonate-rich source rock deposited in anoxic conditions, well correlated with the Bahloul (Cenomanian-Turonian) source rock.

Biomarkers, oil and gas seeps, organic geochemistry, source rock.
Seismic Inversion to Improve the Reservoir Characterization: Case Study in Central Blue Nile Basin - Sudan

In this study, several crossplots of the P-impedance with the lithology logs (gamma ray, neutron porosity, deep resistivity, water saturation and Vp/Vs curves) were made in three available wells, which were drilled in central part of the Blue Nile basin in depths varies from 1460m to 1600m. These crossplots were successful to discriminate between sand and shale when using PImpedance values, and between the wet sand and the pay sand when using both P-impedance and Vp/Vs together. Also some impedance sections were converted to porosity sections using linear formula to characterize the reservoir in terms of porosity. The used crossplots were created on log resolution, while the seismic resolution can identify only the reservoir, unless a 3D seismic angle stacks were available; then it would be easier to identify the pay sand with great confidence; through high resolution seismic inversion and geostatistical approach when using P-impedance and Vp/Vs volumes.