Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

N Wang




Using Weblog to Promote Critical Thinking – An Exploratory Study
Weblog is an Internet tool that is believed to possess great potential to facilitate learning in education. This study wants to know if weblog can be used to promote students- critical thinking. It used a group of secondary two students from a Singapore school to write weblogs as a means of substitution for their traditional handwritten assignments. The topics for the weblogging are taken from History syllabus but modified to suit the purpose of this study. Weblogs from the students were collected and analysed using a known coding system for measuring critical thinking. Results show that the topic for blogging is crucial in determining the types of critical thinking employed by the students. Students are seen to display critical thinking traits in the areas of information sourcing, linking information to arguments and viewpoints justification. Students- criticalness is more profound when the information for writing a topic is readily available. Otherwise, they tend to be less critical and subjective. The study also found that students lack the ability to source for external information suggesting that students may need to be taught information literacy in order to widen their use of critical thinking skills.
Affordance, blog, critical thinking, perception, weblog.
Modeling Decentralized Source-Separation Systems for Urban Waste Management

Decentralized eco-sanitation system is a promising and sustainable mode comparing to the century-old centralized conventional sanitation system. The decentralized concept relies on an environmentally and economically sound management of water, nutrient and energy fluxes. Source-separation systems for urban waste management collect different solid waste and wastewater streams separately to facilitate the recovery of valuable resources from wastewater (energy, nutrients). A resource recovery centre constituted for 20,000 people will act as the functional unit for the treatment of urban waste of a high-density population community, like Singapore. The decentralized system includes urine treatment, faeces and food waste co-digestion, and horticultural waste and organic fraction of municipal solid waste treatment in composting plants. A design model is developed to estimate the input and output in terms of materials and energy. The inputs of urine (yellow water, YW) and faeces (brown water, BW) are calculated by considering the daily mean production of urine and faeces by humans and the water consumption of no-mix vacuum toilet (0.2 and 1 L flushing water for urine and faeces, respectively). The food waste (FW) production is estimated to be 150 g wet weight/person/day. The YW is collected and discharged by gravity into tank. It was found that two days are required for urine hydrolysis and struvite precipitation. The maximum nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) recovery are 150-266 kg/day and 20-70 kg/day, respectively. In contrast, BW and FW are mixed for co-digestion in a thermophilic acidification tank and later a decentralized/centralized methanogenic reactor is used for biogas production. It is determined that 6.16-15.67 m3/h methane is produced which is equivalent to 0.07-0.19 kWh/ca/day. The digestion residues are treated with horticultural waste and organic fraction of municipal waste in co-composting plants.

Decentralization, ecological sanitation, material flow analysis, source-separation
Are XBRL-based Financial Reports Better than Non-XBRL Reports? A Quality Assessment
Using a scoring system, this paper provides a comparative assessment of the quality of data between XBRL formatted financial reports and non-XBRL financial reports. It shows a major improvement in the quality of data of XBRL formatted financial reports. Although XBRL formatted financial reports do not show much advantage in the quality at the beginning, XBRL financial reports lately display a large improvement in the quality of data in almost all aspects. With the improved XBRL web data managing, presentation and analysis applications, XBRL formatted financial reports have a much better accessibility, are more accurate and better in timeliness.
Data Quality; Financial Report; Information; XBRL
Stiffness Modeling of 3-PRS Mechanism
This paper proposed a stiffness analysis method for a 3-PRS mechanism for welding thick aluminum plate using FSW technology. In the molding process, elastic deformation of lead-screws and links are taken into account. This method is based on the virtual work principle. Through a survey of the commonly used stiffness performance indices, the minimum and maximum eigenvalues of the stiffness matrix are used to evaluate the stiffness of the 3-PRS mechanism. Furthermore, A FEA model has been constructed to verify the method. Finally, we redefined the workspace using the stiffness analysis method.
3-PRS, parallel mechanism, stiffness analysis, workspace.
Detection of Airborne Bacteria and Mildew in the Shanghai Metro System
This study aimed to detect and to identify the main strains of airborne microorganisms present in the Shanghai Metro system. Samples were collected using agar plates exposed to the air and microorganisms were identified using catalase, plasma coagulase and hymolytic analysis. The results show that the concentration of mildew present within a newly opened metro line was significantly higher than for other lines. Differences among underground and elevated stations can be attributed to differences in passenger flow and the environment surrounding the stations. Additionally, the investigation indicated that bacteria reached maximum levels at different times on weekdays and weekends. The bacteria in the Metro stations were identified as primarily Gram positive, consisting mainly of coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains (CNS).
Bacteria, environment, Metro system, mildew, passenger flow
Some New Subclasses of Nonsingular H-matrices

In this paper, we obtain some new subclasses of non¬singular H-matrices by using a diagonally dominant matrix

H-matrix, diagonal dominance, a diagonally dominant matrix.
Research on Pressed Pile Test and Finite Element Analysis of Large-diameter Steel Pipe Pile of Zhanjiang Port
In order to study pressed pile test and ultimate bearing capacity character of large-diameter steel pipe pile, based on two high-piled wharfs of Zhanjiang Port, pressed pile test and numerical simulation of three large-diameter steel pipe piles are analyzed in this paper. Anchored pile method is used to pressed pile test, and the curves of Q-s and ultimate bearing capacity are attained. Then the three piles are numerically simulated by ABAQUS, and results of numerical simulation and those of field test are comparatively analyzed. The results show that settlement value of numerical simulation is larger than that of field test in the process of loading, the difference value is widening with the increasing of load, and the ultimate difference value of settlement is 20% to 30%.
Large-diameter steel pipe pile, field test, finite element analysis, comparative analysis.
A Learning-Community Recommendation Approach for Web-Based Cooperative Learning

Cooperative learning has been defined as learners working together as a team to solve a problem to complete a task or to accomplish a common goal, which emphasizes the importance of interactions among members to promote the whole learning performance. With the popularity of society networks, cooperative learning is no longer limited to traditional classroom teaching activities. Since society networks facilitate to organize online learners, to establish common shared visions, and to advance learning interaction, the online community and online learning community have triggered the establishment of web-based societies. Numerous research literatures have indicated that the collaborative learning community is a critical issue to enhance learning performance. Hence, this paper proposes a learning community recommendation approach to facilitate that a learner joins the appropriate learning communities, which is based on k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classification. To demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach, the proposed approach is implemented for 117 students to recommend learning communities. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively recommend appropriate learning communities for learners.

k-nearest neighbor classification, learning community, Cooperative/Collaborative Learning and Environments.
Visual Cryptography by Random Grids with Identifiable Shares
This paper proposes a visual cryptography by random grids scheme with identifiable shares. The method encodes an image O in two shares that exhibits the following features: (1) each generated share has the same scale as O, (2) any share singly has noise-like appearance that reveals no secret information on O, (3) the secrets can be revealed by superimposing the two shares, (4) folding a share up can disclose some identification patterns, and (5) both of the secret information and the designated identification patterns are recognized by naked eye without any computation. The property to show up identification patterns on folded shares establishes a simple and friendly interface for users to manage the numerous shares created by VC schemes.
Image Encryption, Image Sharing, Secret Sharing,Visual Cryptography.
Analysis of Production Loss on a Linear Walking Worker Line
This paper mathematically analyses the varying magnitude of production loss, which may occur due to idle time (inprocess waiting time and traveling time) on a linear walking worker assembly line. Within this flexible and reconfigurable assembly system, each worker travels down the line carrying out each assembly task at each station; and each worker accomplishes the assembly of a unit from start to finish and then travels back to the first station to start the assembly of a new product. This strategy of system design attempts to combine the flexibility of the U-shaped moving worker assembly cell with the efficiency of the conventional fixed worker assembly line. The paper aims to evaluate the effect of idle time that may offset the labor efficiency of each walking worker providing an insight into the mechanism of such a flexible and reconfigurable assembly system.
Production lines, manufacturing systems, assemblysystems, walking workers.
Parallel Alternating Two-stage Methods for Solving Linear System

In this paper, we present parallel alternating two-stage methods for solving linear system Ax = b, where A is a monotone matrix or an H-matrix. And we give some convergence results of these methods for nonsingular linear system.

Parallel, alternating two-stage, convergence, linear system.
Molecular Epidemiology and Genotyping of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China
As part of national epidemiological survey on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a total of 274 dejecta samples were collected from 14 cattle farms in 8 areas of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China. Total RNA was extracted from each sample, and 5--untranslated region (UTR) of BVDV genome was amplified by using two-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The PCR products were subsequently sequenced to study the genetic variations of BVDV in these areas. Among the 274 samples, 33 samples were found virus-positive. According to sequence analysis of the PCR products, the 33 samples could be arranged into 16 groups. All the sequences, however, were highly conserved with BVDV Osloss strains. The virus possessed theses sequences belonged to BVDV-1b subtype by phylogenetic analysis. Based on these data, we established a typing tree for BVDV in these areas. Our results suggested that BVDV-1b was a predominant subgenotype in northwestern China and no correlation between the genetic and geographical distances could be observed above the farm level.
bovine viral diarrhea virus, molecular epidemiology, phylogenetic analysis.
Some Results on Parallel Alternating Methods

In this paper, we investigate two parallel alternating methods for solving the system of linear equations Ax = b and give convergence theorems for the parallel alternating methods when the coefficient matrix is a nonsingular H-matrix. Furthermore, we give one example to show our results.

Nonsingular H-matrix, parallel alternating method, convergence.
Performance Analysis of Digital Signal Processors Using SMV Benchmark
Unlike general-purpose processors, digital signal processors (DSP processors) are strongly application-dependent. To meet the needs for diverse applications, a wide variety of DSP processors based on different architectures ranging from the traditional to VLIW have been introduced to the market over the years. The functionality, performance, and cost of these processors vary over a wide range. In order to select a processor that meets the design criteria for an application, processor performance is usually the major concern for digital signal processing (DSP) application developers. Performance data are also essential for the designers of DSP processors to improve their design. Consequently, several DSP performance benchmarks have been proposed over the past decade or so. However, none of these benchmarks seem to have included recent new DSP applications. In this paper, we use a new benchmark that we recently developed to compare the performance of popular DSP processors from Texas Instruments and StarCore. The new benchmark is based on the Selectable Mode Vocoder (SMV), a speech-coding program from the recent third generation (3G) wireless voice applications. All benchmark kernels are compiled by the compilers of the respective DSP processors and run on their simulators. Weighted arithmetic mean of clock cycles and arithmetic mean of code size are used to compare the performance of five DSP processors. In addition, we studied how the performance of a processor is affected by code structure, features of processor architecture and optimization of compiler. The extensive experimental data gathered, analyzed, and presented in this paper should be helpful for DSP processor and compiler designers to meet their specific design goals.
digital signal processors, DSP benchmark,instruction level parallelism, modified cyclomatic complexity,performance analysis.
Robot Map Building from Sonar and Laser Information using DSmT with Discounting Theory

In this paper, a new method of information fusion – DSmT (Dezert and Smarandache Theory) is introduced to apply to managing and dealing with the uncertain information from robot map building. Here we build grid map form sonar sensors and laser range finder (LRF). The uncertainty mainly comes from sonar sensors and LRF. Aiming to the uncertainty in static environment, we propose Classic DSm (DSmC) model for sonar sensors and laser range finder, and construct the general basic belief assignment function (gbbaf) respectively. Generally speaking, the evidence sources are unreliable in physical system, so we must consider the discounting theory before we apply DSmT. At last, Pioneer II mobile robot serves as a simulation experimental platform. We build 3D grid map of belief layout, then mainly compare the effect of building map using DSmT and DST. Through this simulation experiment, it proves that DSmT is very successful and valid, especially in dealing with highly conflicting information. In short, this study not only finds a new method for building map under static environment, but also supplies with a theory foundation for us to further apply Hybrid DSmT (DSmH) to dynamic unknown environment and multi-robots- building map together.

Map building, DSmT, DST, uncertainty, information fusion.
A Study of Grounding Grid Characteristics with Conductive Concrete

The purpose of this paper is to improve electromagnetic characteristics on grounding grid by applying the conductive concrete. The conductive concrete in this study is under an extra high voltage (EHV, 345kV) system located in a high-tech industrial park or science park. Instead of surrounding soil of grounding grid, the application of conductive concrete can reduce equipment damage and body damage caused by switching surges. The focus of the two cases on the EHV distribution system in a high-tech industrial park is presented to analyze four soil material styles. By comparing several soil material styles, the study results have shown that the conductive concrete can effectively reduce the negative damages caused by electromagnetic transient. The adoption of the style of grounding grid located 1.0 (m) underground and conductive concrete located from the ground surface to 1.25 (m) underground can obviously improve the electromagnetic characteristics so as to advance protective efficiency.

Switching surges, grounding gird, electromagnetic transient, conductive concrete.
Equal Sharing Solutions for Bicooperative Games

In this paper, we discuss the egalitarianism solution (ES) and center-of-gravity of the imputation-set value (CIV) for bicooperative games, which can be seen as the extensions of the solutions for traditional games given by Dutta and Ray [1] and Driessen and Funaki [2]. Furthermore, axiomatic systems for the given values are proposed. Finally, a numerical example is offered to illustrate the player ES and CTV.

Bicooperative games, egalitarianism solution, center of- gravity of the imputation-set value.
Capacitive ECG Measurement by Conductive Fabric Tape

Capacitive electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement is an attractive approach for long-term health monitoring. However, there is little literature available on its implementation, especially for multichannel system in standard ECG leads. This paper begins from the design criteria for capacitive ECG measurement and presents a multichannel limb-lead capacitive ECG system with conductive fabric tapes pasted on a double layer PCB as the capacitive sensors. The proposed prototype system incorporates a capacitive driven-body (CDB) circuit to reduce the common-mode power-line interference (PLI). The presented prototype system has been verified to be stable by theoretic analysis and practical long-term experiments. The signal quality is competitive to that acquired by commercial ECG machines. The feasible size and distance of capacitive sensor have also been evaluated by a series of tests. From the test results, it is suggested to be greater than 60 cm2 in sensor size and be smaller than 1.5 mm in distance for capacitive ECG measurement.

capacitive driven-body (CDB) circuit, capacitive electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement, capacitive sensor, conductive fabric tape, power-line interference (PLI).
Treatment of Eutrophic-lake Water by Free Water Surface Wetland
In China, with the rapid urbanization and industrialization, and highly accelerated economic development have resulted in degradation of water resource. The water quality deterioration usual result from eutrophication in most cases, so how to dispose this type pollution water higher efficiently is an urgent task. Hower, different with traditional technology, constructed wetlands are effective treatment systems that can be very useful because they are simple technology and low operational cost. A pilot-scale treatment including constructed wetlands was constructed at XingYun Lake, Yuxi, China, and operated as primary treatment measure before eutrophic-lake water draining to riverine landscape. Water quality indices were determined during the experiment, the results indicated that treatment removal efficiencies were high for Nitrate nitrogen, Chlorophyll–a and Algae, the final removal efficiency reached to 95.20%, 93.33% and 99.87% respectively, but the removal efficiency of Total phosphorous and Total nitrogen only reach to 68.83% and 50.00% respectively.
Constructed wetland, Eutrophic-lake water, Nutrientremoval, Removal efficiency
Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Total Variation Minimization on Inpainting Problem
This paper is concerned with the numerical minimization of energy functionals in BV ( ) (the space of bounded variation functions) involving total variation for gray-scale 1-dimensional inpainting problem. Applications are shown by finite element method and discontinuous Galerkin method for total variation minimization. We include the numerical examples which show the different recovery image by these two methods.
finite element method, discontinuous Galerkin method, total variation minimization, inpainting
A Multi-objective Fuzzy Optimization Method of Resource Input Based on Genetic Algorithm
With the increasing complexity of engineering problems, the traditional, single-objective and deterministic optimization method can not meet people-s requirements. A multi-objective fuzzy optimization model of resource input is built for M chlor-alkali chemical eco-industrial park in this paper. First, the model is changed into the form that can be solved by genetic algorithm using fuzzy theory. And then, a fitness function is constructed for genetic algorithm. Finally, a numerical example is presented to show that the method compared with traditional single-objective optimization method is more practical and efficient.
Fitness function, genetic algorithm, multi-objectivefuzzy optimization, satisfaction degree membership function.
Random Oracle Model of Information Hiding System
Random Oracle Model (ROM) is an effective method for measuring the practical security of cryptograph. In this paper, we try to use it into information hiding system (IHS). Because IHS has its own properties, the ROM must be modified if it is used into IHS. Firstly, we fully discuss why and how to modify each part of ROM respectively. The main changes include: 1) Divide the attacks that IHS may be suffered into two phases and divide the attacks of each phase into several kinds. 2) Distinguish Oracles and Black-boxes clearly. 3) Define Oracle and four Black-boxes that IHS used. 4) Propose the formalized adversary model. And 5) Give the definition of judge. Secondly, based on ROM of IHS, the security against known original cover attack (KOCA-KOCA-security) is defined. Then, we give an actual information hiding scheme and prove that it is KOCA-KOCA-secure. Finally, we conclude the paper and propose the open problems of further research.
Attack, Information Hiding, Provable Security,Random Oracle Model.
Analysis of Resistance Characteristics of Conductive Concrete Using Press-Electrode Method
This paper aims to discuss the influence of resistance characteristic on the high conductive concrete considering the changes of voltage and environment. The high conductive concrete with appropriate proportion is produced to the press-electrode method. The curve of resistivity with the changes of voltage and environment is plotted and the changes of resistivity are explored.
conductive concrete, resistivity.
Parallel Multisplitting Methods for Singular Linear Systems

In this paper, we discuss convergence of the extrapolated iterative methods for linear systems with the coefficient matrices are singular H-matrices. And we present the sufficient and necessary conditions for convergence of the extrapolated iterative methods. Moreover, we apply the results to the GMAOR methods. Finally, we give one numerical example.

Singular H-matrix, linear systems, extrapolated iterative method, GMAOR method, convergence.
Unified Fusion Approach with Application to SLAM
In this paper, we propose the pre-processor based on the Evidence Supporting Measure of Similarity (ESMS) filter and also propose the unified fusion approach (UFA) based on the general fusion machine coupled with ESMS filter, which improve the correctness and precision of information fusion in any fields of application. Here we mainly apply the new approach to Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) of Pioneer II mobile robots. A simulation experiment was performed, where an autonomous virtual mobile robot with sonar sensors evolves in a virtual world map with obstacles. By comparing the result of building map according to the general fusion machine (here DSmT-based fusing machine and PCR5-based conflict redistributor considereded) coupling with ESMS filter and without ESMS filter, it shows the benefit of the selection of the sources as a prerequisite for improvement of the information fusion, and also testifies the superiority of the UFA in dealing with SLAM.
DSmT, ESMS filter, SLAM, UFA
A Study on the Leadership Behavior, Safety Culture, and Safety Performance of the Healthcare Industry
Object: Review recent publications of patient safety culture to investigate the relationship between leadership behavior, safety culture, and safety performance in the healthcare industry. Method: This study is a cross-sectional study, 350 questionnaires were mailed to hospital workers with 195 valid responses obtained, and a 55.7% valid response rate. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to test the factor structure and determine if the composite reliability was significant with a factor loading of >0.5, resulting in an acceptable model fit. Results: Through the analysis of One-way ANOVA, the results showed that physicians significantly have more negative patient safety culture perceptions and safety performance perceptions than non- physicians. Conclusions: The path analysis results show that leadership behavior affects safety culture and safety performance in the health care industry. Safety performance was affected and improved with contingency leadership and a positive patient safety organization culture. The study suggests improving safety performance by providing a well-managed system that includes: consideration of leadership, hospital worker training courses, and a solid safety reporting system.
Leadership Behavior, Patient Safety, Safety Culture, Safety Performance
Secure Power Systems Against Malicious Cyber-Physical Data Attacks: Protection and Identification
The security of power systems against malicious cyberphysical data attacks becomes an important issue. The adversary always attempts to manipulate the information structure of the power system and inject malicious data to deviate state variables while evading the existing detection techniques based on residual test. The solutions proposed in the literature are capable of immunizing the power system against false data injection but they might be too costly and physically not practical in the expansive distribution network. To this end, we define an algebraic condition for trustworthy power system to evade malicious data injection. The proposed protection scheme secures the power system by deterministically reconfiguring the information structure and corresponding residual test. More importantly, it does not require any physical effort in either microgrid or network level. The identification scheme of finding meters being attacked is proposed as well. Eventually, a well-known IEEE 30-bus system is adopted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.
Algebraic Criterion, Malicious Cyber-Physical Data Injection, Protection and Identification, Trustworthy Power System.
A New Preconditioned AOR Method for Z-matrices

In this paper, we present a preconditioned AOR-type iterative method for solving the linear systems Ax = b, where A is a Z-matrix. And give some comparison theorems to show that the rate of convergence of the preconditioned AOR-type iterative method is faster than the rate of convergence of the AOR-type iterative method.

Z-matrix, AOR-type iterative method, precondition, comparison.
Identification of Binding Proteins That Interact with BVDV E2 Protein in Bovine Trophoblast Cell
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can cause lifelong persistent infection. One reason for the phenomena is attributed to BVDV infection to placenta tissue. However the mechanisms that BVDV invades into placenta tissue remain unclear. To clarify the molecular mechanisms, we investigated the possible means that BVDV entered into bovine trophoblast cells (TPC). Yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins extracted from TPC, which interact with BVDV envelope glycoprotein E2. A PGbkt7-E2 yeast expression vector and TPC cDNA library were constructed. Through two rounds of screening, three positive clones were identified. Sequencing analysis indicated that all the three positive clones encoded the same protein clathrin. Physical interaction between clathrin and BVDV E2 protein was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation experiments. This result suggested that the clathrin might play a critical role in the process of BVDV entry into placenta tissue and might be a novel antiviral target for preventing BVDV infection.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus, clathrin, glycoprotein E2, yeast two-hybrid system.
Nearfield UWB Pulse Array Beamformer based on Multirate Filter Bank

The paper presents a method of designing ultrawide band (UWB) pulse array beamformer in the case of nearfield. Firstly the principle of space-time processing of UWB pulse array is discussed. The radical beampattern transform based on spherical coordinates is employed to solve the nearfield beamforming of UWB pulse array. The frequency invariant technology is considered for the frequency dependent beampattern of UWB pulse array. We use a multirate bank scheme of to implement the FI beamformer of UWB pulse array. By using multirate filters in each element channel, it can make the response of the UWB array to avoid distortion in the whole band. The simulation resultes are given to prove the efficiency and feasibility of this method.

UWB pulse array, frequency invariant, multiratebank, nearfield beamformer, radical transform
Repetitive Control and Feedback Dithering Modulation of a DC/AC Converter

Repetitive control and feedback dithering modulation are applied to a single-phase voltage source inverter, with an aim to eliminate harmonics and stabilize the inverter under load variations. The proposed control and modulation scheme comprise multiple loops of feedback, which helps improve inverter performance and robustness. Experimental results show that the designed inverter exhibits very low distortion at its output with THD of about 0.3% under different load variations.

Feedback dithering modulation, repetitive control, state feedback, inverter, harmonics elimination.
Electrical Performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Unit with Non-Uniform Inlet Flow and High Fuel Utilization
This study investigates the electrical performance of a planar solid oxide fuel cell unit with cross-flow configuration when the fuel utilization gets higher and the fuel inlet flow are non-uniform. A software package in this study solves two-dimensional, simultaneous, partial differential equations of mass, energy, and electro-chemistry, without considering stack direction variation. The results show that the fuel utilization increases with a decrease in the molar flow rate, and the average current density decreases when the molar flow rate drops. In addition, non-uniform Pattern A will induce more severe happening of non-reaction area in the corner of the fuel exit and the air inlet. This non-reaction area deteriorates the average current density and then deteriorates the electrical performance to –7%.
Performance, Solid oxide fuel cell, non-uniform, fuelutilization
Convergence Analysis of the Generalized Alternating Two-Stage Method

In this paper, we give the generalized alternating twostage method in which the inner iterations are accomplished by a generalized alternating method. And we present convergence results of the method for solving nonsingular linear systems when the coefficient matrix of the linear system is a monotone matrix or an H-matrix.

Generalized alternating two-stage method, linear system, convergence.
An Experimental Investigation of Factors Affecting Consumers' Reactions to Mobile APP-Based Promotions

The purpose of this study is to understand how consumers react to a company's promotional offers with mobile applications (APP) as premiums. This paper presents the results of an experimental study where five features of APP were involved: the cost (free/discounted) for earning APP, the relationship between APP and the promoted product, the perceived usefulness, the perceived ease of use, and the perceived playfulness of APP in the context of light foods purchase. The results support that the above features, except perceived ease of use, have substantial influences on consumers' intention to adopt the APP. Among the five features, the cost for earning APP has the most impact on the adopting intention of APP. The study also found a positive influence of adopting intention of APP on the consumer's purchase intention of the promoted product. Thus, APP-based premiums may enhance the consumer's purchase intention of a company's promoted products.

Mobile Application, Premium, Sales Promotion, TAM.
The Effects of Immersion on Visual Attention and Detection of Signals Performance for Virtual Reality Training Systems
The Virtual Reality (VR) is becoming increasingly important for business, education, and entertainment, therefore VR technology have been applied for training purposes in the areas of military, safety training and flying simulators. In particular, the superior and high reliability VR training system is very important in immersion. Manipulation training in immersive virtual environments is difficult partly because users must do without the hap contact with real objects they rely on in the real world to orient themselves and their manipulated. In this paper, we create a convincing questionnaire of immersion and an experiment to assess the influence of immersion on performance in VR training system. The Immersion Questionnaire (IQ) included spatial immersion, Psychological immersion, and Sensory immersion. We show that users with a training system complete visual attention and detection of signals. Twenty subjects were allocated to a factorial design consisting of two different VR systems (Desktop VR and Projector VR). The results indicated that different VR representation methods significantly affected the participants- Immersion dimensions.
Virtual Reality, Training, Immersion, Visual Attention, Visual Detection
Research on Maintenance Design Method based Virtual Maintenance
The essentiality of maintenance assessment and maintenance optimization in design stage is analyzed, and the existent problems of conventional maintenance design method are illuminated. MDMVM (Maintenance Design Method based Virtual Maintenance) is illuminated, and the process of MDMVM established, and the MDMVM architecture is given out. The key techniques of MDMVM are analyzed, and include maintenance design based KBE (Knowledge Based Engineering) and virtual maintenance based physically attribute. According to physical property, physically based modeling, visual object movement control, the simulation of operation force and maintenance sequence planning method are emphatically illuminated. Maintenance design system based virtual maintenance is established in foundation of maintenance design method.
Digital mock-up, virtual maintenance, knowledge engineering, maintenance sequence planning.
Evaluation of Chiller Power Consumption Using Grey Prediction
98% of the energy needed in Taiwan has been imported. The prices of petroleum and electricity have been increasing. In addition, facility capacity, amount of electricity generation, amount of electricity consumption and number of Taiwan Power Company customers have continued to increase. For these reasons energy conservation has become an important topic. In the past linear regression was used to establish the power consumption models for chillers. In this study, grey prediction is used to evaluate the power consumption of a chiller so as to lower the total power consumption at peak-load (so that the relevant power providers do not need to keep on increasing their power generation capacity and facility capacity). In grey prediction, only several numerical values (at least four numerical values) are needed to establish the power consumption models for chillers. If PLR, the temperatures of supply chilled-water and return chilled-water, and the temperatures of supply cooling-water and return cooling-water are taken into consideration, quite accurate results (with the accuracy close to 99% for short-term predictions) may be obtained. Through such methods, we can predict whether the power consumption at peak-load will exceed the contract power capacity signed by the corresponding entity and Taiwan Power Company. If the power consumption at peak-load exceeds the power demand, the temperature of the supply chilled-water may be adjusted so as to reduce the PLR and hence lower the power consumption.
Gery system theory, grey prediction, chller.
Some Results on Parallel Alternating Two-stage Methods
In this paper, we present parallel alternating two-stage methods for solving linear system Ax=b, where A is a symmetric positive definite matrix. And we give some convergence results of these methods for nonsingular linear system.
alternating two-stage, convergence, linear system,parallel.
An Algorithm for Secure Visible Logo Embedding and Removing in Compression Domain
Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital signal which can be used in DRM (digital rights managements) system. The visible watermark (often called logo) can indicate the owner of the copyright which can often be seen in the TV program and protects the copyright in an active way. However, most of the schemes do not consider the visible watermark removing process. To solve this problem, a visible watermarking scheme with embedding and removing process is proposed under the control of a secure template. The template generates different version of watermarks which can be seen visually the same for different users. Users with the right key can completely remove the watermark and recover the original image while the unauthorized user is prevented to remove the watermark. Experiment results show that our watermarking algorithm obtains a good visual quality and is hard to be removed by the illegally users. Additionally, the authorized users can completely remove the visible watermark and recover the original image with a good quality.
digital watermarking, visible and removablewatermark, secure template, JPEG compression
Betel Nut Beauty in Taiwan: Chinese Tourists- Perspective
Tourists- eyes will often be attracted by the unique phenomenon of the roadsides: betel nut beauties (pronounced as binlang xishi in Mandarin), if they drive on the roads of Taiwan. Sitting in the neon-lit glass stalls with attractive dress on the roadsides, betel nut beauties usually sell betel nuts to the passing truckers or car drivers with much of their efforts. Moreover, in order to attract peoples- eyesight and increase the sales volume, the young girls are in skimpy clothing to promote betel nuts or beverages to their customers. Therefore, when the Chinese tourists come to Taiwan, to see the unique betel nut beauty phenomenon has become one of their greatly interested things or even a “must see". This paper describes betel but beauties in Taiwan, explained why the Chinese tourists like to see them in Taiwan and proposed propositions for examination.
Betel nut, betel nut beauty, Chinese tourists, tourism.
Optimization of Three-dimensional Electrical Performance in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack by a Neural Network
By the application of an improved back-propagation neural network (BPNN), a model of current densities for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with 10 layers is established in this study. To build the learning data of BPNN, Taguchi orthogonal array is applied to arrange the conditions of operating parameters, which totally 7 factors act as the inputs of BPNN. Also, the average current densities achieved by numerical method acts as the outputs of BPNN. Comparing with the direct solution, the learning errors for all learning data are smaller than 0.117%, and the predicting errors for 27 forecasting cases are less than 0.231%. The results show that the presented model effectively builds a mathematical algorithm to predict performance of a SOFC stack immediately in real time. Also, the calculating algorithms are applied to proceed with the optimization of the average current density for a SOFC stack. The operating performance window of a SOFC stack is found to be between 41137.11 and 53907.89. Furthermore, an inverse predicting model of operating parameters of a SOFC stack is developed here by the calculating algorithms of the improved BPNN, which is proved to effectively predict operating parameters to achieve a desired performance output of a SOFC stack.
a SOFC stack, BPNN, inverse predicting model of operating parameters, optimization of the average current density
Modeling and Simulation of Motion of an Underwater Robot Glider for Shallow-water Ocean Applications
This paper describes the modeling and simulation of an underwater robot glider used in the shallow-water environment. We followed the Equations of motion derived by [2] and simplified dynamic Equations of motion of an underwater glider according to our underwater glider. A simulation code is built and operated in the MATLAB Simulink environment so that we can make improvements to our testing glider design. It may be also used to validate a robot glider design.
AUV, underwater glider, robot, modeling, simulation.
A Physics-Based Model for Fast Recovery Diodes with Lifetime Control and Emitter Efficiency Reduction
This paper presents a physics-based model for the high-voltage fast recovery diodes. The model provides a good trade-off between reverse recovery time and forward voltage drop realized through a combination of lifetime control and emitter efficiency reduction techniques. The minority carrier lifetime can be extracted from the reverse recovery transient response and forward characteristics. This paper also shows that decreasing the amount of the excess carriers stored in the drift region will result in softer characteristics which can be achieved using a lower doping level. The developed model is verified by experiment and the measurement data agrees well with the model.
Emitter efficiency, lifetime control, P-i-N diode, physics-based model
Application of Four-electrode Method to Analysis Resistance Characteristics of Conductive Concrete
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of resistance characteristic on the high conductive concrete considering the various voltage and environment. The four-electrode method is applied to the tailor-made high conductive concrete with appropriate proportion. The curve of resistivity with the changes of voltage and environment is plotted and the changes of resistivity are explored. The result based on the methods reveals that resistivity is less affected by the temperature factor, and the four-electrode method would be an applicable measurement method on a site inspection.
Conductive concrete, Resistivity.
Mainland Chinese Customers' Intention toward Medical Tourism in Taiwan
This study proposes and tests a rescapturing elements of perceived gain and loss that, by perceived value of medical tourism products, influencintention of potential customers. Data from 301 usable qwere tested against the research model using the structmodeling approach. The results indicated that perceivedkey predictor of customer intentions. As for benefimedical quality, service quality and enjoyment wcomponents that significantly influenced the perceptiRegarding sacrifice, the effects of perceived risk on pewere significant. The findings can provide insights intohow destination countries can make medical tourism a wfor themselves and international patients.KeywordsMedical tourism, perceived valueintention.
Medical tourism, perceived valueintention.
Multiple Positive Periodic Solutions to a Predator-prey system with Harvesting Terms and Holling II Type Functional Response

In this paper, a periodic predator-prey system with harvesting terms and Holling II type functional response is considered. Sufficient criteria for the existence of at least sixteen periodic solutions are established by using the well known continuation theorem due to Mawhin. An example is given to illustrate the main result.

Periodic solution, predator-prey system, harvesting terms, continuation theorem.
Density Wave Instability of Supercritical Kerosene in Active Cooling Channels of Scramjets

Experimental investigations were made on the instability of supercritical kerosene flowing in active cooling channels. Two approaches were used to control the pressure in the channel. One is the back-pressure valve while the other is the venturi. In both conditions, a kind of low-frequency oscillation of pressure and temperature is observed. And the oscillation periods are calculated. By comparison with the flow time, it is concluded that the instability occurred in active cooling channels is probably one kind of density wave instability. And its period has no relationship with the cooling channel geometry, nor the pressure, but only depends on the flow time of kerosene in active cooling channels. When the mass flow rate, density and pressure drop couple with each other, the density wave instability will appear.

scramjets, active cooling, instability, density wave
Analysis of Partially Shaded PV Modules Using Piecewise Linear Parallel Branches Model

This paper presents an equivalent circuit model based on piecewise linear parallel branches (PLPB) to study solar cell modules which are partially shaded. The PLPB model can easily be used in circuit simulation software such as the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). This PLPB model allows the user to simulate several different configurations of solar cells, the influence of partial shadowing on a single or multiple cells, the influence of the number of solar cells protected by a bypass diode and the effect of the cell connection configuration on partial shadowing.

Cell Connection Configurations, EMTP, Equivalent Circuit, Partial Shading, Photovoltaic Module
The Direct Ansaz Method for Finding Exact Multi-Wave Solutions to the (2+1)-Dimensional Extension of the Korteweg de-Vries Equation

In this paper, the direct AnsAz method is used for constructing the multi-wave solutions to the (2+1)-dimensional extension of the Korteweg de-Vries (shortly EKdV) equation. A new breather type of three-wave solutions including periodic breather type soliton solution, breather type of two-solitary solution are obtained. Some cases with specific values of the involved parameters are plotted for each of the three-wave solutions. Mechanical features of resonance interaction among the multi-wave are discussed. These results enrich the variety of the dynamics of higher-dimensional nonlinear wave field.

EKdV equation, Breather, Soliton, Bilinear form, The direct AnsAz method.
A Study on the Relation of Corporate Governance and Pricing for Initial Public Offerings
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between corporate governance and pricing for initial public offerings (IPOs). Empirical result finds that the prediction of pricing of IPOs with corporate governance added can have a rather higher degree of predicting accuracy than that of non governance added during the training and testing samples. Therefore, it can be observed that corporate governance mechanism can affect the pricing of IPOs
Artificial neural networks, corporate governance, initial public offerings.
Linear Cryptanalysis for a Chaos-Based Stream Cipher

Linear cryptanalysis methods are rarely used to improve the security of chaotic stream ciphers. In this paper, we apply linear cryptanalysis to a chaotic stream cipher which was designed by strictly using the basic design criterion of cryptosystem – confusion and diffusion. We show that this well-designed chaos-based stream cipher is still insecure against distinguishing attack. This distinguishing attack promotes the further improvement of the cipher.

Stream cipher, chaos, linear cryptanalysis, distinguishing attack.
Glass Bottle Inspector Based on Machine Vision
This text studies glass bottle intelligent inspector based machine vision instead of manual inspection. The system structure is illustrated in detail in this paper. The text presents the method based on watershed transform methods to segment the possible defective regions and extract features of bottle wall by rules. Then wavelet transform are used to exact features of bottle finish from images. After extracting features, the fuzzy support vector machine ensemble is putted forward as classifier. For ensuring that the fuzzy support vector machines have good classification ability, the GA based ensemble method is used to combining the several fuzzy support vector machines. The experiments demonstrate that using this inspector to inspect glass bottles, the accuracy rate may reach above 97.5%.
Intelligent Inspection, Support Vector Machines,Ensemble Methods, watershed transform, Wavelet Transform
Robust Stability Criteria for Uncertain Genetic Regulatory Networks with Time-Varying Delays

This paper presents the robust stability criteria for uncertain genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delays. One key point of the criterion is that the decomposition of the matrix ˜D into ˜D = ˜D1 + ˜D2. This decomposition corresponds to a decomposition of the delayed terms into two groups: the stabilizing ones and the destabilizing ones. This technique enables one to take the stabilizing effect of part of the delayed terms into account. Meanwhile, by choosing an appropriate new Lyapunov functional, a new delay-dependent stability criteria is obtained and formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

Genetic regulatory network, Time-varying delay, Uncertain system, Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional
Application-Specific Instruction Sets Processor with Implicit Registers to Improve Register Bandwidth
Application-Specific Instruction (ASI ) set Processors (ASIP) have become an important design choice for embedded systems due to runtime flexibility, which cannot be provided by custom ASIC solutions. One major bottleneck in maximizing ASIP performance is the limitation on the data bandwidth between the General Purpose Register File (GPRF) and ASIs. This paper presents the Implicit Registers (IRs) to provide the desirable data bandwidth. An ASI Input/Output model is proposed to formulate the overheads of the additional data transfer between the GPRF and IRs, therefore, an IRs allocation algorithm is used to achieve the better performance by minimizing the number of extra data transfer instructions. The experiment results show an up to 3.33x speedup compared to the results without using IRs.
Application-Specific Instruction-set Processors, data bandwidth, configurable processor, implicit register.
Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in the Acceptance of Blogging
With the proliferation of Weblogs (blogs) use in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to utilize blog systems has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. While perceived enjoyment has been found to have a significant influence on behavioral intentions to use blogs or hedonic systems, few studies have investigated the antecedents of perceived enjoyment in the acceptance of blogging. The main purpose of the present study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence behavioral intention to blog through the mediation of perceived enjoyment. Based on the previous literature, the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), as well as computer self-efficacy and personal innovation in information technology (PIIT), are hypothesized as potential antecedents of perceived enjoyment in the acceptance of blogging. Data collected from 358 respondents in Taiwan are tested against the research model using the structural equation modeling approach. The results indicate that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and PIIT have a significant influence on perceived enjoyment, which in turn significantly influences the behavioral intention to blog. These findings lead to several important implications for future research.
Individual difference, Big Five personality traits,perceived enjoyment, blogging
The Mutated Distance between Two Mixture Trees

The evolutionary tree is an important topic in bioinformation. In 2006, Chen and Lindsay proposed a new method to build the mixture tree from DNA sequences. Mixture tree is a new type evolutionary tree, and it has two additional information besides the information of ordinary evolutionary tree. One of the information is time parameter, and the other is the set of mutated sites. In 2008, Lin and Juan proposed an algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. Their algorithm computes the distance with only considering the time parameter between two mixture trees. In this paper, we proposes a method to measure the similarity of two mixture trees with considering the set of mutated sites and develops two algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. The time complexity of these two proposed algorithms are O(n2 × max{h(T1), h(T2)}) and O(n2), respectively

evolutionary tree, mixture tree, mutated site, distance.
Determinants of Consumer Choice for Online Travel Shopping Sites: A Confirmatory Analysis
This study attempts to validate the consumer-oriented criteria list, developed by Wang et al. (2010), for selecting online travel shopping sites. Based on a sample of 985 respondents, confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test the factor structure and assess the reliability and validity of the list. The results support the list developed by Wang et al. (2010) and claim the list can be further used to analyze, explain, and understand consumer behaviors about online travel shopping.
Online travel agency, online travel shopping sites, confirmatory analysis.
Compact Tunable 10 W picosecond Sourcebased on Yb-doped Fiber Amplification of Gain Switch Laser Diode
A compact tunable 10 W picosecond source based on Yb-doped fiber amplification of gain switch laser diode has been demonstrated. A gain switch semiconductor laser diode was used as the seed source, and a multi-stage single mode Yb-doped fiber preamplifier was combined with two large mode area double-clad Yb-doped fiber main amplifiers to construct the amplification system. The tunable pulses with high stability and excellent beam quality (M2
Fiber laser, fiber amplifier, picosecond laser, highpower laser
Strongly Screenableness and its Tychonoff Products

In this paper, we prove that if X is regular strongly screenable DC-like (C-scattered), then X ×Y is strongly screenable for every strongly screenable space Y . We also show that the product i∈ω Yi is strongly screenable if every Yi is a regular strongly screenable DC-like space. Finally, we present that the strongly screenableness are poorly behaved with its Tychonoff products.

Topological game, strongly screenable, scattered, Cscattered.
A Grey-Fuzzy Controller for Optimization Technique in Wireless Networks
In wireless and mobile communications, this progress provides opportunities for introducing new standards and improving existing services. Supporting multimedia traffic with wireless networks quality of service (QoS). In this paper, a grey-fuzzy controller for radio resource management (GF-RRM) is presented to maximize the number of the served calls and QoS provision in wireless networks. In a wireless network, the call arrival rate, the call duration and the communication overhead between the base stations and the control center are vague and uncertain. In this paper, we develop a method to predict the cell load and to solve the RRM problem based on the GF-RRM, and support the present facility has been built on the application-level of the wireless networks. The GF-RRM exhibits the better adaptability, fault-tolerant capability and performance than other algorithms. Through simulations, we evaluate the blocking rate, update overhead, and channel acquisition delay time of the proposed method. The results demonstrate our algorithm has the lower blocking rate, less updated overhead, and shorter channel acquisition delay.
radio resource management, grey prediction, fuzzylogic control, wireless networks, quality of service.
Some New Upper Bounds for the Spectral Radius of Iterative Matrices
In this paper, we present some new upper bounds for the spectral radius of iterative matrices based on the concept of doubly α diagonally dominant matrix. And subsequently, we give two examples to show that our results are better than the earlier ones.
doubly α diagonally dominant matrix, eigenvalue,iterative matrix, spectral radius, upper bound.
Linking OpenCourseWares and Open Education Resources: Creating an Effective Search and Recommendation System
With a growing number of digital libraries and other open education repositories being made available throughout the world, effective search and retrieval tools are necessary to access the desired materials that surpass the effectiveness of traditional, allinclusive search engines. This paper discusses the design and use of Folksemantic, a platform that integrates OpenCourseWare search, Open Educational Resource recommendations, and social network functionality into a single open source project. The paper describes how the system was originally envisioned, its goals for users, and data that provides insight into how it is actually being used. Data sources include website click-through data, query logs, web server log files and user account data. Based on a descriptive analysis of its current use, modifications to the platform's design are recommended to better address goals of the system, along with recommendations for additional phases of research.
Digital libraries, open education,recommendation system, social networks
Generation Scheduling Optimization of Multi-Hydroplants: A Case Study
A case study of the generation scheduling optimization of the multi-hydroplants on the Yuan River Basin in China is reported in this paper. Concerning the uncertainty of the inflows, the long/mid-term generation scheduling (LMTGS) problem is solved by a stochastic model in which the inflows are considered as stochastic variables. For the short-term generation scheduling (STGS) problem, a constraint violation priority is defined in case not all constraints are satisfied. Provided the stage-wise separable condition and low dimensions, the hydroplant-based operational region schedules (HBORS) problem is solved by dynamic programming (DP). The coordination of LMTGS and STGS is presented as well. The feasibility and the effectiveness of the models and solution methods are verified by the numerical results.
generation scheduling, multi-hydroplants, optimization.
On the Constructivist Teaching of Extensive Reading for English Majors

Constructivism, the latest teaching and learning theory in western countries which is based on the premise that cognition (learning) is the result of "mental construction", lays emphasis on the learner's active learning. Guided by constructivism, this thesis discusses the teaching plan and its application in extensive reading course. In extensive reading classroom, emphasis should be laid on the activation of students' prior knowledge, grasping the skills of fast reading and the combination of reading and writing to check extracurricular reading. With three factors supplementing each other, students' English reading ability can be improved effectively.

Constructivism, extensive reading, constructivist teaching.
On the Relationship between Language Output and Second Language Acquisition

Many researchers have been discussing the importance of language input in second language acquisition. The author holds that the bigger problem lies in how to activate language learners' language knowledge and raise their language output consciousness and competence. Analyzing the importance of language output based on theory and reality, this paper mainly explores the essence of language output and its revelation for second language acquisition in order to make second language learners really raise their communicative competence.

Language output, second language acquisition, communicative competence.
Some Results on New Preconditioned Generalized Mixed-Type Splitting Iterative Methods

In this paper, we present new preconditioned generalized mixed-type splitting (GMTS) methods for solving weighted linear least square problems. We compare the spectral radii of the iteration matrices of the preconditioned and the original methods. The comparison results show that the preconditioned GMTS methods converge faster than the GMTS method whenever the GMTS method is convergent. Finally, we give a numerical example to confirm our theoretical results.

Preconditioned, GMTS method, linear system, convergence, comparison.
Some Results on Preconditioned Modified Accelerated Overrelaxation Method

In this paper, we present new preconditioned modified accelerated overrelaxation (MAOR) method for solving linear systems. We compare the spectral radii of the iteration matrices of the preconditioned and the original methods. The comparison results show that the preconditioned MAOR method converges faster than the MAOR method whenever the MAOR method is convergent. Finally, we give one numerical example to confirm our theoretical results.

preconditioned, MAOR method, linear system, convergence, comparison.
Nanofibrous Ion Exchangers

The main goal of this study was to find simple and industrially applicable production of ion exchangers based on nanofibrous polystyrene matrix and characterization of prepared material. Starting polystyrene nanofibers were sulfonated and crosslinked under appropriate conditions at the same time by sulfuric acid. Strongly acidic cation exchanger was obtained in such a way. The polymer matrix was made from polystyrene nanofibers prepared by NanospiderTM technology.

Various types postpolymerization reactions and other methods of crosslinking were studied. Greatly different behavior between nano- and microsize materials was observed. The final nanofibrous material was characterized and compared to common granular ion exchangers and available microfibrous ion exchangers. The sorption properties of nanofibrous ion exchangers were compared with the granular ion exchangers. For nanofibrous ion exchangers of comparable ion exchange capacity was observed considerably faster adsorption kinetics.

Electrospinning, ion exchangers, nanofibers, polystyrene.
The Analysis of Teacher Talk in "Learner-centered" Teaching Mode

Being main teaching media and major source of comprehensive target language input, teacher talk plays an important role in learners' second-language acquisition. Under the trend of "learner-centered" teaching mode, some researchers think that the best teacher talk means less. But the author holds that, in Chinese second language classroom, it is not advisable to lay too much stress on the formal students' participation, which requires the teacher to say as little as possible and the student to say as much as possible. The emphasis should be put on how to raise teacher talk's quality.

Comprehensive language input, "learner-centered" teaching mode, teacher talk, teacher talk's quality.
Teacher Talk and Language Output

As an important input and teaching media in foreign language teaching classes, teacher talk (TT) has a great effect on language output. This paper explores the problems related to teacher talk (TT) and language output in practical ELT (English Language Teaching) classroom and presents some suggestions for solving the problems which affect learner' effective language output.

Second language acquisition, teacher talk, language output.
Learner Autonomy Based On Constructivism Learning Theory

Constuctivism learning theory lays emphasis on the learners' active learning, such as learning initiative, sociality and context. By analyzing the relationship between constructivism learning theory and learner autonomy, this paper explores how to cultivate learners' learner autonomy under the guidance of constructivism learning theory.

Constructivism learning theory, learner autonomy, relationship, cultivation.
The Comparative Analysis of Micro-reading and Traditional Reading Based On Schema Theory

Micro-reading is a new way of reading depended on short messages of mobile phones, network articles and short literary forms, which impacts greatly on traditional way of reading. The effect of "micro-reading" is deeper especially for those growing middle school students and college students. Aiming at the problem with the development of college students' micro-reading and based on the influence of schema theory on the research of cognition of reading, this paper is to analyze the comparison between micro-reading and traditional reading and explore reading strategies in micro-era based on the negative and positive effect which schema theory has on micro-reading.

Schema theory, comparative analysis, micro-reading, traditional reading
Ultra-Low Loss Dielectric Properties of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 Microwave Ceramics

Microwave dielectric ceramic materials of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 for x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 were prepared and sintered at 1250–1400 ºC. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of the ceramic materials were examined and measured. The observations shows that the content of Ni2+ ions has little effect on the crystal structure, dielectric constant, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and sintering temperatures of the ceramics. However, the quality values (Q×f) are greatly improved due to the addition of Ni2+ ions. The present study showed that the ceramic material prepared for x = 0.05 and sintered at 1325ºC had the best Q×f value of 392,000 GHz, about 23% improvement compared with that of Mg2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4.

(Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4, microwave dielectric ceramics, high quality factor, high frequency wireless communication.
Exponential State Estimation for Neural Networks with Leakage, Discrete and Distributed Delays

In this paper, the design problem of state estimator for neural networks with the mixed time-varying delays are investigated by constructing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and using some effective mathematical techniques. In order to derive several conditions to guarantee the estimation error systems to be globally exponential stable, we transform the considered systems into the neural-type time-delay systems. Then with a set of linear inequalities(LMIs), we can obtain the stable criteria. Finally, three numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and less conservatism of the proposed criterion.

State estimator, Neural networks, Globally exponential stability.
On Cultivating Interdisciplinary Business Interpreting Talents Based On Market Demand

Business interpreting talents are in badly need for local economic development, but currently there are problems of traditional business interpreting training mode in China. In view of the good opportunity for college business interpreters provided by international trading center development in Qingdao China and with the aim of being in line with market demand and enhancing business interpreters' employment competitive advantage, this paper aims to explore how to cultivate interdisciplinary business interpreting talents based on market demand.

Interdisciplinary talents, business interpreting, market demand.
Altered Network Organization in Mild Alzheimer's Disease Compared to Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Resting-State EEG

Brain functional networks based on resting-state EEG data were compared between patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (mAD) and matched patients with amnestic subtype of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). We integrated the time–frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method to estimate the EEG functional connectivity between cortical regions and the network analysis based on graph theory to further investigate the alterations of functional networks in mAD compared with aMCI group. We aimed at investigating the changes of network integrity, local clustering, information processing efficiency, and fault tolerance in mAD brain networks for different frequency bands based on several topological properties, including degree, strength, clustering coefficient, shortest path length, and efficiency. Results showed that the disruptions of network integrity and reductions of network efficiency in mAD characterized by lower degree, decreased clustering coefficient, higher shortest path length, and reduced global and local efficiencies in the delta, theta, beta2, and gamma bands were evident. The significant changes in network organization can be used in assisting discrimination of mAD from aMCI in clinical.

EEG, functional connectivity, graph theory, TFCMI.
Relations of Progression in Cognitive Decline with Initial EEG Resting-State Functional Network in Mild Cognitive Impairment

This study aimed at investigating whether the functional brain networks constructed using the initial EEG (obtained when patients first visited hospital) can be correlated with the progression of cognitive decline calculated as the changes of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores between the latest and initial examinations. We integrated the time–frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method to estimate the EEG functional connectivity between cortical regions, and the network analysis based on graph theory to investigate the organization of functional networks in aMCI. Our finding suggested that higher integrated functional network with sufficient connection strengths, dense connection between local regions, and high network efficiency in processing information at the initial stage may result in a better prognosis of the subsequent cognitive functions for aMCI. In conclusion, the functional connectivity can be a useful biomarker to assist in prediction of cognitive declines in aMCI.

Cognitive decline, functional connectivity, MCI, MMSE.
Preconditioned Generalized Accelerated Overrelaxation Methods for Solving Certain Nonsingular Linear System

In this paper, we present preconditioned generalized accelerated overrelaxation (GAOR) methods for solving certain nonsingular linear system. We compare the spectral radii of the iteration matrices of the preconditioned and the original methods. The comparison results show that the preconditioned GAOR methods converge faster than the GAOR method whenever the GAOR method is convergent. Finally, we give two numerical examples to confirm our theoretical results.

Preconditioned, GAOR method, linear system, convergence, comparison.
A Study on Inference from Distance Variables in Hedonic Regression

In urban area, several landmarks may affect housing price and rents, and hedonic analysis should employ distance variables corresponding to each landmarks. Unfortunately, the effects of distances to landmarks on housing prices are generally not consistent with the true price. These distance variables may cause magnitude error in regression, pointing a problem of spatial multicollinearity. In this paper, we provided some approaches for getting the samples with less bias and method on locating the specific sampling area to avoid the multicollinerity problem in two specific landmarks case.

Landmarks, hedonic regression, distance variables, collinearity, multicollinerity.
A Research on Inference from Multiple Distance Variables in Hedonic Regression – Focus on Three Variables

In urban context, urban nodes such as amenity or hazard will certainly affect house price, while classic hedonic analysis will employ distance variables measured from each urban nodes. However, effects from distances to facilities on house prices generally do not represent the true price of the property. Distance variables measured on the same surface are suffering a problem called multicollinearity, which is usually presented as magnitude variance and mean value in regression, errors caused by instability. In this paper, we provided a theoretical framework to identify and gather the data with less bias, and also provided specific sampling method on locating the sample region to avoid the spatial multicollinerity problem in three distance variable’s case.

Hedonic regression, urban node, distance variables, multicollinerity, collinearity.
Horizontal Directivity of Pipa Radiation
Pipa is one of the most important Chinese traditional plucked instruments, but its directivity has never been measured systematically. In western, directivity of loudness for western instruments is deeply researched through analysis of sound pressure level, whereas the directivity of timbre is seldom studied. In this paper, a new method for directivity of timbre was proposed, and horizontal directivity patterns of loudness and timbre of Pipa were measured. Directivity of Pipa radiation was measured in an anechoic room. The sound of Pipa played by a musician was recorded simultaneously by 32 microphones with Pipa in the center. The measuring results were examined through listening test. According to the measurement of Pipa directivity radiation, we put forward the best localization of Pipa in the Chinese traditional orchestra and the optimal recording region.
Directivity, Pipa, Roughness, Listening test.
Theory of Mind and Its Brain Distribution in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Theory of Mind (ToM) refers to the ability to infer another’s mental state. With appropriate ToM, one can behave well in social interactions. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may damage ToM by affecting on regions of the underlying neural network of ToM. However, the question of whether there is cerebral laterality for ToM functions remains open. This study aimed to examine whether there is cerebral lateralization for ToM abilities in TLE patients. Sixty-seven adult TLE patients and 30 matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. Patients were classified into right (RTLE), left (LTLE), and bilateral (BTLE) TLE groups on the basis of a consensus panel review of their seizure semiology, EEG findings, and brain imaging results. All participants completed an intellectual test and four tasks measuring basic and advanced ToM. The results showed that, on all ToM tasks, (1) each patient group performed worse than HC; (2) there were no significant differences between LTLE and RTLE groups; and (3) the BTLE group performed the worst. It appears that the neural network responsible for ToM is distributed evenly between the cerebral hemispheres.
Cerebral lateralization, social cognition, temporal lobe epilepsy, theory of mind.
An Automatic Model Transformation Methodology Based on Semantic and Syntactic Comparisons and the Granularity Issue Involved
Model transformation, as a pivotal aspect of Modeldriven engineering, attracts more and more attentions both from researchers and practitioners. Many domains (enterprise engineering, software engineering, knowledge engineering, etc.) use model transformation principles and practices to serve to their domain specific problems; furthermore, model transformation could also be used to fulfill the gap between different domains: by sharing and exchanging knowledge. Since model transformation has been widely used, there comes new requirement on it: effectively and efficiently define the transformation process and reduce manual effort that involved in. This paper presents an automatic model transformation methodology based on semantic and syntactic comparisons, and focuses particularly on granularity issue that existed in transformation process. Comparing to the traditional model transformation methodologies, this methodology serves to a general purpose: crossdomain methodology. Semantic and syntactic checking measurements are combined into a refined transformation process, which solves the granularity issue. Moreover, semantic and syntactic comparisons are supported by software tool; manual effort is replaced in this way.
Automatic model transformation, granularity issue, model-driven engineering, semantic and syntactic comparisons.
A High-Resolution Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal

In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution refractive index sensor based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal (MPC) composed of a triangular lattice array of air holes embedded in Si matrix. A microcavity is created by changing the radius of an air hole in the middle of the photonic crystal. The cavity filled with gyrotropic materials can serve as a refractive index sensor. The shift of the resonant frequency of the sensor is obtained numerically using finite difference time domain method under different ambient conditions having refractive index from n = 1.0 to n = 1.1. The numerical results show that a tiny change in refractive index of  Δn = 0.0001 is distinguishable. In addition, the spectral response of the MPC sensor is studied while an external magnetic field is present. The results show that the MPC sensor exhibits a dramatic improvement in resolution.

Magnetic photonic crystal, refractive index sensor, sensitivity, high-resolution.
Optimization for the Hydraulic Clamping System of an Internal Circulation Two-Platen Injection Molding Machine

Internal circulation two-platen clamping system for injection molding machine (IMM) has many potential advantages on energy-saving. In order to estimate its properties, experiments were carried out in this paper. Displacement and pressure of the components were measured. In comparison, the model of hydraulic clamping system was established by using AMESim. The related parameters as well as the energy consumption could be calculated. According to the analysis, the hydraulic system was optimized in order to reduce the energy consumption.

AMESim, energy-saving, injection molding machine, internal circulation.
Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gas Jet Flows and Acoustics Fields

The source of the jet noise is generated by rocket exhaust plume during rocket engine testing. A domain decomposition approach is applied to the jet noise prediction in this paper. The aerodynamic noise coupling is based on the splitting into acoustic sources generation and sound propagation in separate physical domains. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to simulate the supersonic jet flow. Based on the simulation results of the flow-fields, the jet noise distribution of the sound pressure level is obtained by applying the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustics equation and Fourier transform. The calculation results show that the complex structures of expansion waves, compression waves and the turbulent boundary layer could occur due to the strong interaction between the gas jet and the ambient air. In addition, the jet core region, the shock cell and the sound pressure level of the gas jet increase with the nozzle size increasing. Importantly, the numerical simulation results of the far-field sound are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in directivity.

Supersonic gas jet, Large Eddy Simulation(LES), acoustic noise, Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equations, nozzle size.
Characteristics of Speed Dispersion in Urban Expressway

Speed dispersion has tight relation to traffic safety. In this paper, several kinds of indicating parameters (the standard speed deviation, the coefficient of variation, the deviation of V85 and V15, the mean speed deviations, and the difference between adjacent car speeds) are applied to investigate the characteristics of speed dispersion, where V85 and V15 are 85th and 15th percentile speed, respectively. Their relationships are into full investigations and the results show that: there exists a positive relation (linear) between mean speed and the deviation of V85 and V15; while a negative relation (quadratic) between traffic flow and standard speed deviation. The mean speed deviation grows exponentially with mean speed while the absolute speed deviation between adjacent cars grows linearly with the headway. The results provide some basic information for traffic management.

Headway, indicating parameters, speed dispersion, urban expressway.
Proxisch: An Optimization Approach of Large-Scale Unstable Proxy Servers Scheduling
Nowadays, big companies such as Google, Microsoft, which have adequate proxy servers, have perfectly implemented their web crawlers for a certain website in parallel. But due to lack of expensive proxy servers, it is still a puzzle for researchers to crawl large amounts of information from a single website in parallel. In this case, it is a good choice for researchers to use free public proxy servers which are crawled from the Internet. In order to improve efficiency of web crawler, the following two issues should be considered primarily: (1) Tasks may fail owing to the instability of free proxy servers; (2) A proxy server will be blocked if it visits a single website frequently. In this paper, we propose Proxisch, an optimization approach of large-scale unstable proxy servers scheduling, which allow anyone with extremely low cost to run a web crawler efficiently. Proxisch is designed to work efficiently by making maximum use of reliable proxy servers. To solve second problem, it establishes a frequency control mechanism which can ensure the visiting frequency of any chosen proxy server below the website’s limit. The results show that our approach performs better than the other scheduling algorithms.
Proxy server, priority queue, optimization approach, distributed web crawling.
An Improved Variable Tolerance RSM with a Proportion Threshold
In rough set models, tolerance relation, similarity relation and limited tolerance relation solve different situation problems for incomplete information systems in which there exists a phenomenon of missing value. If two objects have the same few known attributes and more unknown attributes, they cannot distinguish them well. In order to solve this problem, we presented two improved limited and variable precision rough set models. One is symmetric, the other one is non-symmetric. They all use more stringent condition to separate two small probability equivalent objects into different classes. The two models are needed to engage further study in detail. In the present paper, we newly form object classes with a different respect comparing to the first suggested model. We overcome disadvantages of non-symmetry regarding to the second suggested model. We discuss relationships between or among several models and also make rule generation. The obtained results by applying the second model are more accurate and reasonable.
Incomplete information system, rough set, symmetry, variable precision.
A Case-Based Reasoning-Decision Tree Hybrid System for Stock Selection
Stock selection is an important decision-making problem. Many machine learning and data mining technologies are employed to build automatic stock-selection system. A profitable stock-selection system should consider the stock’s investment value and the market timing. In this paper, we present a hybrid system including both engage for stock selection. This system uses a case-based reasoning (CBR) model to execute the stock classification, uses a decision-tree model to help with market timing and stock selection. The experiments show that the performance of this hybrid system is better than that of other techniques regarding to the classification accuracy, the average return and the Sharpe ratio.
Case-based reasoning, decision tree, stock selection, machine learning.
An Indoor Guidance System Combining Near Field Communication and Bluetooth Low Energy Beacon Technologies

Users rely increasingly on Location-Based Services (LBS) and automated navigation/guidance systems nowadays. However, while such services are easily implemented in outdoor environments using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, a requirement still exists for accurate localization and guidance schemes in indoor settings. Accordingly, the present study presents a methodology based on GPS, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons, and Near Field Communication (NFC) technology. Through establishing graphic information and the design of algorithm, this study develops a guidance system for indoor and outdoor on smartphones, with aim to provide users a smart life through this system. The presented system is implemented on a smartphone and evaluated on a student campus environment. The experimental results confirm the ability of the presented app to switch automatically from an outdoor mode to an indoor mode and to guide the user to the requested target destination via the shortest possible route.

Beacon, BLE, Dijkstra algorithm, indoor, GPS, near field communication technology.
Heart-Rate Resistance Electrocardiogram Identification Based on Slope-Oriented Neural Networks
For electrocardiogram (ECG) biometrics system, it is a tedious process to pre-install user’s high-intensity heart rate (HR) templates in ECG biometric systems. Based on only resting enrollment templates, it is a challenge to identify human by using ECG with the high-intensity HR caused from exercises and stress. This research provides a heartbeat segment method with slope-oriented neural networks against the ECG morphology changes due to high intensity HRs. The method has overall system accuracy at 97.73% which includes six levels of HR intensities. A cumulative match characteristic curve is also used to compare with other traditional ECG biometric methods.
High-intensity heart rate, heart rate resistant, ECG human identification, decision based artificial neural network.
Tracked Robot with Blade Arms to Enhance Crawling Capability

This paper presents a tracked robot with blade arms powered to assist movement in difficult environments. As a result, the tracked robot is able to pass a ramp or climb stairs. The main feature is a pair of blade arms on both sides of the vehicle body working in collaboration with previously validated transformable track system. When the robot encounters an obstacle in a terrain, it enlists the blade arms with power to overcome the obstacle. In disaster areas, there usually will be terrains that are full of broken and complicated slopes, broken walls, rubbles, and ditches. Thereupon, a robot, which is instructed to pass through such disaster areas, needs to have a good off-road capability for such complicated terrains. The robot with crawling-assisting blade arms would overcome the obstacles along the terrains, and possibly become to be a rescue robot. A prototype has been developed and built; experiments were carried out to validate the enhanced crawling capability of the robot.

Tracked robot, rescue robot, blade arm, crawling ability, control system.
Feature Extractions of EMG Signals during a Constant Workload Pedaling Exercise

Electromyography (EMG) is one of the important indicators during exercise, as it is closely related to the level of muscle activations. This work quantifies the muscle conditions of the lower limbs in a constant workload exercise. Surface EMG signals of the vastus laterals (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), gastrocnemius medianus (GM), gastrocnemius lateral (GL) and Soleus (SOL) were recorded from fourteen healthy males. The EMG signals were segmented in two phases: activation segment (AS) and relaxation segment (RS). Period entropy (PE), peak count (PC), zero crossing (ZC), wave length (WL), mean power frequency (MPF), median frequency (MDF) and root mean square (RMS) are calculated to provide the quantitative information of the measured EMG segments. The outcomes reveal that the PE, PC, ZC and RMS have significantly changed (p<.001); WL presents moderately changed (p<.01); MPF and MDF show no changed (p>.05) during exercise. The results also suggest that the RS is also preferred for performance evaluation, while the results of the extracted features in AS are usually affected directly by the amplitudes. It is further found that the VL exhibits the most significant changes within six muscles during pedaling exercise. The proposed work could be applied to quantify the stamina analysis and to predict the instant muscle status in athletes.

EMG, feature extraction, muscle status, pedaling exercise, relaxation segment.
A Security Cloud Storage Scheme Based Accountable Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption without Key Escrow

With the development of cloud computing, more and more users start to utilize the cloud storage service. However, there exist some issues: 1) cloud server steals the shared data, 2) sharers collude with the cloud server to steal the shared data, 3) cloud server tampers the shared data, 4) sharers and key generation center (KGC) conspire to steal the shared data. In this paper, we use advanced encryption standard (AES), hash algorithms, and accountable key-policy attribute-based encryption without key escrow (WOKE-AKP-ABE) to build a security cloud storage scheme. Moreover, the data are encrypted to protect the privacy. We use hash algorithms to prevent the cloud server from tampering the data uploaded to the cloud. Analysis results show that this scheme can resist conspired attacks.

Cloud storage security, sharing storage, attributes, Hash algorithm.
A High Time Resolution Digital Pulse Width Modulator Based on Field Programmable Gate Array’s Phase Locked Loop Megafunction

The digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) is the crucial building block for digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter, which converts the digital duty ratio signal into its analog counterpart to control the power MOSFET transistors on or off. With the increase of switching frequency of digitally-controlled DC-DC converter, the DPWM with higher time resolution is required. In this paper, a 15-bits DPWM with three-level hybrid structure is presented; the first level is composed of a7-bits counter and a comparator, the second one is a 5-bits delay line, and the third one is a 3-bits digital dither. The presented DPWM is designed and implemented using the PLL megafunction of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays), and the required frequency of clock signal is 128 times of switching frequency. The simulation results show that, for the switching frequency of 2 MHz, a DPWM which has the time resolution of 15 ps is achieved using a maximum clock frequency of 256MHz. The designed DPWM in this paper is especially useful for high-frequency digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converters.

DPWM, PLL megafunction, FPGA, time resolution, digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter.
The Survey Research and Evaluation of Green Residential Building Based on the Improved Group Analytical Hierarchy Process Method in Yinchuan

Due to the economic downturn and the deterioration of the living environment, the development of residential buildings as high energy consuming building is gradually changing from “extensive” to green building in China. So, the evaluation system of green building is continuously improved, but the current evaluation work has the following problems: (1) There are differences in the cost of the actual investment and the purchasing power of residents, also construction target of green residential building is single and lacks multi-objective performance development. (2) Green building evaluation lacks regional characteristics and cannot reflect the different regional residents demand. (3) In the process of determining the criteria weight, the experts’ judgment matrix is difficult to meet the requirement of consistency. Therefore, to solve those problems, questionnaires which are about the green residential building for Ningxia area are distributed, and the results of questionnaires can feedback the purchasing power of residents and the acceptance of the green building cost. Secondly, combined with the geographical features of Ningxia minority areas, the evaluation criteria system of green residential building is constructed. Finally, using the improved group AHP method and the grey clustering method, the criteria weight is determined, and a real case is evaluated, which is located in Xing Qing district, Ningxia. A conclusion can be obtained that the professional evaluation for this project and good social recognition is basically the same.

Evaluation, green residential building, grey clustering method, group AHP.
An Attribute Based Access Control Model with POL Module for Dynamically Granting and Revoking Authorizations
Currently, resource sharing and system security are critical issues. This paper proposes a POL module composed of PRIV ILEGE attribute (PA), obligation and log which improves attribute based access control (ABAC) model in dynamically granting authorizations and revoking authorizations. The following describes the new model termed PABAC in terms of the POL module structure, attribute definitions, policy formulation and authorization architecture, which demonstrate the advantages of it. The POL module addresses the problems which are not predicted before and not described by access control policy. It can be one of the subject attributes or resource attributes according to the practical application, which enhances the flexibility of the model compared with ABAC. A scenario that illustrates how this model is applied to the real world is provided.
Access control, attribute based access control, granting authorizations, privilege, revoking authorizations, system security.
BTG-BIBA: A Flexibility-Enhanced Biba Model Using BTG Strategies for Operating System
Biba model can protect information integrity but might deny various non-malicious access requests of the subjects, thereby decreasing the availability in the system. Therefore, a mechanism that allows exceptional access control is needed. Break the Glass (BTG) strategies refer an efficient means for extending the access rights of users in exceptional cases. These strategies help to prevent a system from stagnation. An approach is presented in this work for integrating Break the Glass strategies into the Biba model. This research proposes a model, BTG-Biba, which provides both an original Biba model used in normal situations and a mechanism used in emergency situations. The proposed model is context aware, can implement a fine-grained type of access control and primarily solves cross-domain access problems. Finally, the flexibility and availability improvement with the use of the proposed model is illustrated.
Biba model, break the glass, context, cross-domain, fine-grained.
K-Means Based Matching Algorithm for Multi-Resolution Feature Descriptors

Matching high dimensional features between images is computationally expensive for exhaustive search approaches in computer vision. Although the dimension of the feature can be degraded by simplifying the prior knowledge of homography, matching accuracy may degrade as a tradeoff. In this paper, we present a feature matching method based on k-means algorithm that reduces the matching cost and matches the features between images instead of using a simplified geometric assumption. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the previous linear exhaustive search approaches in terms of the inlier ratio of matched pairs.

Feature matching, k-means clustering, scale invariant feature transform, linear exhaustive search.
Study on Liquid Nitrogen Gravity Circulation Loop for Cryopumps in Large Space Simulator

Gravity circulation loop for the cryopumps of the space simulator is introduced, and two phase mathematic model of flow heat transfer is analyzed as well. Based on this model, the liquid nitrogen (LN2) gravity circulation loop including its equipment and layout is designed and has served as LN2 feeding system for cryopumps in one large space simulator. With the help of control software and human machine interface, this system can be operated flexibly, simply, and automatically under four conditions. When running this system, the results show that the cryopumps can be cooled down and maintained under the required temperature, 120 K.

Cryopumps, gravity circulation loop, liquid nitrogen, two-phase.