Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity





Rigorous Electromagnetic Model of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging Applied to Automated Histology of Prostate Tissue Specimens
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging technique that provides both chemically and spatially resolved information. The rich chemical content of data may be utilized for computer-aided determinations of structure and pathologic state (cancer diagnosis) in histological tissue sections for prostate cancer. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of prostate tissue has shown that tissue type (histological) classification can be performed to a high degree of accuracy [1] and cancer diagnosis can be performed with an accuracy of about 80% [2] on a microscopic (≈ 6μm) length scale. In performing these analyses, it has been observed that there is large variability (more than 60%) between spectra from different points on tissue that is expected to consist of the same essential chemical constituents. Spectra at the edges of tissues are characteristically and consistently different from chemically similar tissue in the middle of the same sample. Here, we explain these differences using a rigorous electromagnetic model for light-sample interaction. Spectra from FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of chemically heterogeneous samples are different from bulk spectra of individual chemical constituents of the sample. This is because spectra not only depend on chemistry, but also on the shape of the sample. Using coupled wave analysis, we characterize and quantify the nature of spectral distortions at the edges of tissues. Furthermore, we present a method of performing histological classification of tissue samples. Since the mid-infrared spectrum is typically assumed to be a quantitative measure of chemical composition, classification results can vary widely due to spectral distortions. However, we demonstrate that the selection of localized metrics based on chemical information can make our data robust to the spectral distortions caused by scattering at the tissue boundary.
Infrared, Spectroscopy, Imaging, Tissue classification
Interaxial Distance and Convergence Control for Efficient Stereoscopic Shooting using Horizontal Moving 3D Camera Rig
The proper assessment of interaxial distance and convergence control are important factors in stereoscopic imaging technology to make an efficient 3D image. To control interaxial distance and convergence for efficient 3D shooting, horizontal 3D camera rig is designed using some hardware components like 'LM Guide', 'Goniometer' and 'Rotation Stage'. The horizontal 3D camera rig system can be properly aligned by moving the two cameras horizontally in same or opposite directions, by adjusting the camera angle and finally considering horizontal swing as well as vertical swing. In this paper, the relationship between interaxial distance and convergence angle control are discussed and intensive experiments are performed in order to demonstrate an easy and effective 3D shooting.
Interaxial, Convergence, Stereoscopic, Horizontal 3D Camera Rig
Determination of Surface Roughness by Ball Burnishing Process Using Factorial Techniques

Burnishing is a method of finishing and hardening machined parts by plastic deformation of the surface. Experimental work based on central composite second order rotatable design has been carried out on a lathe machine to establish the effects of ball burnishing parameters on the surface roughness of brass material. Analysis of the results by the analysis of variance technique and the F-test show that the parameters considered, have significant effects on the surface roughness.

Ball burnishing, Response surface Methodology.
A Hybrid Machine Learning System for Stock Market Forecasting
In this paper, we propose a hybrid machine learning system based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) for stock market prediction. A variety of indicators from the technical analysis field of study are used as input features. We also make use of the correlation between stock prices of different companies to forecast the price of a stock, making use of technical indicators of highly correlated stocks, not only the stock to be predicted. The genetic algorithm is used to select the set of most informative input features from among all the technical indicators. The results show that the hybrid GA-SVM system outperforms the stand alone SVM system.
Genetic Algorithms, Support Vector Machines, Stock Market Forecasting.
Target Detection using Adaptive Progressive Thresholding Based Shifted Phase-Encoded Fringe-Adjusted Joint Transform Correlator
A new target detection technique is presented in this paper for the identification of small boats in coastal surveillance. The proposed technique employs an adaptive progressive thresholding (APT) scheme to first process the given input scene to separate any objects present in the scene from the background. The preprocessing step results in an image having only the foreground objects, such as boats, trees and other cluttered regions, and hence reduces the search region for the correlation step significantly. The processed image is then fed to the shifted phase-encoded fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator (SPFJTC) technique which produces single and delta-like correlation peak for a potential target present in the input scene. A post-processing step involves using a peak-to-clutter ratio (PCR) to determine whether the boat in the input scene is authorized or unauthorized. Simulation results are presented to show that the proposed technique can successfully determine the presence of an authorized boat and identify any intruding boat present in the given input scene.
Adaptive progressive thresholding, fringe adjusted filters, image segmentation, joint transform correlation, synthetic discriminant function
Evolutionary Training of Hybrid Systems of Recurrent Neural Networks and Hidden Markov Models
We present a hybrid architecture of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) inspired by hidden Markov models (HMMs). We train the hybrid architecture using genetic algorithms to learn and represent dynamical systems. We train the hybrid architecture on a set of deterministic finite-state automata strings and observe the generalization performance of the hybrid architecture when presented with a new set of strings which were not present in the training data set. In this way, we show that the hybrid system of HMM and RNN can learn and represent deterministic finite-state automata. We ran experiments with different sets of population sizes in the genetic algorithm; we also ran experiments to find out which weight initializations were best for training the hybrid architecture. The results show that the hybrid architecture of recurrent neural networks inspired by hidden Markov models can train and represent dynamical systems. The best training and generalization performance is achieved when the hybrid architecture is initialized with random real weight values of range -15 to 15.
Deterministic finite-state automata, genetic algorithm, hidden Markov models, hybrid systems and recurrent neural networks.
Monotonic and Cyclic J-integral Estimation for Through-Wall Cracked Straight Pipes
The evaluation of energy release rate and centre Crack Opening Displacement (COD) for circumferential Through-Wall Cracked (TWC) pipes is an important issue in the assessment of critical crack length for unstable fracture. The ability to predict crack growth continues to be an important component of research for several structural materials. Crack growth predictions can aid the understanding of the useful life of a structural component and the determination of inspection intervals and criteria. In this context, studies were carried out at CSIR-SERC on Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) piping components subjected to monotonic as well as cyclic loading to assess the damage for crack growth due to low-cycle fatigue in circumferentially TWC pipes.
304LN stainless steel, cyclic J-integral, Elastic- Plastic Fracture Mechanics, J-integral, Through-wall crack
Distributed Load Flow Analysis using Graph Theory
In today scenario, to meet enhanced demand imposed by domestic, commercial and industrial consumers, various operational & control activities of Radial Distribution Network (RDN) requires a focused attention. Irrespective of sub-domains research aspects of RDN like network reconfiguration, reactive power compensation and economic load scheduling etc, network performance parameters are usually estimated by an iterative process and is commonly known as load (power) flow algorithm. In this paper, a simple mechanism is presented to implement the load flow analysis (LFA) algorithm. The reported algorithm utilizes graph theory principles and is tested on a 69- bus RDN.
Radial Distribution network, Graph, Load-flow,Array.
Roughness and Hardness of 60/40 Cu-Zn Alloy

The functional performance of machined components, often, depends on surface topography, hardness, nature of stress and strain induced on the surface, etc. Invariably, surfaces of metallic components obtained by turning, milling, etc., consist of irregularities such as machining marks are responsible for the above. Surface finishing/coating processes used to produce improved surface quality/textures are classified as chip-removal and chip-less processes. Burnishing is chip-less cold working process carried out to improve surface finish, hardness and resistance to fatigue and corrosion; not obtainable by other surface coating and surface treatment processes. It is a very simple, but effective method which improves surface characteristics and is reported to introduce compressive stresses.

Of late, considerable attention is paid to post-machining, finishing operations, such as burnishing. During burnishing the micro-irregularities start to deform plastically, initially the crests are gradually flattened and zones of reduced deformation are formed. When all the crests are deformed, the valleys between the micro-irregularities start moving in the direction of the newly formed surface. The grain structure is then condensed, producing a smoother and harder surface with superior load-carrying and wear-resistant capabilities.

Burnishing can be performed on a lathe with a highly polished ball or roller type tool which is traversed under force over a rotating/stationary work piece. Often, several passes are used to obtain the work piece surface with the desired finish and hardness.

This paper presents the findings of an experimental investigation on the effect of ball burnishing parameters such as, burnishing speed, feed, force and number of passes; on surface roughness (Ra) and micro-hardness (Hv) of a 60/40 copper/zinc alloy, using a 2-level fractional factorial design of experiments (DoE). Mathematical models were developed to predict surface roughness and hardness generated by burnishing in terms of the above process parameters. A ball-type tool, designed and constructed from a high chrome steel material (HRC=63 and Ra=0.012 µm), was used for burnishing of fine-turned cylindrical bars (0.68-0.78µm and 145Hv). They are given by,


Ra= 0.305-0.005X1 - 0.0175X2 + 0.0525X4 + 0.0125X1X4 -0.02X2X4 - 0.0375X3X4


Hv=160.625 -2.37 5X1 + 5.125X2 + 1.875X3 + 4.375X4 - 1.625X1X4 + 4.375X2X4 - 2.375X3X4


High surface microhardness (175HV) was obtained at 400rpm, 2passes, 0.05mm/rev and 15kgf., and high surface finish (0.20µm) was achieved at 30kgf, 0.1mm/rev, 112rpm and single pass. In other words, surface finish improved by 350% and microhardness improved by 21% compared to as machined conditions.

Ball burnishing, surface roughness, micro-hardness.
Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, Sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing Piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Piperine, Marichyadi Vati, Gastroretentive drug delivery, Floating tablet.
Development and Optimization of Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System of Ayurvedic Churna Formulation Using Eudragit L100 and Ethyl Cellulose as Coating Material

The purpose of this study was to prepare time and pH dependent release tablets of Ayurvedic Churna formulation and evaluate their advantages as colon targeted drug delivery system. The Vidangadi Churna was selected for this study which contains Embelin and Gallic acid. Embelin is used in Helminthiasis as therapeutic agent. Embelin is insoluble in water and unstable in gastric environment so it was formulated in time and pH dependent tablets coated with combination of two polymers Eudragit L100 and ethyl cellulose. The 150mg of core tablet of dried extract and lactose were prepared by wet granulation method. The compression coating was used in the polymer concentration of 150mg for both the layer as upper and lower coating tablet was investigated. The results showed that no release was found in 0.1 N HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffers for initial 5 hours and about 98.97% of the drug was released in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer in total 17 Hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed first order kinetics as highest linearity (r2= 0.9943). The results of the present study have demonstrated that the time and pH dependent tablets system is a promising vehicle for preventing rapid hydrolysis in gastric environment and improving oral bioavailability of Embelin and Gallic acid for treatment of Helminthiasis.

Embelin, Gallic acid, Vidangadi Churna, Colon targeted drug delivery.
QSAR Studies of Certain Novel Heterocycles Derived from Bis-1, 2, 4 Triazoles as Anti-Tumor Agents

In this paper we report the quantitative structure activity relationship of novel bis-triazole derivatives for predicting the activity profile. The full model encompassed a dataset of 46 Bis- triazoles. Tripos Sybyl X 2.0 program was used to conduct CoMSIA QSAR modeling. The Partial Least-Squares (PLS) analysis method was used to conduct statistical analysis and to derive a QSAR model based on the field values of CoMSIA descriptor. The compounds were divided into test and training set. The compounds were evaluated by various CoMSIA parameters to predict the best QSAR model. An optimum numbers of components were first determined separately by cross-validation regression for CoMSIA model, which were then applied in the final analysis. A series of parameters were used for the study and the best fit model was obtained using donor, partition coefficient and steric parameters. The CoMSIA models demonstrated good statistical results with regression coefficient (r2) and the cross-validated coefficient (q2) of 0.575 and 0.830 respectively. The standard error for the predicted model was 0.16322. In the CoMSIA model, the steric descriptors make a marginally larger contribution than the electrostatic descriptors. The finding that the steric descriptor is the largest contributor for the CoMSIA QSAR models is consistent with the observation that more than half of the binding site area is occupied by steric regions.

3D QSAR, CoMSIA, Triazoles.
Application of Artificial Intelligence to Schedule Operability of Waterfront Facilities in Macro Tide Dominated Wide Estuarine Harbour
Mumbai, being traditionally the epicenter of India's trade and commerce, the existing major ports such as Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru Ports (JN) situated in Thane estuary are also developing its waterfront facilities. Various developments over the passage of decades in this region have changed the tidal flux entering/leaving the estuary. The intake at Pir-Pau is facing the problem of shortage of water in view of advancement of shoreline, while jetty near Ulwe faces the problem of ship scheduling due to existence of shallower depths between JN Port and Ulwe Bunder. In order to solve these problems, it is inevitable to have information about tide levels over a long duration by field measurements. However, field measurement is a tedious and costly affair; application of artificial intelligence was used to predict water levels by training the network for the measured tide data for one lunar tidal cycle. The application of two layered feed forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with back-propagation training algorithms such as Gradient Descent (GD) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) was used to predict the yearly tide levels at waterfront structures namely at Ulwe Bunder and Pir-Pau. The tide data collected at Apollo Bunder, Ulwe, and Vashi for a period of lunar tidal cycle (2013) was used to train, validate and test the neural networks. These trained networks having high co-relation coefficients (R= 0.998) were used to predict the tide at Ulwe, and Vashi for its verification with the measured tide for the year 2000 & 2013. The results indicate that the predicted tide levels by ANN give reasonably accurate estimation of tide. Hence, the trained network is used to predict the yearly tide data (2015) for Ulwe. Subsequently, the yearly tide data (2015) at Pir-Pau was predicted by using the neural network which was trained with the help of measured tide data (2000) of Apollo and Pir-Pau. The analysis of measured data and study reveals that: The measured tidal data at Pir-Pau, Vashi and Ulwe indicate that there is maximum amplification of tide by about 10-20 cm with a phase lag of 10-20 minutes with reference to the tide at Apollo Bunder (Mumbai). LM training algorithm is faster than GD and with increase in number of neurons in hidden layer and the performance of the network increases. The predicted tide levels by ANN at Pir-Pau and Ulwe provides valuable information about the occurrence of high and low water levels to plan the operation of pumping at Pir-Pau and improve ship schedule at Ulwe.
Artificial neural network, back-propagation, tide data, training algorithm.
Thermal Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated Greenhouse Solar Dryer
Present study focused on the utilization of solar energy by the help of photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer under forced mode. A single slope photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer has been proposed and thermal modelling has been developed. Various parameters have been calculated by thermal modelling such as greenhouse room temperature, cell temperature, crop temperature and air temperature at exit of greenhouse. Further cell efficiency, thermal efficiency, and overall thermal efficiency have been calculated for a typical day of May and November. It was found that system can generate equivalent thermal energy up to 7.65 kW and 6.66 kW per day for clear day of May and November respectively.
Characteristics curve, Photovoltaic, Thermal modelling, Thermal efficiency.
PSO Based Optimal Design of Fractional Order Controller for Industrial Application
In this paper, a PSO based fractional order PID (FOPID) controller is proposed for concentration control of an isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) problem. CSTR is used to carry out chemical reactions in industries, which possesses complex nonlinear dynamic characteristics. Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm technique, which is an evolutionary optimization technique based on the movement and intelligence of swarm is proposed for tuning of the controller for this system. Comparisons of proposed controller with conventional and fuzzy based controller illustrate the superiority of proposed PSO-FOPID controller.
CSTR, Fractional Order PID Controller, Partical Swarm Optimization.
Performance of Partially Covered N Number of Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Series Connected Water Heating System

In present study, an approach is adopted where photovoltaic thermal flat plate collector is integrated with compound parabolic concentrator. Analytical expression of temperature dependent electrical efficiency of N number of partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) water collector connected in series has been derived with the help of basic thermal energy balance equations. Analysis has been carried for winter weather condition at Delhi location, India. Energy and exergy performance of N - partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Water collector system has been compared for two cases: (i) 25% area of water collector covered by PV module, (ii) 75% area of water collector covered by PV module. It is observed that case (i) has been best suited for thermal performance and case (ii) for electrical energy as well as overall exergy.

Compound parabolic concentrator, Energy, Photovoltaic thermal, Temperature dependent electrical efficiency.
sEMG Interface Design for Locomotion Identification
Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signal has the potential to identify the human activities and intention. This potential is further exploited to control the artificial limbs using the sEMG signal from residual limbs of amputees. The paper deals with the development of multichannel cost efficient sEMG signal interface for research application, along with evaluation of proposed class dependent statistical approach of the feature selection method. The sEMG signal acquisition interface was developed using ADS1298 of Texas Instruments, which is a front-end interface integrated circuit for ECG application. Further, the sEMG signal is recorded from two lower limb muscles for three locomotions namely: Plane Walk (PW), Stair Ascending (SA), Stair Descending (SD). A class dependent statistical approach is proposed for feature selection and also its performance is compared with 12 preexisting feature vectors. To make the study more extensive, performance of five different types of classifiers are compared. The outcome of the current piece of work proves the suitability of the proposed feature selection algorithm for locomotion recognition, as compared to other existing feature vectors. The SVM Classifier is found as the outperformed classifier among compared classifiers with an average recognition accuracy of 97.40%. Feature vector selection emerges as the most dominant factor affecting the classification performance as it holds 51.51% of the total variance in classification accuracy. The results demonstrate the potentials of the developed sEMG signal acquisition interface along with the proposed feature selection algorithm.
Classifiers, feature selection, locomotion, sEMG.
Current Deflecting Wall: A Promising Structure for Minimising Siltation in Semi-Enclosed Docks
Many estuarine harbours in the world are facing the problem of siltation in docks, channel entrances, etc. The harbours in India are not an exception and require maintenance dredging to achieve navigable depths for keeping them operable. Hence, dredging is inevitable and is a costly affair. The heavy siltation in docks in well mixed tide dominated estuaries is mainly due to settlement of cohesive sediments in suspension. As such there is a need to have a permanent solution for minimising the siltation in such docks to alter the hydrodynamic flow field responsible for siltation by constructing structures outside the dock. One of such docks on the west coast of India, wherein siltation of about 2.5-3 m/annum prevails, was considered to understand the hydrodynamic flow field responsible for siltation. The dock is situated in such a region where macro type of semi-diurnal tide (range of about 5m) prevails. In order to change the flow field responsible for siltation inside the dock, suitability of Current Deflecting Wall (CDW) outside the dock was studied, which will minimise the sediment exchange rate and siltation in the dock. The well calibrated physical tidal model was used to understand the flow field during various phases of tide for the existing dock in Mumbai harbour. At the harbour entrance where the tidal flux exchanges in/out of the dock, measurements on water level and current were made to estimate the sediment transport capacity. The distorted scaled model (1:400 (H) & 1:80 (V)) of Mumbai area was used to study the tidal flow phenomenon, wherein tides are generated by automatic tide generator. Hydraulic model studies carried out under the existing condition (without CDW) reveal that, during initial hours of flood tide, flow hugs the docks breakwater and part of flow which enters the dock forms number of eddies of varying sizes inside the basin, while remaining part of flow bypasses the entrance of dock. During ebb, flow direction reverses, and part of the flow re-enters the dock from outside and creates eddies at its entrance. These eddies do not allow water/sediment-mass to come out and result in settlement of sediments in dock both due to eddies and more retention of sediment. At latter hours, current strength outside the dock entrance reduces and allows the water-mass of dock to come out. In order to improve flow field inside the dockyard, two CDWs of length 300 m and 40 m were proposed outside the dock breakwater and inline to Pier-wall at dock entrance. Model studies reveal that, during flood, major flow gets deflected away from the entrance and no eddies are formed inside the dock, while during ebb flow does not re-enter the dock, and sediment flux immediately starts emptying it during initial hours of ebb. This reduces not only the entry of sediment in dock by about 40% but also the deposition by about 42% due to less retention. Thus, CDW is a promising solution to significantly reduce siltation in dock.
Current deflecting wall, eddies, hydraulic model, macro tide, siltation.
Experimental Study of Unconfined and Confined Isothermal Swirling Jets

A 3C-2D PIV technique was applied to investigate the swirling flow generated by an axial plus tangential type swirl generator. This work is focused on the near-exit region of an isothermal swirling jet to characterize the effect of swirl on the flow field and to identify the large coherent structures both in unconfined and confined conditions for geometrical swirl number, Sg = 4.6. Effects of the Reynolds number on the flow structure were also studied. The experimental results show significant effects of the confinement on the mean velocity fields and its fluctuations. The size of the recirculation zone was significantly enlarged upon confinement compared to the free swirling jet. Increasing in the Reynolds number further enhanced the recirculation zone. The frequency characteristics have been measured with a capacitive microphone which indicates the presence of periodic oscillation related to the existence of precessing vortex core, PVC. Proper orthogonal decomposition of the jet velocity field was carried out, enabling the identification of coherent structures. The time coefficients of the first two most energetic POD modes were used to reconstruct the phase-averaged velocity field of the oscillatory motion in the swirling flow. The instantaneous minima of negative swirl strength values calculated from the instantaneous velocity field revealed the presence of two helical structures located in the inner and outer shear layers and this structure fade out at an axial location of approximately z/D = 1.5 for unconfined case and z/D = 1.2 for confined case. By phase averaging the instantaneous swirling strength maps, the 3D helical vortex structure was reconstructed.

Acoustic probes, 3C-2D particle image velocimetry, PIV, precessing vortex core, PVC, recirculation zone.
Application of Unstructured Mesh Modeling in Evolving SGE of an Airport at the Confluence of Multiple Rivers in a Macro Tidal Region

Among the various developing countries in the world like China, Malaysia, Korea etc., India is also developing its infrastructures in the form of Road/Rail/Airports and Waterborne facilities at an exponential rate. Mumbai, the financial epicenter of India is overcrowded and to relieve the pressure of congestion, Navi Mumbai suburb is being developed on the east bank of Thane creek near Mumbai. The government due to limited space at existing Mumbai Airports (domestic and international) to cater for the future demand of airborne traffic, proposes to build a new international airport near Panvel at Navi Mumbai. Considering the precedence of extreme rainfall on 26th July 2005 and nearby townships being in a low-lying area, wherein new airport is proposed, it is inevitable to study this complex confluence area from a hydrodynamic consideration under both tidal and extreme events (predicted discharge hydrographs), to avoid inundation of the surrounding due to the proposed airport reclamation (1160 hectares) and to determine the safe grade elevation (SGE). The model studies conducted using the application of unstructured mesh to simulate the Panvel estuarine area (93 km2), calibration, validation of a model for hydraulic field measurements and determine the maxima water levels around the airport for various extreme hydrodynamic events, namely the simultaneous occurrence of highest tide from the Arabian Sea and peak flood discharges (Probable Maximum Precipitation and 26th July 2005) from five rivers, the Gadhi, Kalundri, Taloja, Kasadi and Ulwe, meeting at the proposed airport area revealed that: (a) The Ulwe River flowing beneath the proposed airport needs to be diverted. The 120m wide proposed Ulwe diversion channel having a wider base width of 200 m at SH-54 Bridge on the Ulwe River along with the removal of the existing bund in Moha Creek is inevitable to keep the SGE of the airport to a minimum. (b) The clear waterway of 80 m at SH-54 Bridge (Ulwe River) and 120 m at Amra Marg Bridge near Moha Creek is also essential for the Ulwe diversion and (c) The river bank protection works on the right bank of Gadhi River between the NH-4B and SH-54 bridges as well as upstream of the Ulwe River diversion channel are essential to avoid inundation of low lying areas. The maxima water levels predicted around the airport keeps SGE to a minimum of 11m with respect to Chart datum of Ulwe Bundar and thus development is not only technologically-economically feasible but also sustainable. The unstructured mesh modeling is a promising tool to simulate complex extreme hydrodynamic events and provides a reliable solution to evolve optimal SGE of airport.

Airport, hydrodynamics, hydrographs, safe grade elevation, tides.