|Commenced in January 1999 || Frequency: Monthly || Edition: International|| Paper Count: 17 |
Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering
Development of Energy Management System Based on Internet of Things Technique
The purpose of this study was to develop an energy management system for university campuses based on the Internet of Things (IoT) technique. The proposed IoT technique based on WebAccess is used via network browser Internet Explore and applies TCP/IP protocol. The case study of IoT for lighting energy usage management system was proposed. Structure of proposed IoT technique included perception layer, equipment layer, control layer, application layer and network layer.
Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit
A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.
Sidelobe Reduction in Cognitive Radio Systems Using Hybrid Technique
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the best candidates for dynamic spectrum access due to its flexibility of spectrum shaping. However, the high sidelobes of the OFDM signal that result in high out-of-band radiation, introduce significant interference to the users operating in its vicinity. This problem becomes more critical in cognitive radio (CR) system that enables the secondary users (SUs) users to access the spectrum holes not used by the primary users (PUs) at that time. In this paper, we present a generalized OFDM framework that has a capability of describing any sidelobe suppression techniques, despite of whether one or a number of techniques are used. Based on that framework, we propose cancellation carrier (CC) technique in conjunction with the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) to reduce the out-of-band radiation in the region where the licensed users are operating. Simulation results show that the proposed technique can reduce the out-of-band radiation better when compared with the existing techniques found in the literature.
Protection of Floating Roof Petroleum Storage Tanks against Lightning Strokes
The subject of petroleum storage tank fires has gained a great deal of attention due to the high cost of petroleum, and the consequent disruption of petroleum production; therefore, much of the current research has focused on petroleum storage tank fires. Also, the number of petroleum tank fires is oscillating between 15 and 20 fires per year. About 33% of all tank fires are attributed to lightning. Floating roof tanks (FRT’s) are especially vulnerable to lightning. To minimize the likelihood of a fire, the API RP 545 recommends three major modifications to floating roof tanks. This paper was inspired by a stroke of lightning that ignited a fire in a crude oil storage tank belonging to an Egyptian oil company, and is aimed at providing an efficient lightning protection system to the tank under study, in order to avoid the occurrence of such phenomena in the future and also, to give valuable recommendations to be applied to floating roof tank projects.
Electromagnetic Assessment of Submarine Power Cable Degradation Using Finite Element Method and Sensitivity Analysis
Submarine power cables used for offshore wind farms
electric energy distribution and transmission are subject to numerous
threats. Some of the risks are associated with transport, installation
and operating in harsh marine environment. This paper describes the
feasibility of an electromagnetic low frequency sensing technique for
submarine power cable failure prediction. The impact of a structural
damage shape and material variability on the induced electric field is
evaluated. The analysis is performed by modeling the cable using the
finite element method, we use sensitivity analysis in order to identify
the main damage characteristics affecting electric field variation.
Lastly, we discuss the results obtained.
On-Chip Aging Sensor Circuit Based on Phase Locked Loop Circuit
In sub micrometer technology, the aging phenomenon starts to have a significant impact on the reliability of integrated circuits by bringing performance degradation. For that reason, it is important to have a capability to evaluate the aging effects accurately. This paper presents an accurate aging measurement approach based on phase-locked loop (PLL) and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) circuit. The architecture is rejecting the circuit self-aging effect from the characteristics of PLL, which is generating the frequency without any aging phenomena affects. The aging monitor is implemented in low power 32 nm CMOS technology, and occupies a pretty small area. Aging simulation results show that the proposed aging measurement circuit improves accuracy by about 2.8% at high temperature and 19.6% at high voltage.
Type–2 Fuzzy Programming for Optimizing the Heat Rate of an Industrial Gas Turbine via Absorption Chiller Technology
Terms set in power purchase agreements (PPA) challenge power utility companies in balancing between the returns (from maximizing power production) and securing long term supply contracts at capped production. The production limitation set in the PPA has driven efforts to maximize profits through efficient and economic power production. In this paper, a combined industrial-scale gas turbine (GT) - absorption chiller (AC) system is considered to cool the GT air intake for reducing the plant’s heat rate (HR). This GT-AC system is optimized while considering power output limitations imposed by the PPA. In addition, the proposed formulation accounts for uncertainties in the ambient temperature using Type-2 fuzzy programming. Using the enhanced chaotic differential evolution (CEDE), the Pareto frontier was constructed and the optimization results are analyzed in detail.
Rail-To-Rail Output Op-Amp Design with Negative Miller Capacitance Compensation
In this paper, a two-stage op-amp design is considered using both Miller and negative Miller compensation techniques. The first op-amp design uses Miller compensation around the second amplification stage, whilst the second op-amp design uses negative Miller compensation around the first stage and Miller compensation around the second amplification stage. The aims of this work were to compare the gain and phase margins obtained using the different compensation techniques and identify the ability to choose either compensation technique based on a particular set of design requirements. The two op-amp designs created are based on the same two-stage rail-to-rail output CMOS op-amp architecture where the first stage of the op-amp consists of differential input and cascode circuits, and the second stage is a class AB amplifier. The op-amps have been designed using a 0.35mm CMOS fabrication process.
Design and Implementation of Embedded FM Transmission Control SW for Low Power Battery System
In this paper, an embedded frequency modulation
(FM) transmission control software (SW) for a low power battery
system is designed and implemented. The simultaneous translation
systems for various languages are needed as so many international
conferences and festivals are held in world wide. Especially in
portable transmitting and receiving systems, the ability of long
operation life is used for a measure of value. This paper proposes
an embedded FM transmission control SW for low power battery
system and shows the results of the SW implemented on a portable
FM transmission system.
Design of Open Framework Based Smart ESS Profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS
In this paper, an open framework based smart energy
storage system (ESS) profile for photovoltaic (PV)-ESS and
uninterruptible power supply (UPS)-ESS is proposed and designed.
An open framework based smart ESS is designed and developed for
unifying the different interfaces among manufacturers. The smart
ESS operates under the profile which provides the specifications
of peripheral devices such as different interfaces and to the open
framework. The profile requires well systemicity and expandability
for addible peripheral devices. Especially, the smart ESS should
provide the expansion with existing systems such as UPS and the
linkage with new renewable energy technology such as PV. This
paper proposes and designs an open framework based smart ESS
profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS. The designed profile provides the
existing smart ESS and also the expandability of additional peripheral
devices on smart ESS such as PV and UPS.
Online Battery Equivalent Circuit Model Estimation on Continuous-Time Domain Using Linear Integral Filter Method
Equivalent circuit models (ECMs) are widely used in
battery management systems in electric vehicles and other battery
energy storage systems. The battery dynamics and the model
parameters vary under different working conditions, such as different
temperature and state of charge (SOC) levels, and therefore online
parameter identification can improve the modelling accuracy. This
paper presents a way of online ECM parameter identification using a
continuous time (CT) estimation method. The CT estimation method
has several advantages over discrete time (DT) estimation methods
for ECM parameter identification due to the widely separated battery
dynamic modes and fast sampling. The presented method can be used
for online SOC estimation. Test data are collected using a lithium ion
cell, and the experimental results show that the presented CT method
achieves better modelling accuracy compared with the conventional
DT recursive least square method. The effectiveness of the presented
method for online SOC estimation is also verified on test data.
Realization of a Temperature Based Automatic Controlled Domestic Electric Boiling System
This paper presents a kind of analog circuit based
temperature control system, which is mainly composed by threshold
control signal circuit, synchronization signal circuit and trigger
pulse circuit. Firstly, the temperature feedback signal function is
realized by temperature sensor TS503F3950E. Secondly, the main
control circuit forms the cycle controlled pulse signal to control
the thyristor switching model. Finally two reverse paralleled
thyristors regulate the output power by their switching state. In
the consequence, this is a modernized and energy-saving domestic
electric heating system.
Integrated Power Saving for Multiple Relays and UEs in LTE-TDD
In this paper, the design of integrated sleep scheduling for relay nodes and user equipments under a Donor eNB (DeNB) in the mode of Time Division Duplex (TDD) in LTE-A is presented. The idea of virtual time is proposed to deal with the discontinuous pattern of the available radio resource in TDD, and based on the estimation of the traffic load, three power saving schemes in the top-down strategy are presented. Associated mechanisms in each scheme including calculation of the virtual subframe capacity, the algorithm of integrated sleep scheduling, and the mapping mechanisms for the backhaul link and the access link are presented in the paper. Simulation study shows the advantage of the proposed schemes in energy saving over the standard DRX scheme.
Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels
In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme
based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated
LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the
second to protect it against channel degradations. The original
information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder,
where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by
transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of
the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case
of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN)
channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters.
We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff
depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We
show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively
low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly
correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has
to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance
for a given channel.
Analysis of Thermoelectric Coolers as Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Applications
The growing popularity of solid state thermoelectric
devices in cooling applications has sparked an increasing diversity of
thermoelectric coolers (TECs) on the market, commonly known as
“Peltier modules”. They can also be used as generators, converting
a temperature difference into electric power, and opportunities are
plentiful to make use of these devices as thermoelectric generators
(TEGs) to supply energy to low power, autonomous embedded
electronic applications. Their adoption as energy harvesters in this
new domain of usage is obstructed by the complex thermoelectric
models commonly associated with TEGs. Low cost TECs for the
consumer market lack the required parameters to use the models
because they are not intended for this mode of operation, thereby
urging an alternative method to obtain electric power estimations
in specific operating conditions. The design of the test setup
implemented in this paper is specifically targeted at benchmarking
commercial, off-the-shelf TECs for use as energy harvesters in
domestic environments: applications with limited temperature
differences and space available. The usefulness is demonstrated by
testing and comparing single and multi stage TECs with different
sizes. The effect of a boost converter stage on the thermoelectric
end-to-end efficiency is also discussed.
Motion Estimator Architecture with Optimized Number of Processing Elements for High Efficiency Video Coding
Motion estimation occupies the heaviest computation in HEVC (high efficiency video coding). Many fast algorithms such as TZS (test zone search) have been proposed to reduce the computation. Still the huge computation of the motion estimation is a critical issue in the implementation of HEVC video codec. In this paper, motion estimator architecture with optimized number of PEs (processing element) is presented by exploiting early termination. It also reduces hardware size by exploiting parallel processing. The presented motion estimator architecture has 8 PEs, and it can efficiently perform TZS with very high utilization of PEs.
Parallel 2-Opt Local Search on GPU
To accelerate the solution for large scale traveling
salesman problems (TSP), a parallel 2-opt local search algorithm
with simple implementation based on Graphics Processing Unit
(GPU) is presented and tested in this paper. The parallel scheme is
based on technique of data decomposition by dynamically assigning
multiple K processors on the integral tour to treat K edges’ 2-opt
local optimization simultaneously on independent sub-tours, where
K can be user-defined or have a function relationship with input size
N. We implement this algorithm with doubly linked list on GPU.
The implementation only requires O(N) memory. We compare this
parallel 2-opt local optimization against sequential exhaustive 2-opt
search along integral tour on TSP instances from TSPLIB with more
than 10000 cities.