Analytical Formulae for the Approach Velocity Head Coefficient
Critical depth meters, such as abroad crested weir, Venture Flume and combined control flume are standard devices for measuring flow in open channels. The discharge relation for these devices cannot be solved directly, but it needs iteration process to account for the approach velocity head. In this paper, analytical solution was developed to calculate the discharge in a combined critical depth-meter namely, a hump combined with lateral contraction in rectangular channel with subcritical approach flow including energy losses. Also analytical formulae were derived for approach velocity head coefficient for different types of critical depth meters. The solution was derived by solving a standard cubic equation considering energy loss on the base of trigonometric identity. The advantage of this technique is to avoid iteration process adopted in measuring flow by these devices. Numerical examples are chosen for demonstration of the proposed solution.
Forecasting the Volatility of Geophysical Time Series with Stochastic Volatility Models
This work is devoted to the study of modeling
geophysical time series. A stochastic technique with time-varying
parameters is used to forecast the volatility of data arising in
geophysics. In this study, the volatility is defined as a logarithmic
first-order autoregressive process. We observe that the inclusion of
log-volatility into the time-varying parameter estimation significantly
improves forecasting which is facilitated via maximum likelihood
estimation. This allows us to conclude that the estimation algorithm
for the corresponding one-step-ahead suggested volatility (with ±2
standard prediction errors) is very feasible since it possesses good
Generalized Rough Sets Applied to Graphs Related to Urban Problems
Branch of modern mathematics, graphs represent instruments
for optimization and solving practical applications in
various fields such as economic networks, engineering, network optimization,
the geometry of social action, generally, complex systems
including contemporary urban problems (path or transport efficiencies,
biourbanism, & c.). In this paper is studied the interconnection
of some urban network, which can lead to a simulation problem of a
digraph through another digraph. The simulation is made univoc or
more general multivoc. The concepts of fragment and atom are very
useful in the study of connectivity in the digraph that is simulation
- including an alternative evaluation of k- connectivity. Rough set
approach in (bi)digraph which is proposed in premier in this paper
contribute to improved significantly the evaluation of k-connectivity.
This rough set approach is based on generalized rough sets - basic
facts are presented in this paper.
Fourier Galerkin Approach to Wave Equation with Absorbing Boundary Conditions
Numerical computation of wave propagation in a large
domain usually requires significant computational effort. Hence, the
considered domain must be truncated to a smaller domain of interest.
In addition, special boundary conditions, which absorb the outward
travelling waves, need to be implemented in order to describe the
system domains correctly. In this work, the linear one dimensional
wave equation is approximated by utilizing the Fourier Galerkin
approach. Furthermore, the artificial boundaries are realized with
absorbing boundary conditions. Within this work, a systematic work
flow for setting up the wave problem, including the absorbing
boundary conditions, is proposed. As a result, a convenient modal
system description with an effective absorbing boundary formulation
is established. Moreover, the truncated model shows high accuracy
compared to the global domain.
Zero Divisor Graph of a Poset with Respect to Primal Ideals
In this paper, we extend the concepts of primal and
weakly primal ideals for posets. Further, the diameter of the zero
divisor graph of a poset with respect to a non-primal ideal is
determined. The relation between primary and primal ideals in posets
is also studied.
Multisymplectic Geometry and Noether Symmetries for the Field Theories and the Relativistic Mechanics
The problem of symmetries in field theory has been analyzed using geometric frameworks, such as the multisymplectic models by using in particular the multivector field formalism. In this paper, we expand the vector fields associated to infinitesimal symmetries which give rise to invariant quantities as Noether currents for classical field theories and relativistic mechanic using the multisymplectic geometry where the Poincaré-Cartan form has thus been greatly simplified using the Second Order Partial Differential Equation (SOPDE) for multi-vector fields verifying Euler equations. These symmetries have been classified naturally according to the construction of the fiber bundle used. In this work, unlike other works using the analytical method, our geometric model has allowed us firstly to distinguish the angular moments of the gauge field obtained during different transformations while these moments are gathered in a single expression and are obtained during a rotation in the Minkowsky space. Secondly, no conditions are imposed on the Lagrangian of the mechanics with respect to its dependence in time and in qi, the currents obtained naturally from the transformations are respectively the energy and the momentum of the system.
Secure E-Pay System Using Steganography and Visual Cryptography
Today’s internet world is highly prone to various online attacks, of which the most harmful attack is phishing. The attackers host the fake websites which are very similar and look alike. We propose an image based authentication using steganography and visual cryptography to prevent phishing. This paper presents a secure steganographic technique for true color (RGB) images and uses Discrete Cosine Transform to compress the images. The proposed method hides the secret data inside the cover image. The use of visual cryptography is to preserve the privacy of an image by decomposing the original image into two shares. Original image can be identified only when both qualified shares are simultaneously available. Individual share does not reveal the identity of the original image. Thus, the existence of the secret message is hard to be detected by the RS steganalysis.
Basket Option Pricing under Jump Diffusion Models
Pricing financial contracts on several underlying assets
received more and more interest as a demand for complex derivatives.
The option pricing under asset price involving jump diffusion
processes leads to the partial integral differential equation (PIDEs),
which is an extension of the Black-Scholes PDE with a new integral
term. The aim of this paper is to show how basket option prices
in the jump diffusion models, mainly on the Merton model, can
be computed using RBF based approximation methods. For a test
problem, the RBF-PU method is applied for numerical solution
of partial integral differential equation arising from the two-asset
European vanilla put options. The numerical result shows the
accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.
Fuzzy Subalgebras and Fuzzy Ideals of BCI-Algebras with Operators
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of fuzzy subalgebras, fuzzy ideals and fuzzy quotient algebras of BCI-algebras with operators, and to investigate their basic properties.
Effect of Manganese Doping on Ferrroelectric Properties of (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramic
Alkaline niobate (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramic system has attracted major attention in view of its potential for replacing the highly toxic but superior lead zirconate titanate (PZT) system for piezoelectric applications. Recently, a more detailed study of this system reveals that the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are optimized in the Li- and V-modified system having the composition (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3. In the present work, we further study the pyroelectric behaviour of this composition along with another doped with Mn4+. So, (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 + x MnO2 (x = 0, and 0.01 wt. %) ceramic compositions were synthesized by conventional ceramic processing route. X-ray diffraction study reveals that both the undoped and Mn4+-doped ceramic samples prepared crystallize into a perovskite structure having orthorhombic symmetry. Dielectric study indicates that Mn4+ doping has little effect on both the Curie temperature (Tc) and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition temperature (Tot). The bulk density, room-temperature dielectric constant (εRT), and room-c The room-temperature coercive field (Ec) is observed to be lower in Mn4+ doped sample. The detailed analysis of the P-E hysteresis loops over the range of temperature from about room temperature to Tot points out that enhanced ferroelectric properties exist in this temperature range with better thermal stability for the Mn4+ doped ceramic. The study reveals that small traces of Mn4+ can modify (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 system so as to improve its ferroelectric properties with good thermal stability over a wide range of temperature.
Skew Cyclic Codes over Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq
This paper studies a special class of linear codes, called skew cyclic codes, over the ring R= Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq, where q is a prime power. A Gray map ɸ from R to Fq and a Gray map ɸ' from Rn to Fnq are defined, as well as an automorphism Θ over R. It is proved that the images of skew cyclic codes over R under map ɸ' and Θ are cyclic codes over Fq, and they still keep the dual relation.
Efficiency of Robust Heuristic Gradient Based Enumerative and Tunneling Algorithms for Constrained Integer Programming Problems
This paper presents performance of two robust gradient-based heuristic optimization procedures based on 3n enumeration and tunneling approach to seek global optimum of constrained integer problems. Both these procedures consist of two distinct phases for locating the global optimum of integer problems with a linear or non-linear objective function subject to linear or non-linear constraints. In both procedures, in the first phase, a local minimum of the function is found using the gradient approach coupled with hemstitching moves when a constraint is violated in order to return the search to the feasible region. In the second phase, in one optimization procedure, the second sub-procedure examines 3n integer combinations on the boundary and within hypercube volume encompassing the result neighboring the result from the first phase and in the second optimization procedure a tunneling function is constructed at the local minimum of the first phase so as to find another point on the other side of the barrier where the function value is approximately the same. In the next cycle, the search for the global optimum commences in both optimization procedures again using this new-found point as the starting vector. The search continues and repeated for various step sizes along the function gradient as well as that along the vector normal to the violated constraints until no improvement in optimum value is found. The results from both these proposed optimization methods are presented and compared with one provided by popular MS Excel solver that is provided within MS Office suite and other published results.
Conjugate Mixed Convection Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation of Cu-Water Nanofluid in an Enclosure with Thick Wavy Bottom Wall
Mixed convection of Cu-water nanofluid in an enclosure
with thick wavy bottom wall has been investigated numerically.
A co-ordinate transformation method is used to transform the
computational domain into an orthogonal co-ordinate system. The
governing equations in the computational domain are solved through
a pressure correction based iterative algorithm. The fluid flow
and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for a wide range
of Richardson number (0.1 ≤ Ri ≤ 5), nanoparticle volume
concentration (0.0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.2), amplitude (0.0 ≤ α ≤ 0.1) of
the wavy thick- bottom wall and the wave number (ω) at a fixed
Reynolds number. Obtained results showed that heat transfer rate
increases remarkably by adding the nanoparticles. Heat transfer rate
is dependent on the wavy wall amplitude and wave number and
decreases with increasing Richardson number for fixed amplitude
and wave number. The Bejan number and the entropy generation are
determined to analyze the thermodynamic optimization of the mixed
On CR-Structure and F-Structure Satisfying Polynomial Equation
The purpose of this paper is to show a relation between CR structure and F-structure satisfying polynomial equation. In this paper, we have checked the significance of CR structure and F-structure on Integrability conditions and Nijenhuis tensor. It was proved that all the properties of Integrability conditions and Nijenhuis tensor are satisfied by CR structures and F-structure satisfying polynomial equation.
Lowering Error Floors by Concatenation of Low-Density Parity-Check and Array Code
Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been shown to deliver capacity approaching performance; however, problematic graphical structures (e.g. trapping sets) in the Tanner graph of some LDPC codes can cause high error floors in bit-error-ratio (BER) performance under conventional sum-product algorithm (SPA). This paper presents a serial concatenation scheme to avoid the trapping sets and to lower the error floors of LDPC code. The outer code in the proposed concatenation is the LDPC, and the inner code is a high rate array code. This approach applies an interactive hybrid process between the BCJR decoding for the array code and the SPA for the LDPC code together with bit-pinning and bit-flipping techniques. Margulis code of size (2640, 1320) has been used for the simulation and it has been shown that the proposed concatenation and decoding scheme can considerably improve the error floor performance with minimal rate loss.
Entropy Measures on Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Application in Multi Attribute Decision Making
The focus of the paper is to furnish the entropy measure
for a neutrosophic set and neutrosophic soft set which is a measure
of uncertainty and it permeates discourse and system. Various characterization
of entropy measures are derived. Further we exemplify
this concept by applying entropy in various real time decision making
A Fuzzy Mathematical Model for Order Acceptance and Scheduling Problem
The problem of Order Acceptance and Scheduling (OAS) is defined as a joint decision of which orders to accept for processing and how to schedule them. Any linear programming model representing real-world situation involves the parameters defined by the decision maker in an uncertain way or by means of language statement. Fuzzy data can be used to incorporate vagueness in the real-life situation. In this study, a fuzzy mathematical model is proposed for a single machine OAS problem, where the orders are defined by their fuzzy due dates, fuzzy processing times, and fuzzy sequence dependent setup times. The signed distance method, one of the fuzzy ranking methods, is used to handle the fuzzy constraints in the model.
Sensitivity Analysis during the Optimization Process Using Genetic Algorithms
Genetic algorithms (GA) are applied to the solution
of high-dimensional optimization problems. Additionally, sensitivity
analysis (SA) is usually carried out to determine the effect on optimal
solutions of changes in parameter values of the objective function.
These two analyses (i.e., optimization and sensitivity analysis)
are computationally intensive when applied to high-dimensional
functions. The approach presented in this paper consists in performing
the SA during the GA execution, by statistically analyzing the data
obtained of running the GA. The advantage is that in this case
SA does not involve making additional evaluations of the objective
function and, consequently, this proposed approach requires less
computational effort than conducting optimization and SA in two
An Analytical Method for Solving General Riccati Equation
In this paper, the general Riccati equation is analytically solved by a new transformation. By the method developed, looking at the transformed equation, whether or not an explicit solution can be obtained is readily determined. Since the present method does not require a proper solution for the general solution, it is especially suitable for equations whose proper solutions cannot be seen at first glance. Since the transformed second order linear equation obtained by the present transformation has the simplest form that it can have, it is immediately seen whether or not the original equation can be solved analytically. The present method is exemplified by several examples.
Development of a Paediatric Head Model for the Computational Analysis of Head Impact Interactions
Head injury in childhood is a common cause of death or permanent disability from injury. However, despite its frequency and significance, there is little understanding of how a child’s head responds during injurious loading. Whilst Infant Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) experimentation is a logical approach to understand injury biomechanics, it is the authors’ opinion that a lack of subject availability is hindering potential progress. Computer modelling adds great value when considering adult populations; however, its potential remains largely untapped for infant surrogates. The complexities of child growth and development, which result in age dependent changes in anatomy, geometry and physical response characteristics, present new challenges for computational simulation. Further geometric challenges are presented by the intricate infant cranial bones, which are separated by sutures and fontanelles and demonstrate a visible fibre orientation. This study presents an FE model of a newborn infant’s head, developed from high-resolution computer tomography scans, informed by published tissue material properties. To mimic the fibre orientation of immature cranial bone, anisotropic properties were applied to the FE cranial bone model, with elastic moduli representing the bone response both parallel and perpendicular to the fibre orientation. Biofiedility of the computational model was confirmed by global validation against published PMHS data, by replicating experimental impact tests with a series of computational simulations, in terms of head kinematic responses. Numerical results confirm that the FE head model’s mechanical response is in favourable agreement with the PMHS drop test results.
A Comparative Study of Additive and Nonparametric Regression Estimators and Variable Selection Procedures
One of the biggest challenges in nonparametric
regression is the curse of dimensionality. Additive models are known
to overcome this problem by estimating only the individual additive
effects of each covariate. However, if the model is misspecified, the
accuracy of the estimator compared to the fully nonparametric one
is unknown. In this work the efficiency of completely nonparametric
regression estimators such as the Loess is compared to the estimators
that assume additivity in several situations, including additive and
non-additive regression scenarios. The comparison is done by
computing the oracle mean square error of the estimators with regards
to the true nonparametric regression function. Then, a backward
elimination selection procedure based on the Akaike Information
Criteria is proposed, which is computed from either the additive or
the nonparametric model. Simulations show that if the additive model
is misspecified, the percentage of time it fails to select important
variables can be higher than that of the fully nonparametric approach.
A dimension reduction step is included when nonparametric estimator
cannot be computed due to the curse of dimensionality. Finally, the
Boston housing dataset is analyzed using the proposed backward
elimination procedure and the selected variables are identified.
Mathematical Study for Traffic Flow and Traffic Density in Kigali Roads
This work investigates a mathematical study for traffic flow and traffic density in Kigali city roads and the data collected from the national police of Rwanda in 2012. While working on this topic, some mathematical models were used in order to analyze and compare traffic variables. This work has been carried out on Kigali roads specifically at roundabouts from Kigali Business Center (KBC) to Prince House as our study sites. In this project, we used some mathematical tools to analyze the data collected and to understand the relationship between traffic variables. We applied the Poisson distribution method to analyze and to know the number of accidents occurred in this section of the road which is from KBC to Prince House. The results show that the accidents that occurred in 2012 were at very high rates due to the fact that this section has a very narrow single lane on each side which leads to high congestion of vehicles, and consequently, accidents occur very frequently. Using the data of speeds and densities collected from this section of road, we found that the increment of the density results in a decrement of the speed of the vehicle. At the point where the density is equal to the jam density the speed becomes zero. The approach is promising in capturing sudden changes on flow patterns and is open to be utilized in a series of intelligent management strategies and especially in noncurrent congestion effect detection and control.
Simulation of the Large Hadrons Collisions Using Monte Carlo Tools
In many cases, theoretical treatments are available for models for which there is no perfect physical realization. In this situation, the only possible test for an approximate theoretical solution is to compare with data generated from a computer simulation. In this paper, Monte Carlo tools are used to study and compare the elementary particles models. All the experiments are implemented using 10000 events, and the simulated energy is 13 TeV. The mean and the curves of several variables are calculated for each model using MadAnalysis 5. Anomalies in the results can be seen in the muons masses of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the two Higgs doublet model.
Stability Analysis of a Human-Mosquito Model of Malaria with Infective Immigrants
In this paper, we analyse the stability of the SEIR model
of malaria with infective immigrants which was recently formulated
by the authors. The model consists of an SEIR model for the human
population and SI Model for the mosquitoes. Susceptible humans
become infected after they are bitten by infectious mosquitoes and
move on to the Exposed, Infected and Recovered classes respectively.
The susceptible mosquito becomes infected after biting an infected
person and remains infected till death. We calculate the reproduction
number R0 using the next generation method and then discuss about
the stability of the equilibrium points. We use the Lyapunov function
to show the global stability of the equilibrium points.
Mathematical Modeling of Human Cardiovascular System: A Lumped Parameter Approach and Simulation
The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical
model of Human Cardiovascular System using lumped parameter
method. The model is divided in three parts: Systemic Circulation,
Pulmonary Circulation and the Heart. The established mathematical
model has been simulated by MATLAB software. The innovation of
this study is in describing the system based on the vessel diameters
and simulating mathematical equations with active electrical
elements. Terminology of human physical body and required
physical data like vessel’s radius, thickness etc., which are required
to calculate circuit parameters like resistance, inductance and
capacitance, are proceeds from well-known medical books. The
developed model is useful to understand the anatomic of human
cardiovascular system and related syndromes. The model is deal with
vessel’s pressure and blood flow at certain time.
Transport of Analytes under Mixed Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow of Power Law Fluid
In this study, we have analyzed the transport of analytes
under a two dimensional steady incompressible flow of power-law
fluids through rectangular nanochannel. A mathematical model
based on the Cauchy momentum-Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations is
considered to study the combined effect of mixed electroosmotic
(EO) and pressure driven (PD) flow. The coupled governing
equations are solved numerically by finite volume method. We
have studied extensively the effect of key parameters, e.g., flow
behavior index, concentration of the electrolyte, surface potential,
imposed pressure gradient and imposed electric field strength on
the net average flow across the channel. In addition to study
the effect of mixed EOF and PD on the analyte distribution
across the channel, we consider a nonlinear model based on
general convective-diffusion-electromigration equation. We have also
presented the retention factor for various values of electrolyte
concentration and flow behavior index.
Jointly Learning Python Programming and Analytic Geometry
The paper presents an original Python-based application that outlines the advantages of combining some elementary notions of mathematics with the study of a programming language. The application support refers to some of the first lessons of analytic geometry, meaning conics and quadrics and their reduction to a standard form, as well as some related notions. The chosen programming language is Python, not only for its closer to an everyday language syntax – and therefore, enhanced readability – but also for its highly reusable code, which is of utmost importance for a mathematician that is accustomed to exploit already known and used problems to solve new ones. The purpose of this paper is, on one hand, to support the idea that one of the most appropriate means to initiate one into programming is throughout mathematics, and reciprocal, one of the most facile and handy ways to assimilate some basic knowledge in the study of mathematics is to apply them in a personal project. On the other hand, besides being a mean of learning both programming and analytic geometry, the application subject to this paper is itself a useful tool for it can be seen as an independent original Python package for analytic geometry.
Effects of Thermal Radiation on Mixed Convection in a MHD Nanofluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet Using a Spectral Relaxation Method
The effects of thermal radiation, Soret and Dufour
parameters on mixed convection and nanofluid flow over a stretching
sheet in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated. The flow is
subject to temperature dependent viscosity and a chemical reaction
parameter. It is assumed that the nanoparticle volume fraction at the
wall may be actively controlled. The physical problem is modelled
using systems of nonlinear differential equations which have been
solved numerically using a spectral relaxation method. In addition
to the discussion on heat and mass transfer processes, the velocity,
nanoparticles volume fraction profiles as well as the skin friction
coefficient are determined for different important physical parameters.
A comparison of current findings with previously published results
for some special cases of the problem shows an excellent agreement.
Tsunami Inundation Modeling in a Boundary Fitted Curvilinear Grid Model Using the Method of Lines Technique
A numerical technique in a boundary-fitted curvilinear grid model is developed to simulate the extent of inland inundation along the coastal belts of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand due to 2004 Indian ocean tsunami. Tsunami propagation and run-up are also studied in this paper. The vertically integrated shallow water equations are solved by using the method of lines (MOL). For this purpose the boundary-fitted grids are generated along the coastal and island boundaries and the other open boundaries of the model domain. A transformation is used to the governing equations so that the transformed physical domain is converted into a rectangular one. The MOL technique is applied to the transformed shallow water equations and the boundary conditions so that the equations are converted into ordinary differential equations initial value problem. Finally the 4th order Runge-Kutta method is used to solve these ordinary differential equations. The moving boundary technique is applied instead of fixed sea side wall or fixed coastal boundary to ensure the movement of the coastal boundary. The extent of intrusion of water and associated tsunami propagation are simulated for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand. The simulated results are compared with the results obtained from a finite difference model and the data available in the USGS website. All simulations show better approximation than earlier research and also show excellent agreement with the observed data.
Group Invariant Solutions of Nonlinear Time-Fractional Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equation
In this paper, we have investigated the nonlinear
time-fractional hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) for
its symmetries and invariance properties. With the application of
this method, we have tried to reduce it to time-fractional ordinary
differential equation (ODE) which has been further studied for exact