Numerical Simulations on Feasibility of Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Random Dither Quantization
The random dither quantization method enables us
to achieve much better performance than the simple uniform
quantization method for the design of quantized control systems.
Motivated by this fact, the stochastic model predictive control
method in which a performance index is minimized subject to
probabilistic constraints imposed on the state variables of systems
has been proposed for linear feedback control systems with random
dither quantization. In other words, a method for solving optimal
control problems subject to probabilistic state constraints for linear
discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization has
been already established. To our best knowledge, however, the
feasibility of such a kind of optimal control problems has not
yet been studied. Our objective in this paper is to investigate the
feasibility of stochastic model predictive control problems for linear
discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization. To
this end, we provide the results of numerical simulations that verify
the feasibility of stochastic model predictive control problems for
linear discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization.
A Model Predictive Control Based Virtual Active Power Filter Using V2G Technology
This paper presents a virtual active power filter (VAPF) using vehicle to grid (V2G) technology to maintain power quality requirements. The optimal discrete operation of the power converter of electric vehicle (EV) is based on recognizing desired switching states using the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. A fast dynamic response, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and good reference tracking performance are realized through the presented control strategy. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink validate the effectiveness of the scheme in improving power quality as well as good dynamic response in power transferring capability.
Online Robust Model Predictive Control for Linear Fractional Transformation Systems Using Linear Matrix Inequalities
In this paper, the problem of robust model predictive control (MPC) for discrete-time linear systems in linear fractional transformation form with structured uncertainty and norm-bounded disturbance is investigated. The problem of minimization of the cost function for MPC design is converted to minimization of the worst case of the cost function. Then, this problem is reduced to minimization of an upper bound of the cost function subject to a terminal inequality satisfying the l2-norm of the closed loop system. The characteristic of the linear fractional transformation system is taken into account, and by using some mathematical tools, the robust predictive controller design problem is turned into a linear matrix inequality minimization problem. Afterwards, a formulation which includes an integrator to improve the performance of the proposed robust model predictive controller in steady state condition is studied. The validity of the approaches is illustrated through a robust control benchmark problem.
Sampled-Data Model Predictive Tracking Control for Mobile Robot
In this paper, a sampled-data model predictive tracking
control method is presented for mobile robots which is modeled as
constrained continuous-time linear parameter varying (LPV) systems.
The presented sampled-data predictive controller is designed by linear
matrix inequality approach. Based on the input delay approach, a
controller design condition is derived by constructing a new Lyapunov
function. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the
effectiveness of the presented method.
Design and Development of Real-Time Optimal Energy Management System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
This paper describes a strategy to develop an energy
management system (EMS) for a charge-sustaining power-split hybrid
electric vehicle. This kind of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) benefit
from the advantages of both parallel and series architecture. However,
it gets relatively more complicated to manage power flow between the
battery and the engine optimally. The applied strategy in this paper is
based on nonlinear model predictive control approach. First of all, an
appropriate control-oriented model which was accurate enough and
simple was derived. Towards utilization of this controller in real-time,
the problem was solved off-line for a vast area of reference signals
and initial conditions and stored the computed manipulated variables
inside look-up tables. Look-up tables take a little amount of memory.
Also, the computational load dramatically decreased, because to find
required manipulated variables the controller just needed a simple
interpolation between tables.
Application of Fractional Model Predictive Control to Thermal System
The article presents an application of Fractional Model Predictive Control (FMPC) to a fractional order thermal system using Controlled Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (CARIMA) model obtained by discretization of a continuous fractional differential equation. Moreover, the output deviation approach is exploited to design the K -step ahead output predictor, and the corresponding control law is obtained by solving a quadratic cost function. Experiment results onto a thermal system are presented to emphasize the performances and the effectiveness of the proposed predictive controller.
Distributed Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Multiple Interconnected Intersections
In connected vehicle systems where wireless communication is available among the involved vehicles and intersection controllers, it is possible to design an intersection coordination strategy that leads the connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) travel through the road intersections without the conventional traffic light control. In this paper, we present a distributed coordination strategy for the CAVs at multiple interconnected intersections that aims at improving system fuel efficiency and system mobility. We present a distributed control solution where in the higher level, the intersection controllers calculate the road desired average velocity and optimally assign reference velocities of each vehicle. In the lower level, every vehicle is considered to use model predictive control (MPC) to track their reference velocity obtained from the higher level controller. The proposed method has been implemented on a simulation-based case with two-interconnected intersection network. Additionally, the effects of mixed vehicle types on the coordination strategy has been explored. Simulation results indicate the improvement on vehicle fuel efficiency and traffic mobility of the proposed method.
Model Predictive Control of Three Phase Inverter for PV Systems
This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC)
of a utility interactive three phase inverter (TPI) for a photovoltaic
(PV) system at commercial level. The proposed model uses phase
locked loop (PLL) to synchronize the TPI with the power electric
grid (PEG) and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. TPI
model consists of a boost converter (BC), maximum power point
tracking (MPPT) control, and a three-leg voltage source inverter
(VSI). The operational model of VSI is used to synthesize the
sinusoidal current and track the reference. The model is validated
using a 35.7 kW PV system in Matlab/Simulink. Implementation
results show simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the
MP-SMC-I Method for Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles under Braking
In this paper, a new SMC (Sliding Mode Control)
method with MP (Model Predictive Control) integral action for the
slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed.
The proposed method introduce the integral term with standard SMC
gain , where the integral gain is optimized for each control period by
the MPC algorithms. The aim of this method is to improve the safety
and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip
ratio. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate
the effectiveness of the method.
Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems with DBPs Objectives
The paper develops a Non-Linear Model Predictive
Control (NMPC) of water quality in Drinking Water Distribution
Systems (DWDS) based on the advanced non-linear quality dynamics
model including disinfections by-products (DBPs). A special attention
is paid to the analysis of an impact of the flow trajectories prescribed
by an upper control level of the recently developed two-time scale
architecture of an integrated quality and quantity control in DWDS.
The new quality controller is to operate within this architecture in the
fast time scale as the lower level quality controller. The controller
performance is validated by a comprehensive simulation study based
on an example case study DWDS.
MPC of Single Phase Inverter for PV System
This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC)
of a utility interactive (UI) single phase inverter (SPI) for a
photovoltaic (PV) system at residential/distribution level. The
proposed model uses single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) to
synchronize SPI with the grid and performs MPC control in a dq
reference frame. SPI model consists of boost converter (BC),
maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a full bridge
(FB) voltage source inverter (VSI). No PI regulators to tune and
carrier and modulating waves are required to produce switching
sequence. Instead, the operational model of VSI is used to synthesize
sinusoidal current and track the reference. Model is validated using a
three kW PV system at the input of UI-SPI in Matlab/Simulink.
Implementation and results demonstrate simplicity and accuracy, as
well as reliability of the model.
Space Vector PWM and Model Predictive Control for Voltage Source Inverter Control
In this paper, we present a comparative assessment of
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) and Model
Predictive Control (MPC) for two-level three phase (2L-3P) Voltage
Source Inverter (VSI). VSI with associated system is subjected to
both control techniques and the results are compared.
Matlab/Simulink was used to model, simulate and validate the
control schemes. Findings of this study show that MPC is superior to
SVPWM in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD) and
Model Predictive 2DOF PID Slip Suppression Control of Electric Vehicle under Braking
In this paper, a 2DOF (two degrees of freedom) PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller based on MPC (Model predictive control) algorithm fo slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed. The proposed method aims to improve the safety and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip ration. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.
Modeling and Control Design of a Centralized Adaptive Cruise Control System
A vehicle driving with an Adaptive Cruise Control
System (ACC) is usually controlled decentrally, based on the
information of radar systems and in some publications based on
C2X-Communication (CACC) to guarantee stable platoons. In this
paper we present a Model Predictive Control (MPC) design of a
centralized, server-based ACC-System, whereby the vehicular platoon
is modeled and controlled as a whole. It is then proven that the
proposed MPC design guarantees asymptotic stability and hence
string stability of the platoon. The Networked MPC design is
chosen to be able to integrate system constraints optimally as well
as to reduce the effects of communication delay and packet loss.
The performance of the proposed controller is then simulated and
analyzed in an LTE communication scenario using the LTE/EPC
Network Simulator LENA, which is based on the ns-3 network
RBF Modelling and Optimization Control for Semi-Batch Reactors
This paper presents a neural network based model predictive control (MPC) strategy to control a strongly exothermic reaction with complicated nonlinear kinetics given by Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor that requires a very precise temperature control to maintain product uniformity. In the benchmark scenario, the operation of the reactor must be guaranteed under various disturbing influences, e.g., changing ambient temperatures or impurity of the monomer. Such a process usually controlled by conventional cascade control, it provides a robust operation, but often lacks accuracy concerning the required strict temperature tolerances. The predictive control strategy based on the RBF neural model is applied to solve this problem to achieve set-point tracking of the reactor temperature against disturbances. The result shows that the RBF based model predictive control gives reliable result in the presence of some disturbances and keeps the reactor temperature within a tight tolerance range around the desired reaction temperature.
Profit Optimization for Solar Plant Electricity Production
In this paper a stochastic scenario-based model predictive control applied to molten salt storage systems in concentrated solar tower power plant is presented. The main goal of this study is to build up a tool to analyze current and expected future resources for evaluating the weekly power to be advertised on electricity secondary market. This tool will allow plant operator to maximize profits while hedging the impact on the system of stochastic variables such as resources or sunlight shortage.
Solving the problem first requires a mixed logic dynamic modeling of the plant. The two stochastic variables, respectively the sunlight incoming energy and electricity demands from secondary market, are modeled by least square regression. Robustness is achieved by drawing a certain number of random variables realizations and applying the most restrictive one to the system. This scenario approach control technique provides the plant operator a confidence interval containing a given percentage of possible stochastic variable realizations in such a way that robust control is always achieved within its bounds. The results obtained from many trajectory simulations show the existence of a ‘’reliable’’ interval, which experimentally confirms the algorithm robustness.
Periodic Control of a Wastewater Treatment Process to Improve Productivity
In this paper, periodic force operation of a wastewater treatment process has been studied for the improved process performance. A previously developed dynamic model for the process is used to conduct the performance analysis. The static version of the model was utilized first to determine the optimal productivity conditions for the process. Then, feed flow rate in terms of dilution rate i.e. (D) is transformed into sinusoidal function. Nonlinear model predictive control algorithm is utilized to regulate the amplitude and period of the sinusoidal function. The parameters of the feed cyclic functions are determined which resulted in improved productivity than the optimal productivity under steady state conditions. The improvement in productivity is found to be marginal and is satisfactory in substrate conversion compared to that of the optimal condition and to the steady state condition, which corresponds to the average value of the periodic function. Successful results were also obtained in the presence of modeling errors and external disturbances.
Periodic Control of a Reverse Osmosis Water Desalination Unit
Enhancement of the performance of a reverse osmosis
(RO) unit through periodic control is studied. The periodic control
manipulates the feed pressure and flow rate of the RO unit. To ensure
the periodic behavior of the inputs, the manipulated variables (MV)
are transformed into the form of sinusoidal functions. In this case, the
amplitude and period of the sinusoidal functions become the
surrogate MV and are thus regulated via nonlinear model predictive
control algorithm. The simulation results indicated that the control
system can generate cyclic inputs necessary to enhance the closedloop
performance in the sense of increasing the permeate production
and lowering the salt concentration. The proposed control system can
attain its objective with arbitrary set point for the controlled outputs.
Successful results were also obtained in the presence of modeling
Model Predictive Fuzzy Control of Air-ratio for Automotive Engines
Automotive engine air-ratio plays an important role of
emissions and fuel consumption reduction while maintains
satisfactory engine power among all of the engine control variables. In
order to effectively control the air-ratio, this paper presents a model
predictive fuzzy control algorithm based on online least-squares
support vector machines prediction model and fuzzy logic optimizer.
The proposed control algorithm was also implemented on a real car for
testing and the results are highly satisfactory. Experimental results
show that the proposed control algorithm can regulate the engine
air-ratio to the stoichiometric value, 1.0, under external disturbance
with less than 5% tolerance.
Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles using Model Predictive PID Controller
In this paper, a new model predictive PID controller
design method for the slip suppression control of EVs (electric
vehicles) is proposed. The proposed method aims to improve the
maneuverability and the stability of EVs by controlling the wheel
slip ratio. The optimal control gains of PID framework are derived
by the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. There also include
numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the
Adaptive MPC Using a Recursive Learning Technique
A model predictive controller based on recursive learning is proposed. In this SISO adaptive controller, a model is automatically updated using simple recursive equations. The identified models are then stored in the memory to be re-used in the future. The decision for model update is taken based on a new control performance index. The new controller allows the use of simple linear model predictive controllers in the control of nonlinear time varying processes.
DMC with Adaptive Weighted Output
This paper presents a new adaptive DMC controller
that improves the controller performance in case of plant-model
mismatch. The new controller monitors the plant measured output,
compares it with the model output and calculates weights applied to
the controller move. Simulations show that the new controller can
help improve control performance and avoid instability in case of
severe model mismatches.
A Microcontroller Implementation of Constrained Model Predictive Control
Model Predictive Control (MPC) is an established control
technique in a wide range of process industries. The reason for
this success is its ability to handle multivariable systems and systems
having input, output or state constraints. Neverthless comparing to
PID controller, the implementation of the MPC in miniaturized
devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and microcontrollers
has historically been very small scale due to its complexity in
implementation and its computation time requirement. At the same
time, such embedded technologies have become an enabler for future
manufacturing enterprisers as well as a transformer of organizations
and markets. In this work, we take advantage of these recent advances
in this area in the deployment of one of the most studied and applied
control technique in the industrial engineering. In this paper, we
propose an efficient firmware for the implementation of constrained
MPC in the performed STM32 microcontroller using interior point
method. Indeed, performances study shows good execution speed
and low computational burden. These results encourage to develop
predictive control algorithms to be programmed in industrial standard
processes. The PID anti windup controller was also implemented in
the STM32 in order to make a performance comparison with the
MPC. The main features of the proposed constrained MPC framework
are illustrated through two examples.
A Microcontroller Implementation of Model Predictive Control
Model Predictive Control (MPC) is increasingly being
proposed for real time applications and embedded systems. However
comparing to PID controller, the implementation of the MPC in
miniaturized devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)
and microcontrollers has historically been very small scale due to its
complexity in implementation and its computation time requirement.
At the same time, such embedded technologies have become an
enabler for future manufacturing enterprises as well as a transformer
of organizations and markets. Recently, advances in microelectronics
and software allow such technique to be implemented in embedded
systems. In this work, we take advantage of these recent advances
in this area in the deployment of one of the most studied and
applied control technique in the industrial engineering. In fact in
this paper, we propose an efficient framework for implementation
of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) in the performed STM32
microcontroller. The STM32 keil starter kit based on a JTAG interface
and the STM32 board was used to implement the proposed GPC
firmware. Besides the GPC, the PID anti windup algorithm was
also implemented using Keil development tools designed for ARM
processor-based microcontroller devices and working with C/Cµ
langage. A performances comparison study was done between both
firmwares. This performances study show good execution speed and
low computational burden. These results encourage to develop simple
predictive algorithms to be programmed in industrial standard hardware.
The main features of the proposed framework are illustrated
through two examples and compared with the anti windup PID
Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Based On Wiener Model
In this paper, we consider Wiener nonlinear model for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The Wiener model of the SOFC consists of a linear dynamic block and a static output non-linearity followed by the block, in which linear part is approximated by state-space model and the nonlinear part is identified by a polynomial form. To control the SOFC system, we have to consider various view points such as operating conditions, another constraint conditions, change of load current and so on. A change of load current is the significant one of these for good performance of the SOFC system. In order to keep the constant stack terminal voltage by changing load current, the nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) is proposed in this paper. After primary control method is designed to guarantee the fuel utilization as a proper constant, a nonlinear model predictive control based on the Wiener model is developed to control the stack terminal voltage of the SOFC system. Simulation results verify the possibility of the proposed Wiener model and MPC method to control of SOFC system.
Nonlinear Model Predictive Swing-Up and Stabilizing Sliding Mode Controllers
In this paper, a nonlinear model predictive swing-up
and stabilizing sliding controller is proposed for an inverted
pendulum-cart system. In the swing up phase, the nonlinear model
predictive control is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem
with energy based objective function. By solving this problem at
each sampling instant, a sequence of control inputs that optimize the
nonlinear objective function subject to various constraints over a
finite horizon are obtained. Then, this control drives the pendulum to
a predefined neighborhood of the upper equilibrium point, at where
sliding mode based model predictive control is used to stabilize the
systems with the specified constraints. It is shown by the simulations
that, due to the way of formulating the problem, short horizon
lengths are sufficient for attaining the swing up goal.
Model Predictive Control of Gantry Crane with Input Nonlinearity Compensation
This paper proposed a nonlinear model predictive
control (MPC) method for the control of gantry crane. One of the main
motivations to apply MPC to control gantry crane is based on its
ability to handle control constraints for multivariable systems. A
pre-compensator is constructed to compensate the input nonlinearity
(nonsymmetric dead zone with saturation) by using its inverse
function. By well tuning the weighting function matrices, the control
system can properly compromise the control between crane position
and swing angle. The proposed control algorithm was implemented for
the control of gantry crane system in System Control Lab of University
of Technology, Sydney (UTS), and achieved desired experimental
Dynamics and Control of Bouncing Ball
This paper investigates the control of a bouncing
ball using Model Predictive Control. Bouncing ball is a benchmark
problem for various rhythmic tasks such as juggling, walking,
hopping and running. Humans develop intentions which may be
perceived as our reference trajectory and tries to track it. The
human brain optimizes the control effort needed to track its
reference; this forms the central theme for control of bouncing ball
in our investigations.
A Model Predictive Control and Time Series Forecasting Framework for Supply Chain Management
Model Predictive Control has been previously applied
to supply chain problems with promising results; however hitherto
proposed systems possessed no information on future demand. A
forecasting methodology will surely promote the efficiency of
control actions by providing insight on the future. A complete supply
chain management framework that is based on Model Predictive
Control (MPC) and Time Series Forecasting will be presented in this
paper. The proposed framework will be tested on industrial data in
order to assess the efficiency of the method and the impact of
forecast accuracy on overall control performance of the supply chain.
To this end, forecasting methodologies with different characteristics
will be implemented on test data to generate forecasts that will serve
as input to the Model Predictive Control module.
Application of Feed Forward Neural Networks in Modeling and Control of a Fed-Batch Crystallization Process
This paper is focused on issues of nonlinear dynamic process modeling and model-based predictive control of a fed-batch sugar crystallization process applying the concept of artificial neural networks as computational tools. The control objective is to force the operation into following optimal supersaturation trajectory. It is achieved by manipulating the feed flow rate of sugar liquor/syrup, considered as the control input. A feed forward neural network (FFNN) model of the process is first built as part of the controller structure to predict the process response over a specified (prediction) horizon. The predictions are supplied to an optimization procedure to determine the values of the control action over a specified (control) horizon that minimizes a predefined performance index. The control task is rather challenging due to the strong nonlinearity of the process dynamics and variations in the crystallization kinetics. However, the simulation results demonstrated smooth behavior of the control actions and satisfactory reference tracking.