Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 5

5
10007886
Effect of Scarp Topography on Seismic Ground Motion
Abstract:
Local irregular topography has a great impact on earthquake ground motion. For scarp topography, using numerical simulation method, the influence extent and scope of the scarp terrain on scarp's upside and downside ground motion are discussed in case of different vertical incident SV waves. The results show that: (1) The amplification factor of scarp's upside region is greater than that of the free surface, while the amplification factor of scarp's downside part is less than that of the free surface; (2) When the slope angle increases, for x component, amplification factors of the scarp upside also increase, while the downside part decrease with it. For z component, both of the upside and downside amplification factors will increase; (3) When the slope angle changes, the influence scope of scarp's downside part is almost unchanged, but for the upside part, it slightly becomes greater with the increase of slope angle; (4) Due to the existence of the scarp, the z component ground motion appears at the surface. Its amplification factor increases for larger slope angle, and the peaks of the surface responses are related with incident waves. However, the input wave has little effects on the x component amplification factors.
4
10007807
Analysis of Building Response from Vertical Ground Motions
Abstract:

Building structures are subjected to both horizontal and vertical ground motions during earthquakes, but only the horizontal ground motion has been extensively studied and considered in design. Most of the prevailing seismic codes assume the vertical component to be 1/2 to 2/3 of the horizontal one. In order to understand the building responses from vertical ground motions, many earthquakes records are studied in this paper. System identification methods (ARX Model) are used to analyze the strong motions and to find out the characteristics of the vertical amplification factors and the natural frequencies of buildings. Analysis results show that the vertical amplification factors for high-rise buildings and low-rise building are 1.78 and 2.52 respectively, and the average vertical amplification factor of all buildings is about 2. The relationship between the vertical natural frequency and building height was regressed to a suggested formula in this study. The result points out an important message; the taller the building is, the greater chance of resonance of vertical vibration on the building will be.

3
9999937
Dynamic Amplification Factors of Some City Bridges
Abstract:

Paper presents a study about dynamic effects obtained from the dynamic load testing of the city highway bridges in Latvia carried out from 2005 to 2012. 9 prestressed concrete bridges and 4 composite bridges were considered. 11 of 13 bridges were designed according to the Eurocodes but two according to the previous structural codes used in Latvia (SNIP 2.05.03-84). The dynamic properties of the bridges were obtained by heavy vehicle passing the bridge roadway with different driving speeds and with or without even pavement. The obtained values of the Dynamic amplification factor (DAF) and the bridge natural frequency were analyzed and compared to the values of built-in traffic load models provided in Eurocode 1. The actual DAF values for even bridge pavement in the most cases are smaller than the value adopted in Eurocode 1. Vehicle speed for uneven pavements significantly influence Dynamic amplification factor values.

2
3635
An Overview of Some High Order and Multi-Level Finite Difference Schemes in Computational Aeroacoustics
Abstract:

In this paper, we have combined some spatial derivatives with the optimised time derivative proposed by Tam and Webb in order to approximate the linear advection equation which is given by = 0. Ôêé Ôêé + Ôêé Ôêé x f t u These spatial derivatives are as follows: a standard 7-point 6 th -order central difference scheme (ST7), a standard 9-point 8 th -order central difference scheme (ST9) and optimised schemes designed by Tam and Webb, Lockard et al., Zingg et al., Zhuang and Chen, Bogey and Bailly. Thus, these seven different spatial derivatives have been coupled with the optimised time derivative to obtain seven different finite-difference schemes to approximate the linear advection equation. We have analysed the variation of the modified wavenumber and group velocity, both with respect to the exact wavenumber for each spatial derivative. The problems considered are the 1-D propagation of a Boxcar function, propagation of an initial disturbance consisting of a sine and Gaussian function and the propagation of a Gaussian profile. It is known that the choice of the cfl number affects the quality of results in terms of dissipation and dispersion characteristics. Based on the numerical experiments solved and numerical methods used to approximate the linear advection equation, it is observed in this work, that the quality of results is dependent on the choice of the cfl number, even for optimised numerical methods. The errors from the numerical results have been quantified into dispersion and dissipation using a technique devised by Takacs. Also, the quantity, Exponential Error for Low Dispersion and Low Dissipation, eeldld has been computed from the numerical results. Moreover, based on this work, it has been found that when the quantity, eeldld can be used as a measure of the total error. In particular, the total error is a minimum when the eeldld is a minimum.

1
12094
Determining the Maximum Lateral Displacement Due to Sever Earthquakes without Using Nonlinear Analysis
Abstract:
For Seismic design, it is important to estimate, maximum lateral displacement (inelastic displacement) of the structures due to sever earthquakes for several reasons. Seismic design provisions estimate the maximum roof and storey drifts occurring in major earthquakes by amplifying the drifts of the structures obtained by elastic analysis subjected to seismic design load, with a coefficient named “displacement amplification factor" which is greater than one. Here, this coefficient depends on various parameters, such as ductility and overstrength factors. The present research aims to evaluate the value of the displacement amplification factor in seismic design codes and then tries to propose a value to estimate the maximum lateral structural displacement from sever earthquakes, without using non-linear analysis. In seismic codes, since the displacement amplification is related to “force reduction factor" hence; this aspect has been accepted in the current study. Meanwhile, two methodologies are applied to evaluate the value of displacement amplification factor and its relation with the force reduction factor. In the first methodology, which is applied for all structures, the ratio of displacement amplification and force reduction factors is determined directly. Whereas, in the second methodology that is applicable just for R/C moment resisting frame, the ratio is obtained by calculating both factors, separately. The acquired results of these methodologies are alike and estimate the ratio of two factors from 1 to 1.2. The results indicate that the ratio of the displacement amplification factor and the force reduction factor differs to those proposed by seismic provisions such as NEHRP, IBC and Iranian seismic code (standard no. 2800).
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