Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 76

Use of Personal Rhythm to Authenticate Encrypted Messages

When communicating using private and secure keys, there is always the doubt as to the identity of the message creator. We introduce an algorithm that uses the personal typing rhythm (keystroke dynamics) of the message originator to increase the trust of the authenticity of the message originator by the message recipient. The methodology proposes the use of a Rhythm Certificate Authority (RCA) to validate rhythm information. An illustrative example of the communication between Bob and Alice and the RCA is included. An algorithm of how to communicate with the RCA is presented. This RCA can be an independent authority or an enhanced Certificate Authority like the one used in public key infrastructure (PKI).

Fusion of Shape and Texture for Unconstrained Periocular Authentication

Unconstrained authentication is an important component for personal automated systems and human-computer interfaces. Existing solutions mostly use face as the primary object of analysis. The performance of face-based systems is largely determined by the extent of deformation caused in the facial region and amount of useful information available in occluded face images. Periocular region is a useful portion of face with discriminative ability coupled with resistance to deformation. A reliable portion of periocular area is available for occluded images. The present work demonstrates that joint representation of periocular texture and periocular structure provides an effective expression and poses invariant representation. The proposed methodology provides an effective and compact description of periocular texture and shape. The method is tested over four benchmark datasets exhibiting varied acquisition conditions.

A Robust Eyelashes and Eyelid Detection in Transformation Invariant Iris Recognition: In Application with LRC Security System
Biometric authentication is an essential task for any kind of real-life applications. In this paper, we contribute two primary paradigms to Iris recognition such as Robust Eyelash Detection (RED) using pathway kernels and hair curve fitting synthesized model. Based on these two paradigms, rotation invariant iris recognition is enhanced. In addition, the presented framework is tested with real-life iris data to provide the authentication for LRC (Learning Resource Center) users. Recognition performance is significantly improved based on the contributed schemes by evaluating real-life irises. Furthermore, the framework has been implemented using Java programming language. Experiments are performed based on 1250 diverse subjects in different angles of variations on the authentication process. The results revealed that the methodology can deploy in the process on LRC management system and other security required applications.
Identity Management in Virtual Worlds Based on Biometrics Watermarking
With the technological development and rise of virtual worlds, these spaces are becoming more and more attractive for cybercriminals, hidden behind avatars and fictitious identities. Since access to these spaces is not restricted or controlled, some impostors take advantage of gaining unauthorized access and practicing cyber criminality. This paper proposes an identity management approach for securing access to virtual worlds. The major purpose of the suggested solution is to install a strong security mechanism to protect virtual identities represented by avatars. Thus, only legitimate users, through their corresponding avatars, are allowed to access the platform resources. Access is controlled by integrating an authentication process based on biometrics. In the request process for registration, a user fingerprint is enrolled and then encrypted into a watermark utilizing a cancelable and non-invertible algorithm for its protection. After a user personalizes their representative character, the biometric mark is embedded into the avatar through a watermarking procedure. The authenticity of the avatar identity is verified when it requests authorization for access. We have evaluated the proposed approach on a dataset of avatars from various virtual worlds, and we have registered promising performance results in terms of authentication accuracy, acceptation and rejection rates.
The Internet of Things Ecosystem: Survey of the Current Landscape, Identity Relationship Management, Multifactor Authentication Mechanisms, and Underlying Protocols
A critical component in the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is the need for secure and appropriate transmission, processing, and storage of the data. Our current forms of authentication, and identity and access management do not suffice because they are not designed to service cohesive, integrated, interconnected devices, and service applications. The seemingly endless opportunities of IoT are in fact circumscribed on multiple levels by concerns such as trust, privacy, security, loss of control, and related issues. This paper considers multi-factor authentication (MFA) mechanisms and cohesive identity relationship management (IRM) standards. It also surveys messaging protocols that are appropriate for the IoT ecosystem.
Hybrid Authentication System Using QR Code with OTP

As we know, number of Internet users are increasing drastically. Now, people are using different online services provided by banks, colleges/schools, hospitals, online utility, bill payment and online shopping sites. To access online services, text-based authentication system is in use. The text-based authentication scheme faces some drawbacks with usability and security issues that bring troubles to users. The core element of computational trust is identity. The aim of the paper is to make the system more compliable for the imposters and more reliable for the users, by using the graphical authentication approach. In this paper, we are using the more powerful tool of encoding the options in graphical QR format and also there will be the acknowledgment which will send to the user’s mobile for final verification. The main methodology depends upon the encryption option and final verification by confirming a set of pass phrase on the legal users, the outcome of the result is very powerful as it only gives the result at once when the process is successfully done. All processes are cross linked serially as the output of the 1st process, is the input of the 2nd and so on. The system is a combination of recognition and pure recall based technique. Presented scheme is useful for devices like PDAs, iPod, phone etc. which are more handy and convenient to use than traditional desktop computer systems.

Towards a Secure Storage in Cloud Computing
Cloud computing has emerged as a flexible computing paradigm that reshaped the Information Technology map. However, cloud computing brought about a number of security challenges as a result of the physical distribution of computational resources and the limited control that users have over the physical storage. This situation raises many security challenges for data integrity and confidentiality as well as authentication and access control. This work proposes a security mechanism for data integrity that allows a data owner to be aware of any modification that takes place to his data. The data integrity mechanism is integrated with an extended Kerberos authentication that ensures authorized access control. The proposed mechanism protects data confidentiality even if data are stored on an untrusted storage. The proposed mechanism has been evaluated against different types of attacks and proved its efficiency to protect cloud data storage from different malicious attacks.
Authenticity of Lipid and Soluble Sugar Profiles of Various Oat Cultivars (Avena sativa)

The identification of lipid and soluble sugar components in flour samples of different cultivars belonging to common oat species (Avena sativa L.) was performed: spring oat, winter oat and hulless oat. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol). Soluble sugars were then extracted from defatted and dried samples of oat flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into corresponding TMS-oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide). The hexane and ethanol extracts of each oat cultivar were analyzed using GC-MS system. Lipid and simple sugar compositions are very similar in all samples of investigated cultivars. Chemometric tool was applied to numeric values of automatically integrated surface areas of detected lipid and simple sugar components in their corresponding derivatized forms. Hierarchical cluster analysis shows a very high similarity between the investigated flour samples of oat cultivars, according to the fatty acid content (0.9955). Moderate similarity was observed according to the content of soluble sugars (0.50). These preliminary results support the idea of establishing methods for oat flour authentication, and provide the means for distinguishing oat flour samples, regardless of the variety, from flour samples made of other cereal species, just by lipid and simple sugar profile analysis.

Evaluation and Analysis of the Secure E-Voting Authentication Preparation Scheme

In this paper, we presented an evaluation and analysis of E-Voting Authentication Preparation Scheme (EV-APS). EV-APS applies some modified security aspects that enhance the security measures and adds a strong wall of protection, confidentiality, non-repudiation and authentication requirements. Some of these modified security aspects are Kerberos authentication protocol, PVID scheme, responder certificate validation, and the converted Ferguson e-cash protocol. Authentication and privacy requirements have been evaluated and proved. Authentication guaranteed only eligible and authorized voters were permitted to vote. Also, the privacy guaranteed that all votes will be kept secret. Evaluation and analysis of some of these security requirements have been given. These modified aspects will help in filtering the counter buffer from unauthorized votes by ensuring that only authorized voters are permitted to vote.

Automatic Checkpoint System Using Face and Card Information

In the deep south of Thailand, checkpoints for people verification are necessary for the security management of risk zones, such as official buildings in the conflict area. In this paper, we propose an automatic checkpoint system that verifies persons using information from ID cards and facial features. The methods for a person’s information abstraction and verification are introduced based on useful information such as ID number and name, extracted from official cards, and facial images from videos. The proposed system shows promising results and has a real impact on the local society.

Password Cracking on Graphics Processing Unit Based Systems
Password authentication is one of the widely used methods to achieve authentication for legal users of computers and defense against attackers. There are many different ways to authenticate users of a system and there are many password cracking methods also developed. This paper proposes how best password cracking can be performed on a CPU-GPGPU based system. The main objective of this work is to project how quickly a password can be cracked with some knowledge about the computer security and password cracking if sufficient security is not incorporated to the system.
Efficient and Timely Mutual Authentication Scheme for RFID Systems
The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has a diverse base of applications, but it is also prone to security threats. There are different types of security attacks which limit the range of the RFID applications. For example, deploying the RFID networks in insecure environments could make the RFID system vulnerable to many types of attacks such as spoofing attack, location traceability attack, physical attack and many more. Therefore, security is often an important requirement for RFID systems. In this paper, RFID mutual authentication protocol is implemented based on mobile agent technology and timestamp, which are used to provide strong authentication and integrity assurances to both the RFID readers and their corresponding RFID tags. The integration of mobile agent technology and timestamp provides promising results towards achieving this goal and towards reducing the security threats in RFID systems.
Threshold Based Region Incrementing Secret Sharing Scheme for Color Images
In this era of online communication, which transacts data in 0s and 1s, confidentiality is a priced commodity. Ensuring safe transmission of encrypted data and their uncorrupted recovery is a matter of prime concern. Among the several techniques for secure sharing of images, this paper proposes a k out of n region incrementing image sharing scheme for color images. The highlight of this scheme is the use of simple Boolean and arithmetic operations for generating shares and the Lagrange interpolation polynomial for authenticating shares. Additionally, this scheme addresses problems faced by existing algorithms such as color reversal and pixel expansion. This paper regenerates the original secret image whereas the existing systems regenerates only the half toned secret image.
An Interlacing Technique-Based Blind Video Watermarking Using Wavelet

The rapid growth of multimedia technology demands the secure and efficient access to information. This fast growing lose the confidence of unauthorized duplication. Henceforth the protection of multimedia content is becoming more important. Watermarking solves the issue of unlawful copy of advanced data. In this paper, blind video watermarking technique has been proposed. A luminance layer of selected frames is interlaced into two even and odd rows of an image, further it is deinterlaced and equalizes the coefficients of the two shares. Color watermark is split into different blocks, and the pieces of block are concealed in one of the share under the wavelet transform. Stack the two images into a single image by introducing interlaced even and odd rows in the two shares. Finally, chrominance bands are concatenated with the watermarked luminance band. The safeguard level of the secret information is high, and it is undetectable. Results show that the quality of the video is not changed also yields the better PSNR values.

Secured Session Based Profile Caching for E-Learning Systems Using WiMAX Networks
E-Learning enables the users to learn at anywhere at any time. In E-Learning systems, authenticating the E-Learning user has security issues. The usage of appropriate communication networks for providing the internet connectivity for E-learning is another challenge. WiMAX networks provide Broadband Wireless Access through the Multicast Broadcast Service so these networks can be most suitable for E-Learning applications. The authentication of E-Learning user is vulnerable to session hijacking problems. The repeated authentication of users can be done to overcome these issues. In this paper, session based Profile Caching Authentication is proposed. In this scheme, the credentials of E-Learning users can be cached at authentication server during the initial authentication through the appropriate subscriber station. The proposed cache based authentication scheme performs fast authentication by using cached user profile. Thus, the proposed authentication protocol reduces the delay in repeated authentication to enhance the security in ELearning.
A New Authenticable Steganographic Method via the Use of Numeric Data on Public Websites
A new steganographic method via the use of numeric data on public websites with a self-authentication capability is proposed. The proposed technique transforms a secret message into partial shares by Shamir’s (k, n)-threshold secret sharing scheme with n = k + 1. The generated k+1 partial shares then are embedded into the numeric items to be disguised as part of the website’s numeric content, yielding the stego numeric content. Afterward, a receiver links to the website and extracts every k shares among the k+1 ones from the stego numeric content to compute k+1 copies of the secret, and the phenomenon of value consistency of the computed k+1 copies is taken as an evidence to determine whether the extracted message is authentic or not, attaining the goal of self-authentication of the extracted secret message. Experimental results and discussions are provided to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
EUDIS-An Encryption Scheme for User-Data Security in Public Networks

The method of introducing the proxy interpretation for sending and receiving requests increase the capability of the server and our approach UDIV (User-Data Identity Security) to solve the data and user authentication without extending size of the data makes better than hybrid IDS (Intrusion Detection System). And at the same time all the security stages we have framed have to pass through less through that minimize the response time of the request. Even though an anomaly detected, before rejecting it the proxy extracts its identity to prevent it to enter into system. In case of false anomalies, the request will be reshaped and transformed into legitimate request for further response. Finally we are holding the normal and abnormal requests in two different queues with own priorities.

A Study on User Authentication Method Using Haptic Actuator and Security Evaluation

As currently various portable devices were launched, smart business conducted using them became common. Since smart business can use company-internal resources in an exlternal remote place, user authentication that can identify authentic users is an important factor. Commonly used user authentication is a method of using user ID and Password. In the user authentication using ID and Password, the user should see and enter authentication information him or her. In this user authentication system depending on the user’s vision, there is the threat of password leaks through snooping in the process which the user enters his or her authentication information. This study designed and produced a user authentication module using an actuator to respond to the snooping threat.

Protecting the Privacy and Trust of VIP Users on Social Network Sites

There is a real threat on the VIPs personal pages on the Social Network Sites (SNS). The real threats to these pages is violation of privacy and theft of identity through creating fake pages that exploit their names and pictures to attract the victims and spread of lies. In this paper, we propose a new secure architecture that improves the trusting and finds an effective solution to reduce fake pages and possibility of recognizing VIP pages on SNS. The proposed architecture works as a third party that is added to Facebook to provide the trust service to personal pages for VIPs. Through this mechanism, it works to ensure the real identity of the applicant through the electronic authentication of personal information by storing this information within content of their website. As a result, the significance of the proposed architecture is that it secures and provides trust to the VIPs personal pages. Furthermore, it can help to discover fake page, protect the privacy, reduce crimes of personality-theft, and increase the sense of trust and satisfaction by friends and admirers in interacting with SNS.

Opportunistic Routing with Secure Coded Wireless Multicast Using MAS Approach

Many Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications necessitate secure multicast services for the purpose of broadcasting delay sensitive data like video files and live telecast at fixed time-slot. This work provides a novel method to deal with end-to-end delay and drop rate of packets. Opportunistic Routing chooses a link based on the maximum probability of packet delivery ratio. Null Key Generation helps in authenticating packets to the receiver. Markov Decision Process based Adaptive Scheduling algorithm determines the time slot for packet transmission. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed protocol ensures better performance in terms of packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and normalized routing overhead.

A Proposal to Mobile Payment Implementing 2AF+

Merchants are competing to offer the use of mobile payment to encourage shopping. many mobile payment systems were made available in various locations worldwide; however, they have various drawbacks. This paper proposes a new mobile payment system that discusses the main drawbacks of these systems, namely security and speed of transaction. The proposal is featured by being simple to use by customers and merchants. Furthermore, the proposed system depends on a new authentication factor that is introduced in this paper and called by Two-Factors Authentication Plus, (2FA+).

A New Graphical Password: Combination of Recall & Recognition Based Approach

Information Security is the most describing problem in present times. To cop up with the security of the information, the passwords were introduced. The alphanumeric passwords are the most popular authentication method and still used up to now. However, text based passwords suffer from various drawbacks such as they are easy to crack through dictionary attacks, brute force attacks, keylogger, social engineering etc. Graphical Password is a good replacement for text password. Psychological studies say that human can remember pictures better than text. So this is the fact that graphical passwords are easy to remember. But at the same time due to this reason most of the graphical passwords are prone to shoulder surfing. In this paper, we have suggested a shoulder-surfing resistant graphical password authentication method. The system is a combination of recognition and pure recall based techniques. Proposed scheme can be useful for smart hand held devices (like smart phones i.e. PDAs, iPod, iPhone, etc) which are more handy and convenient to use than traditional desktop computer systems.

A Weighted Approach to Unconstrained Iris Recognition

This paper presents a weighted approach to unconstrained iris recognition. In nowadays, commercial systems are usually characterized by strong acquisition constraints based on the subject’s cooperation. However, it is not always achievable for real scenarios in our daily life. Researchers have been focused on reducing these constraints and maintaining the performance of the system by new techniques at the same time. With large variation in the environment, there are two main improvements to develop the proposed iris recognition system. For solving extremely uneven lighting condition, statistic based illumination normalization is first used on eye region to increase the accuracy of iris feature. The detection of the iris image is based on Adaboost algorithm. Secondly, the weighted approach is designed by Gaussian functions according to the distance to the center of the iris. Furthermore, local binary pattern (LBP) histogram is then applied to texture classification with the weight. Experiment showed that the proposed system provided users a more flexible and feasible way to interact with the verification system through iris recognition.

New Approach for Constructing a Secure Biometric Database

The multimodal biometric identification is the combination of several biometric systems; the challenge of this combination is to reduce some limitations of systems based on a single modality while significantly improving performance. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the construction and the protection of a multimodal biometric database dedicated to an identification system. We use a topological watermarking to hide the relation between face image and the registered descriptors extracted from other modalities of the same person for more secure user identification.

Cryptanalysis of Chang-Chang-s EC-PAKA Protocol for Wireless Mobile Networks

With the rapid development of wireless mobile communication, applications for mobile devices must focus on network security. In 2008, Chang-Chang proposed security improvements on the Lu et al.-s elliptic curve authentication key agreement protocol for wireless mobile networks. However, this paper shows that Chang- Chang-s improved protocol is still vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks unlike their claims.

Two Undetectable On-line Dictionary Attacks on Debiao et al.’s S-3PAKE Protocol

In 2011, Debiao et al. pointed out that S-3PAKE protocol proposed by Lu and Cao for password-authenticated key exchange in the three-party setting is vulnerable to an off-line dictionary attack. Then, they proposed some countermeasures to eliminate the security vulnerability of the S-3PAKE. Nevertheless, this paper points out their enhanced S-3PAKE protocol is still vulnerable to undetectable on-line dictionary attacks unlike their claim.

Comments on He et al.’s Robust Biometric-based User Authentication Scheme for WSNs

In order to guarantee secure communication for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), many user authentication schemes have successfully drawn researchers- attention and been studied widely. In 2012, He et al. proposed a robust biometric-based user authentication scheme for WSNs. However, this paper demonstrates that He et al.-s scheme has some drawbacks: poor reparability problem, user impersonation attack, and sensor node impersonate attack.

Graphical Password Security Evaluation by Fuzzy AHP
In today's day and age, one of the important topics in information security is authentication. There are several alternatives to text-based authentication of which includes Graphical Password (GP) or Graphical User Authentication (GUA). These methods stems from the fact that humans recognized and remembers images better than alphanumerical text characters. This paper will focus on the security aspect of GP algorithms and what most researchers have been working on trying to define these security features and attributes. The goal of this study is to develop a fuzzy decision model that allows automatic selection of available GP algorithms by taking into considerations the subjective judgments of the decision makers who are more than 50 postgraduate students of computer science. The approach that is being proposed is based on the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) which determines the criteria weight as a linear formula.
OFDM and Fingerprint Authentication for Efficient Airport Security
This paper presents an idea to improve the efficiency of security checks in airports through the active tracking and monitoring of passengers and staff using OFDM modulation technique and Finger print authentication. The details of the passenger are multiplexed using OFDM .To authenticate the passenger, the fingerprint along with important identification information is collected. The details of the passenger can be transmitted after necessary modulation, and received using various transceivers placed within the premises of the airport, and checked at the appropriate check points, thereby increasing the efficiency of checking. OFDM has been employed for spectral efficiency.
Three Attacks on Jia et al.'s Remote User Authentication Scheme using Bilinear Pairings and ECC

Recently, Jia et al. proposed a remote user authentication scheme using bilinear pairings and an Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC). However, the scheme is vulnerable to privileged insider attack at their proposed registration phase and to forgery attack at their proposed authentication phase. In addition, the scheme can be vulnerable to server spoofing attack because it does not provide mutual authentication between the user and the remote server. Therefore, this paper points out that the Jia et al. scheme is vulnerable to the above three attacks.

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