Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 21

Reliability Based Performance Evaluation of Stone Column Improved Soft Ground

The present study considers the effect of variation of different geotechnical random variables in the design of stone column-foundation systems for assessing the bearing capacity and consolidation settlement of highly compressible soil. The soil and stone column properties, spacing, diameter and arrangement of stone columns are considered as the random variables. Probability of failure (Pf) is computed for a target degree of consolidation and a target safe load by Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). The study shows that the variation in coefficient of radial consolidation (cr) and cohesion of soil (cs) are two most important factors influencing Pf. If the coefficient of variation (COV) of cr exceeds 20%, Pf exceeds 0.001, which is unsafe following the guidelines of US Army Corps of Engineers. The bearing capacity also exceeds its safe value for COV of cs > 30%. It is also observed that as the spacing between the stone column increases, the probability of reaching a target degree of consolidation decreases. Accordingly, design guidelines, considering both consolidation and bearing capacity of improved ground, are proposed for different spacing and diameter of stone columns and geotechnical random variables.

Unconfined Strength of Nano Reactive Silica Sand Powder Concrete
Nowadays, high-strength concrete is an integral element of a variety of high-rise buildings. On the other hand, finding a suitable aggregate size distribution is a great concern; hence, the concrete mix proportion is presented that has no coarse aggregate, which still withstands enough desirable strength. Nano Reactive Silica sand powder concrete (NRSSPC) is a type of concrete with no coarse material in its own composition. In this concrete, the only aggregate found in the mix design is silica sand powder with a size less than 150 mm that is infinitesimally small regarding the normal concrete. The research aim is to find the compressive strength of this particular concrete under the applied different conditions of curing and consolidation to compare the approaches. In this study, the young concrete specimens were compacted with a pressing or vibrating process. It is worthwhile to mention that in order to show the influence of temperature in the curing process, the concrete specimen was cured either in 20 ⁰C lime water or autoclaved in 90 ⁰C oven.
Geotechnical Properties and Compressibility Behavior of Organic Dredged Soils

Sustainable development is one of the most important topics in today's world, and it is also an important research topic for geoenvironmental engineering. Dredging process is performed to expand the river and port channel, flood control and accessing harbors. Every year large amount of sediment are dredged for these purposes. Dredged marine soils can be reused as filling materials, road and foundation embankments, construction materials and wildlife habitat developments. In this study, geotechnical engineering properties and compressibility behavior of dredged soil obtained from the Izmir Bay were investigated. The samples with four different organic matter contents were obtained and particle size distributions, consistency limits, pH and specific gravity tests were performed. The consolidation tests were conducted to examine organic matter content (OMC) effects on compressibility behavior of dredged soil. This study has shown that the OMC has an important effect on the engineering properties of dredged soils. The liquid and plastic limits increased with increasing OMC. The lowest specific gravity belonged to sample which has the maximum OMC. The specific gravity values ranged between 2.76 and 2.52. The maximum void ratio difference belongs to sample with the highest OMC (De11% = 0.38). As the organic matter content of the samples increases, the change in the void ratio has also increased. The compression index increases with increasing OMC.

Effects of the Purpose Expropriation of Land Consolidation to Landholding

In the current expropriation of Turkey, the state acquires necessary lands for its investment without permission of the owners and not searching for alternative solutions, so it is determined that neither processor nor processed is not happy. In this study, interactions of enterprises in Turkey are analysed in case the necessary land for public investments are acquired by expropriation purposed land consolidation. Legal basis, positive and negative sides, financial effects to enterprises of this method is evaluated according to Konya Kadınhanı, Kolukısa avenue which is on the Konya-Ankara High-Speed Train Route.

The Effect of Treated Waste-Water on Compaction and Compression of Fine Soil
—The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of treated waste-water (TWW) on the compaction and compressibility properties of fine soil. Two types of fine soils (clayey soils) were selected for this study and classified as CH soil and Cl type of soil. Compaction and compressibility properties such as optimum water content, maximum dry unit weight, consolidation index and swell index, maximum past pressure and volume change were evaluated using both tap and treated waste water. It was found that the use of treated waste water affects all of these properties. The maximum dry unit weight increased for both soils and the optimum water content decreased as much as 13.6% for highly plastic soil. The significant effect was observed in swell index and swelling pressure of the soils. The swell indexed decreased by as much as 42% and 33% for highly plastic and low plastic soils, respectively, when TWW is used. Additionally, the swelling pressure decreased by as much as 16% for both soil types. The result of this research pointed out that the use of treated waste water has a positive effect on compaction and compression properties of clay soil and promise for potential use of this water in engineering applications. Keywords—Consolidation, proctor compaction, swell index, treated waste-water, volume change.
Fabrication of Powdery Composites Based Alumina and Its Consolidation by Hot Pressing Method in OXY-GON Furnace
In this work, obtaining methods of ultrafine alumina powdery composites and high temperature pressing technology of matrix ceramic composites with different compositions have been discussed. Alumina was obtained by solution combustion synthesis and sol-gel methods. Metal carbides containing powdery composites were obtained by homogenization of finishing powders in nanomills, as well as by their single-step high temperature synthesis .Different types of matrix ceramics composites (α-Al2O3-ZrO2-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- Y2O3-MgO, α-Al2O3-SiC-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-WC-Co-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- B4C-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- B4C-TiB2 etc.) were obtained by using OXYGON furnace. Consolidation of powders were carried out at 1550- 1750°C (hold time - 1 h, pressure - 50 MPa). Corundum ceramics samples have been obtained and characterized by high hardness and fracture toughness, absence of open porosity, high corrosion resistance. Their density reaches 99.5-99.6% TD. During the work, the following devices have been used: High temperature vacuum furnace OXY-GON Industries Inc (USA), Electronic Scanning Microscopes Nikon Eclipse LV 150, Optical Microscope NMM- 800TRF, Planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, Shimadzu Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester DUH-211S, Analysette 12 Dynasizer.
Developing a New Relationship between Undrained Shear Strength and Over-Consolidation Ratio
Relationship between undrained shear strength (Su) and over consolidation ratio (OCR) of clay soil (marine clay) is very important in the field of geotechnical engineering to estimate the settlement behaviour of clay and to prepare a small scale physical modelling test. In this study, a relationship between shear strength and OCR parameters was determined using the laboratory vane shear apparatus and the fully automatic consolidated apparatus. The main objective was to establish non-linear correlation formula between shear strength and OCR and comparing it with previous studies. Therefore, in order to achieve this objective, three points were chosen to obtain 18 undisturbed samples which were collected with an increasing depth of 1.0 m to 3.5 m each 0.5 m. Clay samples were prepared under undrained condition for both tests. It was found that the OCR and shear strength are inversely proportional at similar depth and at same undrained conditions. However, a good correlation was obtained from the relationships where the R2 values were very close to 1.0 using polynomial equations. The comparison between the experimental result and previous equation from other researchers produced a non-linear correlation which has a similar pattern with this study.
The Impact of Bank Consolidation on the Performance of SMES in Nigeria
This paper seeks to assess the implications of bank consolidation on the performance of small and medium scale enterprises in the Nigerian economy. Multiple linear regression technique and correlation matrix test were employed to measure the extent to which small and medium scale enterprises asset size, survival and access to credit were influenced. The result showed that bank deposit (BD) and bank credit (L or BC) impacted on asset size and survival of small and medium scale enterprises. None of the variables had significant impact on SMEs access to credit. There is a shift of focus by commercial banks away from small and medium scale enterprises (small customers), which is evidenced by the significant negative influence of bank credit to both the survival and asset size of small and medium enterprises. While micro finance banks work hard at providing funds to small and medium scale entrepreneurs, their capacity to meet the needs of these entrepreneurs is constrained. CBN should make policies that will boost micro finance bank’s capital and also monitor closely the management of the banks to ensure prudent financing of small and medium scale investments.
The Impact of Bank Consolidation on Lending to SMES in Nigeria
This paper seeks to assess the implications of bank consolidation on lending, which largely determine the survival and performance of small and medium scale enterprises and in turn the development of the Nigerian economy. Ordinary least square technique, correlation matrix test and Granger –causality test were employed to measure the extent to which lending to small and medium scale enterprises were influenced. The result showed that bank deposit (BD) impacted on lending to small and medium scale enterprises. Commercial and merchant bank lending rate had statistically insignificant effect on the dependent variable. There is a shift of focus by commercial banks from small and medium scale enterprises (small customers) to major investors (big customers). While micro finance banks work hard at providing funds to small and medium scale entrepreneurs, their capacity to meet the needs of these entrepreneurs is constrained. The capital and deposits of micro finance bank should be boosted in order to effectively support small and medium scale enterprises through loans.
Microwave Sintering and Its Application on Cemented Carbides
Cemented carbides, owing to their excellent mechanical properties, have been of immense interest in the field of hard materials for the past few decades. A number of processing techniques have been developed to obtain high quality carbide tools, with a wide range of grain size depending on the application and requirements. Microwave sintering is one of the heating processes, which has been used to prepare a wide range of materials including ceramics. A deep understanding of microwave sintering and its contribution towards control of grain growth and on deformation of the resulting carbide materials requires further studies and attention. In addition, the effect of binder materials and their behavior during microwave sintering is another area that requires clear understanding. This review aims to focus on microwave sintering, providing information of how the process works and what type of materials it is best suited for. In addition, a closer look at some microwave sintered Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt samples will be taken and discussed, highlighting some of the key issues and challenges faced in this research area.
A Preliminary Study for Design of Automatic Block Reallocation Algorithm with Genetic Algorithm Method in the Land Consolidation Projects
Land reallocation is one of the most important steps in land consolidation projects. Many different models were proposed for land reallocation in the literature such as Fuzzy Logic, block priority based land reallocation and Spatial Decision Support Systems. A model including four parts is considered for automatic block reallocation with genetic algorithm method in land consolidation projects. These stages are preparing data tables for a project land, determining conditions and constraints of land reallocation, designing command steps and logical flow chart of reallocation algorithm and finally writing program codes of Genetic Algorithm respectively. In this study, we designed the first three steps of the considered model comprising four steps.
Tonal Pitch Structure as a Tool of Social Consolidation
This paper proposes that in the course of evolution pitch structure became a human specific tool of communication the function of which is to induce emotional states such as uncertainty and cohesion. By the means of eliciting these emotions during collective music performance people are able to unconsciously give cues concerning social acceptance. This is probably one of the reasons why in all cultures people collectively perform tonal music. It is also suggested that tonal pitch structure had been invented socially before it became an evolutionary innovation of hominines. It means that a predisposition to tonally organize pitches evolved by the means of ‘Baldwin effect’ – a process in which natural selection transforms the learned response of an organism into the instinctive response. In the proposed, hypothetical evolutionary scenario of the emergence of tonal pitch structure social forces such as a need for closer cooperation play the crucial role.
Transformation of Aluminum Unstable Oxyhydroxides in Ultrafine α-Al2O3 in Presence of Various Seeds
Ceramic obtained on the base of aluminum oxide has wide application range, because it has unique properties, for example, wear-resistance, dielectric characteristics, and exploitation ability at high temperatures and in corrosive atmosphere. Low temperature synthesis of α-Al2O3 is energo-economical process and it is topical for developing technologies of corundum ceramics fabrication. In the present work possibilities of low temperature transformation of oxyhydroxides in α-Al2O3, during the presence of small amount of rare–earth elements compounds (also Th, Re), have been discussed. Aluminum unstable oxyhydroxides have been obtained by hydrolysis of aluminium isopropoxide, nitrates, sulphate, and chloride in alkaline environment at 80-90ºC temperatures. β-Al(OH)3 has been received from aluminum powder by ultrasonic development. Drying of oxyhydroxide sol has been conducted with presence of various types seeds, which amount reaches 0,1-0,2% (mas). Neodymium, holmium, thorium, lanthanum, cerium, gadolinium, disprosium nitrates and rhenium carbonyls have been used as seeds and they have been added to the sol specimens in amount of 0.1-0.2% (mas) calculated on metals. Annealing of obtained gels is carried out at 70– 1100ºC for 2 hrs. The same specimen transforms in α-Al2O3 at 1100ºC. At this temperature in case of presence of lanthanum and gadolinium transformation takes place by 70-85%. In case of presence of thorium stabilization of γ-and θ-phases takes place. It is established, that thorium causes inhibition of α-phase generation at 1100ºC, and at the time when in all other doped specimens α-phase is generated at lower temperatures (1000-1050ºC). Synthesis of various type compounds and simultaneous consolidation has developed in the furnace of OXY-GON. Composite materials containing oxide and non-oxide components close to theoretical data have been obtained in this furnace respectively. During the work the following devices have been used: X-ray diffractometer DRON-3M (Cu-Kα, Ni filter, 2º/min), High temperature vacuum furnace OXY-GON, electronic scanning microscopes Nikon ECLIPSE LV 150, NMM-800TRF, planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, SHIMADZU Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester, DUH-211S, Analysette 12 Dyna sizer.
Maintenance Dredging at Port of Townsville

The Port of Townsville conducts regular annual maintenance dredging to maintain depths of its harbor basin and approach channels for the navigational safety of the vessels against the natural accumulation of marine sediments. In addition to the regular maintenance dredging, the port undertakes emergency dredging in cases where large quantities of sediments are mobilized and deposited in port waters by cyclone or major flood events. The maintenance dredging material derived from the port may be disposed at sea or on land in accordance with relevant state and commonwealth regulations. For the land disposal, the dredged mud slurry is hydraulically placed into containment ponds and left to undergo sedimentation and self-weight consolidation to form fill material for land reclamation. This paper provides an overview of the maintenance dredging at the Port of Townsville and emphasis on maintenance dredging requirements, sediment quality, bathymetry, dredging methods used, and dredged material disposal options.

Influence of Some Technological Parameters on the Content of Voids in Composite during On-Line Consolidation with Filament Winding Technology

In this study was performed in situ consolidation of polypropylene matrix/glass reinforced roving by combining heating systems and roll pressing. The commingled roving during hoop winding was winded on a cylindrical mandrel. The work also presents the advances made in the processing of these materials into composites by conventional technique filament winding. Experimental studies were performed with changing parameters – temperature, pressure and speed. Finally, it describes the investigation of the optimal processing conditions that maximize the mechanical properties of the composites. These properties are good enough for composites to be used as engineering materials in many structural applications.

Distributional Impacts of Changes in Value Added Tax Rates in the Czech Republic

The paper evaluates the ongoing reform of VAT in the Czech Republic in terms of impacts on individual households. The main objective is to analyse the impact of given changes on individual households. The adopted method is based on the data related to household consumption by individual household quintiles; obtained data are subjected to micro-simulation examining. Results are discussed in terms of vertical tax justice. Results of the analysis reveal that VAT behaves regressively and a sole consolidation of rates at a higher level only increases the regression of this tax in the Czech Republic.

Generalized Differential Quadrature Nonlinear Consolidation Analysis of Clay Layer with Time-Varied Drainage Conditions
In this article, the phenomenon of nonlinear consolidation in saturated and homogeneous clay layer is studied. Considering time-varied drainage model, the excess pore water pressure in the layer depth is calculated. The Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) method is used for the modeling and numerical analysis. For the purpose of analysis, first the domain of independent variables (i.e., time and clay layer depth) is discretized by the Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto series and then the nonlinear system of equations obtained from the GDQ method is solved by means of the Newton-Raphson approach. The obtained results indicate that the Generalized Differential Quadrature method, in addition to being simple to apply, enjoys a very high accuracy in the calculation of excess pore water pressure.
Investigation on Pore Water Pressure in Core of Karkheh Dam
Pore water pressure is normally because of consolidation, compaction and water level fluctuation on reservoir. Measuring, controlling and analyzing of pore water pressure have significant importance in both of construction and operation period. Since end of 2002, (dam start up) nature of KARKHEH dam has been analyzed by using the gathered information from instrumentation system of dam. In this lecture dam condition after start up have been analyzed by using the gathered data from located piezometers in core of dam. According to TERZAGHI equation and records of piezometers, consolidation lasted around five years during early years of construction stage, and current pore water pressure in core of dam is caused by water level fluctuation in reservoir. Although there is time lag between water level fluctuation and results of piezometers. These time lags have been checked and the results clearly show that one of the most important causes of it is distance between piezometer and reservoir.
A Generic Approach to Achieve Optimal Server Consolidation by Using Existing Servers in Virtualized Data Center
Virtualization-based server consolidation has been proven to be an ideal technique to solve the server sprawl problem by consolidating multiple virtualized servers onto a few physical servers leading to improved resource utilization and return on investment. In this paper, we solve this problem by using existing servers, which are heterogeneous and diversely preferred by IT managers. Five practical consolidation rules are introduced, and a decision model is proposed to optimally allocate source services to physical target servers while maximizing the average resource utilization and preference value. Our model can be regarded as a multi-objective multi-dimension bin-packing (MOMDBP) problem with constraints, which is strongly NP-hard. An improved grouping generic algorithm (GGA) is introduced for the problem. Extensive simulations were performed and the results are given.
Application of Mapping and Superimposing Rule for Solution of Parabolic PDE in Porous Medium under Cyclic Loading
This paper presents an analytical method to solve governing consolidation parabolic partial differential equation (PDE) for inelastic porous Medium (soil) with consideration of variation of equation coefficient under cyclic loading. Since under cyclic loads, soil skeleton parameters change, this would introduce variable coefficient of parabolic PDE. Classical theory would not rationalize consolidation phenomenon in such condition. In this research, a method based on time space mapping to a virtual time space along with superimposing rule is employed to solve consolidation of inelastic soils in cyclic condition. Changes of consolidation coefficient applied in solution by modification of loading and unloading duration by introducing virtual time. Mapping function is calculated based on consolidation partial differential equation results. Based on superimposing rule a set of continuous static loads in specified times used instead of cyclic load. A set of laboratory consolidation tests under cyclic load along with numerical calculations were performed in order to verify the presented method. Numerical solution and laboratory tests results showed accuracy of presented method.
Target Concept Selection by Property Overlap in Ontology Population

An ontology is widely used in many kinds of applications as a knowledge representation tool for domain knowledge. However, even though an ontology schema is well prepared by domain experts, it is tedious and cost-intensive to add instances into the ontology. The most confident and trust-worthy way to add instances into the ontology is to gather instances from tables in the related Web pages. In automatic populating of instances, the primary task is to find the most proper concept among all possible concepts within the ontology for a given table. This paper proposes a novel method for this problem by defining the similarity between the table and the concept using the overlap of their properties. According to a series of experiments, the proposed method achieves 76.98% of accuracy. This implies that the proposed method is a plausible way for automatic ontology population from Web tables.

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