Effect of Fill Material Density under Structures on Ground Motion Characteristics Due to Earthquake
Due to limited areas and excessive cost of land for projects, backfilling process has become necessary. Also, backfilling will be done to overcome the un-leveling depths or raising levels of site construction, especially near the sea region. Therefore, backfilling soil materials used under the foundation of structures should be investigated regarding its effect on ground motion characteristics, especially at regions subjected to earthquakes. In this research, 60-meter thickness of sandy fill material was used above a fixed 240-meter of natural clayey soil underlying by rock formation to predict the modified ground motion characteristics effect at the foundation level. Comparison between the effect of using three different situations of fill material compaction on the recorded earthquake is studied, i.e. peak ground acceleration, time history, and spectra acceleration values. The three different densities of the compacted fill material used in the study were very loose, medium dense and very dense sand deposits, respectively. Shake computer program was used to perform this study. Strong earthquake records, with Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) of 0.35 g, were used in the analysis. It was found that, higher compaction of fill material thickness has a significant effect on eliminating the earthquake ground motion properties at surface layer of fill material, near foundation level. It is recommended to consider the fill material characteristics in the design of foundations subjected to seismic motions. Future studies should be analyzed for different fill and natural soil deposits for different seismic conditions.
Experimental Simulation of Soil Boundary Condition for Dynamic Studies
This paper studies the free-field response by adopting a flexible membrane container as soil boundary for experimental shaking table tests. The influence of the soil container boundary on the soil behaviour and the dynamic soil properties under seismic effect were examined. A flexible container with 1/50 scale factor was adopted in the experimental tests, including construction, instrumentation, and determination of the results of dynamic tests on a shaking table. Horizontal face displacements and accelerations were analysed to determine the influence of the container boundary on the performance of the soil. The outputs results show that the flexible boundary container allows more displacement and larger accelerations. The soil in a rigid wall container cannot deform as similar as the soil in the real field does. Therefore, the response of flexible container tested is believed to be more reliable for soil boundary than that in the rigid container.
Optimization of Shear Frame Structures Applying Various Forms of Wavelet Transforms
In the present research, various formulations of wavelet transform are applied on acceleration time history of earthquake. The mentioned transforms decompose the strong ground motion into low and high frequency parts. Since the high frequency portion of strong ground motion has a minor effect on dynamic response of structures, the structure is excited by low frequency part. Consequently, the seismic response of structure is predicted consuming one half of computational time, comparing with conventional time history analysis. Towards reducing the computational effort needed in seismic optimization of structure, seismic optimization of a shear frame structure is conducted by applying various forms of mentioned transformation through genetic algorithm.
Selection of Intensity Measure in Probabilistic Seismic Risk Assessment of a Turkish Railway Bridge
Fragility curve is an effective common used tool to determine the earthquake performance of structural and nonstructural components. Also, it is used to determine the nonlinear behavior of bridges. There are many historical bridges in the Turkish railway network; the earthquake performances of these bridges are needed to be investigated. To derive fragility curve Intensity measures (IMs) and Engineering demand parameters (EDP) are needed to be determined. And the relation between IMs and EDP are needed to be derived. In this study, a typical simply supported steel girder riveted railway bridge is studied. Fragility curves of this bridge are derived by two parameters lognormal distribution. Time history analyses are done for selected 60 real earthquake data to determine the relation between IMs and EDP. Moreover, efficiency, practicality, and sufficiency of three different IMs are discussed. PGA, Sa(0.2s) and Sa(1s), the most common used IMs parameters for fragility curve in the literature, are taken into consideration in terms of efficiency, practicality and sufficiency.
Comparisons of Co-Seismic Gravity Changes between GRACE Observations and the Predictions from the Finite-Fault Models for the 2012 Mw = 8.6 Indian Ocean Earthquake Off-Sumatra
The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has been a very successful project in determining math redistribution within the Earth system. Large deformations caused by earthquakes are in the high frequency band. Unfortunately, GRACE is only capable to provide reliable estimate at the low-to-medium frequency band for the gravitational changes. In this study, we computed the gravity changes after the 2012 Mw8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake off-Sumatra using the GRACE Level-2 monthly spherical harmonic (SH) solutions released by the University of Texas Center for Space Research (UTCSR). Moreover, we calculated gravity changes using different fault models derived from teleseismic data. The model predictions showed non-negligible discrepancies in gravity changes. However, after removing high-frequency signals, using Gaussian filtering 350 km commensurable GRACE spatial resolution, the discrepancies vanished, and the spatial patterns of total gravity changes predicted from all slip models became similar at the spatial resolution attainable by GRACE observations, and predicted-gravity changes were consistent with the GRACE-detected gravity changes. Nevertheless, the fault models, in which give different slip amplitudes, proportionally lead to different amplitude in the predicted gravity changes.
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures Using a Partitioned Solution Approach and an Exponential Model
The solution of the nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations of base-isolated structures adopting a conventional monolithic solution approach, i.e. an implicit single-step time integration method employed with an iteration procedure, and the use of existing nonlinear analytical models, such as differential equation models, to simulate the dynamic behavior of seismic isolators can require a significant computational effort. In order to reduce numerical computations, a partitioned solution method and a one dimensional nonlinear analytical model are presented in this paper. A partitioned solution approach can be easily applied to base-isolated structures in which the base isolation system is much more flexible than the superstructure. Thus, in this work, the explicit conditionally stable central difference method is used to evaluate the base isolation system nonlinear response and the implicit unconditionally stable Newmark’s constant average acceleration method is adopted to predict the superstructure linear response with the benefit in avoiding iterations in each time step of a nonlinear dynamic analysis. The proposed mathematical model is able to simulate the dynamic behavior of seismic isolators without requiring the solution of a nonlinear differential equation, as in the case of widely used differential equation model. The proposed mixed explicit-implicit time integration method and nonlinear exponential model are adopted to analyze a three dimensional seismically isolated structure with a lead rubber bearing system subjected to earthquake excitation. The numerical results show the good accuracy and the significant computational efficiency of the proposed solution approach and analytical model compared to the conventional solution method and mathematical model adopted in this work. Furthermore, the low stiffness value of the base isolation system with lead rubber bearings allows to have a critical time step considerably larger than the imposed ground acceleration time step, thus avoiding stability problems in the proposed mixed method.
Simulation of Dynamic Behavior of Seismic Isolators Using a Parallel Elasto-Plastic Model
In this paper, a one-dimensional (1d) Parallel Elasto-
Plastic Model (PEPM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic
behavior of seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing
tangent stiffness with increasing displacement, is presented. The
parallel modeling concept is applied to discretize the continuously
decreasing tangent stiffness function, thus allowing to simulate the
dynamic behavior of seismic isolation bearings by putting linear
elastic and nonlinear elastic-perfectly plastic elements in parallel. The
mathematical model has been validated by comparing the
experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops, obtained testing a
helical wire rope isolator and a recycled rubber-fiber reinforced
bearing, with those predicted numerically. Good agreement between
the simulated and experimental results shows that the proposed
model can be an effective numerical tool to predict the forcedisplacement
relationship of seismic isolators within relatively large
displacements. Compared to the widely used Bouc-Wen model, the
proposed one allows to avoid the numerical solution of a first order
ordinary nonlinear differential equation for each time step of a
nonlinear time history analysis, thus reducing the computation effort,
and requires the evaluation of only three model parameters from
experimental tests, namely the initial tangent stiffness, the asymptotic
tangent stiffness, and a parameter defining the transition from the
initial to the asymptotic tangent stiffness.
Influence of Displacement Amplitude and Vertical Load on the Horizontal Dynamic and Static Behavior of Helical Wire Rope Isolators
In this paper, the results of experimental tests
performed on a Helical Wire Rope Isolator (HWRI) are presented in
order to describe the dynamic and static behavior of the selected
metal device in three different displacements ranges, namely small,
relatively large, and large displacements ranges, without and under
the effect of a vertical load. A testing machine, allowing to apply
horizontal displacement or load histories to the tested bearing with a
constant vertical load, has been adopted to perform the dynamic and
static tests. According to the experimental results, the dynamic
behavior of the tested device depends on the applied displacement
amplitude. Indeed, the HWRI displays a softening and a hardening
stiffness at small and relatively large displacements, respectively, and
a stronger nonlinear stiffening behavior at large displacements.
Furthermore, the experimental tests reveal that the application of a
vertical load allows to have a more flexible device with higher
damping properties and that the applied vertical load affects much
less the dynamic response of the metal device at large displacements.
Finally, a decrease in the static to dynamic effective stiffness ratio
with increasing displacement amplitude has been observed.
An Investigation on Overstrength Factor (Ω) of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Turkish Earthquake Draft Code (TEC-2016)
Overstrength factor is an important parameter of load reduction factor. In this research, the overstrength factor (Ω) of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings and the parameters of Ω in TEC-2016 draft version have been explored. For this aim, 48 RC buildings have been modeled according to the current seismic code TEC-2007 and Turkish Building Code-500-2000 criteria. After modelling step, nonlinear static pushover analyses have been applied to these buildings by using TEC-2007 Section 7. After the nonlinear pushover analyses, capacity curves (lateral load-lateral top displacement curves) have been plotted for 48 RC buildings. Using capacity curves, overstrength factors (Ω) have been derived for each building. The obtained overstrength factor (Ω) values have been compared with TEC-2016 values for related building types, and the results have been interpreted. According to the obtained values from the study, overstrength factor (Ω) given in TEC-2016 draft code is found quite suitable.
School Emergency Drills Evaluation through E-PreS Monitoring System
Planning for natural disasters and emergencies is something every school or educational institution must consider, regardless of its size or location. Preparedness is the key to save lives if a disaster strikes. School disaster management mirrors individual and family disaster prevention, and wider community disaster prevention efforts. This paper presents the usage of E-PreS System as a helpful, managerial tool during the school earthquake drill, in order to support schools in developing effective disaster and emergency plans specific to their local needs. The project comes up with a holistic methodology using real-time evaluation involving different categories of actors, districts, steps and metrics. The main outcomes of E-PreS project are the development of E-PreS web platform that host the needed data of school emergency planning; the development of E-PreS System; the implementation of disaster drills using E-PreS System in educational premises and local schools; and the evaluation of E-PreS System. Taking into consideration that every disaster drill aims to test and valid school plan and procedures; clarify and train personnel in roles and responsibilities; improve interagency coordination; identify gaps in resources; improve individual performance; and identify opportunities for improvement, E-PreS Project was submitted and approved by the European Commission (EC).
The Role of Public Education in Increasing Public Awareness through Mass Media with Emphasis on Newspapers and TV: Coping with Possible Earthquake in Tehran
This study aimed to evaluate the role of state education in increasing public awareness through mass media (with emphasis on newspapers and TV) coping with possible earthquake in Tehran. All residents aged 15 to 65 who live in the five regions of Tehran (North, South, East, West and Center) during the plan implementation were selected and studied. The required sample size in each region was calculated based on the Cochran formula (n=380). In order to collect and analyze the data, a questionnaire with reliability (82%) and a one-sample t-test has been used, respectively. The results showed that warnings related to the Tehran earthquake affected people in the pre-contemplation stage, while public education through mass media did not promote public awareness about prevention, preparedness and rehabilitation.
Analytical Investigation of Replaceable Links with Reduced Web Section for Link-to-Column Connections in Eccentrically Braced Frames
The use of eccentrically braced frame (EBF) is increasing day by day as EBF possesses high elastic stiffness, stable inelastic response under cyclic lateral loading, and excellent ductility and energy dissipation capacity. The ductility and energy dissipation capacity of EBF depends on the active link beams. Recently, there are two types EBFs; these are conventional EBFs and EBFs with replaceable links. The conventional EBF has a disadvantage during maintenance in post-earthquake. The concept of removable active link beam in EBF is developed to overcome the limitation of the conventional EBF in post-earthquake. In this study, a replaceable link with reduced web section is introduced and design equations are suggested. In addition, nonlinear finite element analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the proposed links.
Performance of On-site Earthquake Early Warning Systems for Different Sensor Locations
Regional earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are not suitable for Taiwan, as most destructive seismic hazards arise due to in-land earthquakes. These likely cause the lead-time provided by regional EEW systems before a destructive earthquake wave arrives to become null. On the other hand, an on-site EEW system can provide more lead-time at a region closer to an epicenter, since only seismic information of the target site is required. Instead of leveraging the information of several stations, the on-site system extracts some P-wave features from the first few seconds of vertical ground acceleration of a single station and performs a prediction of the oncoming earthquake intensity at the same station according to these features. Since seismometers could be triggered by non-earthquake events such as a passing of a truck or other human activities, to reduce the likelihood of false alarms, a seismometer was installed at three different locations on the same site and the performance of the EEW system for these three sensor locations were discussed. The results show that the location on the ground of the first floor of a school building maybe a good choice, since the false alarms could be reduced and the cost for installation and maintenance is the lowest.
On the Accuracy of Basic Modal Displacement Method Considering Various Earthquakes
Time history seismic analysis is supposed to be the most accurate method to predict the seismic demand of structures. On the other hand, the required computational time of this method toward achieving the result is its main deficiency. While being applied in optimization process, in which the structure must be analyzed thousands of time, reducing the required computational time of seismic analysis of structures makes the optimization algorithms more practical. Apparently, the invented approximate methods produce some amount of errors in comparison with exact time history analysis but the recently proposed method namely, Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) and Sum Root of the Sum of Squares (SRSS) drastically reduces the computational time by combination of peak responses in each mode. In the present research, the Basic Modal Displacement (BMD) method is introduced and applied towards estimation of seismic demand of main structure. Seismic demand of sampled structure is estimated by calculation of modal displacement of basic structure (in which the modal displacement has been calculated). Shear steel sampled structures are selected as case studies. The error applying the introduced method is calculated by comparison of the estimated seismic demands with exact time history dynamic analysis. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by application of three types of earthquakes (in view of time of peak ground acceleration).
Response of a Bridge Crane during an Earthquake
During an earthquake, a bridge crane may be
subjected to multiple impacts between crane wheels and rail. In order
to model such phenomena, a time-history dynamic analysis with a
multi-scale approach is performed. The high frequency aspect of the
impacts between wheels and rails is taken into account by a Lagrange
explicit event-capturing algorithm based on a velocity-impulse
formulation to resolve contacts and impacts. An implicit temporal
scheme is used for the rest of the structure. The numerical coupling
between the implicit and the explicit schemes is achieved with a
heterogeneous asynchronous time-integrator.
Further Development in Predicting Post-Earthquake Fire Ignition Hazard
In nearly all earthquakes of the past century that
resulted in moderate to significant damage, the occurrence of postearthquake
fire ignition (PEFI) has imposed a serious hazard and
caused severe damage, especially in urban areas. In order to reduce
the loss of life and property caused by post-earthquake fires, there is
a crucial need for predictive models to estimate the PEFI risk. The
parameters affecting PEFI risk can be categorized as: 1) factors
influencing fire ignition in normal (non-earthquake) condition,
including floor area, building category, ignitability, type of appliance,
and prevention devices, and 2) earthquake related factors contributing
to the PEFI risk, including building vulnerability and earthquake
characteristics such as intensity, peak ground acceleration, and peak
ground velocity. State-of-the-art statistical PEFI risk models are
solely based on limited available earthquake data, and therefore they
cannot predict the PEFI risk for areas with insufficient earthquake
records since such records are needed in estimating the PEFI model
parameters. In this paper, the correlation between normal condition
ignition risk, peak ground acceleration, and PEFI risk is examined in
an effort to offer a means for predicting post-earthquake ignition
events. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate how such
correlation can be employed in a seismic area to predict PEFI hazard.
Vibration Control of Building Using Multiple Tuned Mass Dampers Considering Real Earthquake Time History
The performance of multiple tuned mass dampers to
mitigate the seismic vibration of structures considering real time
history data is investigated in this paper. Three different real
earthquake time history data like Kobe, Imperial Valley and
Mammoth Lake are taken in the present study. The multiple tuned
mass dampers (MTMD) are distributed at each storey. For
comparative study, single tuned mass damper (STMD) is installed at
top of the similar structure. This study is conducted for a fixed mass
ratio (5%) and fixed damping ratio (5%) of structures. Numerical
study is performed to evaluate the effectiveness of MTMDs and
overall system performance. The displacement, acceleration, base
shear and storey drift are obtained for both combined system
(structure with MTMD and structure with STMD) for all earthquakes.
The same responses are also obtained for structure without damper
system. From obtained results, it is investigated that the MTMD
configuration is more effective for controlling the seismic response of
the primary system with compare to STMD configuration.
Exploring the Physical Environment and Building Features in Earthquake Disaster Areas
Earthquake is an unpredictable natural disaster and intensive earthquakes have caused serious impacts on social-economic system, environmental and social resilience. Conventional ways to mitigate earthquake disaster are to enhance building codes and advance structural engineering measures. However, earthquake-induced ground damage such as liquefaction, land subsidence, landslide happen on places nearby earthquake prone or poor soil condition areas. Therefore, this study uses spatial statistical analysis to explore the spatial pattern of damaged buildings. Afterwards, principle components analysis (PCA) is applied to categorize the similar features in different kinds of clustered patterns. The results show that serious landslide prone area, close to fault, vegetated ground surface and mudslide prone area are common in those highly damaged buildings. In addition, the oldest building might not be directly referred to the most vulnerable one. In fact, it seems that buildings built between 1974 and 1989 become more fragile during the earthquake. The incorporation of both spatial statistical analyses and PCA can provide more accurate information to subsidize retrofit programs to enhance earthquake resistance in particular areas.
Volunteers’ Preparedness for Natural Disasters and EVANDE Project
The role of volunteers in disaster management is of decisive importance and the need of their involvement is well recognized, both for prevention measures and for disaster management. During major catastrophes, whereas professional personnel are outsourced, the role of volunteers is crucial. In Greece experience has shown that various groups operating in the civil protection mechanism like local administration staff or volunteers, in many cases do not have the necessary knowledge and information on best practices to act against natural disasters. One of the major problems is the lack of volunteers’ education and training. In the above given framework, this paper presents the results of a survey aimed to identify the level of education and preparedness of civil protection volunteers in Greece. Furthermore, the implementation of earthquake protection measures at individual, family and working level, are explored. More specifically, the survey questionnaire investigates issues regarding pre-earthquake protection actions, appropriate attitudes and behaviors during an earthquake and existence of contingency plans in the workplace. The questionnaires were administered to citizens from different regions of the country and who attend the civil protection training program: “Protect Myself and Others”. A closed-form questionnaire was developed for the survey, which contained questions regarding the following: a) knowledge of self-protective actions; b) existence of emergency planning at home; c) existence of emergency planning at workplace (hazard mitigation actions, evacuation plan, and performance of drills); and, d) respondents` perception about their level of earthquake preparedness. The results revealed a serious lack of knowledge and preparedness among respondents. Taking into consideration the aforementioned gap and in order to raise awareness and improve preparedness and effective response of volunteers acting in civil protection, the EVANDE project was submitted and approved by the European Commission (EC). The aim of that project is to educate and train civil protection volunteers on the most serious natural disasters, such as forest fires, floods, and earthquakes, and thus, increase their performance.
Surveying Earthquake Vulnerabilities of District 13 of Kabul City, Afghanistan
High population and irregular urban development in Kabul city, Afghanistan's capital, are among factors that increase its vulnerability to earthquake disasters (on top of its location in a high seismic region); this can lead to widespread economic loss and casualties. This study aims to evaluate earthquake risks in Kabul's 13th district based on scientific data. The research data, which include hazard curves of Kabul, vulnerability curves, and a questionnaire survey through sampling in district 13, have been incorporated to develop risk curves. To estimate potential casualties, we used a set of M parameters in a model developed by Coburn and Spence. The results indicate that in the worst case scenario, more than 90% of district 13, which comprises mostly residential buildings, is exposed to high risk; this may lead to nearly 1000 million USD economic loss and 120 thousand casualties (equal to 25.88% of the 13th district's population) for a nighttime earthquake. To reduce risks, we present the reconstruction of the most vulnerable buildings, which are primarily adobe and masonry buildings. A comparison of risk reduction between reconstructing adobe and masonry buildings indicates that rebuilding adobe buildings would be more effective.
Seismic Performance Evaluation of Bridge Structures Using 3D Finite Element Methods in South Korea
This study described the seismic performance evaluation of bridge structures, located near Daegu metropolitan city in Korea. The structural design code or regulatory guidelines is focusing on the protection of brittle failure or collapse in bridges’ lifetime during an earthquake. This paper illustrated the procedure in terms of the safety evaluation of bridges using simple linear elastic 3D Finite Element (FE) model in ABAQUS platform. The design response spectra based on KBC 2009 were then developed, in order to understand the seismic behavior of bridge structures. Besides, the multiple directional earthquakes were applied and it revealed that the most dominated earthquake direction was transverse direction of the bridge. Also, the bridge structure under the compressive stress was more fragile than the tensile stress and the vertical direction of seismic ground motions was not significantly affected to the structural system.
Seismic Safety Evaluation of Weir Structures Using the Finite and Infinite Element Method
This study presents the seismic safety evaluation of weir structure subjected to strong earthquake ground motions, as a flood defense structure in civil engineering structures. The seismic safety analysis procedure was illustrated through development of Finite Element (FE) and InFinite Element (IFE) method in ABAQUS platform. The IFE model was generated by CINPS4, 4-node linear one-way infinite model as a sold continuum infinite element in foundation areas of the weir structure and then nonlinear FE model using friction model for soil-structure interactions was applied in this study. In order to understand the complex behavior of weir structures, nonlinear time history analysis was carried out. Consequently, it was interesting to note that the compressive stress gave more vulnerability to the weir structure, in comparison to the tensile stress, during an earthquake. The stress concentration of the weir structure was shown at the connection area between the weir body and stilling basin area. The stress both tension and compression was reduced in IFE model rather than FE model of weir structures.
Finite Difference Method of the Seismic Analysis of Earth Dam
Many embankment dams have suffered failures during
earthquakes due to the increase of pore water pressure under seismic
loading. After analyzing of the behavior of embankment dams under
severe earthquakes, major advances have been attained in the
understanding of the seismic action on dams. The present study concerns numerical analysis of the seismic
response of earth dams. The procedure uses a nonlinear stress-strain
relation incorporated into the code FLAC2D based on the finite
difference method. This analysis provides the variation of the pore
water pressure and horizontal displacement.
Ground Motion Modelling in Bangladesh Using Stochastic Method
Geological and tectonic framework indicates that
Bangladesh is one of the most seismically active regions in the world.
The Bengal Basin is at the junction of three major interacting plates:
the Indian, Eurasian, and Burma Plates. Besides there are many
active faults within the region, e.g. the large Dauki fault in the north.
The country has experienced a number of destructive earthquakes due
to the movement of these active faults. Current seismic provisions of
Bangladesh are mostly based on earthquake data prior to the 1990.
Given the record of earthquakes post 1990, there is a need to revisit
the design provisions of the code. This paper compares the base shear
demand of three major cities in Bangladesh: Dhaka (the capital city),
Sylhet, and Chittagong for earthquake scenarios of magnitudes
7.0MW, 7.5MW, 8.0MW, and 8.5MW using a stochastic model. In
particular, the stochastic model allows the flexibility to input region
specific parameters such as shear wave velocity profile (that were
developed from Global Crustal Model CRUST2.0) and include the
effects of attenuation as individual components. Effects of soil
amplification were analysed using the Extended Component
Attenuation Model (ECAM). Results show that the estimated base
shear demand is higher in comparison with code provisions leading to
the suggestion of additional seismic design consideration in the study
Classification of Earthquake Distribution in the Banda Sea Collision Zone with Point Process Approach
Banda Sea Collision Zone (BSCZ) is the result of the
interaction and convergence of Indo-Australian plate, Eurasian plate
and Pacific plate. This location is located in eastern Indonesia. This
zone has a very high seismic activity. In this research, we will
calculate the rate (λ) and Mean Square Error (MSE). By this result,
we will classification earthquakes distribution in the BSCZ with the
point process approach. Chi-square is used to determine the type of
earthquakes distribution in the sub region of BSCZ. The data used in
this research is data of earthquakes with a magnitude ≥ 6 SR for the
period 1964-2013 and sourced from BMKG Jakarta. This research is
expected to contribute to the Moluccas Province and surrounding
local governments in performing spatial plan document related to
Determining Earthquake Performances of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings by Using ANN
In this study, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
analytical method has been developed for analyzing earthquake
performances of the Reinforced Concrete (RC) buildings. 66 RC
buildings with four to ten storeys were subjected to performance
analysis according to the parameters which are the existing material,
loading and geometrical characteristics of the buildings. The selected
parameters have been thought to be effective on the performance of
RC buildings. In the performance analyses stage of the study, level of
performance possible to be shown by these buildings in case of an
earthquake was determined on the basis of the 4-grade performance
levels specified in Turkish Earthquake Code-2007 (TEC-2007). After
obtaining the 4-grade performance level, selected 23 parameters of
each building have been matched with the performance level. In this
stage, ANN-based fast evaluation algorithm mentioned above made
an economic and rapid evaluation of four to ten storey RC buildings.
According to the study, the prediction accuracy of ANN has been
found about 74%.
Pushover Analysis of Masonry Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames for Performance Based Design for Near Field Earthquakes
Non-linear dynamic time history analysis is
considered as the most advanced and comprehensive analytical
method for evaluating the seismic response and performance of
multi-degree-of-freedom building structures under the influence of
earthquake ground motions. However, effective and accurate
application of the method requires the implementation of advanced
hysteretic constitutive models of the various structural components
including masonry infill panels. Sophisticated computational research
tools that incorporate realistic hysteresis models for non-linear
dynamic time-history analysis are not popular among the professional
engineers as they are not only difficult to access but also complex and
time-consuming to use. In addition, commercial computer programs
for structural analysis and design that are acceptable to practicing
engineers do not generally integrate advanced hysteretic models
which can accurately simulate the hysteresis behavior of structural
elements with a realistic representation of strength degradation,
stiffness deterioration, energy dissipation and ‘pinching’ under cyclic
load reversals in the inelastic range of behavior. In this scenario,
push-over or non-linear static analysis methods have gained
significant popularity, as they can be employed to assess the seismic
performance of building structures while avoiding the complexities
and difficulties associated with non-linear dynamic time-history
analysis. “Push-over” or non-linear static analysis offers a practical
and efficient alternative to non-linear dynamic time-history analysis
for rationally evaluating the seismic demands. The present paper is
based on the analytical investigation of the effect of distribution of
masonry infill panels over the elevation of planar masonry infilled
reinforced concrete [R/C] frames on the seismic demands using the
capacity spectrum procedures implementing nonlinear static analysis
[pushover analysis] in conjunction with the response spectrum
concept. An important objective of the present study is to numerically
evaluate the adequacy of the capacity spectrum method using
pushover analysis for performance based design of masonry infilled
R/C frames for near-field earthquake ground motions.
Dynamic Active Earth Pressure on Flexible Cantilever Retaining Wall
Evaluation of dynamic earth pressure on retaining wall is a topic of primary importance. In present paper, dynamic active earth pressure and displacement of flexible cantilever retaining wall has been evaluated analytically using 2-DOF mass-spring-dashpot model by incorporating both wall and backfill properties. The effect of wall flexibility on dynamic active earth pressure and wall displacement are studied and presented in graphical form. The obtained results are then compared with the various conventional methods, experimental analysis and also with PLAXIS analysis. It is observed that the dynamic active earth pressure decreases with increase in the wall flexibility while wall displacement increases linearly with flexibility of the wall. The results obtained by proposed 2-DOF analytical model are found to be more realistic and economical.
Experimental Behavior of Composite Shear Walls Having L Shape Steel Sections in Boundary Regions
The Composite Shear Walls (CSW) with steel encased
profiles can be used as lateral-load resisting systems for buildings
that require considerable large lateral-load capacity. The aim of this
work is to propose the experimental work conducted on CSW having
L section folded plate (L shape steel made-up sections) as
longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The study in this
paper present the experimental test conducted on CSW having L
section folded plate as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary
regions. The tested 1/3 geometric scaled CSW has aspect ratio of 3.2.
L-shape structural steel materials with 2L-19x57x7mm dimensions
were placed in shear wall boundary zones. The seismic behavior of
CSW test specimen was investigated by evaluating and interpreting
the hysteresis curves, envelope curves, rigidity and consumed energy
graphs of this tested element. In addition to this, the experimental
results, deformation and cracking patterns were evaluated, interpreted
and suggestions of the design recommendations were proposed.
A New Type Safety-Door for Earthquake Disaster Prevention - Part I
From the past earthquake events, many people get hurt at the exit while they are trying to go out of the buildings because of the exit doors are unable to be opened. The door is not opened because it deviates from its the original position. The aim of this research is to develop and evaluate a new type safety door that keeps the door frame in its original position or keeps its edge angles perpendicular during and post-earthquake. The proposed door is composed of three components: outer frame joined to the wall, inner frame (door frame) and circular hollow section connected to the inner and outer frame which is used as seismic energy dissipating device.