Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 5

5
10007901
Modeling of Electrokinetic Mixing in Lab on Chip Microfluidic Devices
Abstract:

This paper sets to demonstrate a modeling of electrokinetic mixing employing electroosmotic stationary and time-dependent microchannel using alternate zeta patches on the lower surface of the micromixer in a lab on chip microfluidic device. Electroosmotic flow is amplified using different 2D and 3D model designs with alternate and geometric zeta potential values such as 25, 50, and 100 mV, respectively, to achieve high concentration mixing in the electrokinetically-driven microfluidic system. The enhancement of electrokinetic mixing is studied using Finite Element Modeling, and simulation workflow is accomplished with defined integral steps. It can be observed that the presence of alternate zeta patches can help inducing microvortex flows inside the channel, which in turn can improve mixing efficiency. Fluid flow and concentration fields are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equation (implying Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip velocity boundary condition) and Convection-Diffusion equation. The effect of the magnitude of zeta potential, the number of alternate zeta patches, etc. are analysed thoroughly. 2D simulation reveals that there is a cumulative increase in concentration mixing, whereas 3D simulation differs slightly with low zeta potential as that of the 2D model within the T-shaped micromixer for concentration 1 mol/m3 and 0 mol/m3, respectively. Moreover, 2D model results were compared with those of 3D to indicate the importance of the 3D model in a microfluidic design process.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
4
10007738
Electrode Engineering for On-Chip Liquid Driving by Using Electrokinetic Effect
Abstract:

High lamination in microchannel is one of the main challenges in on-chip components like micro total analyzer systems and lab-on-a-chips. Electro-osmotic force is highly effective in chip-scale. This research proposes a microfluidic-based micropump for low ionic strength solutions. Narrow microchannels are designed to generate an efficient electroosmotic flow near the walls. Microelectrodes are embedded in the lateral sides and actuated by low electric potential to generate pumping effect inside the channel. Based on the simulation study, the fluid velocity increases by increasing the electric potential amplitude. We achieve a net flow velocity of 100 µm/s, by applying +/- 2 V to the electrode structures. Our proposed low voltage design is of interest in conventional lab-on-a-chip applications.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3
10005286
Electrokinetic Remediation of Uranium Contaminated Soil by Ion Exchange Membranes
Abstract:
The contamination of significant quantities of soils and sediments with uranium and other actinide elements as a result of nuclear activity poses many environmental risks. The electrokinetic process is one of the most promising remediation techniques for sludge, sediment, and saturated or unsaturated soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. However, secondary waste is a major concern for soil contaminated with nuclides. To minimize the generation of secondary wastes, this study used the anion and cation exchange membranes to improve the performance of the experimental apparatus. Remediation experiments of uranium-contaminated soil were performed with different agents. The results show that using acetic acid and EDTA as chelating agents clearly enhances the migration ability of the uranium. The ion exchange membranes (IEMs) used in the experiments not only reduce secondary wastes, but also, keep the soil pH stable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2
16093
Preparation of Size Controlled Silver on Carbon from E-waste by Chemical and Electro-Kinetic Processes
Abstract:

Preparation of size controlled nano-particles of silver catalyst on carbon substrate from e-waste has been investigated. Chemical route was developed by extraction of the metals available in nitric acid followed by treatment with hydrofluoric acid. Silver metal particles deposited with an average size 4-10 nm. A stabilizer concentration of 10- 40 g/l was used. The average size of the prepared silver decreased with increase of the anode current density. Size uniformity of the silver nano-particles was improved distinctly at higher current density no more than 20mA... Grain size increased with EK time whereby aggregation of particles was observed after 6 h of reaction.. The chemical method involves adsorption of silver nitrate on the carbon substrate. Adsorbed silver ions were directly reduced to metal particles using hydrazine hydrate. Another alternative method is by treatment with ammonia followed by heating the carbon loaded-silver hydroxide at 980°C. The product was characterized with the help of XRD, XRF, ICP, SEM and TEM techniques.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1
11188
Electroremediation of Cu-Contaminated Soil
Abstract:

This study investigated the removal efficiency of electrokinetic remediation of copper-contaminated soil at different combinations of enhancement reagents used as anolyte and catholyte. Sodium hydroxide (at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 M concentrations) and distilled water were used as anolyte, while lactic acid (at 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 M concentrations), ammonium citrate (also at 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 M concentrations) and distilled water were used as catholyte. A continuous voltage application (1.0 VDC/cm) was employed for 240 hours for each experiment. The copper content of the catholyte was determined at the end of the 240-hour period. Optimization was carried out with a Response Surface Methodology - Optimal Design, including F test, and multiple comparison method, to determine which pair of anolyte-catholyte was the most significant for the removal efficiency. "1.0 M NaOH" was found to be the most significant anolyte while it was established that lactic acid was the most significant type of catholyte to be used for the most successful electrokinetic experiments. Concentrations of lactic acid should be at the range of 0.1 M to 0.5 M to achieve maximum percent removal values.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
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