Problems of Youth Employment in Agricultural Sector of Georgia and Causes of Migration
The article substantiates that youth employment in Georgia, especially in the agricultural sector, is an acute socio-economic problem. The paper analyzes the indicators of youth employment and unemployment rates by age and gender in the agriculture sector. Research revealed that over the past decade, the unemployment rate in rural areas has decreased; however, the problem of unemployment is more sensitive than in the city in this field. The article established youth unemployment rates in rural areas; it assesses labor and educational migration causes. Based on the survey, there are proposed findings and recommendations of the agricultural sector about improving youth employment, reducing unemployment rate, reaching migration processes optimization.
Myths of Thangal Origin from an Anthropological Perspective
Myths may be understood as a special kind of literature though not found in written form. Through myths, anthropologists make attempts to describe a world which members of a literate society can barely imagine. Mythical stories about origin of numerous ethnic and tribal communities have helped in tracing their route of migration and the long journey undertaken before arriving at their present places of settlement. This study intends to highlight the myths associated with the origin of the Thangal tribe of Manipur from an anthropological perspective and interpret the stories in the context of evolution, migration and relationship with other neighbouring groups. Fieldwork was conducted using an interview guide to collect primary data and published literatures were consulted for secondary data. The result show two popular versions of origin myths are found among the Thangal- first is origin from a cave at Makhel located in the Maram area and second is the belief that the Thangal, the Tangkhul and the Meitei are brothers who emerged out of a cave long ago. In conclusion, the origin myths of the Thangal may be confirmed and established through archaeological findings in the form of artefacts. Mention of erection of memorial stones in the second version is a good clue to start an archaeological survey of the sites which are believed to have been once occupied by the people.
Measures for Limiting Corruption upon Migration Wave in Europe
Fight against migrant smuggling has been put as a priority issues at the European Union policy agenda for more than a decade. The trafficked person, who has been targeted as the object of criminal exploitation, is specifically unique for human trafficking. Generally, the beginning of human trafficking activities is related to profit from the victim’s exploitation. The objective of this paper is to present measures that could result in the limitation of corruption mainly through analyzing the existing legislation framework against corruption in Europe. The analysis is focused on exploring the multiple origins of factors influencing migration processes in Europe, as corruption could be characterized as one of the most significant reasons for refugees to flee their countries. The main results show that law enforcement must turn the focus on the financing of the organized crime groups that are involved in migrant smuggling activities. Corruption has a significant role in managing smuggling operations and in particular when criminal organizations and networks are involved. Illegal migrants and refugees usually represent significant sources of additional income for officials involved in the process of boarding protection and immigration control within the European Union borders.
The Effects of an Immigration Policy on the Economic Integration of Migrants and on Natives’ Attitudes: The Case of Syrian Refugees in Turkey
Turkey’s immigration policy is a controversial issue considering its legal, economic, social, and political and human rights dimensions. Formulation of an immigration policy goes hand in hand with political processes, where natives’ attitudes play a significant role. On the other hand, as was the case in Turkey, radical changes made in immigration policy or policies lacking transparency may cause severe reactions by the host society. The underlying discussion paper aims to analyze quantitatively the effects of the existing ‘open door’ immigration policy on the economic integration of Syrian refugees in Turkey, and on the perception of the native population of refugees. For the analysis, semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group interviews have been conducted. After the introduction, a literature review is provided, followed by theoretical background on the explanation of natives’ attitudes towards immigrants. In the next section, a qualitative analysis of natives’ attitudes towards Syrian refugees is presented with the subtopics of (i) awareness, general opinions and expectations, (ii) open-door policy and management of the migration process, (iii) perception of positive and negative impacts of immigration, (iv) economic integration, and (v) cultural similarity. Results indicate that, natives concurrently have social, economic and security concerns regarding refugees, while difficulties regarding security and economic integration of refugees stand out. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, such as the educational level and employment status, are not sufficient to explain the overall attitudes towards refugees, while they can be used to explain the awareness of the respondents and the priority of the concerns felt.
Optimal Resource Configuration and Allocation Planning Problem for Bottleneck Machines and Auxiliary Tools
This study presents the case of an actual Taiwanese semiconductor assembly and testing manufacturer. Three major bottleneck manufacturing processes, namely, die bond, wire bond, and molding, are analyzed to determine how to use finite resources to achieve the optimal capacity allocation. A medium-term capacity allocation planning model is developed by considering the optimal total profit to satisfy the promised volume demanded by customers and to obtain the best migration decision among production lines for machines and tools. Finally, sensitivity analysis based on the actual case is provided to explore the effect of various parameter levels.
Smuggling of Migrants as an Influential Factor on National Security, Economic and Social Life
Human trafficking and smuggling of migrants are criminal activities, which are on the rise over recent years. The number of legal migrants arrived in Europe from outside the European Union are far less than those who want to come and settle in Europe. The objective of this paper is to present the impact on economic and social life of significant measures influencing the smuggling of migrants. The analysis is focused on various complex factors which have multiple origins and are highly influential as regard to the process of migration and the smuggling of migrants. The smuggling of migrants is a criminal activity, directly related to migration. The main results show that often the routes chosen for smuggling of migrants are circuitous, as smugglers carefully avoid strictly controlled roads, checkpoints, and countries or jurisdictions where there is efficiency of justice, with particular emphasis on the law on trafficking of persons and smuggling of migrants.
Kirchhoff’s Depth Migration over Heterogeneous Velocity Models with Ray Tracing Modeling Approach
Complex seismic signatures are generated due to the complexity of the subsurface which is difficult to interpret. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model the complex subsurface using the Ray tracing modeling technique. Add to this, for the imaging of these geological features, Kirchhoff’s prestack depth migration is applied over the synthetic common shot gather dataset. It is found that the Kirchhoff’s migration technique in addition with the Ray tracing modeling concept has the flexibility towards the imaging of various complex geology which gives satisfactory results with proper delineation of the reflectors at their respective true depth position. The entire work has been carried out under the MATLAB environment.
Accelerating the Uptake of Smart City Applications through Cloud Computing
Smart cities are high on the political agenda around the globe. However, planning smart cities and deploying applications dealing with the complex problems of the urban environment is a very challenging task that is difficult to be undertaken solely by the cities. We argue that the uptake of smart city strategies is facilitated, first, through the development of smart city application repositories allowing re-use of already developed and tested software, and, second, through cloud computing which disengages city authorities from any resource constraints, technical or financial, and has a higher impact and greater effect at the city level The combination of these two solutions allows city governments and municipalities to select and deploy a large number of applications dedicated to different city functions, which collectively could create a multiplier effect with a greater impact on the urban environment.
International Migration of Highly Skilled Indian Professionals: A Case Study of Indian IT Professionals in Japan, Preliminary Results
In the 2000s, a new migration trend of highly skilled Indian professionals towards Japan has appeared. This paper examines the factors that set off the incoming of highly skilled Indian professionals in Japan, mainly focusing on IT professionals’ immigration, and the reasons of the increase in their number. It investigates the influence of four factors: The Japanese immigration policy, the bilateral relations between India and Japan, the higher education system in India and the American H-1B visa policy with its cap system. This study concludes that increased and continuous supply of highly skilled Indian professionals have intensified the competition for migration to traditional destinations like the USA. This led Indian professionals to consider other options such as Japan.
Internal Migration and Poverty Dynamic Analysis Using a Bayesian Approach: The Tunisian Case
We explore the relationship between internal migration
and poverty in Tunisia. We present a methodology combining
potential outcomes approach with multiple imputation to highlight the
effect of internal migration on poverty states. We find that probability
of being poor decreases when leaving the poorest regions (the west
areas) to the richer regions (greater Tunis and the east regions).
Labour Migration in Russia in the Context of Russia’s National Security Problem
The article deals with the problems of labour migration in the Russian Federation in the context of Russia's national security, provides the typology of migrants residing in the territory of the Russian Federation and analyzes the risk factors. The author considers the structure of migration flows and the terms of legal, economic and socio-cultural adaptation of migrants in the Russian Federation. In this connection, the status of the Russian migration legislation, the concept of the comprehensive exam in Russian as a foreign language, history of Russia and the basics of the Russian Federation legislation for foreign citizens which was introduced in Russia on January 1, 2015, are analyzed. The article discloses its role as the adaptation strategy and the factor of Russia's migration security.
The Nexus between Migration and Human Security: The Case of Ethiopian Female Migration to Sudan
International labor migration is an integral part of the modern globalized world. However, the phenomenon has its roots in some earlier periods in human history. This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of female migration in Africa. In the past, African women migrants were only spouses or dependent family members. But as modernity swept most African societies, with rising unemployment rates, there is evidence everywhere in Africa that women labor migration is a growing phenomenon that deserves to be understood in the context of human security research. This work explores these issues further, focusing on the experience of Ethiopian women labor migrants to Sudan. The migration of Ethiopian people to Sudan is historical; nevertheless, labor migration mainly started since the discovery and subsequent exploration of oil in the Sudan. While the paper is concerned with the human security aspect of the migrant workers, we need to be certain that the migration process will provide with a decent wage, good working conditions, the necessary social security coverage, and labor protection as a whole. However, migration to Sudan is not always safe and female migrants become subject to violence at the hands of brokers, employers and migration officials. For this matter, the paper argued that identifying the vulnerable stages and major problem facing female migrant workers at various stages of migration is a prerequisite to combat the problem and secure the lives of the migrant workers. The major problems female migrants face include extra degrees of gender-based violence, underpayment, various forms of abuse like verbal, physical and sexual and other forms of torture which include beating and slaps. This peculiar situation could be attributed to the fact that most of these women are irregular migrants and fall under the category of unskilled and/or illiterate migrants.
Family Relationships and Coping with the Stress of Young People from Migrant Families with Cerebral Palsy
The aim of this article is to present a relation between family relationships and styles of approach to coping with stress among young people from migrant families with cerebral palsy. The study involved 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in the standard intellectual capacity) from families, in which at least one of parents is a migrant. To measure the level of communication in the family, the Family Relationships Questionnaire (FRQ) was employed, while the styles of coping with stress was investigated with the CISS Questionnaire. The relation between family relationships and styles of coping with stressful situations of the respondents was investigated. It was shown that there is an affiliation between the emotion-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “communication in my family”. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there is a linkage between the task-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “maternal control in mother-child relationship”. Young people with CP subjected to overprotection and control from their mothers in problem situations tend to focus on their own emotions instead of trying to undertake constructive actions. Excessive control in daily life by mothers results in passivity and a lack of motivation to cope with difficult situations.
Data Migration Methodology from Relational to NoSQL Databases
Currently, the field of data migration is very topical. As the number of applications developed rapidly, the ever-increasing volume of data collected has driven the architectural migration from Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) to NoSQL (Not Only SQL) database. This very recent technology is important enough in the field of database management. The main aim of this paper is to present a methodology for data migration from RDBMS to NoSQL database. To illustrate this methodology, we implement a software prototype using MySQL as a RDBMS and MongoDB as a NoSQL database. Although this is a hard engineering work, our results show that the proposed methodology can successfully accomplish the goal of this study.
Urban and Rural Population Pyramids in Georgia Since 1950s
In the years followed independence, an economic
crisis and some conflicts led to the displacement of many people
inside Georgia. The growing poverty, unemployment, low income
and its unequal distribution limited access to basic social service have
had a clear direct impact on Georgian population dynamics and its
age-sex structure. Factors influencing the changing population age
structure and urbanization include mortality, fertility, migration and
expansion of urban. In this paper presents the main factors of
changing the distribution by urban and rural areas. How different are
the urban and rural age and sex structures? Does Georgia have the
same age-sex structure among their urban and rural populations since
The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia
Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as
well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of
its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was
almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in
regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the
system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”.
Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from
Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist
visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The
official statistics on migration published for this period was based on
the administrative system of population registration, were
insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope
of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality
and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going
to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing
immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?
Immigration and Gender Equality – An Analysis of the Labor Market Characteristics of Turkish Migrants Living in Germany
Turkish migrants constitute the largest group among
people with migration background living in Germany. Turkish
women’s labor market participation is of significant importance for
their social and economic integration to the German society. This
paper thus aims to investigate their labor market positions. Turkish
migrant women participate less in the labor market compared to men,
and are responsible for most of the housework, child care, and elderly
care. This is due to their traditional roles in the family, educational
level, insufficient knowledge of German language, and insufficient
professional experience. We strongly recommend that wide-reaching
integration policies for women are formulated, so as to encourage
participation of not only migrant women but also their husbands,
fathers and/or brothers, and natives.
Accrual Based Scheduling for Cloud in Single and Multi Resource System: Study of Three Techniques
This paper evaluates the accrual based scheduling for
cloud in single and multi-resource system. Numerous organizations
benefit from Cloud computing by hosting their applications. The
cloud model provides needed access to computing with potentially
unlimited resources. Scheduling is tasks and resources mapping to a
certain optimal goal principle. Scheduling, schedules tasks to virtual
machines in accordance with adaptable time, in sequence under
transaction logic constraints. A good scheduling algorithm improves
CPU use, turnaround time, and throughput. In this paper, three realtime
cloud services scheduling algorithm for single resources and
multiple resources are investigated. Experimental results show
Resource matching algorithm performance to be superior for both
single and multi-resource scheduling when compared to benefit first
scheduling, Migration, Checkpoint algorithms.
Sri Lanka – Middle East Labour Migration Corridor: Trends, Patterns and Structural Changes
Objective of this study is to explore the recent trends,
patterns and the structural changes in the labour migration from Sri
Lanka to Middle East countries and to discuss the possible impacts of
those changes on the remittance flow. Study uses secondary data
published by Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment and Central
Bank. Thematic analysis of the secondary data revealed that the
migration for labour has increased rapidly during past decades.
Parallel with that the gender and the skill composition of the
migration flow has been changing. Similarly, the destinations for
male migration have changed over the period. These show positive
implications on the international remittance receipts to the country.
Migration Aspect in the Realization of the Chinese “Going Out Policy” Strategy
The article examines the potential of the Chinese diaspora abroad. Investigate the influence of the highest in the People's Republic of foreign economic strategy of "Going to the outside" on the investment activity of Chinese enterprises abroad, the export of labor.
Household Level Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh
The aim of this study is to analyze the migration
process of the rural population of Bangladesh. Heckman Probit model
with sample selection was applied in this paper to explore the
determinants of migration and intensity of migration at farm
household level. The farm survey was conducted in the central part of
Bangladesh on 160 farm households with migrant and on 154 farm
households without migrant including a total of 316 farm households.
The results from the applied model revealed that main determinants
of migration at farm household level are household age, economically
active males and females, number of young and old dependent
members in the household and agricultural land holding. On the other
hand the main determinants of intensity of migration are availability
of economically adult male in the household, number of young
dependents and agricultural land holding.
Investigation on Polymer Based Nano-Silver as Food Packaging Materials
Commercial nanocomposite food packaging type nano-silver containers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The presence of nanoparticles consistent with the incorporation of 1% nano-silver (Ag) and 0.1% titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle into polymeric materials formed into food containers was confirmed. Both nanomaterials used in this type of packaging appear to be embedded in a layered configuration within the bulk polymer. The dimensions of the incorporated nanoparticles were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and determined by calculation using the Scherrer Formula; these were consistent with Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles in the size range 20-70nm both were spherical shape nanoparticles. Antimicrobial assessment of the nanocomposite container has also been performed and the results confirm the antimicrobial activity of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles in food packaging containers. Migration assessments were performed in a wide range of food matrices to determine the migration of nanoparticles from the packages. The analysis was based upon the relevant European safety Directives and involved the application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to identify the range of migration risk. The data pertain to insignificance levels of migration of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles into the selected food matrices.
Green Bridges and Their Migration Potential
Green bridges enable wildlife to pass through linear structures, especially freeways. The term migration potential is used to quantify their functionality. The proposed methodology for determining migration potential eliminates the mathematical, systematic and ecological inaccuracies of previous methodologies and provides a reliable tool for designers and environmentalists. The methodology is suited especially to medium-sized and large mammals, is mathematically correct, and its correspondence with reality was tested by monitoring existing green bridges.
European Radical Right Parties as Actors in Securitization of Migration
This study reveals that anti-immigrant policies in
Europe result from a process of securitization, and that, within this
process, radical right parties have been formulating discourses and
approaches through a construction process by using some common
security themes. These security themes can be classified as national
security, economic security, cultural security and internal security.
The frequency with which radical right parties use these themes may
vary according to the specific historical, social and cultural
characteristics of a particular country.
Assessing the Effect of the Shift of Rural Labor towards Non-Agricultural Sectors on Rice Cultivation in the African Environment: Evidence from Sierra Leone
The crop rice is the staple food of most Sierra Leone
with no close substitute. However, its cultivation has been on its last
legs over the years. The decline in the domestic rice cultivation has
had vicious socio-economic implications such as hiking consumer
prices, balance of payment dilemmas with debt burden. The objective
of this study is thus, to assess the effect of the shift of rural labour
towards non-agricultural sectors on rice cultivation. The tools utilized
for analyzing the problem under consideration involved a thorough
descriptive statistics and generalized linear model using OLS
technique. Increased rural population was established positive and
significant in affecting rice cultivation. Fertilizer utilization was
insignificant in rice cultivation. For reducing the shift of rural labor
force towards nonagricultural sectors, the government should make
the agricultural sector very lucrative.
Repatriates in the Kazakhstan: The Problems of Migration and Adaptation to the Historic Homeland
The article is devoted to Kazakh repatriates and their
migration to Kazakhstan as historical homeland, and also addresses
the problem of migrants- adaptation in the republic, particularly in
Almaty oblast (region). The authors used up-to-date statictics and
materials of the Department of Migration Committee to analyze the
newcomers- number and features of the repatriate-s location in this
oblast. Having studied this region they were able to identify the main
reasons why Kazakh Diaspora in Central Asia, Iran, Avganistana and
Turkey is eager to come back to their historic homeland along with
repatriates adaptation to the republic.
Kazakh Literature in Emigration and Works of Mazhit Aitbayev
Major social changes in the last century had significant impact on the Kazakh literature. Participants of the World War II, writers and poets imprisoned during the war, formed the Kazakh literature in emigration within the framework of 'Turkistan Legion'. This was a topic which remained closed until Kazakhstan gained its independence, though even after the independence, there were few research works done about the literature in emigration. The article studies the formation of the Kazakh literature in emigration, its prominent figures, its artistic heritage, and notes of emigration in works of poets and writers.
The Study on Migration Strategy of Legacy System
In the upgrade process of enterprise information
systems, whether new systems will be success and their development
will be efficient, depends on how to deal with and utilize those legacy systems. We propose an evaluation system, which comprehensively
describes the capacity of legacy information systems in five aspects.
Then a practical legacy systems evaluation method is scripted. Base on
the evaluation result, we put forward 4 kinds of migration strategy: eliminated, maintenance, modification, encapsulating. The methods
and strategies play important roles in practice.
Data Migration between Document-Oriented and Relational Databases
Current tools for data migration between documentoriented
and relational databases have several disadvantages. We
propose a new approach for data migration between documentoriented
and relational databases. During data migration the relational
schema of the target (relational database) is automatically created
from collection of XML documents. Proposed approach is verified on
data migration between document-oriented database IBM Lotus/
Notes Domino and relational database implemented in relational
database management system (RDBMS) MySQL.
Regional Differences in the Effect of Immigration on Poverty Rates in Spain
This paper explores the extent of the gap in poverty rates between immigrant and native households in Spanish regions and assess to what extent regional differences in individual and contextual characteristics can explain the divergences in such a gap. By using multilevel techniques and European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions, we estimate immigrant households experiments an increase of 76 per cent in the odds of being poor compared with a native one when we control by individual variables. In relation to regional differences in the risk of poverty, regionallevel variables have higher effect in the reduction of these differences than individual variables.