Highly Linear and Low Noise AMR Sensor Using Closed Loop and Signal-Chopped Architecture
During the last few decades, the continuously increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as different measurement techniques. Sensor sensitivity and linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, measurement range, cross-talk between sensors in multi-sensor applications are only some of the aspects that have been examined in the past. In this paper, a fully analog closed loop system in order to optimize the performance of AMR sensors has been developed. The operation of the proposed system has been tested using a Helmholtz coil calibration setup in order to control both the amplitude and direction of magnetic field in the vicinity of the AMR sensor. Experimental testing indicated that improved linearity of sensor response, as well as low noise levels can be achieved, when the system is employed.
Smartphone Video Source Identification Based on Sensor Pattern Noise
An increasing number of mobile devices with integrated
cameras has meant that most digital video comes from these devices.
These digital videos can be made anytime, anywhere and for different
purposes. They can also be shared on the Internet in a short period
of time and may sometimes contain recordings of illegal acts. The
need to reliably trace the origin becomes evident when these videos
are used for forensic purposes. This work proposes an algorithm
to identify the brand and model of mobile device which generated
the video. Its procedure is as follows: after obtaining the relevant
video information, a classification algorithm based on sensor noise
and Wavelet Transform performs the aforementioned identification
process. We also present experimental results that support the validity
of the techniques used and show promising results.
A Paradigm for Characterization and Checking of a Human Noise Behavior
This paper presents a paradigm for characterization and checking of human noise behavior. The definitions of ‘Noise’ and ‘Noise Behavior’ are devised. The concept of characterization and examining of Noise Behavior is obtained from the proposed paradigm of Psychoacoustics. The measurement of human noise behavior is discussed through definitions of noise sources and noise measurements. The noise sources, noise measurement equations and noise filters are further illustrated through examples. The theory and significance of solar energy acoustics is presented for life and its activities. Human comfort and health are correlated with human brain through physiological responses and noise protection. Examples of heat stress, intense heat, sweating and evaporation are also enumerated.
De-noising Infrared Image Using OWA Based Filter
Detection of small ship is crucial task in many automatic surveillance systems which are employed for security of maritime boundaries of a country. To address this problem, image de-noising is technique to identify the target ship in between many other ships in the sea. Image de-noising technique needs to extract the ship’s image from sea background for the analysis as the ship’s image may submerge in the background and flooding waves. In this paper, a noise filter is presented that is based on fuzzy linguistic ‘most’ quantifier. Ordered weighted averaging (OWA) function is used to remove salt-pepper noise of ship’s image. Results obtained are in line with the results available by other well-known median filters and OWA based approach shows better performance.
Numerical Simulations of Acoustic Imaging in Hydrodynamic Tunnel with Model Adaptation and Boundary Layer Noise Reduction
The noise requirements for naval and research vessels
have seen an increasing demand for quieter ships in order to fulfil
current regulations and to reduce the effects on marine life. Hence,
new methods dedicated to the characterization of propeller noise,
which is the main source of noise in the far-field, are needed. The
study of cavitating propellers in closed-section is interesting for
analyzing hydrodynamic performance but could involve significant
difficulties for hydroacoustic study, especially due to reverberation
and boundary layer noise in the tunnel. The aim of this paper
is to present a numerical methodology for the identification of
hydroacoustic sources on marine propellers using hydrophone arrays
in a large hydrodynamic tunnel. The main difficulties are linked to the
reverberation of the tunnel and the boundary layer noise that strongly
reduce the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper it is proposed to estimate
the reflection coefficients using an inverse method and some reference
transfer functions measured in the tunnel. This approach allows to
reduce the uncertainties of the propagation model used in the inverse
problem. In order to reduce the boundary layer noise, a cleaning
algorithm taking advantage of the low rank and sparse structure of the
cross-spectrum matrices of the acoustic and the boundary layer noise
is presented. This approach allows to recover the acoustic signal even
well under the boundary layer noise. The improvement brought by
this method is visible on acoustic maps resulting from beamforming
and DAMAS algorithms.
Evaluation of Sensor Pattern Noise Estimators for Source Camera Identification
This paper presents a comprehensive survey of recent source camera identification (SCI) systems. Then, the performance of various sensor pattern noise (SPN) estimators was experimentally assessed, under common photo response non-uniformity (PRNU) frameworks. The experiments used 1350 natural and 900 flat-field images, captured by 18 individual cameras. 12 different experiments, grouped into three sets, were conducted. The results were analyzed using the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. The experimental results demonstrated that combining the basic SPN estimator with a wavelet-based filtering scheme provides promising results. However, the phase SPN estimator fits better with both patch-based (BM3D) and anisotropic diffusion (AD) filtering schemes.
Thermal Radiation and Noise Safety Assessment of an Offshore Platform Flare Stack as Sudden Emergency Relief Takes Place
To study the potential hazards of the sudden emergency relief of flare stack, the thermal radiation and noise calculation of flare stack is carried out by using Flaresim program 2.0. Thermal radiation and noise analysis should be considered as the sudden emergency relief takes place. According to the Flaresim software simulation results, the thermal radiation and noise meet the requirement.
Design and Performance Improvement of Three-Dimensional Optical Code Division Multiple Access Networks with NAND Detection Technique
In this paper, we have presented and analyzed three-dimensional (3-D) matrices of wavelength/time/space code for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) networks with NAND subtraction detection technique. The 3-D codes are constructed by integrating a two-dimensional modified quadratic congruence (MQC) code with one-dimensional modified prime (MP) code. The respective encoders and decoders were designed using fiber Bragg gratings and optical delay lines to minimize the bit error rate (BER). The performance analysis of the 3D-OCDMA system is based on measurement of signal to noise ratio (SNR), BER and eye diagram for a different number of simultaneous users. Also, in the analysis, various types of noises and multiple access interference (MAI) effects were considered. The results obtained with NAND detection technique were compared with those obtained with OR and AND subtraction techniques. The comparison results proved that the NAND detection technique with 3-D MQC\MP code can accommodate more number of simultaneous users for longer distances of fiber with minimum BER as compared to OR and AND subtraction techniques. The received optical power is also measured at various levels of BER to analyze the effect of attenuation.
Multi-Objective Optimization of Electric Discharge Machining for Inconel 718
Electric discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most widely used non-conventional manufacturing process to shape difficult-to-cut materials. The process yield, in terms of material removal rate, surface roughness and tool wear rate, of EDM may considerably be improved by selecting the optimal combination(s) of process parameters. This paper employs Multi-response signal-to-noise (MRSN) ratio technique to find the optimal combination(s) of the process parameters during EDM of Inconel 718. Three cases v.i.z. high cutting efficiency, high surface finish, and normal machining have been taken and the optimal combinations of input parameters have been obtained for each case. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been employed to find the dominant parameter(s) in all three cases. The experimental verification of the obtained results has also been made. MRSN ratio technique found to be a simple and effective multi-objective optimization technique.
A SiGe Low Power RF Front-End Receiver for 5.8GHz Wireless Biomedical Application
It is necessary to realize new biomedical wireless communication systems which send the signals collected from various bio sensors located at human body in order to monitor our health. Also, it should seamlessly connect to the existing wireless communication systems. A 5.8 GHz ISM band low power RF front-end receiver for a biomedical wireless communication system is implemented using a 0.5 µm SiGe BiCMOS process. To achieve low power RF front-end, the current optimization technique for selecting device size is utilized. The implemented low noise amplifier (LNA) shows a power gain of 9.8 dB, a noise figure (NF) of below 1.75 dB, and an IIP3 of higher than 7.5 dBm while current consumption is only 6 mA at supply voltage of 2.5 V. Also, the performance of a down-conversion mixer is measured as a conversion gain of 11 dB and SSB NF of 10 dB.
Energy Detection Based Sensing and Primary User Traffic Classification for Cognitive Radio
As wireless communication services grow quickly; the seriousness of spectrum utilization has been on the rise gradually. An emerging technology, cognitive radio has come out to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem. To support the spectrum reuse functionality, secondary users are required to sense the radio frequency environment, and once the primary users are found to be active, the secondary users are required to vacate the channel within a certain amount of time. Therefore, spectrum sensing is of significant importance. Once sensing is done, different prediction rules apply to classify the traffic pattern of primary user. Primary user follows two types of traffic patterns: periodic and stochastic ON-OFF patterns. A cognitive radio can learn the patterns in different channels over time. Two types of classification methods are discussed in this paper, by considering edge detection and by using autocorrelation function. Edge detection method has a high accuracy but it cannot tolerate sensing errors. Autocorrelation-based classification is applicable in the real environment as it can tolerate some amount of sensing errors.
Measurement of Acoustic Loss in Nano-Layered Coating Developed for Thermal Noise Reduction
Structural relaxation processes in optical coatings represent a fundamental limit to the sensitivity of gravitational waves detectors, MEMS, optical metrology and entangled state experiments. To face this problem, many research lines are now active, in particular the characterization of new materials and novel solutions to be employed as coatings in future gravitational wave detectors. Nano-layered coating deposition is among the most promising techniques. We report on the measurement of acoustic loss of nm-layered composites (Ti2O/SiO2), performed with the GeNS nodal suspension, compared with sputtered λ/4 thin films nowadays employed.
The Improvement of Environmental Protection through Motor Vehicle Noise Abatement
In this paper, a methodology for noise reduction of motor vehicles in use is presented. The methodology relies on synergic model of noise generation as a function of time. The arbitrary number of motor vehicle noise sources act in concert yielding the generation of the overall noise level of motor vehicle thereafter. The number of noise sources participating in the overall noise level of motor vehicle is subjected to the constraint of the calculation of the acoustic potential of each noise source under consideration. It is the prerequisite condition for the calculation of the acoustic potential of the whole vehicle. The recast form of pertinent set of equations describing the synergic model is laid down and solved by dint of Gauss method. The bunch of results emerged and some of them i.e. those ensuing from model application to MDD FAP Priboj motor vehicle in use are particularly elucidated.
An Approach to Noise Variance Estimation in Very Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Stochastic Signals
This paper describes a method for AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) variance estimation in noisy stochastic signals, referred to as Multiplicative-Noising Variance Estimation (MNVE). The aim was to develop an estimation algorithm with minimal number of assumptions on the original signal structure. The provided MATLAB simulation and results analysis of the method applied on speech signals showed more accuracy than standardized AR (autoregressive) modeling noise estimation technique. In addition, great performance was observed on very low signal-to-noise ratios, which in general represents the worst case scenario for signal denoising methods. High execution time appears to be the only disadvantage of MNVE. After close examination of all the observed features of the proposed algorithm, it was concluded it is worth of exploring and that with some further adjustments and improvements can be enviably powerful.
Preferences of Electric Buses in Public Transport; Conclusions from Real Life Testing in Eight Swedish Municipalities
From a theoretical perspective, electric buses can be more sustainable and can be cheaper than fossil fuelled buses in city traffic. The authors have not found other studies based on actual urban public transport in Swedish winter climate. Further on, noise measurements from buses for the European market were found old. The aims of this follow-up study was therefore to test and possibly verify in a real-life environment how energy efficient and silent electric buses are, and then conclude on if electric buses are preferable to use in public transport. The Ebusco 2.0 electric bus, fitted with a 311 kWh battery pack, was used and the tests were carried out during November 2014-April 2015 in eight municipalities in the south of Sweden. Six tests took place in urban traffic and two took place in more of a rural traffic setting. The energy use for propulsion was measured via logging of the internal system in the bus and via an external charging meter. The average energy use turned out to be 8% less (0,96 kWh/km) than assumed in the earlier theoretical study. This rate allows for a 320 km range in public urban traffic. The interior of the bus was kept warm by a diesel heater (biodiesel will probably be used in a future operational traffic situation), which used 0,67 kWh/km in January. This verified that electric buses can be up to 25% cheaper when used in public transport in cities for about eight years. The noise was found to be lower, primarily during acceleration, than for buses with combustion engines in urban bus traffic. According to our surveys, most passengers and drivers appreciated the silent and comfortable ride and preferred electric buses rather than combustion engine buses. Bus operators and passenger transport executives were also positive to start using electric buses for public transport. The operators did however point out that procurement processes need to account for eventual risks regarding this new technology, along with personnel education. The study revealed that it is possible to establish a charging infrastructure for almost all studied bus lines. However, design of a charging infrastructure for each municipality requires further investigations, including electric grid capacity analysis, smart location of charging points, and tailored schedules to allow fast charging. In conclusion, electric buses proved to be a preferable alternative for all stakeholders involved in public bus transport in the studied municipalities. However, in order to electric buses to be a prominent support for sustainable development, they need to be charged either by stand-alone units or via an expansion of the electric grid, and the electricity should be made from new renewable sources.
Predicting Automotive Interior Noise Including Wind Noise by Statistical Energy Analysis
The applications of soundproof materials for reduction of high frequency automobile interior noise have been researched. This paper presents a sound pressure prediction technique including wind noise by Hybrid Statistical Energy Analysis (HSEA) in order to reduce weight of acoustic insulations. HSEA uses both analytical SEA and experimental SEA. As a result of chassis dynamo test and road test, the validity of SEA modeling was shown, and utility of the method was confirmed.
Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gas Jet Flows and Acoustics Fields
The source of the jet noise is generated by rocket exhaust plume during rocket engine testing. A domain decomposition approach is applied to the jet noise prediction in this paper. The aerodynamic noise coupling is based on the splitting into acoustic sources generation and sound propagation in separate physical domains. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to simulate the supersonic jet flow. Based on the simulation results of the flow-fields, the jet noise distribution of the sound pressure level is obtained by applying the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustics equation and Fourier transform. The calculation results show that the complex structures of expansion waves, compression waves and the turbulent boundary layer could occur due to the strong interaction between the gas jet and the ambient air. In addition, the jet core region, the shock cell and the sound pressure level of the gas jet increase with the nozzle size increasing. Importantly, the numerical simulation results of the far-field sound are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in directivity.
Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies
This paper investigates the characteristics of wall
pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows
on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has
a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are
used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer
flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise
wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime
and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The
process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in
turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave)
is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S
wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher
than those in the turbulent boundary layer.
Sound Insulation between Buildings: The Impact Noise Transmission through Different Floor Configurations
The present paper examines the impact noise
transmission through some floor building assemblies. The Acoubat
software numerical simulation has been used to simulate the impact
noise transmission through different floor configurations used in
Algerian construction mode. The results are compared with the
available measurements. We have developed two experimental
methods, i) field method, and ii) laboratory method using Brüel and
Kjær equipments. The results show that the different cases of floor
configurations need some improvement to ensure the acoustic
comfort in the receiving apartment. The recommended value of the
impact sound level in the receiving room should not exceed 58 dB.
The important results obtained in this paper can be used as platform
to improve the Algerian building acoustic regulation aimed at the
construction of the multi-storey residential building.
Power Transformer Noise, Noise Tests, and Example Test Results
Voltage level must be raised in order to deliver the
produced energy to the consumption zones with less loss and less
cost. Power transformers used to raise or lower voltage are important
parts of the energy transmission system. Power transformers used in
switchgear and power generation plants stay in human's intensive
habitat zones as a result of expanding cities. Accordingly, noise
levels produced by power transformers have begun more and more
important and they have established itself as one of the research field.
In this research, the noise cause on transformers has been
investigated, it's causes has been examined and noise measurement
techniques have been introduced. Examples of transformer noise test
results are submitted and precautions to be taken were discussed for
the purpose of decreasing of the noise which will occurred by
New Data Reuse Adaptive Filters with Noise Constraint
We present a new framework of the data-reusing (DR)
adaptive algorithms by incorporating a constraint on noise, referred
to as a noise constraint. The motivation behind this work is that the
use of the statistical knowledge of the channel noise can contribute
toward improving the convergence performance of an adaptive filter
in identifying a noisy linear finite impulse response (FIR) channel.
By incorporating the noise constraint into the cost function of the
DR adaptive algorithms, the noise constrained DR (NC-DR) adaptive
algorithms are derived. Experimental results clearly indicate their
superior performance over the conventional DR ones.
Fluctuations of Transfer Factor of the Mixer Based on Schottky Diode
Fluctuations of Schottky diode parameters in a
structure of the mixer are investigated. These fluctuations are
manifested in two ways. At the first, they lead to fluctuations in the
transfer factor that is lead to the amplitude fluctuations in the signal
of intermediate frequency. On the basis of the measurement data of
1/f noise of the diode at forward current, the estimation of a spectrum
of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer is executed.
Current dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in
transfer factor of the mixer and dependence of the spectrum of
relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer on the amplitude
of the heterodyne signal are investigated. At the second, fluctuations
in parameters of the diode lead to occurrence of 1/f noise in the
output signal of the mixer. This noise limits the sensitivity of the
mixer to the value of received signal.
Comparison of Noise Emissions in the Interior of Passenger Cars
The noise is one of the negative elements which
affects the human health. This article presents the measurement of
emitted noise by road vehicle and its parts during the operation.
Measurement was done in the interior of common passenger cars
with a digital sound meter. The results compare the noise value in
different cars with different body shape, which influences the driver’s
health. Transport has considerable ecological effects; many of them
are detrimental to environmental sustainability. Roads and traffic
exert a variety of direct and mostly detrimental effects on nature.
Design and Performance Analysis of One Dimensional Zero Cross-Correlation Coding Technique for a Fixed Wavelength Hopping SAC-OCDMA
This paper presents a SAC-OCDMA code with zero cross correlation property to minimize the Multiple Access Interface (MAI) as New Zero Cross Correlation code (NZCC), which is found to be more scalable compared to the other existing SAC-OCDMA codes. This NZCC code is constructed using address segment and data segment. In this work, the proposed NZCC code is implemented in an optical system using the Opti-System software for the spectral amplitude coded optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) scheme. The main contribution of the proposed NZCC code is the zero cross correlation, which reduces both the MAI and PIIN noises. The proposed NZCC code reveals properties of minimum cross-correlation, flexibility in selecting the code parameters and supports a large number of users, combined with high data rate and longer fiber length. Simulation results reveal that the optical code division multiple access system based on the proposed NZCC code accommodates maximum number of simultaneous users with higher data rate transmission, lower Bit Error Rates (BER) and longer travelling distance without any signal quality degradation, as compared to the former existing SAC-OCDMA codes.
CT Medical Images Denoising Based on New Wavelet Thresholding Compared with Curvelet and Contourlet
One of the most important challenging factors in
medical images is nominated as noise. Image denoising refers to the
improvement of a digital medical image that has been infected by
Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The digital medical image
or video can be affected by different types of noises. They are
impulse noise, Poisson noise and AWGN. Computed tomography
(CT) images are subjects to low quality due to the noise. Quality of
CT images is dependent on absorbed dose to patients directly in such
a way that increase in absorbed radiation, consequently absorbed
dose to patients (ADP), enhances the CT images quality. In this
manner, noise reduction techniques on purpose of images quality
enhancement exposing no excess radiation to patients is one the
challenging problems for CT images processing. In this work, noise
reduction in CT images was performed using two different
directional 2 dimensional (2D) transformations; i.e., Curvelet and
Contourlet and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) thresholding
methods of BayesShrink and AdaptShrink, compared to each other
and we proposed a new threshold in wavelet domain for not only
noise reduction but also edge retaining, consequently the proposed
method retains the modified coefficients significantly that result good
visual quality. Data evaluations were accomplished by using two
criterions; namely, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and Structure
Coexistence of Two Different Types of Intermittency near the Boundary of Phase Synchronization in the Presence of Noise
Intermittent behavior near the boundary of phase
synchronization in the presence of noise is studied. In certain range of
the coupling parameter and noise intensity the intermittency of eyelet
and ring intermittencies is shown to take place. Main results are
illustrated using the example of two unidirectional coupled Rössler
systems. Similar behavior is shown to take place in two
hydrodynamical models of Pierce diode coupled unidirectional.
Application of Flexi-Wall in Noise Barriers Renewal
This paper presents an experimental study on
structural performance of an innovative noise barrier consisting of
poly-block, light polyurethane foam (LPF) and polyurea. This wall
system (flexi-wall) is intended to be employed as a vertical extension
to existing sound barriers in an accelerated construction method. To
aid in the wall design, several mechanical tests were conducted on
LPF specimens and two full-scale walls were then fabricated
employing the same LPF material. The full-scale walls were
subjected to lateral loading in order to establish their lateral
resistance. A cyclic fatigue test was also performed on a full-scale
flexi-wall in order to evaluate the performance of the wall under a
repetitive loading condition. The result of the experiments indicated
the suitability of flexi-wall in accelerated construction and confirmed
that the structural performance of the wall system under lateral
loading is satisfactory for the sound barrier application. The
experimental results were discussed and a preliminary design
procedure for application of flexi-wall in sound barrier applications
was also developed.
The Effect of Damping Treatment for Noise Control on Offshore Platforms Using Statistical Energy Analysis
Structure-borne noise is an important aspect of
offshore platform sound field. It can be generated either directly by
vibrating machineries induced mechanical force, indirectly by the
excitation of structure or excitation by incident airborne noise.
Therefore, limiting of the transmission of vibration energy
throughout the offshore platform is the key to control the structureborne
noise. This is usually done by introducing damping treatment
to the steel structures. Two types of damping treatment using onboard
are presented. By conducting a Statistical Energy Analysis
(SEA) simulation on a jack-up rig, the noise level in the source room,
the neighboring rooms, and remote living quarter cabins are
compared before and after the damping treatments been applied. The
results demonstrated that, in the source neighboring room and living
quarter area, there is a significant noise reduction with the damping
treatment applied, whereas in the source room where air-borne sound
predominates that of structure-borne sound, the impact is not
obvious. The conclusion on effective damping treatment in the
offshore platform is made which enable acoustic professionals to
implement noise control during the design stage for offshore crews’
hearing protection and habitant comfortability.
Motor Gear Fault Diagnosis by Current, Noise and Vibration on AC Machine Considering Environment
Lots of motors have been being used in industry.
Therefore many researchers have studied about the failure diagnosis of
motors. In this paper, the effect of measuring environment for
diagnosis of gear fault connected to a motor shaft is studied. The fault
diagnosis is executed through the comparison of normal gear and
abnormal gear. The measured FFT data are compared with the normal
data and analyzed for q-axis current, noise and vibration. For bad and
good environment, the diagnosis results are compared. From these, it
is shown that the bad measuring environment may not be able to detect
exactly the motor gear fault. Therefore it is emphasized that the
measuring environment should be carefully prepared.
Neural Networks-Based Acoustic Annoyance Model for Laptop Hard Disk Drive
Since the last decade, there has been a rapid growth in
digital multimedia, such as high-resolution media files and threedimentional
movies. Hence, there is a need for large digital storage
such as Hard Disk Drive (HDD). As such, users expect to have a
quieter HDD in their laptop. In this paper, a jury test has been
conducted on a group of 34 people where 17 of them are students
who are the potential consumer, and the remaining are engineers who
know the HDD. A total 13 HDD sound samples have been selected
from over hundred HDD noise recordings. These samples are
selected based on an agreed subjective feeling. The samples are
played to the participants using head acoustic playback system, which
enabled them to experience as similar as possible the same
environment as have been recorded. Analysis has been conducted and
the obtained results have indicated different group has different
perception over the noises. Two neural network-based acoustic
annoyance models are established based on back propagation neural
network. Four psychoacoustic metrics, loudness, sharpness,
roughness and fluctuation strength, are used as the input of the
model, and the subjective evaluation results are taken as the output.
The developed models are reasonably accurate in simulating both
training and test samples.