Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 318

318
10007892
The Association between Food Security Status and Depression in Two Iranian Ethnic Groups Living in Northwest of Iran
Abstract:
Food insecurity (FI) influences may result in poor physical and mental health outcomes. Minor ethnic group may experience higher level of FI, and this situation may be related with higher depression prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the association of depression with food security status in major (Azeri) and minor (Kurdish) ethnicity living in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, north of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men) aged 20–64 years old, from two ethnic groups (445 Azeri and 278 Kurdish), were selected through a multi stage cluster systematic sampling. Depression rate was assessed by “Beck” short form questionnaire (validated in Iranians) through interviews. Household FI status (HFIS) was measured using adapted HFI access scale through face-to-face interviews at homes. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of depression across HFIS. Higher percent of Kurds had moderate and severe depression in comparison with Azeri group (73 [17.3%] vs. 86 [27.9%]). There were not any significant differences between the two ethnicities in mild depression. Also, of all the subjects, moderate-to-sever FI was more prevalent in Kurds (28.5%), compared to Azeri group (17.3%) [P < 0.01]. Kurdish ethnic group living in food security or mild FI households had lower chance to have symptom of severe depression in comparison to those with sever FI (OR=0.097; 95% CI: 0.02-0.47). However, there was no significant association between depression and HFI in Azeri group. Findings revealed that the severity of HFI was related with severity depression in minor studied ethnic groups. However, in Azeri ethnicity as a major group, other confounders may have influence on the relation with depression and FI, that were not studied in the present study.
317
10007946
The Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Electoral Procedures: Comments on Electronic Voting Security
Abstract:

The expansion of telecommunication and progress of electronic media constitute important elements of our times. The recent worldwide convergence of information and communication technologies (ICT) and dynamic development of the mass media is leading to noticeable changes in the functioning of contemporary states and societies. Currently, modern technologies play more and more important roles and filter down to almost every field of contemporary human life. It results in the growth of online interactions that can be observed by the inconceivable increase in the number of people with home PCs and Internet access. The proof of it is undoubtedly the emergence and use of concepts such as e-society, e-banking, e-services, e-government, e-government, e-participation and e-democracy. The newly coined word e-democracy evidences that modern technologies have also been widely used in politics. Without any doubt in most countries all actors of political market (politicians, political parties, servants in political/public sector, media) use modern forms of communication with the society. Most of these modern technologies progress the processes of getting and sending information to the citizens, communication with the electorate, and also – which seems to be the biggest advantage – electoral procedures. Thanks to implementation of ICT the interaction between politicians and electorate are improved. The main goal of this text is to analyze electronic voting (e-voting) as one of the important forms of electronic democracy in terms of security aspects. The author of this paper aimed at answering the questions of security of electronic voting as an additional form of participation in elections and referenda.

316
10007817
Digital Forensics Compute Cluster: A High Speed Distributed Computing Capability for Digital Forensics
Abstract:
We have developed a distributed computing capability, Digital Forensics Compute Cluster (DFORC2) to speed up the ingestion and processing of digital evidence that is resident on computer hard drives. DFORC2 parallelizes evidence ingestion and file processing steps. It can be run on a standalone computer cluster or in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud. When running in a virtualized computing environment, its cluster resources can be dynamically scaled up or down using Kubernetes. DFORC2 is an open source project that uses Autopsy, Apache Spark and Kafka, and other open source software packages. It extends the proven open source digital forensics capabilities of Autopsy to compute clusters and cloud architectures, so digital forensics tasks can be accomplished efficiently by a scalable array of cluster compute nodes. In this paper, we describe DFORC2 and compare it with a standalone version of Autopsy when both are used to process evidence from hard drives of different sizes.
315
10007340
Cyber Security Situational Awareness among Students: A Case Study in Malaysia
Abstract:

This paper explores the need for a national baseline study on understanding the level of cyber security situational awareness among primary and secondary school students in Malaysia. The online survey method was deployed to administer the data collection exercise. The target groups were divided into three categories: Group 1 (primary school aged 7-9 years old), Group 2 (primary school aged 10-12 years old), and Group 3 (secondary school aged 13-17 years old). A different questionnaire set was designed for each group. The survey topics/areas included Internet and digital citizenship knowledge. Respondents were randomly selected from rural and urban areas throughout all 14 states in Malaysia. A total of 9,158 respondents participated in the survey, with most states meeting the minimum sample size requirement to represent the country’s demographics. The findings and recommendations from this baseline study are fundamental to develop teaching modules required for children to understand the security risks and threats associated with the Internet throughout their years in school. Early exposure and education will help ensure healthy cyber habits among millennials in Malaysia.

314
10007822
Secure E-Pay System Using Steganography and Visual Cryptography
Abstract:

Today’s internet world is highly prone to various online attacks, of which the most harmful attack is phishing. The attackers host the fake websites which are very similar and look alike. We propose an image based authentication using steganography and visual cryptography to prevent phishing. This paper presents a secure steganographic technique for true color (RGB) images and uses Discrete Cosine Transform to compress the images. The proposed method hides the secret data inside the cover image. The use of visual cryptography is to preserve the privacy of an image by decomposing the original image into two shares. Original image can be identified only when both qualified shares are simultaneously available. Individual share does not reveal the identity of the original image. Thus, the existence of the secret message is hard to be detected by the RS steganalysis.

313
10007354
An Attribute Based Access Control Model with POL Module for Dynamically Granting and Revoking Authorizations
Abstract:
Currently, resource sharing and system security are critical issues. This paper proposes a POL module composed of PRIV ILEGE attribute (PA), obligation and log which improves attribute based access control (ABAC) model in dynamically granting authorizations and revoking authorizations. The following describes the new model termed PABAC in terms of the POL module structure, attribute definitions, policy formulation and authorization architecture, which demonstrate the advantages of it. The POL module addresses the problems which are not predicted before and not described by access control policy. It can be one of the subject attributes or resource attributes according to the practical application, which enhances the flexibility of the model compared with ABAC. A scenario that illustrates how this model is applied to the real world is provided.
312
10006948
Stackelberg Security Game for Optimizing Security of Federated Internet of Things Platform Instances
Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for optimal cyber security decisions to protect instances of a federated Internet of Things (IoT) platform in the cloud. The presented solution implements the repeated Stackelberg Security Game (SSG) and a model called Stochastic Human behaviour model with AttRactiveness and Probability weighting (SHARP). SHARP employs the Subjective Utility Quantal Response (SUQR) for formulating a subjective utility function, which is based on the evaluations of alternative solutions during decision-making. We augment the repeated SSG (including SHARP and SUQR) with a reinforced learning algorithm called Naïve Q-Learning. Naïve Q-Learning belongs to the category of active and model-free Machine Learning (ML) techniques in which the agent (either the defender or the attacker) attempts to find an optimal security solution. In this way, we combine GT and ML algorithms for discovering optimal cyber security policies. The proposed security optimization components will be validated in a collaborative cloud platform that is based on the Industrial Internet Reference Architecture (IIRA) and its recently published security model.

311
10007094
Improving the Security of Internet of Things Using Encryption Algorithms
Abstract:

Internet of things (IOT) is a kind of advanced information technology which has drawn societies’ attention. Sensors and stimulators are usually recognized as smart devices of our environment. Simultaneously, IOT security brings up new issues. Internet connection and possibility of interaction with smart devices cause those devices to involve more in human life. Therefore, safety is a fundamental requirement in designing IOT. IOT has three remarkable features: overall perception, reliable transmission, and intelligent processing. Because of IOT span, security of conveying data is an essential factor for system security. Hybrid encryption technique is a new model that can be used in IOT. This type of encryption generates strong security and low computation. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid encryption algorithm which has been conducted in order to reduce safety risks and enhancing encryption's speed and less computational complexity. The purpose of this hybrid algorithm is information integrity, confidentiality, non-repudiation in data exchange for IOT. Eventually, the suggested encryption algorithm has been simulated by MATLAB software, and its speed and safety efficiency were evaluated in comparison with conventional encryption algorithm.

310
10007172
Benchmarking of Pentesting Tools
Abstract:
The benchmarking of tools for dynamic analysis of vulnerabilities in web applications is something that is done periodically, because these tools from time to time update their knowledge base and search algorithms, in order to improve their accuracy. Unfortunately, the vast majority of these evaluations are made by software enthusiasts who publish their results on blogs or on non-academic websites and always with the same evaluation methodology. Similarly, academics who have carried out this type of analysis from a scientific approach, the majority, make their analysis within the same methodology as well the empirical authors. This paper is based on the interest of finding answers to questions that many users of this type of tools have been asking over the years, such as, to know if the tool truly test and evaluate every vulnerability that it ensures do, or if the tool, really, deliver a real report of all the vulnerabilities tested and exploited. This kind of questions have also motivated previous work but without real answers. The aim of this paper is to show results that truly answer, at least on the tested tools, all those unanswered questions. All the results have been obtained by changing the common model of benchmarking used for all those previous works.
309
10007173
Malware Detection in Mobile Devices by Analyzing Sequences of System Calls
Abstract:
With the increase in popularity of mobile devices, new and varied forms of malware have emerged. Consequently, the organizations for cyberdefense have echoed the need to deploy more effective defensive schemes adapted to the challenges posed by these recent monitoring environments. In order to contribute to their development, this paper presents a malware detection strategy for mobile devices based on sequence alignment algorithms. Unlike the previous proposals, only the system calls performed during the startup of applications are studied. In this way, it is possible to efficiently study in depth, the sequences of system calls executed by the applications just downloaded from app stores, and initialize them in a secure and isolated environment. As demonstrated in the performed experimentation, most of the analyzed malicious activities were successfully identified in their boot processes.
308
10006888
Composite Distributed Generation and Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Security
Abstract:
During the recent past, due to the increase of electrical energy demand and governmental resources constraints in creating additional capacity in the generation, transmission, and distribution, privatization, and restructuring in electrical industry have been considered. So, in most of the countries, different parts of electrical industry like generation, transmission, and distribution have been separated in order to create competition. Considering these changes, environmental issues, energy growth, investment of private equity in energy generation units and difficulties of transmission lines expansion, distributed generation (DG) units have been used in power systems. Moreover, reduction in the need for transmission and distribution, the increase of reliability, improvement of power quality, and reduction of power loss have caused DG to be placed in power systems. On the other hand, considering low liquidity need, private investors tend to spend their money for DGs. In this project, the main goal is to offer an algorithm for planning and placing DGs in order to reduce the need for transmission and distribution network.
307
10006568
Food Security Model and the Role of Community Empowerment: The Case of a Marginalized Village in Mexico, Tatoxcac, Puebla
Abstract:

Community empowerment has been proved to be a key element in the solution of the food security problem. As a result of a conceptual analysis, it was found that agricultural production, economic development and governance, are the traditional basis of food security models. Although the literature points to social inclusion as an important factor for food security, no model has considered it as the basis of it. The aim of this research is to identify different dimensions that make an integral model for food security, with emphasis on community empowerment. A diagnosis was made in the study community (Tatoxcac, Zacapoaxtla, Puebla), to know the aspects that impact the level of food insecurity. With a statistical sample integrated by 200 families, the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) was applied, finding that: in households composed by adults and children, have moderated food insecurity, (ELCSA scale has three levels, low, moderated and high); that result is produced mainly by the economic income capacity and the diversity of the diet on its food. With that being said, a model was developed to promote food security through five dimensions: 1. Regional context of the community; 2. Structure and system of local food; 3. Health and nutrition; 4. Information and technology access; and 5. Self-awareness and empowerment. The specific actions on each axis of the model, allowed a systemic approach needed to attend food security in the community, through the empowerment of society. It is concluded that the self-awareness of local communities is an area of extreme importance, which must be taken into account for participatory schemes to improve food security. In the long term, the model requires the integrated participation of different actors, such as government, companies and universities, to solve something such vital as food security.

306
10006747
Smuggling of Migrants as an Influential Factor on National Security, Economic and Social Life
Abstract:

Human trafficking and smuggling of migrants are criminal activities, which are on the rise over recent years. The number of legal migrants arrived in Europe from outside the European Union are far less than those who want to come and settle in Europe. The objective of this paper is to present the impact on economic and social life of significant measures influencing the smuggling of migrants. The analysis is focused on various complex factors which have multiple origins and are highly influential as regard to the process of migration and the smuggling of migrants. The smuggling of migrants is a criminal activity, directly related to migration. The main results show that often the routes chosen for smuggling of migrants are circuitous, as smugglers carefully avoid strictly controlled roads, checkpoints, and countries or jurisdictions where there is efficiency of justice, with particular emphasis on the law on trafficking of persons and smuggling of migrants.

305
10006090
Household Food Insecurity and Associated Coping Strategies in Urban, Peri-Urban and Rural Settings: A Case of Morogoro and Iringa Towns, Tanzania
Abstract:

Food insecurity is a worrying challenge worldwide with sub-Saharan Africa including Tanzania being the most affected. Although factors that influence household food access security status and ways of coping with such factors have been examined, little has been reported on how these coping strategies vary along the urban-rural continuum especially in medium-sized towns. The purpose of this study was to identify food insecurity coping strategies employed by households and assess whether they are similar along the urban-rural continuum. The study was cross-sectional in design whereby a random sample of 279 households was interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20 software. It was revealed that the proportion of households relying on less preferred and quality foods, eating fewer meals per day, undertaking work for food or money, performing farm and off-farm activities, and selling fall back assets was higher in rural settings compared to urban and peri-urban areas. Similarly, more households in urban and peri-urban areas cope with food access insecurity by having strict food budgets compared to those in rural households (p ≤ 0.001). The study concludes that food insecurity coping strategies vary significantly from one spatial entity to another. It is thereby recommended that poor, particularly rural households should be supported to diversify their income-generating activities not only for food security purposes during times of food shortage but also as businesses aimed at increasing their household incomes.

304
10006115
Detecting and Secluding Route Modifiers by Neural Network Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:

In a real world scenario, the viability of the sensor networks has been proved by standardizing the technologies. Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to both electronic and physical security breaches because of their deployment in remote, distributed, and inaccessible locations. The compromised sensor nodes send malicious data to the base station, and thus, the total network effectiveness will possibly be compromised. To detect and seclude the Route modifiers, a neural network based Pattern Learning predictor (PLP) is presented. This algorithm senses data at any node on present and previous patterns obtained from the en-route nodes. The eminence of any node is upgraded by their predicted and reported patterns. This paper propounds a solution not only to detect the route modifiers, but also to seclude the malevolent nodes from the network. The simulation result proves the effective performance of the network by the presented methodology in terms of energy level, routing and various network conditions.

303
10006448
Impact of HIV/AIDS on Food Security in Pala Sub-Location, Bondo District, Kenya
Abstract:

Background: HIV/AIDS is leading to the loss of labor through sickness and subsequent death, this is leading to the neglect of farm and off-farm activities, with the subsequent loss of potential income and food security. The situation is sensitive to seasonal labour peaks in agriculture. This study was done to determine the impact of high HIV prevalence in farming systems and food security in Pala Bondo District, Kenya. Methods: In this study, 386 respondents were randomly chosen in Pala Sub-Location. The respondents and key informants were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: It was established that majority of respondents (67%) were between 18 and 35 years {χ2 = (1, N = 386) = 13.430, p = 0.000} (chimney effect). The study also established that 83.5% of respondents were married {χ2 = (1, N= 370) = 166.277 p = 0.000} and predominant occupation being farming and fishing (61%), while 52.8% of farm labour was by hand, 26% by oxen, and 4.9% mechanized. 73.2% of respondents only farm 0.25 to 2 acres, 48% mentioned lack of labour in land preparation {χ2 ((1,N = 321) = 113.146, p = 0.000), in planting {χ2 (1, N = 321) = 29.28, p = 0.000}. Majority of respondents lack food from January to June, during which 93% buy food. Conclusion: The high HIV prevalence in Pala has affected the farm labour leading to food insecurity.

302
10007151
Increasing the Resilience of Cyber Physical Systems in Smart Grid Environments using Dynamic Cells
Abstract:
Resilience is an important system property that relies on the ability of a system to automatically recover from a degraded state so as to continue providing its services. Resilient systems have the means of detecting faults and failures with the added capability of automatically restoring their normal operations. Mastering resilience in the domain of Cyber-Physical Systems is challenging due to the interdependence of hybrid hardware and software components, along with physical limitations, laws, regulations and standards, among others. In order to overcome these challenges, this paper presents a modeling approach, based on the concept of Dynamic Cells, tailored to the management of Smart Grids. Additionally, a heuristic algorithm that works on top of the proposed modeling approach, to find resilient configurations, has been defined and implemented. More specifically, the model supports a flexible representation of Smart Grids and the algorithm is able to manage, at different abstraction levels, the resource consumption of individual grid elements on the presence of failures and faults. Finally, the proposal is evaluated in a test scenario where the effectiveness of such approach, when dealing with complex scenarios where adequate solutions are difficult to find, is shown.
301
10007724
Perceptions of Cybersecurity in Government Organizations: Case Study of Bhutan
Abstract:

Bhutan is becoming increasingly dependent on Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), especially the Internet for performing the daily activities of governments, businesses, and individuals. Consequently, information systems and networks are becoming more exposed and vulnerable to cybersecurity threats. This paper highlights the findings of the survey study carried out to understand the perceptions of cybersecurity implementation among government organizations in Bhutan. About 280 ICT personnel were surveyed about the effectiveness of cybersecurity implementation in their organizations. A questionnaire based on a 5 point Likert scale was used to assess the perceptions of respondents. The questions were asked on cybersecurity practices such as cybersecurity policies, awareness and training, and risk management. The survey results show that less than 50% of respondents believe that the cybersecurity implementation is effective: cybersecurity policy (40%), risk management (23%), training and awareness (28%), system development life cycle (34%); incident management (26%), and communications and operational management (40%). The findings suggest that many of the cybersecurity practices are inadequately implemented and therefore, there exist a gap in achieving a required cybersecurity posture. This study recommends government organizations to establish a comprehensive cybersecurity program with emphasis on cybersecurity policy, risk management, and awareness and training. In addition, the research study has practical implications to both government and private organizations for implementing and managing cybersecurity.

300
10005732
A Security Cloud Storage Scheme Based Accountable Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption without Key Escrow
Abstract:

With the development of cloud computing, more and more users start to utilize the cloud storage service. However, there exist some issues: 1) cloud server steals the shared data, 2) sharers collude with the cloud server to steal the shared data, 3) cloud server tampers the shared data, 4) sharers and key generation center (KGC) conspire to steal the shared data. In this paper, we use advanced encryption standard (AES), hash algorithms, and accountable key-policy attribute-based encryption without key escrow (WOKE-AKP-ABE) to build a security cloud storage scheme. Moreover, the data are encrypted to protect the privacy. We use hash algorithms to prevent the cloud server from tampering the data uploaded to the cloud. Analysis results show that this scheme can resist conspired attacks.

299
10005764
Enhancing Transit Trade, Facilitation System and Supply Chain Security for Local, Regional and an International Corridor
Abstract:
Recently, and due to Arab spring and terrorism around the globe, pushing and driving most governments potentially to harmonize their border measures particularly the regional and an international transit trade within and among Customs Unions. The main purpose of this study is to investigate and provide an insight for monitoring and controlling the trade supply chain within and among different countries by using technological advancement (i.e. an electronic tracking system, etc.); furthermore, facilitate the local and intra-regional trade among countries through reviewing the recent trends and practical implementation of an electronic transit traffic and cargo that related to customs measures by introducing and supporting some case studies of several international and landlocked transit trade countries. The research methodology employed in this study was described as qualitative by conducting few interviews with managers, transit truck drivers, and traders and reviewing the related literature to collect qualitative data from secondary sources such as statistical reports, previous studies, etc. The results in this study show that Jordan and other countries around the globe that used an electronic tracking system for monitoring transit trade has led to a significant reduction in cost, effort and time in physical movement of goods internally and crossing through other countries. Therefore, there is no need to escort transit trucks by customs staff; hence, the rate of escort transit trucks is reduced by more than ninety percent, except the bulky and high duty goods. Electronic transit traffic has been increased; the average transit time journey has been reduced by more than seventy percent and has led to decrease in rates of smuggling up to fifty percent. The researcher recommends considering Jordan as regional and international office for tracking electronically and monitoring the transit trade for many considerations.
298
10006725
A Robust Eyelashes and Eyelid Detection in Transformation Invariant Iris Recognition: In Application with LRC Security System
Authors:
Abstract:
Biometric authentication is an essential task for any kind of real-life applications. In this paper, we contribute two primary paradigms to Iris recognition such as Robust Eyelash Detection (RED) using pathway kernels and hair curve fitting synthesized model. Based on these two paradigms, rotation invariant iris recognition is enhanced. In addition, the presented framework is tested with real-life iris data to provide the authentication for LRC (Learning Resource Center) users. Recognition performance is significantly improved based on the contributed schemes by evaluating real-life irises. Furthermore, the framework has been implemented using Java programming language. Experiments are performed based on 1250 diverse subjects in different angles of variations on the authentication process. The results revealed that the methodology can deploy in the process on LRC management system and other security required applications.
297
10005351
Importance of Hardware Systems and Circuits in Secure Software Development Life Cycle
Abstract:

Although it is fully impossible to ensure that a software system is quite secure, developing an acceptable secure software system in a convenient platform is not unreachable. In this paper, we attempt to analyze software development life cycle (SDLC) models from the hardware systems and circuits point of view. To date, the SDLC models pay merely attention to the software security from the software perspectives. In this paper, we present new features for SDLC stages to emphasize the role of systems and circuits in developing secure software system through the software development stages, the point that has not been considered previously in the SDLC models.

296
10005427
Innovative Power Engineering in a Selected Rural Commune
Abstract:

This paper presents modern solutions of distributed generation in rural communities aiming at the improvement of energy and environmental security, as well as power supply reliability to important customers (e.g. health care, sensitive consumer required continuity). Distributed sources are mainly gas and biogas cogeneration units, as well as wind and photovoltaic sources. Some examples of their applications in a selected Silesian community are given.

295
10005624
Development of a Telemedical Network Supporting an Automated Flow Cytometric Analysis for the Clinical Follow-up of Leukaemia
Abstract:
In patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), treatment response is increasingly evaluated with minimal residual disease (MRD) analyses. Flow Cytometry (FCM) is a fast and sensitive method to detect MRD. However, the interpretation of these multi-parametric data requires intensive operator training and experience. This paper presents a pipeline-software, as a ready-to-use FCM-based MRD-assessment tool for the daily clinical practice for patients with ALL. The new tool increases accuracy in assessment of FCM-MRD in samples which are difficult to analyse by conventional operator-based gating since computer-aided analysis potentially has a superior resolution due to utilization of the whole multi-parametric FCM-data space at once instead of step-wise, two-dimensional plot-based visualization. The system developed as a telemedical network reduces the work-load and lab-costs, staff-time needed for training, continuous quality control, operator-based data interpretation. It allows dissemination of automated FCM-MRD analysis to medical centres which have no established expertise for the benefit of an even larger community of diseased children worldwide. We established a telemedical network system for analysis and clinical follow-up and treatment monitoring of Leukaemia. The system is scalable and adapted to link several centres and laboratories worldwide.
294
10005014
Nuclear Safety and Security in France in the 1970s: A Turning Point for the Media
Abstract:

In France, in the main media, the concern about nuclear safety and security has not really appeared before the beginning of the 1970s. The gradual changes in its perception are studied here through the arguments given in the main French news magazines, linked with several parameters. As this represents a considerable amount of copies and thus of information, are selected here the main articles as well as the main “mental images” aiming to persuade the readers and which have led the public awareness to evolve. Indeed, in the 1970s, in France, these evolutions were not made in one day. Indeed, over the period, many articles were still in favor of nuclear power plants and promoted the technological advances that were made in this field. They had to be taken into account. But, gradually, grew up arguments and mental images discrediting the perception of nuclear technology. Among these were the environmental impacts of this industry, as the question of pollution progressively appeared. So, between 1970 and 1979, the language has changed, as the perceptible objectives of the communication, allowing to discern the deepest intentions of the editorial staffs of the French news magazines. This is all these changes that are emphasized here, over a period when the safety and security concern linked to the nuclear technology, to there a field for specialists, has become progressively a social issue seemingly open to all.

293
10005126
Identity Management in Virtual Worlds Based on Biometrics Watermarking
Abstract:
With the technological development and rise of virtual worlds, these spaces are becoming more and more attractive for cybercriminals, hidden behind avatars and fictitious identities. Since access to these spaces is not restricted or controlled, some impostors take advantage of gaining unauthorized access and practicing cyber criminality. This paper proposes an identity management approach for securing access to virtual worlds. The major purpose of the suggested solution is to install a strong security mechanism to protect virtual identities represented by avatars. Thus, only legitimate users, through their corresponding avatars, are allowed to access the platform resources. Access is controlled by integrating an authentication process based on biometrics. In the request process for registration, a user fingerprint is enrolled and then encrypted into a watermark utilizing a cancelable and non-invertible algorithm for its protection. After a user personalizes their representative character, the biometric mark is embedded into the avatar through a watermarking procedure. The authenticity of the avatar identity is verified when it requests authorization for access. We have evaluated the proposed approach on a dataset of avatars from various virtual worlds, and we have registered promising performance results in terms of authentication accuracy, acceptation and rejection rates.
292
10005414
Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.
291
10005706
A Review on Factors Influencing Implementation of Secure Software Development Practices
Abstract:

More and more businesses and services are depending on software to run their daily operations and business services. At the same time, cyber-attacks are becoming more covert and sophisticated, posing threats to software. Vulnerabilities exist in the software due to the lack of security practices during the phases of software development. Implementation of secure software development practices can improve the resistance to attacks. Many methods, models and standards for secure software development have been developed. However, despite the efforts, they still come up against difficulties in their deployment and the processes are not institutionalized. There is a set of factors that influence the successful deployment of secure software development processes. In this study, the methodology and results from a systematic literature review of factors influencing the implementation of secure software development practices is described. A total of 44 primary studies were analysed as a result of the systematic review. As a result of the study, a list of twenty factors has been identified. Some of factors that affect implementation of secure software development practices are: Involvement of the security expert, integration between security and development team, developer’s skill and expertise, development time and communication between stakeholders. The factors were further classified into four categories which are institutional context, people and action, project content and system development process. The results obtained show that it is important to take into account organizational, technical and people issues in order to implement secure software development initiatives.

290
10004946
Labour Migration in Russia in the Context of Russia’s National Security Problem
Abstract:

The article deals with the problems of labour migration in the Russian Federation in the context of Russia's national security, provides the typology of migrants residing in the territory of the Russian Federation and analyzes the risk factors. The author considers the structure of migration flows and the terms of legal, economic and socio-cultural adaptation of migrants in the Russian Federation. In this connection, the status of the Russian migration legislation, the concept of the comprehensive exam in Russian as a foreign language, history of Russia and the basics of the Russian Federation legislation for foreign citizens which was introduced in Russia on January 1, 2015, are analyzed. The article discloses its role as the adaptation strategy and the factor of Russia's migration security.

289
10005509
The Nexus between Migration and Human Security: The Case of Ethiopian Female Migration to Sudan
Abstract:
International labor migration is an integral part of the modern globalized world. However, the phenomenon has its roots in some earlier periods in human history. This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of female migration in Africa. In the past, African women migrants were only spouses or dependent family members. But as modernity swept most African societies, with rising unemployment rates, there is evidence everywhere in Africa that women labor migration is a growing phenomenon that deserves to be understood in the context of human security research. This work explores these issues further, focusing on the experience of Ethiopian women labor migrants to Sudan. The migration of Ethiopian people to Sudan is historical; nevertheless, labor migration mainly started since the discovery and subsequent exploration of oil in the Sudan. While the paper is concerned with the human security aspect of the migrant workers, we need to be certain that the migration process will provide with a decent wage, good working conditions, the necessary social security coverage, and labor protection as a whole. However, migration to Sudan is not always safe and female migrants become subject to violence at the hands of brokers, employers and migration officials. For this matter, the paper argued that identifying the vulnerable stages and major problem facing female migrant workers at various stages of migration is a prerequisite to combat the problem and secure the lives of the migrant workers. The major problems female migrants face include extra degrees of gender-based violence, underpayment, various forms of abuse like verbal, physical and sexual and other forms of torture which include beating and slaps. This peculiar situation could be attributed to the fact that most of these women are irregular migrants and fall under the category of unskilled and/or illiterate migrants.
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