The Small Strain Effects to the Shear Strength and Maximum Stiffness of Post-Cyclic Degradation of Hemic Peat Soil
The laboratory tests for measuring the effects of small strain to the shear strength and maximum stiffness development of post-cyclic degradation of hemic peat are reviewed in this paper. A series of laboratory testing has been conducted to fulfil the objective of this research to study the post-cyclic behaviour of peat soil and focuses on the small strain characteristics. For this purpose, a number of strain-controlled static, cyclic and post-cyclic triaxial tests were carried out in undrained condition on hemic peat soil. The shear strength and maximum stiffness of hemic peat are evaluated immediately after post-cyclic monotonic testing. There are two soil samples taken from West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil. Based on these laboratories and field testing data, it was found that the shear strength and maximum stiffness of peat soil decreased in post-cyclic monotonic loading than its initial shear strength and stiffness. In particular, degradation in shear strength and stiffness is more sensitive for peat soil due to fragile and uniform fibre structures. Shear strength of peat soil, τmax = 12.53 kPa (Beaufort peat, BFpt) and 36.61 kPa (Parit Nipah peat, PNpt) decreased than its initial 58.46 kPa and 91.67 kPa. The maximum stiffness, Gmax = 0.23 and 0.25 decreased markedly with post-cyclic, Gmax = 0.04 and 0.09. Simple correlations between the Gmax and the τmax effects due to small strain, ε = 0.1, the Gmax values for post-cyclic are relatively low compared to its initial Gmax. As a consequence, the reported values and patterns of both the West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil are generally the same.
Cyclic Behaviour of Wide Beam-Column Joints with Shear Strength Ratios of 1.0 and 1.7
Beam-column connections play an important role in the reinforced concrete moment resisting frame (RCMRF), which is one of the most commonly used structural systems around the world. The premature failure of such connections would severely limit the seismic performance and increase the vulnerability of RCMRF. In the past decades, researchers primarily focused on investigating the structural behaviour and failure mechanisms of conventional beam-column joints, the beam width of which is either smaller than or equal to the column width, while studies in wide beam-column joints were scarce. This paper presents the preliminary experimental results of two full-scale exterior wide beam-column connections, which are mainly designed and detailed according to ACI 318-14 and ACI 352R-02, under reversed cyclic loading. The ratios of the design shear force to the nominal shear strength of these specimens are 1.0 and 1.7, respectively, so as to probe into differences of the joint shear strength between experimental results and predictions by design codes of practice. Flexural failure dominated in the specimen with ratio of 1.0 in which full-width plastic hinges were observed, while both beam hinges and post-peak joint shear failure occurred for the other specimen. No sign of premature joint shear failure was found which is inconsistent with ACI codes’ prediction. Finally, a modification of current codes of practice is provided to accurately predict the joint shear strength in wide beam-column joint.
Effect of Horizontal Joint Reinforcement on Shear Behaviour of RC Knee Connections
To investigate seismic performance of beam-column knee joints, four full-scale reinforced concrete beam-column knee joints, which were fabricated to simulate those in as-built RC frame buildings designed to ACI 318-14 and ACI-ASCE 352R-02, were tested under reversed cyclic loading. In the experimental programme, particular emphasis was given to the effect of horizontal reinforcement (in format of inverted U-shape bars) on the shear strength and ductility capacity of knee joints. Test results are compared with those predicted by four seismic design codes, including ACI 318-14, EC8, NZS3101 and GB50010. It is seen that the current design codes of practice cannot accurately predict the shear strength of seismically designed knee joints.
Experimental Investigation on the Shear Strength Parameters of Sand-Slag Mixtures
Utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has a positive influence on the environment by reducing carbon dioxide emissions and issues associated with waste disposal. Granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is a by-product of the iron and steel industry, with millions of tons of slag being annually produced worldwide. Slag has been widely used in structural engineering and for stabilizing clay soils; however, studies on the effect of slag on sandy soils are scarce. This article investigates the effect of slag content on shear strength parameters through direct shear tests and unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests on mixtures of Perth sand and slag. For this purpose, sand-slag mixtures, with slag contents of 2%, 4%, and 6% by weight of samples, were tested with direct shear tests under three normal stress values, namely 100 kPa, 150 kPa, and 200 kPa. Unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests were performed under a single confining pressure of 100 kPa and relative density of 80%. The internal friction angles and shear stresses of the mixtures were determined via the direct shear tests, demonstrating that shear stresses increased with increasing normal stress and the internal friction angles and cohesion increased with increasing slag. There were no significant differences in shear stresses parameters when slag content rose from 4% to 6%. The unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests demonstrated that shear strength increased with increasing slag content.
Effect of Different Types of Nano/Micro Fillers on the Interfacial Shear Properties of Polyamide 6 with De-Sized Carbon Fiber
The current study aims to investigate the effect of fillers with different geometries and sizes on the interfacial shear properties of PA6 composites with de-sized carbon fiber. The fillers which have been investigated are namely; nano-layer silicates (nanoclay), sub-micro aluminum titanium (ALTi) particles, and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), epoxide group which defined as a sizing agent, has been removed. Sizing removal can reduce the acid parameter of carbon fibers surface promoting bonding strength at the fiber/matrix interface which is a desirable property for the carbon fiber composites. Microdroplet test showed that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) has been enhanced with the addition of 10wt% ALTi by about 23% comparing with neat PA6. However, with including other types of fillers into PA6, the results did not show enhancement of IFSS.
Developing a New Relationship between Undrained Shear Strength and Over-Consolidation Ratio
Relationship between undrained shear strength (Su) and over consolidation ratio (OCR) of clay soil (marine clay) is very important in the field of geotechnical engineering to estimate the settlement behaviour of clay and to prepare a small scale physical modelling test. In this study, a relationship between shear strength and OCR parameters was determined using the laboratory vane shear apparatus and the fully automatic consolidated apparatus. The main objective was to establish non-linear correlation formula between shear strength and OCR and comparing it with previous studies. Therefore, in order to achieve this objective, three points were chosen to obtain 18 undisturbed samples which were collected with an increasing depth of 1.0 m to 3.5 m each 0.5 m. Clay samples were prepared under undrained condition for both tests. It was found that the OCR and shear strength are inversely proportional at similar depth and at same undrained conditions. However, a good correlation was obtained from the relationships where the R2 values were very close to 1.0 using polynomial equations. The comparison between the experimental result and previous equation from other researchers produced a non-linear correlation which has a similar pattern with this study.
Structural Behavior of Precast Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel Subjected to Vertical In-Plane Shear Loading
Experimental and analytical studies were accomplished to examine the structural behavior of precast foamed concrete sandwich panel (PFCSP) under vertical in-plane shear load. PFCSP full-scale specimens with total number of six were developed with varying heights to study an important parameter slenderness ratio (H/t). The production technique of PFCSP and the procedure of test setup were described. The results obtained from the experimental tests were analysed in the context of in-plane shear strength capacity, load-deflection profile, load-strain relationship, slenderness ratio, shear cracking patterns and mode of failure. Analytical study of finite element analysis was implemented and the theoretical calculations of the ultimate in-plane shear strengths using the adopted ACI318 equation for reinforced concrete wall were determined aimed at predicting the in-plane shear strength of PFCSP. The decrease in slenderness ratio from 24 to 14 showed an increase of 26.51% and 21.91% on the ultimate in-plane shear strength capacity as obtained experimentally and in FEA models, respectively. The experimental test results, FEA models data and theoretical calculation values were compared and provided a significant agreement with high degree of accuracy. Therefore, on the basis of the results obtained, PFCSP wall has the potential use as an alternative to the conventional load-bearing wall system.
Model Studies on Shear Behavior of Reinforced Reconstituted Clay
In this paper, shear behavior of reconstituted clay reinforced with varying diameter of sand compaction piles with area replacement-ratio (as) of 6.25, 10.24, 16, 20.25 and 64% in 100mm diameter and 200mm long clay specimens is modeled using consolidated drained and undrained triaxial tests under different confining pressures ranging from 50kPa to 575kPa. The test results show that the stress-strain behavior of the clay was highly influenced by the presence of SCP. The insertion of SCPs into soft clay has shown to have a positive effect on the load carrying capacity of the clay, resulting in a composite soil mass that has greater shear strength and improved stiffness compared to the unreinforced clay due to increased reinforcement area ratio. In addition, SCP also acts as vertical drain in the clay thus accelerating the dissipation of excess pore water pressures that are generated during loading by shortening the drainage path and activating radial drainage, thereby reducing post-construction settlement. Thus, sand compaction piles currently stand as one of the most viable and practical techniques for improving the mechanical properties of soft clays.
Influence of Flexural Reinforcement on the Shear Strength of RC Beams without Stirrups
Numerical investigations were conducted to study the
influence of flexural reinforcement ratio on the diagonal cracking
strength and ultimate shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC)
beams without stirrups. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element
analyses (FEAs) of the beams with flexural reinforcement ratios
ranging from 0.58% to 2.20% subjected to a mid-span concentrated
load were carried out. It is observed that the load-deflection and loadstrain
curves obtained from the numerical analyses agree with those
obtained from the experiments. It is concluded that flexural
reinforcement ratio has a significant effect on the shear strength and
deflection capacity of RC beams without stirrups. The predictions of
diagonal cracking strength and ultimate shear strength of beams
obtained by using the equations defined by a number of codes and
researchers are compared with each other and with the experimental
A Study on the Interlaminar Shear Strength of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Depending on the Lamination Methods
The prepreg process among the CFRP (Carbon Fiber
Reinforced Plastic) forming methods is the short term of
‘Pre-impregnation’, which is widely used for aerospace composites
that require a high quality property such as a fiber-reinforced woven
fabric, in which an epoxy hardening resin is impregnated the reality.
However, that this process requires continuous researches and
developments for its commercialization because the delamination
characteristically develops between the layers when a great weight is
loaded from outside to supplement such demerit, three lamination
methods among the prepreg lamination methods of CFRP were
designed to minimize the delamination between the layers due to
external impacts. Further, the newly designed methods and the
existing lamination methods were analyzed through a mechanical
characteristic test, Interlaminar Shear Strength test. The Interlaminar
Shear Strength test result confirmed that the newly proposed three
lamination methods, i.e. the Roll, Half and Zigzag laminations,
presented more excellent strengths compared to the conventional Ply
lamination. The interlaminar shear strength in the roll method with
relatively dense fiber distribution was approximately 1.75% higher
than that in the existing ply lamination method, and in the half method,
it was approximately 0.78% higher.
Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test
The effect of particle size on shear strength of
granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small
direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted
for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm.
Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested
using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep).
The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out
using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal
stresses of 100, 200 and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and
residual shear strength increases as particle size increases.
Semi Empirical Equations for Peak Shear Strength of Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Walls
This paper presents an analytical study on the
behavior of reinforced concrete walls with rectangular cross section.
Several experiments on such walls have been selected to be studied.
Database from various experiments were collected and nominal shear
wall strengths have been calculated using formulas, such as those of
the ACI (American), NZS (New Zealand), Mexican (NTCC), and
Wood and Barda equations. Subsequently, nominal shear wall
strengths from the formulas were compared with the ultimate shear
wall strengths from the database. These formulas vary substantially in
functional form and do not account for all variables that affect the
response of walls. There is substantial scatter in the predicted values
of ultimate shear strength. Two new semi empirical equations are
developed using data from tests of 57 walls for transitions walls and
27 for slender walls with the objective of improving the prediction of
peak strength of walls with the most possible accurate.
Effect of TEOS Electrospun Nanofiber Modified Resin on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Composite
Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of fiber reinforced polymer composite is an important property for most of the structural applications. Matrix modification is an effective method used to improve the interlaminar shear strength of composite. In this paper, EPON 862/w epoxy system was modified using Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) electrospun nanofibers (ENFs) which were produced using electrospinning method. Unmodified and nanofibers modified resins were used to fabricate glass fiber reinforced polymer composite (GFRP) using H-VARTM method. The ILSS of the Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites (GFRP) was investigated. The study shows that introduction of TEOS ENFs in the epoxy resin enhanced the ILSS of GFRPby 15% with 0.6% wt. fraction of TEOS ENFs.
Bone Ash Impact on Soil Shear Strength
Most failures of soil have been attributed to poor shear strength. Consequently, the present paper investigated the suitability of cattle bone ash as a possible additive to improve the shear strength of soils. Four soil samples were collected and stabilized with prepared bone ash in proportions of 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15% and 20% by dry weight. Chemical analyses of the bone ash; followed by classification, compaction, and triaxial shear tests of the treated soil samples were conducted. Results obtained showed that bone ash contained high proportion of calcium oxide and phosphate. Addition of bone ash to soil samples led to increase in soil shear strengths within the range of 22.40% to 105.18% over the strengths of the respective control tests. Conversely, all samples attained maximum shear strengths at 7% bone ash stabilization. The use of bone ash as an additive will therefore improve the shear strength of soils; however, using bone ash quantities in excess of 7% may not yield ample results.
Repairing and Strengthening Earthquake Damaged RC Beams with Composites
The dominant judgment for earthquake damaged reinforced concrete (RC) structures is to rebuild them with the new ones. Consequently, this paper estimates if there is chance to repair earthquake RC beams and obtain economical contribution to modern day society. Therefore, the totally damaged (damaged in shear under cyclic load) reinforced concrete (RC) beams repaired and strengthened by externally bonded carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips in this study. Four specimens, apart from the reference beam, were separated into two distinct groups. Two experimental beams in the first group primarily tested up to failure then appropriately repaired and strengthened with CFRP strips. Two undamaged specimens from the second group were not repaired but strengthened by the identical strengthening scheme as the first group for comparison. This study studies whether earthquake damaged RC beams that have been repaired and strengthened will validate similar strength and behavior to equally strengthened, undamaged RC beams. Accordingly, a strength correspondence according to strengthened specimens was acquired for the repaired and strengthened specimens. Test results confirmed that repair and strengthening, which were estimated in the experimental program, were effective for the specimens with the cracking patterns considered in the experimental program.
Evaluation of Shear Strength Parameters of Amended Loess through Using Common Admixtures in Gorgan, Iran
Non-saturated soils that while saturation greatly
decrease their volume, have sudden settlement due to increasing
humidity, fracture and structural crack are called loess soils. Whereas
importance of civil projects including: dams, canals and
constructions bearing this type of soil and thereof problems, it is
required for carrying out more research and study in relation to loess
soils. This research studies shear strength parameters by using
grading test, Atterberg limit, compression, direct shear and
consolidation and then effect of using cement and lime additives on
stability of loess soils is studied. In related tests, lime and cement are
separately added to mixed ratios under different percentages of soil
and for different times the stabilized samples are processed and effect
of aforesaid additives on shear strength parameters of soil is studied.
Results show that upon passing time the effect of additives and
collapsible potential is greatly decreased and upon increasing
percentage of cement and lime the maximum dry density is
decreased; however, optimum humidity is increased. In addition,
liquid limit and plastic index is decreased; however, plastic index
limit is increased. It is to be noted that results of direct shear test
reveal increasing shear strength of soil due to increasing cohesion
parameter and soil friction angle.
Grooving Method to Postpone Debonding of FRP Sheets Used for Shear Strengthening
One of the most common practices for strengthening
the reinforced concrete structures is the application of FRP (Fiber
Reinforce Plastic) sheets to increase the flexural and shear strengths
of the member. The elastic modulus of FRP is considerably higher
than that of concrete. This will result in debonding between the FRP
sheets and concrete surface. With conventional surface preparation of
concrete, the ultimate capacity of the FRP sheets can hardly be
achieved. New methods for preparation of the bonding surface have
shown improvements in reducing the premature debonding of FRP
sheets from concrete surface. The present experimental study focuses
on the application of grooving method to postpone debonding of the
FRP sheets attached to the side faces of concrete beams for shear
strengthening. Comparison has also been made with conventional
surface preparation method. This study clearly shows the efficiency
of grooving method compared to surface preparation method, in
preventing the debonding phenomenon and in increasing the load
carrying capacity of FRP.
Numerical Modeling of Direct Shear Tests on Sandy Clay
Investigation of sandy clay behavior is important since
urban development demands mean that sandy clay areas are
increasingly encountered, especially for transportation
infrastructures. This paper presents the results of the finite element
analysis of the direct shear test (under three vertical loading 44, 96
and 192 kPa) and discusses the effects of different parameters such as
cohesion, friction angle and Young's modulus on the shear strength of
sandy clay. The numerical model was calibrated against the
experimental results of large-scale direct shear tests. The results have
shown that the shear strength was increased with increase in friction
angle and cohesion. However, the shear strength was not influenced
by raising the friction angle at normal stress of 44 kPa. Also, the
effect of different young's modulus factors on stress-strain curve was
Gypseous Soil Improvement using Fuel Oil
This research investigates the suitability of fuel oil in
improving gypseous soil. A detailed laboratory tests were carried-out
on two soils (soil I with 51.6% gypsum content, and soil II with
26.55%), where the two soils were obtained from Al-Therthar site
This study examines the improvement of soil properties using the
gypsum material which is locally available with low cost to minimize
the effect of moisture on these soils by using the fuel oil. This study
was conducted on two models of the soil gypsum, from the Tharthar
area. The first model was sandy soil with Gypsum content of (51.6%)
and the second is clayey soil and the content of Gypsum is (26.55%).
The program included tests measuring the permeability and
compressibility of the soil and their collapse properties. The shear
strength of the soil and the amounts of weight loss of fuel oil due to
drying had been found. These tests have been conducted on the
treated and untreated soils to observe the effect of soil treatment on
the engineering properties when mixed with varying degrees of fuel
oil with the equivalent of the water content.
The results showed that fuel oil is a good material to modify the
basic properties of the gypseous soil of collapsibility and
permeability, which are the main problems of this soil and retained
the soil by an appropriate amount of the cohesion suitable for
carrying the loads from the structure.