Effect of Time-Periodic Boundary Temperature on the Onset of Nanofluid Convection in a Layer of a Saturated Porous Medium
The linear stability of nanofluid convection in a horizontal porous layer is examined theoretically when the walls of the porous layer are subjected to time-periodic temperature modulation. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermopherosis, while the Darcy model is used for the porous medium. The analysis revels that for a typical nanofluid (with large Lewis number) the prime effect of the nanofluids is via a buoyancy effect coupled with the conservation of nanoparticles. The contribution of nanoparticles to the thermal energy equation being a second-order effect. It is found that the critical thermal Rayleigh number can be found reduced or decreased by a substantial amount, depending on whether the basic nanoparticle distribution is top-heavy or bottom-heavy. Oscillatory instability is possible in the case of a bottom-heavy nanoparticle distribution, phase angle and frequency of modulation.
Acute Coronary Syndrome Prediction Using Data Mining Techniques- An Application
In this paper we use data mining techniques to investigate factors that contribute significantly to enhancing the risk of acute coronary syndrome. We assume that the dependent variable is diagnosis – with dichotomous values showing presence or absence of disease. We have applied binary regression to the factors affecting the dependent variable. The data set has been taken from two different cardiac hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. We have total sixteen variables out of which one is assumed dependent and other 15 are independent variables. For better performance of the regression model in predicting acute coronary syndrome, data reduction techniques like principle component analysis is applied. Based on results of data reduction, we have considered only 14 out of sixteen factors.
Flexure of Simply Supported Thick Beams Using Refined Shear Deformation Theory
A trigonometric shear deformation theory for flexure of thick beams, taking into account transverse shear deformation effects, is developed. The number of variables in the present theory is same as that in the first order shear deformation theory. The sinusoidal function is used in displacement field in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the shear deformation effects. The noteworthy feature of this theory is that the transverse shear stresses can be obtained directly from the use of constitutive relations with excellent accuracy, satisfying the shear stress free conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Hence, the theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained by using the principle of virtual work. The thick simply supported isotropic beams are considered for the numerical studies to demonstrate the efficiency of the results obtained is discussed critically with those of other theories.
Static and Dynamic Characteristics of an Appropriated and Recessed n-GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMT
The objective of this paper is to simulate static I-V and dynamic characteristics of an appropriated and recessed n-GaN/AlxGa1-xN/GaN high electron mobility (HEMT). Using SILVACO TCAD device simulation, and optimized technological parameters; we calculate the drain-source current (lDS) as a function of the drain-source voltage (VDS) for different values of the gate-source voltage (VGS), and the drain-source current (lDS) depending on the gate-source voltage (VGS) for a drain-source voltage (VDS) of 20 V, for various temperatures. Then, we calculate the cut-off frequency and the maximum oscillation frequency for different temperatures.
We obtain a high drain-current equal to 60 mA, a low knee voltage (Vknee) of 2 V, a high pinch-off voltage (VGS0) of 53.5 V, a transconductance greater than 600 mS/mm, a cut-off frequency (fT) of about 330 GHz, and a maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) of about 1 THz.
Evaluation of the FWD Moduli of a Flexible Pavement Using Finite Element Model
This study evaluates the back calculation of stiffness of a pavement section on Interstate 40 (I-40)in New Mexico through numerical analysis. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test has been conducted on a section on I-40. Layer stiffness of the pavement has been backcalculated by a backcalculation software, ELMOD, using the FWD test data. Commercial finite element software, ABAQUS, has been used to develop the Finite Element Model (FEM) of this pavement section. Geometry and layer thickness are collected from field coring. Input parameters i.e. stiffnesses of different layers of the pavement are used as the backcalculated ones. Resulting surface deflections at different radial distances from the FEM analysis are compared with field FWD deflection values. It shows close agreement between the FEM and FWD outputs. Therefore, the FWD test method can be considered to be a reliable test procedure for evaluating the in situ stiffness of pavement material.
Low Value Capacitance Measurement System with Adjustable Lead Capacitance Compensation
The present paper describes the development of a low cost, highly accurate low capacitance measurement system that can be used over a range of 0 – 400 pF with a resolution of 1 pF. The range of capacitance may be easily altered by a simple resistance or capacitance variation of the measurement circuit. This capacitance measurement system uses quad two-input NAND Schmitt trigger circuit CD4093B with hysteresis for the measurement and this system is integrated with PIC 18F2550 microcontroller for data acquisition purpose. The microcontroller interacts with software developed in the PC end through USB architecture and an attractive graphical user interface (GUI) based system is developed in the PC end to provide the user with real time, online display of capacitance under measurement. The system uses a differential mode of capacitance measurement, with reference to a trimmer capacitance, that effectively compensates lead capacitances, a notorious error encountered in usual low capacitance measurements. The hysteresis provided in the Schmitt-trigger circuits enable reliable operation of the system by greatly minimizing the possibility of false triggering because of stray interferences, usually regarded as another source of significant error. The real life testing of the proposed system showed that our measurements could produce highly accurate capacitance measurements, when compared to cutting edge, high end digital capacitance meters.
Two Different Computing Methods of the Smith Arithmetic Determinant
The Smith arithmetic determinant is investigated in this paper. By using two different methods, we derive the explicit formula for the Smith arithmetic determinant.
Academic Performance of Engineering Students: The Role of Abilities & Learning Style
Abilities are important for academic success. Yet, abilities cannot be the whole story. Styles might be one source of unexplained variation. A style is a preferred way of using ones abilities. Students are thought to be incompetent not because they are lacking in abilities, but because their styles do not match the academic course chosen. The purpose of the study was to determine the role of abilities and learning styles in prediction of academic performance and their adjustment. Participants were 272 engineering students. The tools used are Myers Briggs Type Indicator, Culture Fair Intelligence Test and Student Problem Checklist. The statistical procedures employed were t-test, correlations and stepwise regressions. The analyses of the data indicated that although abilities are better predictors of academic performance, learning styles also shown a significant relationship. The study also indicates that if students learning styles matches to their chosen academic course, they tend to show better performance and less adjustment problems.
On the Hierarchical Ergodicity Coefficient
In this paper, we deal with the fundamental concepts and properties of ergodicity coefficients in a hierarchical sense by making use of partition. Moreover, we establish a hierarchial Hajnal’s inequality improving some previous results.
Individualistic and Social Moral Concerns in Hawthorne’s Novels
In all his novels, Hawthorne, the American writer, created settings in which his moral concerns could be presented through the actions of his characters. He illustrated his concern over the moral fall of man in the nineteenth century obsession for technological advancement. In “The Blithedale Romance” and “The House of Seven Gable” quite vividly, he pictured individualistic moral vices as the result of outside forces which caused social immorality. “The Marble Faun”, in its own turn, has the same type of social moral concerns to present: the story of nineteenth century modern man and his individualistic moral issues which lead to his social moral fall. He depicted the dominant themes of individualistic moral vices which all lead to social alienation and rejection. He showed hypocrisy and evil intentions as leading to social immoral atmosphere.
ODA for Gender Equality in Fragile States
This study starts with the review on the role of external assistance to fragile states where the state lacks the capacity to provide better quality lives for its people. One of the tools being the Official Development Assistance, this paper focuses on the its disbursement patterns to fragile states that targets women's empowerment and gender equality to verify where donors stand on their actions on fragile states. The findings show that whereas donors have increased their aid volume with gender equality objectives in absolute terms, it is still lacking when compared to total amount. Hence, donors need to further strengthen their commitment to promoting gender equality in its aid activities as well as to allocate more assistance with significant and principal objectives on gender.
A Simplified Higher-Order Markov Chain Model
In this paper, we present a simplified higher-order Markov chain model for multiple categorical data sequences also called as simplified higher-order multivariate Markov chain model.
Microstructure and Mechanical Characterization of Heat Treated Stir Cast Silica (Sea Sand) Reinforced 7XXX Al Alloy MMCs
Metal matrix composites consists of a metallic matrix combined with dispersed particulate phase as reinforcement. Aluminum alloys have been the primary material of choice for structural components of aircraft since about 1930. Well known performance characteristics, known fabrication costs, design experience, and established manufacturing methods and facilities, are just a few of the reasons for the continued confidence in 7XXX Al alloys that will ensure their use in significant quantities for the time to come. Particulate MMCs are of special interest owing to the low cost of their raw materials (primarily natural river sand here) and their ease of fabrication, making them suitable for applications requiring relatively high volume production. 7XXX Al alloys are precipitation hardenable and therefore amenable for thermomechanical treatment. Al–Zn alloys reinforced with particulate materials are used in aerospace industries in spite of the drawbacks of susceptibility to stress corrosion, poor wettability, poor weldability and poor fatigue resistance. The resistance offered by these particulates for the moving dislocations impart secondary hardening in turn contributes strain hardening. Cold deformation increases lattice defects, which in turn improves the properties of solution treated alloy. In view of this, six different Al–Zn–Mg alloy composites reinforced with silica (3 wt. % and 5 wt. %) are prepared by conventional semisolid synthesizing process. The cast alloys are solution treated and aged. The solution treated alloys are further severely cold rolled to enhance the properties. The hardness and strength values are analyzed and compared with silica free Al – Zn-Mg alloys. Precipitation hardening phenomena is accelerated due to the increased number of potential sites for precipitation. Higher peak hardness and lesser aging time are the characteristics of thermo mechanically treated samples. For obtaining maximum hardness, optimum number and volume of precipitate particles are required. The Al-5Zn-1Mg with 5% SiO2 alloy composite shows better result.
Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a New Sewer Overflow Screening Device: CFD Modeling & Analytical Study
Some of the major concerns regarding sewer overflows to receiving water bodies include serious environmental, aesthetic and public health problems. A noble self-cleansing sewer overflow screening device having a sewer overflow chamber, a rectangular tank and a slotted ogee weir to capture the gross pollutants has been investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques are used to simulate the flow phenomena with two different inlet orientations; parallel and perpendicular to the weir direction. CFD simulation results are compared with analytical results. Numerical results show that the flow is not uniform (across the width of the inclined surface) near the top of the inclined surface. The flow becomes uniform near the bottom of the inclined surface, with significant increase of shear stress. The simulation results promises for an effective and efficient self-cleansing sewer overflow screening device by comparing hydrodynamic results.
Geochemistry of Coal Ash in the Equatorial Wet Disposal System Environment
The coal utilization in thermal power plants in Malaysia has increased significantly which produces an enormous amount of coal combustion by-product (CCBP) or coal ash and poses severe disposal problem. As each coal ash is distinct, this study presents the geochemistry of the coal ash, in particular fly ash, produced from the combustion of local coal from Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia. The geochemical composition of the ash showed a high amount of silica, alumina, iron oxides and alkalies which was found to be a convenient starting material for the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites with the higher Na2O percentage being a positive factor for its alkaline activation; while the mineral phases are mainly quartz, mullite, calcium oxide, silica, and iron oxide hydrate. The geochemical changes upon alkali activation that can be predicted in a similar type of ash have been described in this paper. The result shows that this particular ash has a good potential for a high value industrial product like zeolites upon alkali activation.
Experimental Study of Strength Recovery from Residual Strength on Kaolin Clay
Strength recovery effect from the residual-state of shear is not well address in scientific literature. Torsional ring shear strength recovery tests on kaolin clay using rest periods up to 30 days are performed at the effective normal stress 100kN/m2. Test results shows that recovered strength measured in the laboratory is slightly noticeable after rest period of 3 days, but recovered strength lost after very small shear displacement. This paper mainly focused on the strength recovery phenomenon from the residual strength of kaolin clay based on torsional ring shear test results. Mechanisms of recovered strength are also discussed.
Relative Suitability Evaluation of Two Methods of Particle-Size Analysis for Selected Soils of Sudan Savanna of Nigeria
The two widely used methods base on the sedimentation principle (Bouyoucos hydrometer and International pipette) for particle-size analysis were comparatively evaluated on soils collected from various locations in Sudan savanna of Nigeria particularly from Sokoto and Zamfara States. The hydrometer method under-estimated the silt and over-estimated the clay content. Also, the hydrometer reading proved difficult and tended to submerge when floated for clay reading in the suspension of very sandy soils (900g kg-1 sand). Furthermore, the results from the two methods were validated by subjecting the data to USDA soil textural triangle to determine their textural class names. The outcome was that 91.67 % of the experimental soils retained the same textural class names irrespective of the method. Thus, Bouyoucos hydrometer method may conveniently find a place in routine work in view of its simplicity, rapidity, and strong correlation with the pipette method.
Exact Solutions of the Helmholtz equation via the Nikiforov-Uvarov Method
The Helmholtz equation often arises in the study of physical problems involving partial differential equation. Many researchers have proposed numerous methods to find the analytic or approximate solutions for the proposed problems. In this work, the exact analytical solutions of the Helmholtz equation in spherical polar coordinates are presented using the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. It is found that the solution of the angular eigenfunction can be expressed by the associated-Legendre polynomial and radial eigenfunctions are obtained in terms of the Laguerre polynomials. The special case for k=0, which corresponds to the Laplace equation is also presented.
Simulation as an Effective Tool for the Comparative Evaluation of Field Oriented Control and Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor
This paper presents a comparative study of two most popular control strategies for Induction motor (IM) drives: Field-Oriented Control (FOC) and Direct Torque Control (DTC). The comparison is based on various criteria including basic control characteristics,
dynamic performance, and implementation complexity. The study is done by simulation using the Simulink Power System Block set that allows a complete representation of the power section (inverter and IM) and the control system.
Supplementary JAVA Programming Course for e-Learning with Small-Group Instruction
We have designed and implemented e-Learning materials for a JAVA programming course since 2004 and have found that “normal” students, meaning motivated and capable students, can successfully learn the course material taught in a fully online manner. However, for “weaker” students, meaning those lacking motivation, experience, and/or aptitude, the results have been unsatisfactory, and such students thus fall into the supplementary category. From 2007 to 2008, we offered a face-to-face class with small-group instruction for the weaker students, while we provided the fully online course for the normal students. Consequently, we succeeded in helping the weaker students to overcome their programming phobia and develop the ability to create basic programs.
Anomalous Thermal Behavior of CuxMg1-xNb2O6 (x=0,0.4,0.6,1) for LTCC Substrate
LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics) being the most advantageous technology towards the multilayer substrates for various applications, demands an extensive study of its raw materials. In the present work, a series of CuxMg1-xNb2O6 (x=0,0.4,0.6,1) has been prepared using sol-gel synthesis route and sintered at a temperature of 900°C to study its applicability for LTCC technology as the firing temperature is 900°C in this technology. The phase formation has been confirmed using X-ray Diffraction. Thermal properties like thermal conductivity and thermal expansion being very important aspect as the former defines the heat flow to avoid thermal instability in layers and the later provides the dimensional congruency of the dielectric material and the conductors, are studied here over high temperature up to the firing temperature. Although the values are quite satisfactory from substrate requirement point view, results have shown anomaly over temperature. The anomalous thermal behavior has been further analyzed using TG-DTA.
Two Active Elements Based All-Pass Section Suited for Current-Mode Cascading
A new circuit topology realizing a first-order currentmode all-pass filter is proposed using two dual-output second generation
current conveyor and two passive components. The circuit possesses low-input and high-output impedance, which makes it ideal
for current-mode systems. The proposed circuit is verified through PSPICE simulation results.
A Decision Matrix for the Evaluation of Triplestores for Use in a Virtual Research Environment
The Tropical Data Hub (TDH) is a virtual research environment that provides researchers with an e-research infrastructure to congregate significant tropical data sets for data reuse, integration, searching, and correlation. However, researchers often require data and metadata synthesis across disciplines for cross-domain analyses and knowledge discovery. A triplestore offers a semantic layer to achieve a more intelligent method of search to support the synthesis requirements by automating latent linkages in the data and metadata. Presently, the benchmarks to aid the decision of which triplestore is best suited for use in an application environment like the TDH are limited to performance. This paper describes a new evaluation tool developed to analyze both features and performance. The tool comprises a weighted decision matrix to evaluate the interoperability, functionality, performance, and support availability of a range of integrated and native triplestores to rank them according to requirements of the TDH.
Synthesis of Activated Carbon Using Agricultural Wastes from Biodiesel Production
In this research, the optimum conditions for the synthesis of activated carbon from biodiesel wastes such as palm shells (PS) and Jatropha curcas fruit shells (JS) by chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent under nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. The effects of soaking in hydrofluoric acid (HF), impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time on adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB) and iodine (I2) solution were examined. The results showed that HF-treated activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacities by eliminating ash residues, which might fill up the pores. In addition, the adsorption capacities of methylene blue and iodine solution were also significantly influenced by the types of raw materials, the activation temperature and the activation time. The highest adsorption capacity of methylene blue 257.07mg/g and iodine 847.58mg/g were obtained from Jatropha curcas wastes.
Increasing Replica Consistency Performances with Load Balancing Strategy in Data Grid Systems
Data replication in data grid systems is one of the important solutions that improve availability, scalability, and fault tolerance. However, this technique can also bring some involved issues such as maintaining replica consistency. Moreover, as grid environment are very dynamic some nodes can be more uploaded than the others to become eventually a bottleneck. The main idea of our work is to propose a complementary solution between replica consistency maintenance and dynamic load balancing strategy to improve access performances under a simulated grid environment.
Emergency Generator Sizing and Motor Starting Analysis
This paper investigates the preliminary sizing of generator set to design electrical system at the early phase of a project, dynamic behavior of generator-unit, as well as induction motors, during start-up of the induction motor drives fed from emergency generator unit. The information in this paper simplifies generator set selection and eliminates common errors in selection. It covers load estimation, step loading capacity test, transient analysis for the emergency generator set. The dynamic behavior of the generator-unit, power, power factor, voltage, during Direct-on-Line start-up of the induction motor drives fed from stand alone gene-set is also discussed. It is important to ensure that plant generators operate safely and consistently, power system studies are required at the planning and conceptual design stage of the project. The most widely recognized and studied effect of motor starting is the voltage dip that is experienced throughout an industrial power system as the direct online result of starting large motors. Generator step loading capability and transient voltage dip during starting of largest motor is ensured with the help of Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP).
Site-Specific Approach for Seismic Design Spectra in Iran, Based On Recent Major Strong Ground Motions
Widespread use of response spectra in seismic design and evaluation of different types of structures makes them one of the most important seismic inputs. This importance urges the local design codes to adapt precise data based on updated information about the recent major earthquakes happened and also localized geotechnical data. In this regard, this paper derives the response spectra with a geotechnical approach for various scenarios coming from the recent major earthquakes happened in Iran for different types of hard soils, and compares the results to the corresponding spectra from the current seismic code. This comparison implies the need for adapting new design spectra for seismic design, because of major differences in the frequency domains and amplifications.
Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate onto Cellulose in Homogeneous Medium – Effect of Solvent and Initiator
Homogeneous graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto cellulose was carried out in N, N – dimethyl acetamide/LiCl (DMAc/LiCl) and dimethyl sulfoxide/ paraformaldehyde (DMSO/PF) solvent system taking ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN), benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and tin (II)-2-ethyl hexanoate [Sn(Oct)2] as initiators. Different grafting parameters like graft yield (GY), grafting efficiency (GE) and total conversion of monomer to polymer (TC) were evaluated at different reaction conditions of temperature, time, and variation of the amount of monomer and initiator. The viscosity average molecular weight of grafted PMMA and number of grafts per cellulose chain were also calculated. The products were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR analyses and possible reaction mechanisms were deduced. Thermal degradation of the grafted products was also studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential thermo-gravimetry (DTG).
A Comparative Study of Electrical Transport Phenomena in Ultrathin vs. Nanoscale SOI MOSFETs Devices
Ultrathin (UTD) and Nanoscale (NSD) SOI-MOSFET devices, sharing a similar W/L but with a channel thickness of 46nm and 1.6nm respectively, were fabricated using a selective “gate recessed” process on the same silicon wafer. The electrical transport characterization at room temperature has shown a large difference between the two kinds of devices and has been interpreted in terms of a huge unexpected series resistance. Electrical characteristics of the Nanoscale device, taken in the linear region, can be analytically derived from the ultrathin device ones. A comparison of the structure and composition of the layers, using advanced techniques such as Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and High Resolution TEM (HRTEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), contributes an explanation as to the difference of transport between the devices.
A Computational Fluid Dynamic Model of Human Sniffing
The objective of this paper is to develop a computational model of human nasal cavity from computed tomography (CT) scans using MIMICS software. Computational fluid dynamic techniques were employed to understand nasal airflow. Gambit and Fluent software was used to perform CFD simulation. Velocity profiles, iteration plots, pressure distribution, streamline and pathline patterns for steady, laminar airflow inside the human nasal cavity of healthy and also infected persons are presented in detail. The implications for olfaction are visualized. Results are validated with the available numerical and experimental data. The graphs reveal that airflow varies with different anatomical nasal structures and only fraction of the inspired air reaches the olfactory region. The Deviations in the results suggest that the treatment of infected volunteers will improve the olfactory function.
Degradation Propensity of Welded Mild Steel in Coastal Soil of University of Lagos
Study on corrosion propensity of welded mild steel- bar in soil media around the coastal area of University of Lagos has been carried out using gravimetric method. Six (6) samples each for welded and unwelded mild steels were cut, their initial weights were recorded and buried in two selected soil. The weight losses of these coupons were measured at regular intervals for a period of six months (180 days).
The corrosiveness of the soil media varied widely depending on the potency level of its constituents. The results revealed that soil in the studied area have marked variations in composition and contents. Soil medium with a lower pH and higher chloride ion concentration aggressively attacked the coupons with the welded steel coupon corroding faster than unwelded one. The medium resistivity to the flow of current is another strong factor affecting corrosion rate.
Effects of Mobile Design Quality and Innovation Characteristics on Intention to Use Mobile Tourism Guide
This study investigates theoretical model of tourist intention in the context of mobile tourism guide. The research model consists of three constructs: mobile design quality, innovation characteristics, and intention to use mobile tourism guide. In order to investigate the effects of determinants and examine the relationships, partial least squares is employed for data analysis and research model development. The results show that mobile design quality and innovation quality significantly impact on tourists’ intention to use mobile tourism guide. Furthermore, mobile design quality has a strong influence on innovation characteristics, and cannot be the moderator on the relationship between innovation characteristics and tourists’ intention to use mobile tourism guide. Our findings propose theoretical model for mobile research and provide an important guideline for developing mobile application.
Optimization of Electrospinning Parameter by Employing Genetic Algorithm in order to Produce Desired Nanofiber Diameter
A numerical simulation of optimization all of electrospinning processing parameters to obtain smallest nanofiber diameter have been performed by employing genetic algorithm (GA). Fitness function in genetic algorithm methods, which was different for each parameter, was determined by simulation approach based on the Reneker’s model. Moreover, others genetic algorithm parameter, namely length of population, crossover and mutation were applied to get the optimum electrospinning processing parameters. In addition, minimum fiber diameter, 32 nm, was achieved from a simulation by applied the optimum parameters of electrospinning. This finding may be useful for process control and prediction of electrospun fiber production. In this paper, it is also compared between predicted parameters with some experimental results.
Reduction of Leakage Power in Digital Logic Circuits Using Stacking Technique in 45 Nanometer Regime
Power dissipation due to leakage current in the digital circuits is a biggest factor which is considered specially while designing nanoscale circuits. This paper is exploring the ideas of reducing leakage current in static CMOS circuits by stacking the transistors in increasing numbers. Clearly it means that the stacking of OFF transistors in large numbers result a significant reduction in power dissipation. Increase in source voltage of NMOS transistor minimizes the leakage current. Thus stacking technique makes circuit with minimum power dissipation losses due to leakage current. Also some of digital circuits such as full adder, D flip flop and 6T SRAM have been simulated in this paper, with the application of reduction technique on ‘cadence virtuoso tool’ using specter at 45nm technology with supply voltage 0.7V.
FPGA Hardware Implementation and Evaluation of a Micro-Network Architecture for Multi-Core Systems
This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a micro-network, or Network-on-Chip (NoC), based on a generic pipeline router architecture. The router is designed to efficiently support traffic generated by multimedia applications on embedded multi-core systems. It employs a simplest routing mechanism and implements the round-robin scheduling strategy to resolve output port contentions and minimize latency. A virtual channel flow control is applied to avoid the head-of-line blocking problem and enhance performance in the NoC. The hardware design of the router architecture has been implemented at the register transfer level; its functionality is evaluated in the case of the two dimensional Mesh/Torus topology, and performance results are derived from ModelSim simulator and Xilinx ISE 9.2i synthesis tool. An example of a multi-core image processing system utilizing the NoC structure has been implemented and validated to demonstrate the capability of the proposed micro-network architecture. To reduce complexity of the image compression and decompression architecture, the system use image processing algorithm based on classical discrete cosine transform with an efficient zonal processing approach. The experimental results have confirmed that both the proposed image compression scheme and NoC architecture can achieve a reasonable image quality with lower processing time.
Structural Performance of a Timber-Concrete Bridge Prototype
Timber-concrete structures were recently introduced in Brazil as a viable option for bridge construction on side roads. Binding between timber and concrete is fundamentally important to assure the rigidity and performance of this structural system. The objective of this study was to assess the structural performance of a timber-concrete bridge prototype with width of 170cm and span of 400cm, whose binding among timber beams and concrete slabs was made with metal pins, obtained from CA 50 construction steel bars of 12.5mm diameter. It was possible to conclude, from the results obtained experimentally in laboratory, that the timber-concrete bridge prototype showed a good structural performance. This structural system provides an economical, rapid implementation solution, which may be used on side roads, favoring regional integration and agricultural production flow.
Hydrolysis of Eicchornia crassipes and Egeria densa for Ethanol Production by Yeasts Isolated from Colombian Lake Fúquene
The aquatic plants are a promising renewable energy resource. Lake Fúquene polluting macrophytes, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes C. Mart.) and Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa Planch.), were saccharifiedby different treatments and fermented to ethanol by native yeasts. Among the tested chemical and biological methods for the saccharification, Pleurotus ostreatus at 10% (m/v) was chosen as the best pre-treatment in both macrophytes (P<0.01). Subsequently 49 yeasts were isolated from Lake Fúquene and nine strains were selected, which presented the highest precipitates characteristic of ethanol in the iodoform test. The fermentations from water hyacinth and Brazilian elodea hydrolysates using these yeasts produced ethanol at a rate between 0.38 to 0.80gL-1h-1 and 0.15 to 0.27gL-1h-1 respectively. The ethanol presence was confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The nine yeasts chosen were preliminarily identified as belonging to the genera Candida spp., Brettanomyces sp. and Hansenula spp.
Composite Relevance Feedback for Image Retrieval
This paper presents content-based image retrieval (CBIR) frameworks with relevance feedback (RF) based on combined learning of support vector machines (SVM) and AdaBoosts. The framework incorporates only most relevant images obtained from both the learning algorithm. To speed up the system, it removes irrelevant images from the database, which are returned from SVM learner. It is the key to achieve the effective retrieval performance in terms of time and accuracy. The experimental results show that this framework had significant improvement in retrieval effectiveness, which can finally improve the retrieval performance.
The Symmetric Solutions for Boundary Value Problems of Second-Order Singular Differential Equation
In this paper, by constructing a special operator and using fixed point index theorem of cone, we get the sufficient conditions for symmetric positive solution of a class of nonlinear singular boundary value problems with p-Laplace operator, which improved and generalized the result of related paper.
A Dual Fitness Function Genetic Algorithm: Application on Deterministic Identical Machine Scheduling
In this paper a genetic algorithm (GA) with dual-fitness function is proposed and applied to solve the deterministic identical machine scheduling problem. The mating fitness function value was used to determine the mating for chromosomes, while the selection fitness function value was used to determine their survivals. The performance of this algorithm was tested on deterministic identical machine scheduling using simulated data. The results obtained from the proposed GA were compared with classical GA and integer programming (IP). Results showed that dual-fitness function GA outperformed the classical single-fitness function GA with statistical significance for large problems and was competitive to IP, particularly when large size problems were used.
Structure Based Computational Analysis and Molecular Phylogeny of C- Phycocyanin Gene from the Selected Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria play a vital role in the production of phycobiliproteins that includes phycocyanin and phycoerythrin pigments. Phycocyanin and related phycobiliproteins have wide variety of application that is used in the food, biotechnology and cosmetic industry because of their color, fluorescent and antioxidant properties. The present study is focused to understand the pigment at molecular level in the Cyanobacteria Oscillatoria terebriformis NTRI05 and Oscillatoria foreaui NTRI06. After extraction of genomic DNA, the amplification of C-Phycocyanin gene was done with the suitable primer PCβF and PCαR and the sequencing was performed. Structural and Phylogenetic analysis was attained using the sequence to develop a molecular model.
CFD Simulation and Validation of Flow Pattern Transition Boundaries during Moderately Viscous Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow through Horizontal Pipeline
In the present study, computational fluid dynamics
(CFD) simulation has been executed to investigate the transition
boundaries of different flow patterns for moderately viscous oil-water
(viscosity ratio 107, density ratio 0.89 and interfacial tension of 0.032
N/m.) two-phase flow through a horizontal pipeline with internal
diameter and length of 0.025 m and 7.16 m respectively. Volume of
Fluid (VOF) approach including effect of surface tension has been
employed to predict the flow pattern. Geometry and meshing of the
present problem has been drawn using GAMBIT and ANSYS
FLUENT has been used for simulation. A total of 47037 quadrilateral
elements are chosen for the geometry of horizontal pipeline. The
computation has been performed by assuming unsteady flow,
immiscible liquid pair, constant liquid properties, co-axial flow and a
T-junction as entry section. The simulation correctly predicts the
transition boundaries of wavy stratified to stratified mixed flow.
Other transition boundaries are yet to be simulated. Simulated data
has been validated with our own experimental results.
Inheritance of Primary Yield Component Traits of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Number of Seeds per Pod and 1000 Seed Weight in an 8X8 Diallel Cross Population
Thirty six genotypes (8 parents and 28 F1 diallel crosses) were grown in randomized complete block design during 2006 at Mandura, North western Ethiopia. The experiment was executed to study the inheritance of two primary yield component traits: number of seeds per pod and 1000 seed weight. Statistical significant difference was observed between genotypes, parents, and crosses for these traits. The mean square due to GCA was significant for the two traits. However, SCA mean square was significant only for number of seeds per pod. Thus both additive and non-additive types of gene actions were important in the inheritance of number of seeds per pod. Significant b1 component was obtained for this trait. The b2 and b3 components, however, were not significant, suggesting the absence of gene asymmetry. From Wr/Vr graph, inheritance of seeds per pod was governed by partial dominance with additive gene action.
Managing Iterations in Product Design and Development
The inherent iterative nature of product design and development poses significant challenge to reduce the product design and development time (PD). In order to shorten the time to market, organizations have adopted concurrent development where multiple specialized tasks and design activities are carried out in parallel. Iterative nature of work coupled with the overlap of activities can result in unpredictable time to completion and significant rework. Many of the products have missed the time to market window due to unanticipated or rather unplanned iteration and rework. The iterative and often overlapped processes introduce greater amounts of ambiguity in design and development, where the traditional methods and tools of project management provide less value. In this context, identifying critical metrics to understand the iteration probability is an open research area where significant contribution can be made given that iteration has been the key driver of cost and schedule risk in PD projects. Two important questions that the proposed study attempts to address are: Can we predict and identify the number of iterations in a product development flow? Can we provide managerial insights for a better control over iteration? The proposal introduces the concept of decision points and using this concept intends to develop metrics that can provide managerial insights into iteration predictability. By characterizing the product development flow as a network of decision points, the proposed research intends to delve further into iteration probability and attempts to provide more clarity.
Characterization of Biodegradable Nanocomposites with Poly (Lactic Acid) and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
In this study, structural, mechanical, thermal and
electrical properties of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) nanocomposites with
low-loaded (0-1.5 wt%) untreated, heat and nitric acid treated multiwalled
carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied. Among the
composites, untreated 0.5 wt % MWCNTs and acid-treated 1.0 wt%
MWCNTs reinforced PLA show the tensile strength and modulus
values higher than the others. These two samples along with pure
PLA exhibit the stable orthorhombic α-form, whilst other samples
reveal the less stable orthorhombic β-form, as demonstrated by X-ray
diffraction study. Differential scanning calorimetry reveals the
evolution of the mentioned different phases by controlled cooling and
discloses an enhancement of PLA crystallization by nanotubes
incorporation. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the MWCNTs
loaded sample degraded faster than PLA. Surface resistivity of the
nanocomposites is found to be dropped drastically by a factor of 1013
with a low loading of MWCNTs (1.5 wt%).
A Theoretical Framework for Rural Tourism Motivation Factors
Rural tourism has many economical, environmental, and socio-cultural benefits. However, the development of rural tourism compared to urban tourism is also faced with several challenges added to the disadvantages of rural tourism. The aim of this study is to design a model of the factors affecting the motivations of rural tourists, in an attempt to improve the understanding of rural tourism motivation for the development of that form of tourism. The proposed model is based on a sound theoretical framework. It was designed following a literature review of tourism motivation theoretical frameworks and of rural tourism motivation factors. The tourism motivation theoretical framework that fitted to the best all rural tourism motivation factors was then chosen as the basis for the proposed model. This study hence found that the push and pull tourism motivation framework and the inner and outer directed values theory are the most adequate theoretical frameworks for the modeling of rural tourism motivation.
An Evaluation of Sputum Smear Conversion and Haematological Parameter Alteration in Early Detection Period of New Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) Patients
Sputum smear conversion after one month of antituberculosis
therapy in new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis
patients (PTB+) is a vital indicator towards treatment success. The
objective of this study is to determine the rate of sputum smear
conversion in new PTB+ patients after one month under treatment of
National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH).
Analysis of sputum smear conversion was done by re-clinical
examination with sputum smear microscopic test after one month.
Socio-demographic and hematological parameters were evaluated to
perceive the correlation with the disease status. Among all enrolled
patients only 33.33% were available for follow up diagnosis and of
them only 42.86% patients turned to smear negative. Probably this
consequence is due to non-coherence to the proper disease
management. 66.67% and 78.78% patients reported low haemoglobin
and packed cell volume level respectively whereas 80% and 93.33%
patients accounted accelerated platelet count and erythrocyte
sedimentation rate correspondingly.
On Speeding Up Support Vector Machines: Proximity Graphs Versus Random Sampling for Pre-Selection Condensation
Support vector machines (SVMs) are considered to be
the best machine learning algorithms for minimizing the predictive
probability of misclassification. However, their drawback is that for
large data sets the computation of the optimal decision boundary is a
time consuming function of the size of the training set. Hence several
methods have been proposed to speed up the SVM algorithm. Here
three methods used to speed up the computation of the SVM
classifiers are compared experimentally using a musical genre
classification problem. The simplest method pre-selects a random
sample of the data before the application of the SVM algorithm. Two
additional methods use proximity graphs to pre-select data that are
near the decision boundary. One uses k-Nearest Neighbor graphs and
the other Relative Neighborhood Graphs to accomplish the task.
Estimation of Relative Self-Localization Based On Natural Landmark and an Improved SURF
It is important for an autonomous mobile robot to know
where it is in any time in an indoor environment. In this paper, we
design a relative self-localization algorithm. The algorithm compare
the interest point in two images and compute the relative displacement
and orientation to determent the posture. Firstly, we use the SURF
algorithm to extract the interest points of the ceiling. Second, in order
to reduce amount of calculation, a replacement SURF is used to extract
orientation and description of the interest points. At last, according to
the transformation of the interest points in two images, the relative
self-localization of the mobile robot will be estimated greatly.
Analysis of Failure Pressures of Composite Cylinders with a Polymer Liner of Type IV CNG Vessels
The present study deals with the analysis of the cylindrical part of a CNG storage vessel, combining a plastic liner and an over wrapped filament wound composite. Three kind of polymer are used in the present analysis: High density Polyethylene HDPE, Light low density Polyethylene LLDPE and finally blend of LLDPE/HDPE. The effect of the mechanical properties on the behavior of type IV vessel may be then investigated. In the present paper, the effect of the order of the circumferential winding on the stacking sequence may be then investigated. Based on mechanical considerations, the present model provides an exact solution for stresses and deformations on the cylindrical section of the vessel under thermo-mechanical static loading. The result show a good behavior of HDPE liner compared to the other plastic materials. The presence of circumferential winding angle in the stacking improves the rigidity of vessel by improving the burst pressure.
Smart Sustainable Cities: An Integrated Planning Approach towards Sustainable Urban Energy Systems, India
Cities denote instantaneously a challenge and an
opportunity for climate change policy. Cities are the place where
most energy services are needed because urbanization is closely
linked to high population densities and concentration of economic
activities and production (Urban energy demand). Consequently, it is
critical to explain about the role of cities within the world-s energy
systems and its correlation with the climate change issue. With more
than half of the world-s population already living in urban areas, and
that percentage expected to rise to 75 per cent by 2050, it is clear that
the path to sustainable development must pass through cities. Cities
expanding in size and population pose increased challenges to the
environment, of which energy is part as a natural resource, and to the
quality of life. Nowadays, most cities have already understood the
importance of sustainability, both at their local scale as in terms of
their contribution to sustainability at higher geographical scales. It
requires the perception of a city as a complex and dynamic
ecosystem, an open system, or cluster of systems, where the energy
as well as the other natural resources is transformed to satisfy the
needs of the different urban activities. In fact, buildings and
transportation generally represent most of cities direct energy
demand, i.e., between 60 per cent and 80 per cent of the overall
consumption. Buildings, both residential and services are usually
influenced by the local physical and social conditions. In terms of
transport, the energy demand is also strongly linked with the specific
characteristics of a city (urban mobility).The concept of a “smart
city" builds on statistics as seven key axes of a city-s success in
moving towards common platform (brain nerve)of sustainable urban
With the aforesaid knowledge, the authors have suggested a frame
work to role of cities, as energy actors for smart city management.
The authors have discusses the potential elements needed for energy
in smart cities and also identified potential energy actions and
relevant barriers. Furthermore, three levels of city smartness in cities
actions to overcome market /institutional failures with a local
approach are distinguished. The authors have made an attempt to
conceive and implement concepts of city smartness by adopting the
city or local government as nerve center through an integrated
planning approach. Finally, concluding with recommendations for
the organization of the Smart Sustainable Cities for positive changes
of urban India.
Alignment of MG-63 Osteoblasts on Fibronectin-Coated Phosphorous Doping Lattices in Silicon
A major challenge in biomaterials research is the
regulation of protein adsorption which is a key factor for controlling
the subsequent cell adhesion at implant surfaces. The aim of the
present study was to control the adsorption of fibronectin (FN) and
the attachment of MG-63 osteoblasts with an electronic
nanostructure. Shallow doping line lattices with a period of 260 nm
were produced for this purpose by implantation of phosphorous in
silicon wafers. Protein coverage was determined after incubating the
substrate with FN by means of an immunostaining procedure and the
measurement of the fluorescence intensity with a TECAN analyzer.
We observed an increased amount of adsorbed FN on the
nanostructure compared to control substrates. MG-63 osteoblasts
were cultivated for 24h on FN-incubated substrates and their
morphology was assessed by SEM. Preferred orientation and
elongation of the cells in direction of the doping lattice lines was
observed on FN-coated nanostructures.
In Search of the Meaning of Entrepreneurship
The following study aims to outline, whether the
perceptions of entrepreneurs about their entrepreneurial activities and
the underlying meanings of their activities are universal or whether
they vary systematically across cultures. In contrast to previous
studies, the phenomenographical approach and the resulting findings
of this study provide new insights into what constitutes
entrepreneurship by drawing an inference from the perceptions of
entrepreneurs in the United States and in Germany. Culture is shown
to have an important impact on entrepreneurship, since the
underlying meanings of entrepreneurship vary significantly among
the two sample groups. Furthermore, the study sheds more light on
the culturally contingent 'why' of entrepreneurship by looking at the
internal motivations of individuals instead of exclusively focusing on
character traits or external influences of the respective economic
Effect of Abdominal Exercises versus Abdominal Supporting Belt on Post-Partum Abdominal Efficiency and Rectus Separation
This study was conducted to determine the
effect of abdominal exercises versus abdominal supporting
belt on abdominal efficiency and inter-recti separation
following vaginal delivery.30 primiparous post-natal women
participated in this study. Their age ranged from (25 - 35)
years and their BMI < 30 Kg/m2. Participants were assigned
randomly into 2groups, participants of group (A) used
abdominal belt from the 2nd day following delivery, till the end
of puerperium (6 weeks), while participants of group (B)
engaged into abdominal exercises program from the 2nd day
following delivery for 6 weeks. The results of the present
study revealed that although there was no statistical difference
in waist circumference between both groups, participation in
abdominal exercise program produced a pronounced reduction
in waist/hip ratio, and inter-recti separation and also caused
significant increase in abdominal muscles strength (peak
torque, maximum repetition total work and average power)
higher than the use of abdominal belt.
A Detailed Experimental Study of the Springback Anisotropy of Three Metals using the Stretching-Bending Process
Springback is a significant problem in the sheet metal
forming process. When the tools are released after the stage of
forming, the product springs out, because of the action of the internal
stresses. In many cases the deviation of form is too large and the
compensation of the springback is necessary. The precise prediction
of the springback of product is increasingly significant for the design
of the tools and for compensation because of the higher ratio of the
yield stress to the elastic modulus.
The main object in this paper was to study the effect of the
anisotropy on the springback for three directions of rolling: 0°, 45°
and 90°. At the same time, we highlighted the influence of three
different metallic materials: Aluminum, Steel and Galvanized steel.
The original of our purpose consist on tests which are ensured by
adapting a U-type stretching-bending device on a tensile testing
machine, where we studied and quantified the variation of the
springback according to the direction of rolling. We also showed the
role of lubrication in the reduction of the springback.
Moreover, in this work, we have studied important characteristics
in deep drawing process which is a springback. We have presented
defaults that are showed in this process and many parameters
influenced a springback.
Finally, our results works lead us to understand the influence of
grains orientation with different metallic materials on the springback
and drawing some conclusions how to concept deep drawing tools. In
addition, the conducted work represents a fundamental contribution
in the discussion the industry application.
Overview of CARDIOSENSOR Project on the Development of a Nanosensor for Assessing the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
This paper aims at overviewing the topics of a research project (CARDIOSENSOR) on the field of health sciences (biomaterials and biomedical engineering). The project has focused on the development of a nanosensor for the assessment of the risk of cardiovascular diseases by the monitoring of C-reactive protein (CRP), which has been currently considered as the best validated inflammatory biomarker associated to cardiovascular diseases. The project involves tasks such as: 1) the development of sensor devices based on field effect transistors (FET): assembly, optimization and validation; 2) application of sensors to the detection of CRP in standard solutions and comparison with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and 3) application of sensors to real samples such as blood and saliva and evaluation of their ability to predict the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Performance of Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) in High Phosphate Wastewater
This study presents the performance of membrane
bioreactor in treating high phosphate wastewater. The laboratory
scale MBR was operated at permeate flux of 25 L/m2.h with a hollow
fiber membrane (polypropylene, approx. pore size 0.01 - 0.2 μm) at
hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 hrs. Scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) and energy diffusive X-ray (EDX) analyzer were
used to characterize the membrane foulants. Results showed that the
removal efficiencies of COD, TSS, NH3-N and PO4
3- were 93, 98, 80
and 30% respectively. On average 91% of influent soluble microbial
products (SMP) were eliminated, with the eliminations of
polysaccharides mostly above 80%. The main fouling resistance was
cake resistance. It should be noted that SMP were found in major
portions of mixed liquor that played a relatively significant role in
membrane fouling. SEM and EDX analyses indicated that the
foulants covering the membrane surfaces comprises not only organic
substances but also inorganic elements including Mg, Ca, Al, K and
Study of Optical Properties of a Glutathione Capped Gold Nanoparticles Using Linker (MHDA) by Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering
16-Mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) and tripeptide glutathione conjugated with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) are characterized by Fourier Transform InfaRared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique based on FTIR spectroscopy has become an important tool in biophysics, which is perspective for the study of organic compounds. FTIR-spectra of MHDA shows the line at 2500 cm-1 attributed to thiol group which is modified by presence of Au-NPs, suggesting the formation of bond between thiol group and gold. We also can observe the peaks originate from characteristic chemical group. A Raman spectrum of the same sample is also promising. Our preliminary experiments confirm that SERS-effect takes place for MHDA connected with Au-NPs and enable us to detected small number (less than 106 cm-2) of MHDA molecules. Combination of spectroscopy methods: FTIR and SERS – enable to study optical properties of Au- NPs and immobilized bio-molecules in context of a bio-nano-sensors.
A Training Course Development to Promote Learning Activities of 2nd Year, Faculty of Education Students using Multiple Intelligences Theory
This research aims to develop and evaluate a training
course to promote learning activities of 2nd year, Suan Sunandha
Rajabhat University, faculty of education students using multiple
intelligences theory. The process is divided into two phases: Phase 1
development of training course to promote learning activities
consisting of principles, objectives of the course, structure, training
duration, content, training materials, training activities, media
training, monitoring, measurement and evaluation quality of the
course. Phase 2 evaluation efficiency of training course was to use
the improved curriculum with experimental group which is 2nd year,
Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, faculty of education students
was drawn randomly 152 students. The experimental pattern was
randomized Control Group Pre-Test Post-Test Design, Analysis Data
by t-Test with the software SPFSS for Windows. Research has shown
that: 1). the ability of teaching and learning according to the theory of
multiple intelligences after training is higher than before training
significantly in statistic at .01 level, 2). The satisfaction of students
to the training courses was overall at the highest level.
Molecular Dynamic Simulation and Receptor-based Pharmacophore Modeling on Human Renin for Discovery of Novel Inhibitors
Hypertension is characterized with stress on the heart and blood vessels thus increasing the risk of heart attack and renal diseases. The Renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in blood pressure control. Renin is the enzyme that controls the RAS at the rate-limiting step. Our aim is to develop new drug-like leads which can inhibit renin and thereby emerge as therapeutics for hypertension. To achieve this, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and receptor-based pharmacophore modeling were implemented, and three rennin-inhibitor complex structures were selected based on IC50 value and scaffolds of inhibitors. Three pharmacophore models were generated considering conformations induced by inhibitor. The compounds mapped to these models were selected and subjected to drug-like screening. The identified hits were docked into the active site of renin. Finally, hit1 satisfying the binding mode and interaction energy was selected as possible lead candidate to be used in novel renin inhibitors.
Development and Assessment of Measuring/Rehabilitation Device for Myelopathy Patients with Lower Extremity Function
Disordered function of maniphalanx and difficulty with
ambulation will occur insofar as a human has a failure in the spinal
marrow. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy as one of the myelopathy
emanates from not only external factors but also increased age. In
addition, the diacrisis is difficult since cervical spondylotic
myelopathy is evaluated by a doctor-s neurological remark and
imaging findings. As a quantitative method for measuring the degree
of disability, hand-operated triangle step test (for short, TST) has
formulated. In this research, a full automatic triangle step counter
apparatus is designed and developed to measure the degree of
disability in an accurate fashion according to the principle of TST. The
step counter apparatus whose shape is a low triangle pole displays the
number of stepping upon each corner. Furthermore, the apparatus has
two modes of operation. Namely, one is for measuring the degree of
disability and the other for rehabilitation exercise. In terms of
usefulness, clinical practice should be executed before too long.
Fiber Lens Structure for Large Distance Measurement
We propose a new fiber lens structure for large distance
measurement in which a polymer layer is added to a conventional
fiber lens. The proposed fiber lens can adjust the working distance by
properly choosing the refractive index and thickness of the polymer
layer. In our numerical analysis for the fiber lens radius of 120 μm,
the working distance of the proposed fiber lens is about 10 mm
which is about 30 times larger than conventional fiber lens.
Photo Catalytic Oxidation Degradation of Volatile Organic Compound with Nano-TiO2/LDPE Composite Film
The photocatalytic activity efficiency of TiO2 for the degradation of Toluene in photoreactor can be enhanced by nano- TiO2/LDPE composite film. Since the amount of TiO2 affected the efficiency of the photocatalytic activity, this work was mainly concentrated on the effort to embed the high amount of TiO2 in the Polyethylene matrix. The developed photocatalyst was characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and SEM. The SEM images revealed the high homogeneity of the deposition of TiO2 on the polyethylene matrix. The XRD patterns interpreted that TiO2 embedded in the PE matrix exhibited mainly in anatase form. In addition, the photocatalytic results show that the toluene removal efficiencies of 30±5%, 49±4%, 68±5%, 42±6% and 33±5% were obtained when using the catalyst loading at 0%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50% (wt. cat./wt. film), respectively.
Simulation Modeling of Fire Station Locations under Traffic Obstacles
Facility location problem involves locating a facility
to optimize some performance measures. Location of a public facility
to serve the community, such as a fire station, significantly affects its
service quality. Main objective in locating a fire station is to
minimize the response time, which is the time duration between
receiving a call and reaching the place of incident. In metropolitan
areas, fire vehicles need to cross highways and other traffic obstacles
through some obstacle-overcoming points which delay the response
time. In this paper, fire station location problem is analyzed.
Simulation models are developed for the location problems which
involve obstacles. Particular case problems are analyzed and the
results are presented.
Discovery of Human HMG-Coa Reductase Inhibitors Using Structure-Based Pharmacophore Modeling Combined with Molecular Dynamics Simulation Methodologies
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate using NADPH and the enzyme is involved in rate-controlling step of mevalonate. Inhibition of HMGR is considered as effective way to lower cholesterol levels so it is drug target to treat hypercholesterolemia, major risk factor of cardiovascular disease. To discover novel HMGR inhibitor, we performed structure-based pharmacophore modeling combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Four HMGR inhibitors were used for MD simulation and representative structure of each simulation were selected by clustering analysis. Four structure-based pharmacophore models were generated using the representative structure. The generated models were validated used in virtual screening to find novel scaffolds for inhibiting HMGR. The screened compounds were filtered by applying drug-like properties and used in molecular docking. Finally, four hit compounds were obtained and these complexes were refined using energy minimization. These compounds might be potential leads to design novel HMGR inhibitor.
The Bipartite Ramsey Numbers b(C2m; C2n)
Given bipartite graphs H1 and H2, the bipartite Ramsey number b(H1;H2) is the smallest integer b such that any subgraph G of the complete bipartite graph Kb,b, either G contains a copy of H1 or its complement relative to Kb,b contains a copy of H2. It is known that b(K2,2;K2,2) = 5, b(K2,3;K2,3) = 9, b(K2,4;K2,4) = 14 and b(K3,3;K3,3) = 17. In this paper we study the case that both H1 and H2 are even cycles, prove that b(C2m;C2n) ≥ m + n - 1 for m = n, and b(C2m;C6) = m + 2 for m ≥ 4.
Two-Dimensional Solitary Wave Solution to the Quadratic Nonlinear Schrdinger Equation
The solitary wave solution of the quadratic nonlinear Schrdinger equation is determined by the iterative method called Petviashvili method. This solution is also used for the initial condition for the time evolution to study the stability analysis. The spectral method is applied for the time evolution.
Sustainable Water Management for Tourist Accommodations is Amphawa, Samut Songkram, Thailand
This study aims to initiate sustainable water management for tourist accommodations in Amphawa, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand. Wastewater generated by tourist accommodation was conducted in 10 homestays and resorts in Amphawa during August – October, 2011. The prominent parameters which are of pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Fat Oil and Grease (FOG), Nitrate (No3-), and Phosphate (PO43-) were conducted monthly. The results revealed that some parameters were over national water quality standard (Class II). Especially, 90% of tourist accommodations have been recorded that FOG was over the standard of wastewater quality from accommodation (group I: total room of accommodation less than 200 rooms). Therefore, grease trap and natural treatment should be utilized in tourist accommodations in order to reduce the discharged of fat, oil, and grease from tourism activities. In addition, number of tourists also relate statistically with BOD and Nitrate at 0.05 level of significance.
Steel–CFRP Composite (CFRP Laminate Sandwiched between Mild Steel Strips) and It-s Behavior as Stirrup in Beams
In this present study, experimental work was
conducted to study the effectiveness of newly innovated steel-CFRP
composite (CFRP laminates sandwiched between two steel strips) as
stirrups. A total numbers of eight concrete beams were tested under
four point loads. Each beam measured 1600 mm long, 160mm width
and 240 mm depth. The beams were reinforced with different shear
reinforcements; one without stirrups, one with steel stirrups and six
with different types and numbers of steel-CRFR stirrups. Test results
indicated that the steel-CFRP stirrups had enhanced the shear
strength capacity of beams. Moreover, the tests revealed that steel-
CFRP stirrups reached to their ultimate tensile strength unlike FRP
stirrups which rupture at much lower level than their ultimate
strength as werereported in various researches.
Increasing Value Added of Recycling Business Management: A Case of Thailand
This policy participation action research explores the
roles of Thai government units during its 2010 fiscal year on how to
create value added to recycling business in the central part of
Thailand. The research aims to a) study how the government plays a
role to support the business, and its problems and obstacles on
supporting the business, b) to design a strategic action – short,
medium, and long term plans -- to create value added to the recycling
business, particularly in local full-loop companies/organizations
licensed by Wongpanit Waste Separation Plant as well as those
licensed by the Department of Provincial Administration. Mixed
method research design, i.e., a combination of quantitative and
qualitative methods is utilized in the present study in both data
collection and analysis procedures. Quantitative data was analyzed
by frequency, percent value, mean scores, and standard deviation,
and aimed to note trend and generalizations. Qualitative data was
collected via semi-structured interviews/focus group interviews to
explore in-depth views of the operators. The sampling included 1,079
operators in eight provinces in the central part of Thailand.
Influence of Microstructural Features on Wear Resistance of Biomedical Titanium Materials
The field of biomedical materials plays an imperative
requisite and a critical role in manufacturing a variety of biological
artificial replacements in a modern world. Recently, titanium (Ti)
materials are being used as biomaterials because of their superior
corrosion resistance and tremendous specific strength, free- allergic
problems and the greatest biocompatibility compared to other
competing biomaterials such as stainless steel, Co-Cr alloys,
ceramics, polymers, and composite materials. However, regardless of
these excellent performance properties, Implantable Ti materials have
poor shear strength and wear resistance which limited their
applications as biomaterials. Even though the wear properties of Ti
alloys has revealed some improvements, the crucial effectiveness of
biomedical Ti alloys as wear components requires a comprehensive
deep understanding of the wear reasons, mechanisms, and techniques
that can be used to improve wear behavior. This review examines
current information on the effect of thermal and thermomechanical
processing of implantable Ti materials on the long-term prosthetic
requirement which related with wear behavior. This paper focuses
mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of effective
microstructural features that can improve wear properties of bio
grade Ti materials using thermal and thermomechanical treatments.
Performance of Concrete Grout under Aggressive Chloride Environment in Sabah
Service life of existing reinforced concrete (RC)
structures in coastal towns of Sabah has been affected very much.
Concrete crack, spalling of concrete cover and reinforcement rusting
of RC buildings are seen even within 5 years of construction in
Sabah. Hence, in this study a new mix design of concrete grout was
developed using locally available materials and investigated under
two curing conditions and workability, compressive strength,
Accelerated Mortar Bar Test (AMBT), water absorption, volume of
permeable voids (VPV), Sorptivity and 90-days salt ponding test
were conducted. The compressive strength of concrete grout at the
age 90 days was found to be 44.49 N/mm2 under water curing. It was
observed that the percentage of mortar bar length change was below
1% for developed concrete grout. The water absorption of the
concrete grout was in between the range of 0.88 % to 3.60 % under
two different curing up to the age 90 days. It was also observed that
the VPV of concrete was in the range of 0 % to 9.75 and 2.44% to
13.05% under water curing and site curing respectively. It was found
that the Sorptivity of the concrete grout under water curing at the age
of 28 days is 0.211mm/√min and at the age 90 day are 0.067
mm/√min. The chloride content decreased greatly, 90% after a depth
of 15 mm. It was noticed that the site cured samples showed higher
chloride contents near surface compared to water cured samples.
This investigation suggested that the developed mix design of
concrete grout using locally available construction materials can be
used for crack repairing of existing RC structures in Sabah.
Use of Vegetation and Geo-Jute in Erosion Control of Slopes in a Sub-Tropical Climate
Protection of slope and embankment from erosion has
become an important issue in Bangladesh. The constructions of
strong structures require large capital, integrated designing, high
maintenance cost. Strong structure methods have negative impact on
the environment and sometimes not function for the design period.
Plantation of vetiver system along the slopes is an alternative
solution. Vetiver not only serves the purpose of slope protection but
also adds green environment reducing pollution. Vetiver is available
in almost all the districts of Bangladesh. This paper presents the
application of vetiver system with geo-jute, for slope protection and
erosion control of embankments and slopes. In-situ shear tests have
been conducted on vetiver rooted soil system to find the shear
strength. The shear strength and effective soil cohesion of vetiver
rooted soil matrix are respectively 2.0 times and 2.1 times higher than
that of the bared soil. Similar trends have been found in direct shear
tests conducted on laboratory reconstituted samples. Field trials have
been conducted in road embankment and slope protection with
vetiver at different sites. During the time of vetiver root growth the
soil protection has been accomplished by geo-jute. As the geo-jute
degrades with time, vetiver roots grow and take over the function of
geo-jutes. Slope stability analyses showed that vegetation increase
the factor of safety significantly.
Defluoridation of Water by Schwertmannite
In the present study Schwertmannite (an iron oxide
hydroxide) is selected as an adsorbent for defluoridation of water.
The adsorbent was prepared by wet chemical process and was
characterized by SEM, XRD and BET. The fluoride adsorption
efficiency of the prepared adsorbent was determined with respect to
contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent dose and pH of
the solution. The batch adsorption data revealed that the fluoride
adsorption efficiency was highly influenced by the studied factors.
Equilibrium was attained within one hour of contact time indicating
fast kinetics and the adsorption data followed pseudo second order
kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm data fitted to both Langmuir and
Freundlich isotherm models for a concentration range of 5-30 mg/L.
The adsorption system followed Langmuir isotherm model with
maximum adsorption capacity of 11.3 mg/g. The high adsorption
capacity of Schwertmannite points towards the potential of this
adsorbent for fluoride removal from aqueous medium.
Physico-Mechanical Properties of Jute-Coir Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Polypropylene Composites
The term hybrid composite refers to the composite
containing more than one type of fiber material as reinforcing fillers.
It has become attractive structural material due to the ability of
providing better combination of properties with respect to single fiber
containing composite. The eco-friendly nature as well as processing
advantage, light weight and low cost have enhanced the attraction
and interest of natural fiber reinforced composite. The objective of
present research is to study the mechanical properties of jute-coir
fiber reinforced hybrid polypropylene (PP) composite according to
filler loading variation. In the present work composites were
manufactured by using hot press machine at four levels of fiber
loading (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %). Jute and coir fibers were utilized at a
ratio of (1:1) during composite manufacturing. Tensile, flexural,
impact and hardness tests were conducted for mechanical
characterization. Tensile test of composite showed a decreasing trend
of tensile strength and increasing trend of the Young-s modulus with
increasing fiber content. During flexural, impact and hardness tests,
the flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and hardness
were found to be increased with increasing fiber loading. Based on
the fiber loading used in this study, 20% fiber reinforced composite
resulted the best set of mechanical properties.
Utilization of Agro-Industrial Waste in Metal Matrix Composites: Towards Sustainability
The application of agro-industrial waste in Aluminum
Metal Matrix Composites has been getting more attention as they
can reinforce particles in metal matrix which enhance the strength
properties of the composites. In addition, by applying these agroindustrial
wastes in useful way not only save the manufacturing cost
of products but also reduce the pollutions on environment. This
paper represents a literature review on a range of industrial wastes
and their utilization in metal matrix composites. The paper describes
the synthesis methods of agro-industrial waste filled metal matrix
composite materials and their mechanical, wear, corrosion, and
physical properties. It also highlights the current application and
future potential of agro-industrial waste reinforced composites in
aerospace, automotive and other construction industries.
Origami Theory and Its Applications: A Literature Review
This paper presents the fundamentals of Origami engineering and its application in nowadays as well as future industry. Several main cores of mathematical approaches such as Huzita- Hatori axioms, Maekawa and Kawasaki-s theorems are introduced briefly. Meanwhile flaps and circle packing by Robert Lang is explained to make understood the underlying principles in designing crease pattern. Rigid origami and its corrugation patterns which are potentially applicable for creating transformable or temporary spaces is discussed to show the transition of origami from paper to thick material. Moreover, some innovative applications of origami such as eyeglass, origami stent and high tech origami based on mentioned theories and principles are showcased in section III; while some updated origami technology such as Vacuumatics, self-folding of polymer sheets and programmable matter folding which could greatlyenhance origami structureare demonstrated in Section IV to offer more insight in future origami.
A Review on Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites
Renewable natural fibres such as oil palm, flax, and
pineapple leaf can be utilized to obtain new high performance
polymer materials. The reuse of waste natural fibres as reinforcement
for polymer is a sustainable option to the environment. However, due
to its high hydroxyl content of cellulose, natural fibres are
susceptible to absorb water that affects the composite mechanical
properties adversely. Research found that Nano materials such as
Nano Silica Carbide (n-SiC) and Nano Clay can be added into the
polymer composite to overcome this problem by enhancing its
mechanical properties in wet condition. The addition of Nano
material improves the tensile and wear properties, flexural stressstrain
behaviour, fracture toughness, and fracture strength of polymer
natural composites in wet and dry conditions.
Clarification of Synthetic Juice through Spiral Wound Ultrafiltration Module at Turbulent Flow Region and Cleaning Study
Synthetic juice clarification was done through spiral
wound ultrafiltration (UF) membrane module. Synthetic juice was
clarified at two different operating conditions, such as, with and
without permeates recycle at turbulent flow regime. The performance
of spiral wound ultrafiltration membrane was analyzed during
clarification of synthetic juice. Synthetic juice was the mixture of
deionized water, sucrose and pectin molecule. The operating
conditions are: feed flowrate of 10 lpm, pressure drop of 413.7 kPa
and Reynolds no of 5000. Permeate sample was analyzed in terms of
volume reduction factor (VRF), viscosity (Pa.s), ⁰Brix, TDS (mg/l),
electrical conductivity (μS) and turbidity (NTU). It was observe that
the permeate flux declined with operating time for both conditions of
with and without permeate recycle due to increase of concentration
polarization and increase of gel layer on membrane surface. For
without permeate recycle, the membrane fouling rate was faster
compared to with permeate recycle. For without permeate recycle,
the VRF rose up to 5 and for with recycle permeate the VRF is 1.9.
The VRF is higher due to adsorption of solute (pectin) molecule on
membrane surface and resulting permeateflux declined with VRF.
With permeate recycle, quality was within acceptable limit. Fouled
membrane was cleaned by applying different processes (e.g.,
deionized water, SDS and EDTA solution). Membrane cleaning was
analyzed in terms of permeability recovery.
Investigation of Short Time Scale Variation of Solar Radiation Spectrum in UV, PAR, and NIR Bands due to Atmospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor
Long terms variation of solar insolation had been
widely studied. However, its parallel observations in short time scale
is rather lacking. This paper aims to investigate the short time scale
evolution of solar radiation spectrum (UV, PAR, and NIR bands) due
to atmospheric aerosols and water vapors. A total of 25 days of
global and diffused solar spectrum ranges from air mass 2 to 6 were
collected using ground-based spectrometer with shadowband
technique. The result shows that variation of solar radiation is the
least in UV fraction, followed by PAR and the most in NIR. Broader
variations in PAR and NIR are associated with the short time scale
fluctuations of aerosol and water vapors. The corresponding daily
evolution of UV, PAR, and NIR fractions implies that aerosol and
water vapors variation could also be responsible for the deviation
pattern in the Langley-plot analysis.
Effects of Aggressive Ammonium Nitrate on Durability Properties of Concrete Using Sandstone and Granite Aggregates
The storage of chemical fertilizers in concrete building often leads to durability problems due to chemical attack. The damage of concrete is mostly caused by certain ammonium salts. The main purpose of the research is to investigate the durability properties of concrete being exposed to ammonium nitrate solution. In this investigation, experiments are conducted on concrete type G50 and G60. The leaching process is achieved by the use of 20% concentration solution of ammonium nitrate. The durability properties investigated are water absorption, volume of permeable voids, and sorptivity. Compressive strength, pH value, and degradation depth are measured after a certain period of leaching. A decrease in compressive strength and an increase in porosity are found through the conducted experiments. Apart from that, the experimental data shows that pH value decreases with increased leaching time while the degradation depth of concrete increases with leaching time. By comparing concrete type G50 and G60, concrete type G60 is more resistant to ammonium nitrate attack.
Static Recrystallization Behavior of Mg Alloy Single Crystals
Single crystals of Magnesium alloys such as pure Mg,
Mg-1Zn-0.5Y, Mg-0.1Y, and Mg-0.1Ce alloys were successfully
fabricated in this study by employing the modified Bridgman method.
To determine the exact orientation of crystals, pole figure
measurement using X-ray diffraction were carried out on each single
crystal. Hardness and compression tests were conducted followed by
subsequent recrysatllization annealing. Recrystallization kinetics of
Mg alloy single crystals has been investigated. Fabricated single
crystals were cut into rectangular shaped specimen and solution
treated at 400oC for 24 hrs, and then deformed in compression mode
by 30% reduction. Annealing treatment for recrystallization has been
conducted on these cold-rolled plates at temperatures of 300oC for
various times from 1 to 20 mins. The microstructure observation and
hardness measurement conducted on the recrystallized specimens
revealed that static recrystallization of ternary alloy single crystal was
very slow, while recrystallization behavior of binary alloy single
crystals appeared to be very fast.
Photonic Crystal Waveguide 1x3 Flexible Power Splitter for Optical Network
A compact 1x3 power splitter based on Photonic
Crystal Waveguides (PCW) with flexible power splitting ratio is
presented in this paper. Multimode interference coupler (MMI) is
integrated with PCW. The device size reduction compared with the
conventional MMI power splitter is attributed to the large dispersion
of the PCW. Band Solve tool is used to calculate the band structure of
PCW. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is adopted to
simulate the relevant structure at 1550nm wavelength. The device is
polarization insensitive and allows the control of output (o/p) powers
within certain percentage points for both polarizations.
Implementation and Comparison between Two Algorithms of Three-Level Neutral Point Clamped Voltage Source Inverter
This paper presents a comparison between two Pulse
Width Modulation (PWM) algorithms applied to a three-level Neutral
Point Clamped (NPC) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). The first
algorithm applied is the triangular-sinusoidal strategy; the second is
the Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) strategy. In the
first part, we present a topology of three-level NCP VSI. After that,
we develop the two PWM strategies to control this converter. At the
end the experimental results are presented.
Modeling ICT Adoption Factors for the Preservation of Indigenous Knowledge
Indigenous Knowledge (IK) has many social and
economic benefits. However, IK is at the risk of extinction due to the
difficulties to preserve it as most of the IK largely remains
undocumented. This study aims to design a model of the factors
affecting the adoption of Information and Communication
Technologies (ICTs) for the preservation of IK. The proposed model
is based on theoretical frameworks on ICT adoption. It was designed
following a literature review of ICT adoption theories for households,
and of the factors affecting ICT adoption for IK. The theory that
fitted to the best all factors was then chosen as the basis for the
proposed model. This study found that the Model of Adoption of
Technology in Households (MATH) is the most suitable theoretical
framework for modeling ICT adoption factors for the preservation of
The Significance of the Radiography Technique in the Non-Destructive Evaluation of the Integrity and Reliability of Cast Interconnects
Significant changes in oil and gas drilling have
emphasized the need to verify the integrity and reliability of drill
stem components. Defects are inevitable in cast components,
regardless of application; but if these defects go undetected, any
severe defect could cause down-hole failure.
One such defect is shrinkage porosity. Castings with lower level
shrinkage porosity (CB levels 1 and 2) have scattered pores and do
not occupy large volumes; so pressure testing and helium leak testing
(HLT) are sufficient for qualifying the castings. However, castings
with shrinkage porosity of CB level 3 and higher, behave erratically
under pressure testing and HLT making these techniques insufficient
for evaluating the castings- integrity.
This paper presents a case study to highlight how the radiography
technique is much more effective than pressure testing and HLT.
Dynamics of Phytoplankton Blooms in the Baltic Sea – Numerical Simulations
Dynamic of phytoplankton blooms in the Baltic Sea
has been analyzed applying the numerical ecosystem model 3D
CEMBS. The model consists of the hydrodynamic model (POP,
version 2.1) and the ice model (CICE, version 4.0), which are
imposed by the atmospheric data model (DATM7). The 3D
model has an ecosystem module, activated in 2012 in the operational
mode. The ecosystem model consists of 11 main variables: biomass
of small-size phytoplankton and large-size phytoplankton
and cyanobacteria, zooplankton biomass, dissolved and molecular
detritus, dissolved oxygen concentration, as well as concentrations of
nutrients, including: nitrates, ammonia, phosphates and silicates. The
3D-CEMBS model is an effective tool for solving problems related to
phytoplankton blooms dynamic in the Baltic Sea
Increasing the Heterogeneity and Competition of Early Stage Financing: An Analysis of the Role of Crowdfunding in Entrepreneurial Ventures
The financial crisis has decreased the opportunities of
small businesses to acquire financing through conventional financial
actors, such as commercial banks. This credit constraint is partly the
reason for the emergence of new alternatives of financing, in addition
to the spreading opportunities for communication and secure
financial transfer through Internet. One of the most interesting venues
for finance is termed “crowdfunding". As the term suggests
crowdfunding is an appeal to prospective customers and investors to
form a crowd that will finance projects that otherwise would find it
hard to generate support through the most common financial actors.
Crowdfunding is in this paper divided into different models; the
threshold model, the microfinance model, the micro loan model and
the equity model. All these models add to the financial possibilities of
Development of UiTM Robotic Prosthetic Hand
The study of human hand morphology reveals that developing an artificial hand with the capabilities of human hand is an extremely challenging task. This paper presents the development of a robotic prosthetic hand focusing on the improvement of a tendon driven mechanism towards a biomimetic prosthetic hand. The design of this prosthesis hand is geared towards achieving high level of dexterity and anthropomorphism by means of a new hybrid mechanism that integrates a miniature motor driven actuation mechanism, a Shape Memory Alloy actuated mechanism and a passive mechanical linkage. The synergy of these actuators enables the flexion-extension movement at each of the finger joints within a limited size, shape and weight constraints. Tactile sensors are integrated on the finger tips and the finger phalanges area. This prosthesis hand is developed with an exact size ratio that mimics a biological hand. Its behavior resembles the human counterpart in terms of working envelope, speed and torque, and thus resembles both the key physical features and the grasping functionality of an adult hand.
Soil Resistivity Structure and Its Implication on the Pole Grid Resistance for Transmission Lines
High Voltage (HV) transmission lines are widely
spread around residential places. They take all forms of shapes:
concrete, steel, and timber poles. Earth grid always form part of the
HV transmission structure, whereat soil resistivity value is one of the
main inputs when it comes to determining the earth grid
requirements. In this paper, the soil structure and its implication on
the electrode resistance of HV transmission poles will be explored. In
Addition, this paper will present simulation for various soil structures
using IEEE and Australian standards to verify the computation with
CDEGS software. Furthermore, the split factor behavior under
different soil resistivity structure will be presented using CDEGS
Soil Resistivity Data Computations; Single and Two - Layer Soil Resistivity Structure and Its Implication on Earthing Design
Performing High Voltage (HV) tasks with a multi craft
work force create a special set of safety circumstances. This paper
aims to present vital information relating to when it is acceptable to
use a single or a two-layer soil structure. Also it discusses the
implication of the high voltage infrastructure on the earth grid and the
safety of this implication under a single or a two-layer soil structure.
A multiple case study is investigated to show the importance of using
the right soil resistivity structure during the earthing system design.
Effect of Heat Input on the Weld Metal Toughness of Chromium-Molybdenum Steel
An attempt has been made to determine the strength
and impact properties of Cr-Mo steel weld and base materials by
varying the current during manual metal arc welding. Toughness over
a temperature range from -32 to 100°C of base, heat affected zone
(HAZ) and weld zones at three current settings are made. It is
observed that the deterioration in notch toughness at any zone with
the temperature decreases. The values of notch toughness for all
zones at -32°C are almost same for any current settings. The values
of notch toughness at HAZ area are higher than that of weld area due
to the coarsening of ferrite grain of HAZ occurs with higher heat
input. From microhardness and microstructure result, it can be
concluded that large inclusion content in weld deposit is the cause of
lower notch toughness value.
Assessing Stages of Exercise Behavior Change, Self Efficacy and Decisional Balance in Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Students
Regular physical activity contributes positively to physiological and psychological health. This study aimed to identify exercise behavior changes, self efficacy and decisional balance in nursing and midwifery students. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Iran.300undergraduate nursing and midwifery students participated in this study. Data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, exercise stages of change, exercise self efficacy and pros and cons exercise decisional balance. The analysis was performed using the SPSS.A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
The Link between Distributed Leadership and Educational Outcomes: An Overview of Research
School leadership is commonly considered to have a
significant influence on school effectiveness and improvement.
Effective school leaders are expected to successfully introduce and
support change and innovation at the school unit. Despite an
abundance of studies on educational leadership, very few studies
have provided evidence on the link between leadership models, and
specific educational and school outcomes. This is true of a popular
contemporary approach to leadership, namely, distributed leadership.
The paper provides an overview of research findings on the effect of
distributed leadership on educational outcomes. The theoretical basis
for this approach to leadership is presented, with reference to
methodological and research limitations. The paper discusses
research findings and draws their implications for educational
research on school leadership.
Study on the Design of Supermarket Store Layouts: The Principle of “Sales Magnet“
This study analyses store layout among the many
factors that underlie supermarket store design, this; in terms of what to
display in a shop and where to place the items. This report examines
newly-opened stores and evaluates their interior shop floor layouts,
which we then attempt to categorize by various styles. We then
consider the interaction between shop floor layout and customer
behavior from the perspective of the supermarket as the seller. At this
point, we focus on the “store magnets"–the main sections within the
shop likely to attract customers into the store.
The Effect of the Direct Contact Heat Exchanger on Steam Power Plant
An actual power plant, which is the power plant of Iron and Steel Factory at Misurata city in Libya , has been modeled using Matlab in order to compare its results to the actual results of the actual cycle. This paper concentrates on two factors:
a- The comparison between exergy losses in the actual cycle and the modeled cycle.
b- The effect of extracting pressure on temperature water at boiler inlet.
Closed heat exchangers used in this plant have been substituted by open heat exchangers in the current study of the modeled power plant and the required changes in the pressure have been considered. In the following investigation the two points mentioned above are taken in consideration.
Solar Radiation Studies for Dubai and Sharjah, UAE
Global Solar Radiation (H) for Dubai and Sharjah,
Latitude 25.25oN, Longitude 55oE and 25.29oN, Longitude 55oE
respectively have been studied using sunshine hour data (n) of the
areas using various methods. These calculated global solar radiation
values are then compared to the measured values presented by
NASA. Furthermore, the extraterrestrial (H0), diffuse (Hd) and beam
radiation (Hb) are also calculated. The diffuse radiation is calculated
using methods proposed by Page and Liu and Jordan (L-J). Diffuse
Radiation from the Page method is higher than the L-J method.
Moreover, the clearness index (KT) signifies a clear sky almost all
year round. Rainy days are hardly a few in a year and limited in the
months December to March. The temperature remains between 25oC
in winter to 44oC in summer and is desirable for thermal applications
of solar energy. From the estimated results, it appears that solar
radiation can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year for
photovoltaic and thermal applications.
Morphology of Machined Surfaces from Electro Discharge Sawing and Sinking Electro Discharge Machining
Electro Discharge Sawing is a hybrid process
combining the features of SEDM and ECM. Its major characteristic is
extremely fast erosion rate compare to either of the above processes.
This paper brings out its relative feature of SEDM and EDS about
their erosion rates, surface roughness, and morphology of machined
Variational Iteration Method for the Solution of Boundary Value Problems
In this work, we present a reliable framework to solve boundary value problems with particular significance in solid mechanics. These problems are used as mathematical models in deformation of beams. The algorithm rests mainly on a relatively new technique, the Variational Iteration Method. Some examples are given to confirm the efficiency and the accuracy of the method.
Effect of Gravity Modulation on Weakly Non-Linear Stability of Stationary Convection in a Dielectric Liquid
The effect of time-periodic oscillations of the Rayleigh- Benard system on the heat transport in dielectric liquids is investigated by weakly nonlinear analysis. We focus on stationary convection using the slow time scale and arrive at the real Ginzburg- Landau equation. Classical fourth order Runge-kutta method is used to solve the Ginzburg-Landau equation which gives the amplitude of convection and this helps in quantifying the heat transfer in dielectric liquids in terms of the Nusselt number. The effect of electrical Rayleigh number and the amplitude of modulation on heat transport is studied.
Fatigue Properties and Strength Degradation of Carbon Fibber Reinforced Composites
A two-parameter fatigue model explicitly accounting for the cyclic as well as the mean stress was used to fit static and fatigue data available in literature concerning carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates subjected tension-tension fatigue. The model confirms the strength–life equal rank assumption and predicts reasonably the probability of failure under cyclic loading. The model parameters were found by best fitting procedures and required a minimum of experimental tests.
Wetting Behavior of Reactive and Non–Reactive Wetting of Liquids on Metallic Substrates
Wetting characteristics of reactive (Sn–0.7Cu solder)
and non– reactive (castor oil) wetting of liquids on Cu and Ag plated
Al substrates have been investigated. Solder spreading exhibited
capillary, gravity and viscous regimes. Oils did not exhibit noticeable
spreading regimes. Solder alloy showed better wettability on Ag
coated Al substrate compared to Cu plating. In the case of castor oil,
Cu coated Al substrate exhibited good wettability as compared to Ag
coated Al substrates. The difference in wettability during reactive
wetting of solder and non–reactive wetting of oils is attributed to the
change in the surface energies of Al substrates brought about by the
formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs).
Knowledge Management: The Need for a Total Knowledge Transfer Model to Diffuse Innovation of the Public Health Workforce
The purpose of this article is to propose a model designed to achieve Total Knowledge Transfer in the public health sector. The Total Knowledge Transfer Model integrated four essential organizational factors which have been under examined in totality in the literature. The research design was inductive in nature and used a case study for accomplishing the research objectives. The researcher investigated the factors that created a base to design a framework for total knowledge transfer in the public health sector. The results of this study are drawn from a fairly large sample in only two hospitals. A further research can be conducted to cover more responses from a wider health sector. The Total Knowledge Transfer Model is essential to improve the transfer and application of total common health knowledge.
Effect of Oxygen on Biochar Yield and Properties
Air infiltration in mass scale industrial applications of
bio char production is inevitable. The presence of oxygen during the
carbonization process is detrimental to the production of biochar yield
and properties. The experiment was carried out on several wood
species in a fixed-bed pyrolyser under various fractions of oxygen
ranging from 0% to 11% by varying nitrogen and oxygen composition
in the pyrolysing gas mixtures at desired compositions. The bed
temperature and holding time were also varied. Process optimization
was carried out by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by
employing Central Composite Design (CCD) using Design Expert 6.0
Software. The effect of oxygen ratio and holding time on biochar yield
within the range studied were statistically significant. From the
analysis result, optimum condition of 15.2% biochar yield of
mangrove wood was predicted at pyrolysis temperature of 403 oC,
oxygen percentage of 2.3% and holding time of two hours. This
prediction agreed well with the experiment finding of 15.1% biochar
Optimization of Hydraulic Fluid Parameters in Automotive Torque Converters
The fluid flow and the properties of the hydraulic
fluid inside a torque converter are the main topics of interest in this
research. The primary goal is to investigate the applicability of
various viscous fluids inside the torque converter. The Taguchi
optimization method is adopted to analyse the fluid flow in a torque
converter from a design perspective. Calculations are conducted in
maximizing the pressure since greater the pressure, greater the torque
developed. Using the values of the S/N ratios obtained, graphs are
plotted. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is also
Effect of Cooled EGR in Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection CI Engine Fuelled with Biodiesel Blend
As the demand and prices of various petroleum products have been on the rise in recent years, there is a growing need for alternative fuels. Biodiesel, which consists of alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils and animal fats, is considered as an alternative to petroleum diesel. Biodiesel has comparable performance with that of diesel and has lower brake specific fuel consumption than diesel with significant reduction in emissions of CO, hydrocarbons (HC) and smoke with however, a slight increase in NOx emissions. This paper analyzes the effect of cooled exhaust gas recirculation in the combustion characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine using biodiesel blended fuel as opposed to the conventional system. The combustion parameters such as cylinder pressure, heat release rate, delay period and peak pressure were analyzed at various loads. The maximum cylinder pressure reduces as the fraction of biodiesel increases in the blend the maximum rate of pressure rise was found to be higher for diesel at higher engine loads.
Study of Reactive Wetting of Sn–0.7Cu and Sn–0.3Ag–0.7Cu Lead Free Solders during Solidification on Nickel Coated Al Substrates
Microstructure, wetting behavior and interfacial
reactions between Sn–0.7Cu and Sn–0.3Ag–0.7Cu (SAC0307)
solders solidified on Ni coated Al substrates were compared and
investigated. Microstructure of Sn–0.7Cu alloy exhibited a eutectic
matrix composed of primary β-Sn dendrites with a fine dispersion of
Cu6Sn5 intermetallics whereas microstructure of SAC0307 alloy
exhibited coarser Cu6Sn5 and finer Ag3Sn precipitates of IMCs with
decreased tin dendrites. Contact angles ranging from 22° to 26° were
obtained for Sn–0.7Cu solder solidified on substrate surface whereas
for SAC0307 solder alloy contact angles were found to be in the
range of 20° to 22°. Sn–0.7Cu solder/substrate interfacial region
exhibited faceted (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 IMCs protruding into the solder matrix
and a small amount of (Cu, Ni)3Sn4 intermetallics at the interface.
SAC0307 solder/substrate interfacial region showed mainly (Cu,
Ni)3Sn4 intermetallics adjacent to the coating layer and (Cu,
Ni)6Sn5 IMCs in the solder matrix. The improvement in the
wettability of SAC0307 solder alloy on substrate surface is attributed
to the formation of cylindrical shape (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and a layer of
(Cu, Ni)3Sn4 IMCs at the interface.
Hot Workability of High Strength Low Alloy Steels
The hot deformation behavior of high strength low
alloy (HSLA) steels with different chemical compositions under hot
working conditions in the temperature range of 900 to 1100℃ and
strain rate range from 0.1 to 10 s-1 has been studied by performing a
series of hot compression tests. The dynamic materials model has been
employed for developing the processing maps, which show variation
of the efficiency of power dissipation with temperature and strain rate.
Also the Kumar-s model has been used for developing the instability
map, which shows variation of the instability for plastic deformation
with temperature and strain rate. The efficiency of power dissipation
increased with decreasing strain rate and increasing temperature in the
steel with higher Cr and Ti content. High efficiency of power
dissipation over 20 % was obtained at a finite strain level of 0.1 under
the conditions of strain rate lower than 1 s-1 and temperature higher
than 1050 ℃ . Plastic instability was expected in the regime of
temperatures lower than 1000 ℃ and strain rate lower than 0.3 s-1. Steel
with lower Cr and Ti contents showed high efficiency of power
dissipation at higher strain rate and lower temperature conditions.
E- Campus as an Environmental and Pedagogical Tool for Online Support
The Internet and the ever growing applications enable
communities to share and collaborate through common platforms.
However, this growing pattern is not witnessed yet even for elearning.
This paper is based on a doctoral research which aimed at
researching the ways students interact in an online campus and the
supports that they look for and require. Content analysis, based on the
Panchoo/Jaillet methodology, was done on four synchronous
meetings between a tutor and his ten students. The UNIV-Rct ecampus,
analogical to a physical campus, was found to be user
friendly and the students enrolled in a master-s course faced no
difficulties in using it. In addition to the environmental aspects, the
pedagogical implementation of the course has driven the students to
interact and collaborate significantly and this has contributed to
overcome the problems faced by the distance learners. This
completely online model was found to be fruitful in helping distant
learners fight their loneliness and brave their difficulties in a socioconstructivism
Characterization of Solutions of Nonsmooth Variational Problems and Duality
In this paper, we introduce a new class of nonsmooth pseudo-invex and nonsmooth quasi-invex functions to non-smooth variational problems. By using these concepts, numbers of necessary and sufficient conditions are established for a nonsmooth variational problem wherein Clarke’s generalized gradient is used. Also, weak, strong and converse duality are established.
Design of Cooperative Processes of Innovation
This paper invites to dialogue and reflections on
innovation and entrepreneurship by presenting concepts of innovation
leading to the introduction of a complex theoretical framework;
Cooperative Innovation (CO-IN). CO-IN is a didactic model
enhancing and scaffolding processes of cooperation creating
innovation drawing on a Scandinavian tradition.
CO-IN is based on a cross-sectorial and multidisciplinary
approach. We introduce the concept of complementarity to help
capture the validity of diversity and we suggest the concept of “the
space in between" to understand the creation of identity as a
collective mind. We see dialogue and the use of multi modal
techniques as essential tools for conceptualizations giving possibility
for clarification of the complexity and diversity leading to decision
making based on knowledge as commons.
We introduce the didactic design and present our empirical
findings from an innovation workshop in Argentina. In a final
paragraph we reflect on the design as a support of the development of
common ground, collective mind and collective action and the
creation of knowledge as commons to facilitate innovation and
Optimization of a Hybrid Wind-Pv-Diesel Standalone System: Case Chlef, Algeria
In this work, an attempt is made to design an optimal
wind/pv/diesel hybrid power system for a village of Ain Merane,
Chlef, Algeria, where the wind speed and solar radiation
measurements were made. The aim of this paper is the optimization
of a hybrid wind/solar/diesel system applied in term of technical and
economic feasibility by simulation using HOMER. A comparison
was made between the performance of wind/pv/diesel system and the
classic connecting system.
Characterizations of Star-Shaped, L-Convex, and Convex Polygons
A chord of a simple polygon P is a line segment [xy]
that intersects the boundary of P only at both endpoints x and y. A
chord of P is called an interior chord provided the interior of [xy] lies
in the interior of P. P is weakly visible from [xy] if for every point v
in P there exists a point w in [xy] such that [vw] lies in P. In this
paper star-shaped, L-convex, and convex polygons are characterized
in terms of weak visibility properties from internal chords and starshaped
subsets of P. A new Krasnoselskii-type characterization of
isothetic star-shaped polygons is also presented.
Bifurcations for a FitzHugh-Nagumo Model with Time Delays
In this paper, a FitzHugh-Nagumo model with time delays is investigated. The linear stability of the equilibrium and the existence of Hopf bifurcation with delay τ is investigated. By applying Nyquist criterion, the length of delay is estimated for which stability continues to hold. Numerical simulations for justifying the theoretical results are illustrated. Finally, main conclusions are given.
Comparison of Three Versions of Conjugate Gradient Method in Predicting an Unknown Irregular Boundary Profile
An inverse geometry problem is solved to predict an
unknown irregular boundary profile. The aim is to minimize the
objective function, which is the difference between real and
computed temperatures, using three different versions of Conjugate
Gradient Method. The gradient of the objective function, considered
necessary in this method, obtained as a result of solving the adjoint
equation. The abilities of three versions of Conjugate Gradient
Method in predicting the boundary profile are compared using a
numerical algorithm based on the method. The predicted shapes show
that due to its convergence rate and accuracy of predicted values, the
Powell-Beale version of the method is more effective than the
Fletcher-Reeves and Polak –Ribiere versions.
Periodic Orbits in a Delayed Nicholson's Blowflies Model
In this paper, a delayed Nicholson,s blowflies model with a linear harvesting term is investigated. Regarding the delay as a bifurcation parameter, we show that Hopf bifurcation will occur when the delay crosses a critical value. Numerical simulations supporting the theoretical findings are carried out.
Secondary Effects on Water Vapor Transport Properties Measured by Cup Method
The cup method is applied for the measurement of water vapor transport properties of porous materials worldwide. However, in practical applications the experimental results are often used without taking into account some secondary effects which can play an important role under specific conditions. In this paper, the effect of temperature on water vapor transport properties of cellular concrete is studied, together with the influence of sample thickness. At first, the bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity and sorption and desorption isotherms are measured for material characterization purposes. Then, the steady state cup method is used for determination of water vapor transport properties, whereas the measurements are performed at several temperatures and for three different sample thicknesses.
Kinematic Gait Analysis of Upper and Lower Limbs Joints in Hemiplegic Children
Children with hemiplgic cerebral palsy often walk
with diminished reciprocal arm swing so the purpose of this study
was to describe kinematic characteristics in children with hemiplegic
cerebral palsy (CP) during the gait suphases, and find if there is a
correlation between upper(shoulder and elbow) and lower(hip, knee,
and ankle) limb joints either in involved or uninvolved.48 children
with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (18boys, 30girls) with an average age
of (5.1±0.87) years were selected randomly to evaluate joint angles
during gait by 3D motion analysis system with 6 pro reflex cameras
in a sagittal plane for both sides of the body. The results showed
increased shoulder and elbow flexion, increased hip angular
displacement, decreased knee and ankle arcs during gait cycle, also
there is correlation between shoulder and elbow to hip, knee, and
ankle joints during various subphases of gait.
Optimized Multiplier Based upon 6-Input Luts and Vedic Mathematics
A new approach has been used for optimized design of multipliers based upon the concepts of Vedic mathematics. The design has been targeted to state-of-the art field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The multiplier generates partial products using Vedic mathematics method by employing basic 4x4 multipliers designed by exploiting 6-input LUTs and multiplexers in the same slices resulting in drastic reduction in area. The multiplier is realized on Xilinx FPGAs using devices Virtex-5 and Virtex-6.Carry Chain Adder was employed to obtain final products. The performance of the proposed multiplier was examined and compared to well-known multipliers such as Booth, Carry Save, Carry ripple, and array multipliers. It is demonstrated that the proposed multiplier is superior in terms of speed as well as power consumption.
Effect of Oral Administration of “Gadagi“ Tea on Liver Function in Rats
Effect of oral administration of “Gadagi" tea on liver
function was assessed on 50 healthy male albino rats which were
grouped and administered with different doses(mg/kg) i.e low dose
(380mg/kg, 415mg/kg, 365mg/kg, 315mg/kg for “sak", “sada" and
“magani" respectively), standard dose ( 760mg/kg, 830mg/kg,
730mg/kg for “sak-, “sada" and “magani" respectively) and high dose
(1500mg/kg, 1700mg/kg and 1460mg/kg for “sak--,"sada" and
“magani" groups respectively) for a period of four weeks. Animals
that were not administered with the tea constituted the control group.
At the end of fourth week, the animals were sacrificed and their
serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase
(AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin
(ALB), and globulins (GLO) were determined. Mean serum ALT and
ALP activities were significantly higher (P
The Efficacy of Neurological Impress Method and Repeated Reading on Reading Fluency of Children with Learning Disabilities in Oyo State, Nigeria
The purpose of this study was to find out the
effectiveness of neurological impress method and repeated reading
technique on reading fluency of children with learning disabilities.
Thirty primary four pupils in three public primary schools
participated in the study. There were two experimental groups and a
control. This research employed a 3 by 2 factorial matrix and the
participants were taught for one session. Two hypotheses were
formulated to guide the research. T-test was used to analyse the data
gathered, and data analysis revealed that pupils exposed to the two
treatment strategies had improvement in their reading fluency. It was
recommended that the two strategies used in the study can be used to
intervene in reading fluency problems in children with learning
An Experimental Study and Influence of BHF and Die Radius in Deep Drawing Process on the Springback
A lot of research made during these last 15 years
showed that the quantification of the springback has a significant role
in the industry of sheet metal forming. These studies were made with
the objective of finding techniques and methods to minimize or
completely avoid this permanent physical variation. Moreover, the
use of steel and aluminum alloys in the car industry and aviation
poses every day the problem of the springback. The determination in
advance of the quantity of the springback allows consequently the
design and manufacture of the tool. The aim of this paper is to study
experimentally the influence of the blank holder force BHF and the
radius of curvature of the die on the springback and their influence on
the strain in various zone of specimen.
The original of our purpose consist on tests which are ensured by
adapting a U-type stretching-bending device on a tensile testing
machine, where we studied and quantified the variation of the
springback according to displacement.
CEO Duality and Firm Performance: An Integration of Institutional Perceptive with Agency Theory
The recommendation of the committee on corporate
governance for public companies in Nigeria, that the position of the
CEO be separated from board chair has generated serious debate
among scholars and practitioners. They have questioned the
appropriateness of implementing corporate governance model that is
based on Anglo-Saxon agency problem characterized by dispersed
ownership structure; where markets for corporate control, legal
regulation, and contractual incentives are the key governance
mechanisms. This paper strives to resolve the argument by adopting
an institutional perspective in testing the agency theory on board
duality. The study developed a theoretical and empirical model to
better understand how ownership structure influences agency conflict
and how such affects firm performance. Hence, the study examines
the relationship between CEO duality and firm performance using
two institutional ownership structures – dispersed ownership and
concentrated ownership structures. The empirical results show that
CEO duality is negatively correlated with firm performance in
Nigeria irrespective of the firm-s ownership structure. The findings
give credence to the recommendation of the Peterside Commission
on the need to separate the position of CEO from board chair.
An Analytical Method to Analysis of Foam Drainage Problem
In this study, a new reliable technique use to handle the foam drainage equation. This new method is resulted from VIM by a simple modification that is Reconstruction of Variational Iteration Method (RVIM). The drainage of liquid foams involves the interplay of gravity, surface tension, and viscous forces. Foaming occurs in many distillation and absorption processes. Results are compared with those of Adomian’s decomposition method (ADM).The comparisons show that the Reconstruction of Variational Iteration Method is very effective and overcome the difficulty of traditional methods and quite accurate to systems of non-linear partial differential equations.
Prevalence of Psychological Resistance to Voluntary Counselling and Testing of HIV/AIDS among Students of Tertiary Institutions in Kano State, Nigeria
The incessant discomfort for Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) exhibited by students in some tertiary institutions in Kano State, Nigeria is capable of causing Psychological Resistance as well as jeopardizing the purpose of HIV intervention. This study investigated the Prevalence of Psychological Resistance to VCT of HIV/AIDS among students of tertiary institutions in the state. Two null hypotheses were postulated and tested. Cross- Sectional Survey Design was employed in which 1512 sample was selected from a student population of 104,841 following Stratified Random Sampling technique. A self-developed 20-item scale whose reliability coefficient is 0.83 was used for data collection. Data analyzed via Chi-square and t-test reveals a prevalence of 38% with males (Mean=0.34; SD=0.475) constituting 60% and females (Mean=0.45; SD=0.498) 40%. Also, the calculated chi-square and ttest were not significant at 0.05 as such the null hypotheses were upheld. Recommendation offered suggests the use of reinforcement and social support for students who patronize HIV/AIDS counselling.
2 – Block 3 - Point Modified Numerov Block Methods for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations
In this paper, linear multistep technique using power
series as the basis function is used to develop the block methods
which are suitable for generating direct solution of the special second
order ordinary differential equations of the form y′′ = f(x,y), a < = x < = b with associated initial or boundary conditions. The continuaous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some
grids and off – grid points to obtain two different three discrete
schemes, each of order (4,4,4)T, which were used in block form for
parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. The computational
burden and computer time wastage involved in the usual reduction of
second order problem into system of first order equations are avoided
by this approach. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of
the block method are tested on linear and non-linear ordinary
differential equations whose solutions are oscillatory or nearly
periodic in nature, and the results obtained compared favourably with
the exact solution.
Vickers Indentation Simulation of Buffer Layer Thickness Effect for DLC Coated Materials
Vickers indentation is used to measure the hardness
of materials. In this study, numerical simulation of Vickers
indentation experiment was performed for Diamond like Carbon
(DLC) coated materials. DLC coatings were deposited on stainless
steel 304 substrates with Chromium buffer layer using RF Magnetron
and T-shape Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Dual system The
objective of this research is to understand the elastic plastic
properties, stress strain distribution, ring and lateral crack growth and
propagation, penetration depth of indenter and delamination of
coating from substrate with effect of buffer layer thickness. The
effect of Poisson-s ratio of DLC coating was also analyzed. Indenter
penetration is more in coated materials with thin buffer layer as
compared to thicker one, under same conditions. Similarly, the
specimens with thinner buffer layer failed quickly due to high
residual stress as compared to the coated materials with reasonable
thickness of 200nm buffer layer. The simulation results suggested the
optimized thickness of 200 nm among the prepared specimens for
durable and long service.
Numerical Analysis and Experimental Validation of a Downhole Stress/Strain Measurement Tool
Real-time measurement of applied forces, like tension, compression, torsion, and bending moment, identifies the transferred energies being applied to the bottomhole assembly (BHA). These forces are highly detrimental to measurement/logging-while-drilling tools and downhole equipment. Real-time measurement of the dynamic downhole behavior, including weight, torque, bending on bit, and vibration, establishes a real-time feedback loop between the downhole drilling system and drilling team at the surface. This paper describes the numerical analysis of the strain data acquired by the measurement tool at different locations on the strain pockets. The strain values obtained by FEA for various loading conditions (tension, compression, torque, and bending moment) are compared against experimental results obtained from an identical experimental setup. Numerical analyses results agree with experimental data within 8% and, therefore, substantiate and validate the FEA model. This FEA model can be used to analyze the combined loading conditions that reflect the actual drilling environment.
A Simplified Solid Mechanical and Acoustic Model for Human Middle Ear
Human middle-ear is the key component of the
auditory system. Its function is to transfer the sound waves through
the ear canal to provide sufficient stimulus to the fluids of the inner
ear. Degradation of the ossicles that transmit these sound waves from
the eardrum to the inner ear leads to hearing loss. This problem can
be overcome by replacing one or more of these ossicles by middleear
prosthesis. Designing such prosthesis requires a comprehensive
knowledge of the biomechanics of the middle-ear. There are many
finite element modeling approaches developed to understand the
biomechanics of the middle ear. The available models in the
literature, involve high computation time. In this paper, we propose a
simplified model which provides a reasonably accurate result with
much less computational time. Simulation results indicate a
maximum sound pressure gain of 10 dB at 5500 Hz.
Pharmacology Applied Learning Program in Preclinical Years – Student Perspectives
Pharmacology curriculum plays an integral role in
medical education. Learning pharmacology to choose and prescribe
drugs is a major challenge encountered by students. We developed
pharmacology applied learning activities for first year medical
students that included realistic clinical situations with escalating
complications which required the students to analyze the situation
and think critically to choose a safe drug. Tutor feedback was
provided at the end of session. Evaluation was done to assess the
students- level of interest and usefulness of the sessions in rational
selection of drugs. Majority (98 %) of the students agreed that the
session was an extremely useful learning exercise and agreed that
similar sessions would help in rational selection of drugs. Applied
learning sessions in the early years of medical program may promote
deep learning and bridge the gap between pharmacology theory and
clinical practice. Besides, it may also enhance safe prescribing skills.
Use of a Learner's Log for Effective Self-Directed Learning in PBL
While the problem based learning (PBL) approach promotes unsupervised self-directed learning (SDL), many students experience difficulty juggling the role of being an information recipient and information seeker. Logbooks have been used to assess trainee doctors but not in other areas. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of logbook for assessing SDL during PBL sessions in first year medical students. The log book included a learning checklist and knowledge and skills components. Comparisons with the baseline assessment of student performance in PBL and that at semester end after logbook intervention showed significant improvements in student performance (31.5 ± 8 vs. 17.7 ± 4.4; p<0.001) with a large effect size of 3.93. The learner-s log for PBL has played an important role in enhancing SDL in first year medical students. Learner-s log could be a good self-assessment tool for the undergraduate medical students.
Designing of the Heating Process for Fiber- Reinforced Thermoplastics with Middle-Wave Infrared Radiators
Manufacturing components of fiber-reinforced
thermoplastics requires three steps: heating the matrix, forming and
consolidation of the composite and terminal cooling the matrix. For
the heating process a pre-determined temperature distribution through
the layers and the thickness of the pre-consolidated sheets is
recommended to enable forming mechanism. Thus, a design for the
heating process for forming composites with thermoplastic matrices
is necessary. To obtain a constant temperature through thickness and
width of the sheet, the heating process was analyzed by the help of
the finite element method. The simulation models were validated by
experiments with resistance thermometers as well as with an infrared
camera. Based on the finite element simulation, heating methods for
infrared radiators have been developed. Using the numeric
simulation many iteration loops are required to determine the process
parameters. Hence, the initiation of a model for calculating relevant
process parameters started applying regression functions.
Comparative Analysis of Farm Enterprises Performance in Two Agro-Ecological Feuding Zone of Nigeria
The two agro-ecological zones became the focus of
the study because of violent nature of the incessant conflict in the
zones. The available register of farmers association was the sampling
frame work where ten percent (61) farmers per state were randomly
sampled. Data were collected and analysed using z-test. The research
findings revealed tree crops and grains production enterprises ranked
higher in Osun (rain fed zones) and Taraba states (savannah zones)
respectively. Osun state entrepreneur felt the effect of the conflict on
their enterprises more than Tarba state. The reasons adduced for
severity of the conflict on enterprises are majority (77.0%) migrated
and (75.5%) of them were not allowed to enter their farms during and
when conflict deescalated unlike situation in Taraba state. The
different in enterprises production level between the two agroecological
zone was statistically significant at p
Investigating Transformations in the Cartesian Plane Using Spreadsheets
The link between coordinate transformations in the plane and their effects on the graph of a function can be difficult for students studying college level mathematics to comprehend. To solidify this conceptual link in the mind of a student Microsoft Excel can serve as a convenient graphing tool and pedagogical aid. The authors of this paper describe how various transformations and their related functional symmetry properties can be graphically displayed with an Excel spreadsheet.
Dynamic Analysis of Nonlinear Models with Infinite Extension by Boundary Elements
The Time-Domain Boundary Element Method (TDBEM)
is a well known numerical technique that handles quite
properly dynamic analyses considering infinite dimension media.
However, when these analyses are also related to nonlinear behavior,
very complex numerical procedures arise considering the TD-BEM,
which may turn its application prohibitive. In order to avoid this
drawback and model nonlinear infinite media, the present work
couples two BEM formulations, aiming to achieve the best of two
worlds. In this context, the regions expected to behave nonlinearly
are discretized by the Domain Boundary Element Method (D-BEM),
which has a simpler mathematical formulation but is unable to deal
with infinite domain analyses; the TD-BEM is employed as in the
sense of an effective non-reflexive boundary. An iterative procedure
is considered for the coupling of the TD-BEM and D-BEM, which is
based on a relaxed renew of the variables at the common interfaces.
Elastoplastic models are focused and different time-steps are allowed
to be considered by each BEM formulation in the coupled analysis.
Kinetics of Palm Oil Cracking in Batch Reactor
The kinetics of palm oil catalytic cracking over
aluminum containing mesoporous silica Al-MCM-41 (5% Al) was
investigated in a batch autoclave reactor at the temperatures range of
573 – 673 K. The catalyst was prepared by using sol-gel technique
and has been characterized by nitrogen adsorption and x-ray
diffraction methods. Surface area of 1276 m2/g with average pore
diameter of 2.54 nm and pore volume of 0.811 cm3/g was obtained.
The experimental catalytic cracking runs were conducted using 50 g
of oil and 1 g of catalyst. The reaction pressure was recorded at
different time intervals and the data were analyzed using Levenberg-
Marquardt (LM) algorithm using polymath software. The results
show that the reaction order was found to be -1.5 and activation
energy of 3200 J/gmol.
A Strategy for a Robust Design of Cracked Stiffened Panels
This work is focused on the numerical prediction of the fracture resistance of a flat stiffened panel made of the aluminium alloy 2024 T3 under a monotonic traction condition. The performed numerical simulations have been based on the micromechanical Gurson-Tvergaard (GT) model for ductile damage. The applicability of the GT model to this kind of structural problems has been studied and assessed by comparing numerical results, obtained by using the WARP 3D finite element code, with experimental data available in literature. In the sequel a home-made procedure is presented, which aims to increase the residual strength of a cracked stiffened aluminum panel and which is based on the stochastic design improvement (SDI) technique; a whole application example is then given to illustrate the said technique.
Novel Inhibitor of E. coli DNA Adenine Methyltransferase (Ecodam)
EcoDam is an adenine-N6 DNA methyltransferase
that methylates the GATC sites in the Escherichia coli genome.
DNA-adenine methylation is not present in higher eukaryotes
including humans. These observations raise the possibility that dam
inhibitors may be used as anti-microbial agents. Polyphosphate
(Poly(P)) is an important metabolite and signaling molecule in
prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, by using gel retardation
experiments to investigate the competition of DNA binding by
EcoDam in the presence of polyphosphate, we found that Poly (P)
strongly interferes with DNA binding by EcoDam, while same
concentration of monophosphate does not. In addition, we
demonstrated that Poly (P) binding inhibits the activity of EcoDam
and our results suggest that Poly (P) led to strong inhibition of the
EcoDam catalytic activity, while monophosphate had only moderate
Image Clustering Framework for BAVM Segmentation in 3DRA Images: Performance Analysis
Brain ArterioVenous Malformation (BAVM) is an abnormal tangle of brain blood vessels where arteries shunt directly into veins with no intervening capillary bed which causes high pressure and hemorrhage risk. The success of treatment by embolization in interventional neuroradiology is highly dependent on the accuracy of the vessels visualization. In this paper the performance of clustering techniques on vessel segmentation from 3- D rotational angiography (3DRA) images is investigated and a new technique of segmentation is proposed. This method consists in: preprocessing step of image enhancement, then K-Means (KM), Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) and Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering are used to separate vessel pixels from background and artery pixels from vein pixels when possible. A post processing step of removing false-alarm components is applied before constructing a three-dimensional volume of the vessels. The proposed method was tested on six datasets along with a medical assessment of an expert. Obtained results showed encouraging segmentations.
Re-Thinking Knowledge-Based Management
This paper challenges the relevance of knowledgebased
management research by arguing that the majority of the
literature emphasizes information and knowledge provision instead of
their business usage. For this reason the related processes are
considered valuable and eligible as such, which has led to
overlapping nature of knowledge-based management disciplines. As
a solution, this paper turns the focus on the information usage. Value
of knowledge and respective management tasks are then defined by
the business need and the knowledge-user becomes the main actor.
The paper analyses the prevailing literature streams and recognizes
the need for a more focused and robust understanding of knowledgebased
value creation. The paper contributes by synthetizing the
existing literature and pinpointing the essence of knowledge-based
Review of a Real-Time Infectious Waste Management System Using QR Code
In the management of industrial waste, conversion from the use of paper invoices to electronic forms is currently under way in developed countries. Difficulties in such computerization include the lack of synchronization between the actual goods and the corresponding data managed by the server. Consequently, a system which utilizes the incorporation of a QR code in connection with the waste material has been developed. The code is read at each stage, from discharge until disposal, and progress at each stage can be easily reported. This system can be linked with Japanese public digital authentication service of waste, taking advantage of its good points, and can be used to submit reports to the regulatory authorities. Its usefulness was confirmed by a verification test, and put into actual practice.
A Hybrid Scheme for on-Line Diagnostic Decision Making Using Optimal Data Representation and Filtering Technique
The early diagnostic decision making in industrial processes is absolutely necessary to produce high quality final products. It helps to provide early warning for a special event in a process, and finding its assignable cause can be obtained. This work presents a hybrid diagnostic schmes for batch processes. Nonlinear representation of raw process data is combined with classification tree techniques. The nonlinear kernel-based dimension reduction is executed for nonlinear classification decision boundaries for fault classes. In order to enhance diagnosis performance for batch processes, filtering of the data is performed to get rid of the irrelevant information of the process data. For the diagnosis performance of several representation, filtering, and future observation estimation methods, four diagnostic schemes are evaluated. In this work, the performance of the presented diagnosis schemes is demonstrated using batch process data.
Flame Stability and Structure of Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fired Inverse Diffusion Flame with Hydrogen Enrichment
The present project was conducted with the
circumferential-fuel-jets inverse diffusion flame (CIDF) burner
burning liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) enriched with 50% of
hydrogen fuel (H2). The range of stable operation of the CIDF burner
in terms of Reynolds number (from laminar to turbulent flow regions),
equivalence ratio and fuel jet velocity of LPG of the 50% H2-LPG
mixed fuel was identified. Experiments were also carried out to
investigate the flame structures of the LPG flame and LPG enriched H2
flame. Experimental results obtained from these two flames were
compared to fully explore the influence of hydrogen addition on flame
stability. Flame heights obtained by burning these two kinds of fuels at
various equivalence ratios were compared and correlated with the
Global Momentum Ratio (GMR).
Exploring More Productive Ways of Working
New ways of working- refers to non-traditional work practices, settings and locations with information and communication technologies (ICT) to supplement or replace traditional ways of working. It questions the contemporary work practices and settings still very much used in knowledge-intensive organizations today. In this study new ways of working is seen to consist of two elements: work environment (incl. physical, virtual and social) and work practices. This study aims to gather the scattered information together and deepen the understanding on new ways of working. Moreover, the objective is to provide some evidence of the unclear productivity impacts of new ways of working using case study approach.
Concept for a Multidisciplinary Design Process–An Application on High Lift Systems
Presents a concept for a multidisciplinary process
supporting effective task transitions between different technical
domains during the architectural design stage.
A system configuration challenge is the multifunctional driven
increased solution space. As a consequence, more iteration is needed
to find a global optimum, i.e. a compromise between involved
disciplines without negative impact on development time. Since state
of the art standards like ISO 15288 and VDI 2206 do not provide a
detailed methodology on multidisciplinary design process, higher
uncertainties regarding final specifications arise. This leads to the
need of more detailed and standardized concepts or processes which
could mitigate risks.
The performed work is based on analysis of multidisciplinary
interaction, of modeling and simulation techniques. To demonstrate
and prove the applicability of the presented concept, it is applied to
the design of aircraft high lift systems, in the context of the
engineering disciplines kinematics, actuation, monitoring, installation
and structure design.
Food Safety and Perceived Risk: A Case Study of Khao San Road, Bangkok, Thailand
Food safety is an important concern for holiday
makers in foreign and unfamiliar tourist destinations. In fact, risk
from food in these tourist destinations has an influence on tourist
perception. This risk can potentially affect physical health and lead to
an inability to pursue planned activities. The objective of this paper
was to compare foreign tourists- demographics including gender, age
and education level, with the level of perceived risk towards food
safety. A total of 222 foreign tourists during their stay at Khao San
Road in Bangkok were used as the sample. Independent- samples ttest,
analysis of variance, and Least Significant Difference or LSD
post hoc test were utilized. The findings revealed that there were few
demographic differences in level of perceived risk among the foreign
tourists. The post hoc test indicated a significant difference among
the old and the young tourists, and between the higher and lower
level of education. Ranks of tourists- perceived risk towards food
safety unveiled some interesting results. Tourists- perceived risk of
food safety in established restaurants can be ranked as i) cleanliness
of dining utensils, ii) sanitation of food preparation area, and iii)
cleanliness of food seasoning and ingredients. Whereas, the tourists-
perceived risk of food safety in street food and drink can be ranked
as i) cleanliness of stalls and pushcarts, ii) cleanliness of food sold,
and iii) personal hygiene of street food hawkers or vendors.
Evolutionary Distance in the Yeast Genome
Whole genome duplication (WGD) increased the
number of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes from 8 to
16. In spite of retention the number of chromosomes in the genome
of this organism after WGD to date, chromosomal rearrangement
events have caused an evolutionary distance between current genome
and its ancestor. Studies under evolutionary-based approaches on
eukaryotic genomes have shown that the rearrangement distance is an
approximable problem. In the case of S. cerevisiae, we describe that
rearrangement distance is accessible by using dedoubled adjacency
graph drawn for 55 large paired chromosomal regions originated
from WGD. Then, we provide a program extracted from a C program
database to draw a dedoubled genome adjacency graph for S.
cerevisiae. From a bioinformatical perspective, using the duplicated
blocks of current genome in S. cerevisiae, we infer that genomic
organization of eukaryotes has the potential to provide valuable
detailed information about their ancestrygenome.
Simulating and Forecasting Qualitative Marcoeconomic Models Using Rule-Based Fuzzy Cognitive Maps
Economic models are complex dynamic systems with a lot of uncertainties and fuzzy data. Conventional modeling approaches using well known methods and techniques cannot provide realistic and satisfactory answers to today-s challenging economic problems. Qualitative modeling using fuzzy logic and intelligent system theories can be used to model macroeconomic models. Fuzzy Cognitive maps (FCM) is a new method been used to model the dynamic behavior of complex systems. For the first time FCMs and the Mamdani Model of Intelligent control is used to model macroeconomic models. This new model is referred as the Mamdani Rule-Based Fuzzy Cognitive Map (MBFCM) and provides the academic and research community with a new promising integrated advanced computational model. A new economic model is developed for a qualitative approach to Macroeconomic modeling. Fuzzy Controllers for such models are designed. Simulation results for an economic scenario are provided and extensively discussed
A Proposed Technique for Software Development Risks Identification by using FTA Model
Software Development Risks Identification (SDRI),
using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), is a proposed technique to identify
not only the risk factors but also the causes of the appearance of the
risk factors in software development life cycle. The method is based
on analyzing the probable causes of software development failures
before they become problems and adversely affect a project. It uses
Fault tree analysis (FTA) to determine the probability of a particular
system level failures that are defined by A Taxonomy for Sources of
Software Development Risk to deduce failure analysis in which an
undesired state of a system by using Boolean logic to combine a
series of lower-level events. The major purpose of this paper is to use
the probabilistic calculations of Fault Tree Analysis approach to
determine all possible causes that lead to software development risk
The Haar Wavelet Transform of the DNA Signal Representation
The Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) which is a doublestranded helix of nucleotides consists of: Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G) and Thymine (T). In this work, we convert this genetic code into an equivalent digital signal representation. Applying a wavelet transform, such as Haar wavelet, we will be able to extract details that are not so clear in the original genetic code. We compare between different organisms using the results of the Haar wavelet Transform. This is achieved by using the trend part of the signal since the trend part bears the most energy of the digital signal representation. Consequently, we will be able to quantitatively reconstruct different biological families.
Gravitino Dark Matter in (nearly) SLagy D3/D7 m-Split SUSY
In the context of large volume Big Divisor (nearly)
SLagy D3/D7 μ-Split SUSY , after an explicit identification
of first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic superpartners
of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of
gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate by explicitly calculating
the decay life times of gravitino (LSP) to be greater than age of
universe and lifetimes of decays of the co-NLSPs (the first generation
squark/slepton and a neutralino) to the LSP (the gravitino) to be
very small to respect BBN constraints. Interested in non-thermal
production mechanism of gravitino, we evaluate the relic abundance
of gravitino LSP in terms of that of the co-NLSP-s by evaluating
their (co-)annihilation cross sections and hence show that the former
satisfies the requirement for a potential Dark Matter candidate. We
also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our
The Design and Development of Driving Game as an Evaluation Instrument for Driving License Test
The focus of this paper is to highlight the design and
development of an educational game prototype as an evaluation
instrument for the Malaysia driving license static test. This
educational game brings gaming technology into the conventional
objective static test to make it more effective, real and interesting.
From the feeling of realistic, the future driver can learn something,
memorized and use it in the real life. The current online objective
static test only make the user memorized the answer without knowing
and understand the true purpose of the question. Therefore, in real
life, they will not behave as expected due to behavior and moral
lacking. This prototype has been developed inform of multiple-choice
questions integrated with 3D gaming environment to make it simulate
the real environment and scenarios. Based on the testing conducted,
the respondent agrees with the use of this game prototype it can
increase understanding and promote obligation towards traffic rules.
Structural and Optical Characterizations of CIGST Solar Cell Materials
Structural and UV/Visible optical properties can be
useful to describe a material for the CIGS solar cell active layer,
therefore, this work demonstrates the properties like surface
morphology, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) bonding
energy (EB) core level spectra, UV/Visible absorption spectra,
refractive index (n), optical energy band (Eg), reflection spectra for
the Cu25 (In16Ga9) Se40Te10 (CIGST-1) and Cu20 (In14Ga9) Se45Te12
(CIGST-2) chalcogenide compositions. Materials have been
exhibited homogenous surface morphologies, broading /-or diffusion
of bonding energy peaks relative elemental values and a high
UV/Visible absorption tendency in the wave length range 400 nm-
850 nm range with the optical energy band gaps 1.37 and 1.42
respectively. Subsequently, UV/Visible reflectivity property in the
wave length range 250 nm to 320 nm for these materials has also
Computational Initial Value Method for Vibration Analysis of Symmetrically Laminated Composite Plate
In the present paper, an improved initial value
numerical technique is presented to analyze the free vibration of
symmetrically laminated rectangular plate. A combination of the
initial value method (IV) and the finite differences (FD) devices is
utilized to develop the present (IVFD) technique. The achieved
technique is applied to the equation of motion of vibrating laminated
rectangular plate under various types of boundary conditions. Three
common types of laminated symmetrically cross-ply, orthotropic and
isotropic plates are analyzed here. The convergence and accuracy of
the presented Initial Value-Finite Differences (IVFD) technique have
been examined. Also, the merits and validity of improved technique
are satisfied via comparing the obtained results with those available
in literature indicating good agreements.
A Comparative Study on Different Approaches to Evaluate Ship Equilibrium Point
The aim of this paper is to present a comparative
study on two different methods for the evaluation of the equilibrium
point of a ship, core issue for designing an On Board Stability System
(OBSS) module that, starting from geometry information of a ship
hull, described by a discrete model in a standard format, and the
distribution of all weights onboard calculates the ship floating
conditions (in draught, heel and trim).
Investigation of Pre-Treatment Parameters of Rye and Triticale for Bioethanol Production
This paper presents the new results of energy plant –
rye and triticale at yellow ripeness and ripe, pre-treatment in high
pressure steam reactor and monosaccharide extraction. There were
investigated the influence of steam pressure (20 to 22 bar), retention
duration (180 to 240 s) and catalytic sulphuric acid concentration
strength (0 to 0.5 %) on the pre-treatment process, contents of
monosaccharides (glucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose) and
undesirable by-compounds (furfural and HMF) in the reactor. The
study has determined that the largest amount of monosaccharides
(37.2 % of glucose, 2.7 % of arabinose, 8.4 % of xylose, and 1.3 %
of mannose) was received in the rye at ripe, the samples of which
were mixed with 0.5 % concentration of catalytic sulphuric acid, and
hydrolysed in the reactor, where the pressure was 20 bar, whereas the
reaction time – 240 s.
Recycling Organic Waste in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University as Compost
This research aimed to study on the potential of
recycling organic waste in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University as
compost. In doing so, the composition of solid waste generated in the
campus was investigated while physical and chemical properties of
organic waste were analyzed in order to evaluate the portion of waste
suitable for recycling as compost. As a result of the study, it was
found that (1) the amount of organic waste was averaged at 299.8
kg/day in which mixed food wastes had the highest amount of 191.9
kg/day followed by mixed leave & yard wastes and mixed fruit &
vegetable wastes at the amount of 66.3 and 41.6 kg/day respectively;
(2) physical and chemical properties of organic waste in terms of
moisture content was between 69.54 to 78.15%, major elements for
plant as N, P and K were 0.14 to 0.17%, 0.46 to 0.52% and 0.16 to
0.18% respectively, and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) was about 15:1
to 17.5:1; (3) recycling organic waste as compost was designed by
aerobic decomposition using mixed food wastes : mixed leave & yard
wastes : mixed fruit & vegetable wastes at the portion of 3:2:1 by
weight in accordance with the potential of their amounts and their
physical and chemical properties.
Utilization of Demolished Concrete Waste for New Construction
In recent years demolished concrete waste handling and management is the new primary challenging issue faced by the countries all over the world. It is very challenging and hectic problem that has to be tackled in an indigenous manner, it is desirable to completely recycle demolished concrete waste in order to protect natural resources and reduce environmental pollution. In this research paper an experimental study is carried out to investigate the feasibility and recycling of demolished waste concrete for new construction. The present investigation to be focused on recycling demolished waste materials in order to reduce construction cost and resolving housing problems faced by the low income communities of the world. The crushed demolished concrete wastes is segregated by sieving to obtain required sizes of aggregate, several tests were conducted to determine the aggregate properties before recycling it into new concrete. This research shows that the recycled aggregate that are obtained from site make good quality concrete. The compressive strength test results of partial replacement and full recycled aggregate concrete and are found to be higher than the compressive strength of normal concrete with new aggregate.
A Visual Educational Modeling Language to Help Teachers in Learning Scenario Design
The success of an e-learning system is highly
dependent on the quality of its educational content and how effective,
complete, and simple the design tool can be for teachers. Educational
modeling languages (EMLs) are proposed as design languages
intended to teachers for modeling diverse teaching-learning
experiences, independently of the pedagogical approach and in
different contexts. However, most existing EMLs are criticized for
being too abstract and too complex to be understood and manipulated
by teachers. In this paper, we present a visual EML that simplifies the
process of designing learning scenarios for teachers with no
programming background. Based on the conceptual framework of the
activity theory, our resulting visual EML focuses on using Domainspecific
modeling techniques to provide a pedagogical level of
abstraction in the design process.
Power Electronic Solution for High Energetic Efficiency of a Thermo Plant
In this paper the authors propose a flexible electronic solution, to improve the energetic efficiency of a thermo plant. This is achieved by replacing the mechanical gear box, placed traditionally between a gas turbine and a synchronous generator; by a power electronic converter. After reminding problematic of gear boxes and interest of a proposed electronic solution in high power plants, the authors describe a new control strategy for an indirect frequency converter, which is characterized by its high efficiency due to the use of SWM: Square Wave Modulation. The main advantage of this mode is the quasi absence of switching losses. A control method is also proposed to resolve some problems incurred by using square wave modulation, in particular to reduce the harmonics distortion of the output inverter voltage and current. Simulation examples as well as experimental results are included.
Wave Vortex Parameters as an Indicator of Breaking Intensity
The study of the geometric shape of the plunging wave enclosed vortices as a possible indicator for the breaking intensity of ocean waves has been ongoing for almost 50 years with limited success. This paper investigates the validity of using the vortex ratio and vortex angle as methods of predicting breaking intensity. Previously published works on vortex parameters, based on regular wave flume results or solitary wave theory, present contradictory results and conclusions. Through the first complete analysis of field collected irregular wave breaking vortex parameters it is illustrated that the vortex ratio and vortex angle cannot be accurately predicted using standard breaking wave characteristics and hence are not suggested as a possible indicator for breaking intensity.
Parametric Modeling Approach for Call Holding Times for IP based Public Safety Networks via EM Algorithm
This paper presents parametric probability density
models for call holding times (CHTs) into emergency call center
based on the actual data collected for over a week in the public
Emergency Information Network (EIN) in Mongolia. When the set of
chosen candidates of Gamma distribution family is fitted to the call
holding time data, it is observed that the whole area in the CHT
empirical histogram is underestimated due to spikes of higher
probability and long tails of lower probability in the histogram.
Therefore, we provide the Gaussian parametric model of a mixture of
lognormal distributions with explicit analytical expressions for the
modeling of CHTs of PSNs. Finally, we show that the CHTs for
PSNs are fitted reasonably by a mixture of lognormal distributions
via the simulation of expectation maximization algorithm. This result
is significant as it expresses a useful mathematical tool in an explicit
manner of a mixture of lognormal distributions.
Peer Assessment in the Context of Project-Based Learning Online
The pedagogy project has been proven as an active
learning method, which is used to develop learner-s skills and
knowledge.The use of technology in the learning world, has filed
several gaps in the implementation of teaching methods, and online
evaluation of learners. However, the project methodology presents
challenges in the assessment of learners online.
Indeed, interoperability between E-learning platforms (LMS) is
one of the major challenges of project-based learning assessment.
Firstly, we have reviewed the characteristics of online assessment
in the context of project-based teaching. We addressed the
constraints encountered during the peer evaluation process.
Our approach is to propose a meta-model, which will describe a
language dedicated to the conception of peer assessment scenario in
project-based learning. Then we illustrate our proposal by an
instantiation of the meta-model through a business process in a
scenario of collaborative assessment on line.
MiRNAs as Regulators of Tumour Suppressor Expression
Tumour suppressors are key participants in the
prevention of cancer. Regulation of their expression through
miRNAs is important for comprehensive translation inhibition of
tumour suppressors and elucidation of carcinogenesis mechanisms.
We studies the possibility of 1521 miRNAs to bind with 873 mRNAs
of human tumour suppressors using RNAHybrid 2.1 and ERNAhybrid
programmes. Only 978 miRNAs were found to be
translational regulators of 812 mRNAs, and 61 mRNAs did not have
any miRNA binding sites. Additionally, 45.9% of all miRNA binding
sites were located in coding sequences (CDSs), 33.8% were located
in 3' untranslated region (UTR), and 20.3% were located in the
5'UTR. MiRNAs binding with more than 50 target mRNAs and
mRNAs binding with several miRNAs were selected. Hsa-miR-5096
had 15 perfectly complementary binding sites with mRNAs of 14
tumour suppressors. These newly indentified miRNA binding sites
can be used in the development of medicines (anti-sense therapies)
for cancer treatment.
Learning Styles of University Students in Bangkok: The Characteristics and the Relevant Instructional Context
The purposes of this study are 1) to identify
learning styles of university students in Bangkok, and 2) to study
the frequency of the relevant instructional context of the identified
learning styles. Learning Styles employed in this study are those of
Honey and Mumford, which include 1) Reflectors, 2) Theorists, 3)
Pragmatists, and 4) Activists. The population comprises 1383
students and 5 lecturers. Research tools are 2 questionnaires – one
used for identifying students- learning styles, and the other used for
identifying the frequency of the relevant instructional context of
the identified learning styles.
The research findings reveal that 32.30 percent - are Activists,
while 28.10 percent are Theorists, 20.10 are Reflectors, and 19.50
are Pragmatists. In terms of the relevant instructional context of the
identified 4 learning styles, it is found that the frequency level of
the instructional context is totally in high level. Moreover, 2 lists of
the context being conducted most frequently are 'Lead'in activity
to review background knowledge,- and 'Information retrieval
report.' And these two activities serve the learning styles of
theorists and activists. It is, therefore, suggested that more
instructional context supporting the activists, the majority of the
population, learning best by doing, as well as emotional learning
situation should be added.
Exploring Value of Time, Shopping Behavior and Shopping Motivation of International Tourists in the Chatuchak Weekend Market
The purpose of this study was to explore the
demographic differences of international tourists according to three
main factors, including the value of time, shopping behavior and
shopping motivation. The Chatuchak Weekend Market is known as
one of the biggest weekend markets in the world. Too little academic
studies had been conducted in this area of weekend market, despite its
growth and continuous development. In general, both domestic
visitors and international tourists are attracted to the perception of
cheap and bargaining prices the weekend market. However, systematic
research study can provide reliable understanding of the perception of
This study focused on the group of international tourists who visited
the market and aimed to provide better insights based on the
differences in their demographic factors. Findings indicated that
several differences in value of time, shopping behavior, and shopping
motivation were identified by gender, income and age. Research
implications and directions for further studies were discussed.
Higher-Dimensional Quantum Cryptography
We report on a high-speed quantum cryptography
system that utilizes simultaneous entanglement in polarization and in
“time-bins". With multiple degrees of freedom contributing to the
secret key, we can achieve over ten bits of random entropy per detected coincidence. In addition, we collect from multiple spots o
the downconversion cone to further amplify the data rate, allowing usto achieve over 10 Mbits of secure key per second.
Human Capital Development for ASEAN Community
The main purpose of this research paper was to study
the requirements for human capital development in order to be ready
for ASEAN Community. Thai education institutions are encountering
a challenging course of change to be effective members of ASEAN
Economic Community (AEC) in 2015. It was vital that everyone and
every organization participate in the process of becoming part of the
ASEAN community, a pluralistic society. Thai universities will be
required to partake in the human capital development in a variety of
fields. In order to assist the whole nation to enhance potential
development, there was a need to collaborate with other ASEAN
leading universities to do researches to ameliorate the qualifications
and capabilities of university management, administers, professors,
A Hybrid CamShift and l1-Minimization Video Tracking Algorithm
The Continuously Adaptive Mean-Shift (CamShift)
algorithm, incorporating scene depth information is combined with
the l1-minimization sparse representation based method to form a
hybrid kernel and state space-based tracking algorithm. We take
advantage of the increased efficiency of the former with the
robustness to occlusion property of the latter. A simple interchange
scheme transfers control between algorithms based upon drift and
occlusion likelihood. It is quantified by the projection of target
candidates onto a depth map of the 2D scene obtained with a low cost
stereo vision webcam. Results are improved tracking in terms of drift
over each algorithm individually, in a challenging practical outdoor
multiple occlusion test case.
Learners- Perceptions of Mobile Devices for Learning in Higher Education - Towards a Mobile Learning Pedagogical Framework
The dramatic effect of information technology on
society is undeniable. In education, it is evident in the use of terms
like active learning, blended learning, electronic learning and mobile
learning (ubiquitous learning). This study explores the perceptions of
54 learners in a higher education institution regarding the use of
mobile devices in a third year module. Using semi-structured
interviews, it was found that mobile devices had a positive impact on
learner motivation, engagement and enjoyment. It also improved the
consistency of learning material, and the convenience and flexibility
(anywhere, anytime) of learning. User-interfacelimitation, bandwidth
and cognitive overload, however, were of concern. The use of cloud
based resources like Youtube and Google Docs, through mobile
devices, positively influenced learner perceptions, making them
prosumers (both consumers and producers) of education content.
Tailoring the Sharpness of Tungsten Nanotips via Laser Irradiation Enhanced Etching in KOH
Controlled modification of appropriate sharpness for
nanotips is of paramount importance to develop novel materials and
functional devices at a nanometer resolution. Herein, we present a
reliable and unique strategy of laser irradiation enhanced
physicochemical etching to manufacture super sharp tungsten tips
with reproducible shape and dimension as well as high yields
(~80%). The corresponding morphology structure evolution of
tungsten tips and laser-tip interaction mechanisms were
systematically investigated and discussed using field emission
scanning electron microscope (SEM) and physical optics statistics
method with different fluences under 532 nm laser irradiation. This
work paves the way for exploring more accessible metallic tips
applications with tunable apex diameter and aspect ratio, and,
furthermore, facilitates the potential sharpening enhancement
technique for other materials used in a variety of nanoscale devices.
Terrain Evaluation Method for Hexapod Robot
In this paper a simple terrain evaluation method for
hexapod robot is introduced. This method is based on feet coordinate
evaluation when all are on the ground. Depending on the feet
coordinate differences the local terrain evaluation is possible. Terrain
evaluation is necessary for right gait selection and/or body position
correction. For terrain roughness evaluation three planes are plotted:
two of them as definition points use opposite feet coordinates, third
coincides with the robot body plane. The leaning angle of body plane
is evaluated measuring gravity force using three-axis accelerometer.
Terrain roughness evaluation method is based on angle estimation
between normal vectors of these planes. Aim of this work is to
present a simple method for embedded robot controller, allowing to
find the best further movement settings.
An Immersive Motion Capture Environment
Motion capturing technology has been used for quite a
while and several research has been done within this area. Nevertheless,
we discovered open issues within current motion capturing
environments. In this paper we provide a state-of-the-art overview of
the addressed research areas and show issues with current motion
capturing environments. Observations, interviews and questionnaires
have been used to reveal the challenges actors are currently facing in
a motion capturing environment. Furthermore, the idea to create a
more immersive motion capturing environment to improve the acting
performances and motion capturing outcomes as a potential solution
is introduced. It is hereby the goal to explain the found open issues
and the developed ideas which shall serve for further research as a
basis. Moreover, a methodology to address the interaction and
systems design issues is proposed. A future outcome could be that
motion capture actors are able to perform more naturally, especially
if using a non-body-worn solution.
The Effect of the Disc Coulters Forms on Cutting of Spring Barley Residues in No-Tillage
The introduction of sowing technologies into minimum- or no-tillage soil has a number of economical and environmental virtues, such as improving soil properties, decreasing soil erosion and degradation, and saving working time and fuel. However, the main disadvantage of these technologies is that plant residues on the soil surface reduce the quality of the planted crop seeds, thus requiring plant residues to be removed or cut. This paper presents a analysis of disc coulter parameters and an experimental investigation of cutting spring barley straw containing various amounts of moisture with different disc coulters (smooth and notched).
Probability of Globality
The objective of global optimization is to find the
globally best solution of a model. Nonlinear models are ubiquitous
in many applications and their solution often requires a global
search approach; i.e. for a function f from a set A ⊂ Rn to
the real numbers, an element x0 ∈ A is sought-after, such that
∀ x ∈ A : f(x0) ≤ f(x). Depending on the field of application,
the question whether a found solution x0 is not only a local minimum
but a global one is very important.
This article presents a probabilistic approach to determine the
probability of a solution being a global minimum. The approach is
independent of the used global search method and only requires a
limited, convex parameter domain A as well as a Lipschitz continuous
function f whose Lipschitz constant is not needed to be known.
Mode III Interlaminar Fracture in Woven Glass/Epoxy Composite Laminates
In the present study, fracture behavior of woven
fabric-reinforced glass/epoxy composite laminates under mode III
crack growth was experimentally investigated and numerically
modeled. Two methods were used for the calculation of the strain
energy release rate: the experimental compliance calibration (CC)
method and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). To
achieve this aim ECT (Edge Crack Torsion) was used to evaluate
fracture toughness in mode III loading (out of plane-shear) at
different crack lengths. Load–displacement and associated energy
release rates were obtained for various case of interest. To
calculate fracture toughness JIII, two criteria were considered
including non-linearity and maximum points in load-displacement
curve and it is observed that JIII increases with the crack length
increase. Both the experimental compliance method and the virtual
crack closure technique proved applicable for the interpretation of the
fracture mechanics data of woven glass/epoxy laminates in mode III.
The Implementation of Spatio-Temporal Graph to Represent Situations in the Virtual World
In this paper, we develop a Spatio-Temporal graph as
of a key component of our knowledge representation Scheme. We
design an integrated representation Scheme to depict not only present
and past but future in parallel with the spaces in an effective and
intuitive manner. The resulting multi-dimensional comprehensive
knowledge structure accommodates multi-layered virtual world
developing in the time to maximize the diversity of situations in the
historical context. This knowledge representation Scheme is to be used
as the basis for simulation of situations composing the virtual world
and for implementation of virtual agents' knowledge used to judge and
evaluate the situations in the virtual world. To provide natural contexts
for situated learning or simulation games, the virtual stage set by this
Spatio-Temporal graph is to be populated by agents and other objects
interrelated and changing which are abstracted in the ontology.
The Induction of Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cabbage Seedlings by Heavy Metal Stress
Cabbage seedlings grown in vitro were exposed to
excess levels of heavy metals, including Cd, Mo, and Zn. High metal
levels affected plant growth at cotyledonary stage. Seedlings under
Cd, Mo, and Zn treatments could not produce root hairs and true
leaves. Under stress conditions, seedlings accumulated a higher
amount of anthocyanins in their cotyledons than those in the control.
The pigments isolated from Cd and Zn stressed seedling cotyledons
appeared as pink, while under Mo stress, was dark pink or purple.
Moreover, excess Mo stress increased antioxidant enzyme activities
of APX, CAT, SOD. These results suggest that, under excess Mo
stress, the induced antioxidant enzyme activity of cabbage seedlings
may function as a protective mechanism to shield the plants from
toxicity and exacerbated growth.
E-Learning Experiences of Hong Kong Students
The adoption of e-learning in Hong Kong has been
increasing rapidly in the past decade. To understand the e-learning
experiences of the students, the School of Professional and Continuing
Education of The University of Hong Kong conducted a survey. The
survey aimed to collect students- experiences in using learning
management system, their perceived e-learning advantages, barriers in
e-learning and preferences in new e-learning development. A
questionnaire with 84 questions was distributed in mid 2012 and 608
valid responds were received. The analysis results showed that the
students found e-learning helpful to their study. They preferred
interactive functions and mobile features. Blended learning mode,
both face-to-face learning mode integrated with online learning and
face-to-face learning mode supplemented with online resources, were
preferred by the students. The results of experiences of Hong Kong
students in e-learning provided a contemporary reference to the
e-learning practitioners to understand the e-learning situation in Asia.
Optimization of Wood Fiber Orientation Angle in Outer Layers of Variable Stiffness Plywood Plate
The new optimization method for fiber orientation
angle optimization of symmetrical multilayer plates like plywood is
proposed. Optimization method consists of seeking for minimal
compliance by choosing appropriate fiber orientation angle in outer
layers of flexural plate. The discrete values of fiber orientation angles
are used in method. Optimization results of simply supported plate
and multispan plate with uniformly distributed load are provided.
Results show that stiffness could be increased up to 20% by changing
wood fiber orientation angle in one or two outer layers.
A GPU Based Texture Mapping Technique for 3D Models Using Multi-View Images
Previous the 3D model texture generation from multi-view images and mapping algorithms has issues in the texture chart generation which are the self-intersection and the concentration of the texture in texture space. Also we may suffer from some problems due to the occluded areas, such as inside parts of thighs. In this paper we propose a texture mapping technique for 3D models using multi-view images on the GPU. We do texture mapping directly on the GPU fragment shader per pixel without generation of the texture map. And we solve for the occluded area using the 3D model depth information. Our method needs more calculation on the GPU than previous works, but it has shown real-time performance and previously mentioned problems do not occur.
Analysis on Fun Elements of the SNG in ANIPANG
This study analyzes on the Social Network Game
(SNG), ANIPANG, in order to discover its unique fun elements, so
that suggest new methodologies for development of SNGs. ANIPANG
is the most popular SNG in the South Korea on 2012. Recently, the
game industry is paying close attention to mobile-based SNGs due to
the rapid prevalence of smart-phones and social network services.
However, SNGs are not online games simply. Although the fun of
most online games is the victory through competition with other
players or the game system, the fun of SNG is the communication
through the collaboration with other players. Thus, features of users
and environments of game should be considered for the game industry
and for the fun of SNG to users.
The Effects of Wind Forcing on Surface Currents on the Continental Shelf Surrounding Rottnest Island
Surface currents play a major role in the distribution
of contaminants, the connectivity of marine populations, and can
influence the vertical and horizontal distribution of nutrients within
the water column. This paper aims to determine the effects of sea
breeze-wind patterns on the climatology of the surface currents on the
continental shelf surrounding Rottnest Island, WA Australia. The
alternating wind patterns allow for full cyclic rotations of wind
direction, permitting the interpretation of the effect of the wind on the
surface currents. It was found that the surface currents only clearly
follow the northbound Capes Current in times when the Fremantle
Doctor sets in. Surface currents react within an hour to a change of
direction of the wind, allowing southerly currents to dominate during
strong northerly sea breezes, often followed by mixed currents
dominated by eddies in the inter-lying times.
A Case of Study for 3D Stereoscopic Conversion in Visual Effects Industry
This paper covered a series of key points in terms of 2D to 3D stereoscopic conversion. A successfully applied stereoscopic conversion approach in current visual effects industry was presented. The purpose of this paper is to cover a detailed workflow and concept, which has been successfully used in 3D stereoscopic conversion for feature films in visual effects industry, and therefore to clarify the process in stereoscopic conversion production and provide a clear idea for those entry-level artists to improve an overall understanding of 3D stereoscopic in digital compositing field as well as to the higher education factor of visual effects and hopefully inspire further collaboration and participants particularly between academia and industry.
Enhanced Quality of Zeolite LSX: Studying Effect of Crystallized Containers
Low silica type X (LSX) Zeolite is one of useful
material in many manufacturing due to the advantage properties
including high surface area, stability, microporous crystalline
aluminosilicates and positive ion in an extra–framework. The LSX
was used rice husk silica source which obtained by leaching with
hydrochloric acid and calcination at 500C. To improve the
synthesis method, the LSX was crystallizated in Teflon–lined
autoclave will expedite deceasing of the amorphous particles. The
mixed gel with composition of 5.5 Na2O : 1.65 K2O : Al2O3 : 2.2
SiO2 : 122 H2O was crystallized in different container
(Polypropylene bottom and Teflon–lined autoclave). The obtained
powder was characterized by X–ray diffraction (XRD), X–ray
fluorescence spectrometry, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis BET
surface area Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy to justify the quality of zeolite. The
results showed the crystallized zeolite in Teflon lined autoclave has
102.8 nm of crystal size, 286 m2/g of surface area and fewer amounts
of round amorphous particles when compared with the crystallized
zeolite in Polypropylene.
Effect of Tomato Pomace and Fibrolytic Enzyme on Egg Production and Egg Quality
This study was designed to determine effect of
supplemented tomato pomace and fobrolytic enzyme on egg
production and egg quality. A total of 40 CP brown laying hens (95
week old) were used in completely randomized design in 2x2
factorial arrangement with or without enzyme supplementation. Four
dietary treatments included: Control (C), Fibrolytic enzyme (FE),
10% Tomato pomace (TP), and Fibrolytic enzyme + 10 % Tomato
pomace (FE+TP). Each of the four dietary treatments was fed up to
30 days (10 birds/treatment). Live performance, egg production, egg
weight and quality were determined for whole period. Dietary
treatments had no effect (P>0.05) on live performance, egg weight,
yolk color, and egg production. Therefore, laying hens fed diets with
fibrolytic enzyme were significantly (P
Analysis of the Visual Preference of Patterns in Pedestrian Roads
The purpose of this study is to analyze the visual
preference of patterns in pedestrian roads. In this study, animation was
applied for the estimation of dynamic streetscape. Six patterns of
pedestrian were selected in order to analyze the visual preference. The
shapes are straight, s-curve, and zigzag. The ratio of building's height
and road's width are 2:1 and 1:1. Twelve adjective pairs used in the
field investigation were selected from adjectives which are used
usually in the estimation of streetscape. They are interesting-boring,
simple-complex, calm-noisy, open-enclosed, active-inactive,
lightly-depressing, regular-irregular, unique-usual, rhythmic-not
rhythmic, united-not united, stable-unstable, tidy-untidy.
Dynamic streetscape must be considered important in pedestrian
shopping mall and park because it will be an attraction. So, s-curve
pedestrian road, which is the most beautiful as a result of this study,
should be designed in this area. Also, the ratio of building's height and
road's width along pedestrian road should be reduced.
Multi-Agents Coordination Model in Inter- Organizational Workflow: Applying in Egovernment
Inter-organizational Workflow (IOW) is commonly
used to support the collaboration between heterogeneous and
distributed business processes of different autonomous organizations
in order to achieve a common goal. E-government is considered as an
application field of IOW. The coordination of the different
organizations is the fundamental problem in IOW and remains the
major cause of failure in e-government projects. In this paper, we
introduce a new coordination model for IOW that improves the
collaboration between government administrations and that respects
IOW requirements applied to e-government. For this purpose, we
adopt a Multi-Agent approach, which deals more easily with interorganizational
digital government characteristics: distribution,
heterogeneity and autonomy. Our model integrates also different
technologies to deal with the semantic and technologic
interoperability. Moreover, it conserves the existing systems of
government administrations by offering a distributed coordination
based on interfaces communication. This is especially applied in
developing countries, where administrations are not necessary
equipped with workflow systems. The use of our coordination
techniques allows an easier migration for an e-government solution
and with a lower cost. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed
model, we present a case study of an identity card creation in Tunisia.
Negative Emotions and Ways of Overcoming them in Prison
The aim of this paper is description of the notion of
the death for prisoners and the ways of deal with. They express
indifference, coldness, inability to accept the blame, they have no
shame and no empathy. Is it enough to perform acts verging on the
death. In this paper we described mechanisms and regularities of selfdestructive
behaviour in the view of the relevant literature? The
explanation of the phenomenon is of a biological and sociopsychological
nature. It must be clearly stated that all forms of selfdestructive
behaviour result from various impulses, conflicts and
deficits. That is why they should be treated differently in terms of
motivation and functions which they perform in a given group of
people. Behind self-destruction there seems to be a motivational
mechanism which forces prisoners to rebel and fight against the hated
law and penitentiary systems. The imprisoned believe that pain and
suffering inflicted on them by themselves are better than passive
acceptance of repression. The variety of self-destruction acts is wide,
and some of them take strange forms. We assume that a life-death
barrier is a kind of game for them. If they cannot change the
degrading situation, their life loses sense.
Molecular Mechanism of Amino Acid Discrimination for the Editing Reaction of E.coli Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase
Certain tRNA synthetases have developed highly accurate molecular machinery to discriminate their cognate amino acids. Those aaRSs achieve their goal via editing reaction in the Connective Polypeptide 1 (CP1). Recently mutagenesis studies have revealed the critical importance of residues in the CP1 domain for editing activity and X-ray structures have shown binding mode of noncognate amino acids in the editing domain. To pursue molecular mechanism for amino acid discrimination, molecular modeling studies were performed. Our results suggest that aaRS bind the noncognate amino acid more tightly than the cognate one. Finally, by comparing binding conformations of the amino acids in three systems, the amino acid binding mode was elucidated and a discrimination mechanism proposed. The results strongly reveal that the conserved threonines are responsible for amino acid discrimination. This is achieved through side chain interactions between T252 and T247/T248 as well as between those threonines and the incoming amino acids.
Food Safety Management: Concerns from EU Tourists in Thailand
Culinary culture differences can cause health
problems for international tourists in Thailand. This paper drew upon
data collected from an international tourist survey conducted in
Bangkok, Thailand during summer of 2012. Summer is the period
that a variety food safety issues and incidents are often publicized in
Thailand. The survey targeted European Union tourists- concerns
toward a variety of food safety issues that they encountered during
their trip in Thailand. A total of 400 respondents were elicited as data
input for t-test, and one way ANOVA test. The findings revealed an
astonishing result that up to 46.5 percent of respondents were sick at
least one time or more in Thailand. However, the majority of
respondents trusted that the Thai hotel and Thai restaurants would
ensure food safety, but they did not trust street vendors to ensure food
safety. The level of food safety concern can be ranked from most
concern to least concern by using the value of mean scores as
follows: 1) artificial coloring, 2) use of preservatives, 3) antibiotics,
4) growth hormones, 5) chemical residues, and 6) bacterial
contamination. The overall mean score for level of concerns was
3.493 with standard deviation of 1.677 which did not indicate a very
high level of concern. In addition, the result for t-test and one way
ANOVA test revealed that there was not much effect from the
demographic differences to level of food safety concerns.
An Evaluation on Fixed Wing and Multi-Rotor UAV Images Using Photogrammetric Image Processing
This paper has introduced a slope photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle. There are two units of UAV has been used in this study; namely; fixed wing and multi-rotor. Both UAVs were used to capture images at the study area. A consumer digital camera was mounted vertically at the bottom of UAV and captured the images at an altitude. The objectives of this study are to obtain three dimensional coordinates of slope area and to determine the accuracy of photogrammetric product produced from both UAVs. Several control points and checkpoints were established Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) in the study area. All acquired images from both UAVs went through all photogrammetric processes such as interior orientation, exterior orientation, aerial triangulation and bundle adjustment using photogrammetric software. Two primary results were produced in this study; namely; digital elevation model and digital orthophoto. Based on results, UAV system can be used to mapping slope area especially for limited budget and time constraints project.
Trust and Reliability for Public Sector Data
The public sector holds large amounts of data of
various areas such as social affairs, economy, or tourism. Various
initiatives such as Open Government Data or the EU Directive on
public sector information aim to make these data available for public
and private service providers. Requirements for the provision of
public sector data are defined by legal and organizational
frameworks. Surprisingly, the defined requirements hardly cover
security aspects such as integrity or authenticity.
In this paper we discuss the importance of these missing
requirements and present a concept to assure the integrity and
authenticity of provided data based on electronic signatures. We
show that our concept is perfectly suitable for the provisioning of
unaltered data. We also show that our concept can also be extended
to data that needs to be anonymized before provisioning by
incorporating redactable signatures. Our proposed concept enhances
trust and reliability of provided public sector data.
Management Pattern for Lodging Business in Bang Khonthi Samut Songkram with Sufficient Economy Approach
The objectives of this research are to search the
management pattern of Bang Khonthi lodging entrepreneurs for
sufficient economy ways, to know the threat that affects this sector
and design fit arrangement model to sustain their business with
Samut Songkram style. What will happen if they do not use this
approach? Will they have a financial crisis? The data and information
are collected by informal discussions with 8 managers and 400
questionnaires. A mixed methods of both qualitative research and
quantitative research are used. Bent Flyvbjerg-s phronesis is utilized
for this analysis. Our research will prove that sufficient economy can
help small business firms to solve their problems. We think that the
results of our research will be a financial model to solve many
problems of the entrepreneurs and this way will can be a model for
other provinces of Thailand.
Model of Appropriate Science Teaching for Mathayomsuksa 3 (Grade 9) in Ang-Thong Province
This research aims to study the appropriate model of
Science teaching for students, academic achievement and to survey
students- attitudes toward using appropriate for students in
Mathayomsuksa 3 in Ang-Thong province. The research results were
1. The appropriate model of Science teaching for Mathayomsuksa
3 students in Ang-Thong province including these following five
steps: Step 1. The introduction of the lessons. Step 2. Setting the
hypothesis. Step 3. Doing the experiment /survey. Step 4. Making
conclusion. Step 5. Applying to daily life or other subjects.
2. There is no significant difference between using appropriate
model teaching and regular teaching at 0.05 level significant
3. There is a significant difference between before and after
teaching using appropriate model of Science teaching at 0.05 level.
4. The satisfaction of students- attitudes to using the appropriate
model of Science teaching for students was in intermediate level.
White Blood Cells Identification and Counting from Microscopic Blood Image
The counting and analysis of blood cells allows the
evaluation and diagnosis of a vast number of diseases. In particular,
the analysis of white blood cells (WBCs) is a topic of great interest to
hematologists. Nowadays the morphological analysis of blood cells is
performed manually by skilled operators. This involves numerous
drawbacks, such as slowness of the analysis and a nonstandard
accuracy, dependent on the operator skills. In literature there are only
few examples of automated systems in order to analyze the white
blood cells, most of which only partial. This paper presents a
complete and fully automatic method for white blood cells
identification from microscopic images. The proposed method firstly
individuates white blood cells from which, subsequently, nucleus and
cytoplasm are extracted. The whole work has been developed using
MATLAB environment, in particular the Image Processing Toolbox.
An Evaluation Framework for Participation: The VAAs Case Study
The number of electronic participation (eParticipation) projects introduced by different governments and international organisations is considerably high and increasing. In order to have an overview of the development of these projects, various evaluation frameworks have been proposed. In this paper, a five-level participation model, which takes into account the advantages of the Social Web or Web 2.0, together with a quantitative approach for the evaluation of eParticipation projects is presented. Each participation level is evaluated independently, taking into account three main components: Web evolution, media richness, and communication channels. This paper presents the evaluation of a number of existing Voting Advice Applications (VAAs). The results provide an overview of the main features implemented by each project, their strengths and weaknesses, and the participation levels reached.
Spurious Crests in Second-Order Waves
Occurrences of spurious crests on the troughs of large,
relatively steep second-order Stokes waves are anomalous and not an
inherent characteristic of real waves. Here, the effects of such
occurrences on the statistics described by the standard second-order
stochastic model are examined theoretically and by way of
simulations. Theoretical results and simulations indicate that when
spurious occurrences are sufficiently large, the standard model leads
to physically unrealistic surface features and inaccuracies in the
statistics of various surface features, in particular, the troughs and
thus zero-crossing heights of large waves. Whereas inaccuracies can
be fairly noticeable for long-crested waves in both deep and
shallower depths, they tend to become relatively insignificant in
Collaborative E-Learning with Multiple Imaginary Co-Learner: Design, Issues and Implementation
Collaborative problem solving in e-learning can take
in the form of discussion among learner, creating a highly social
learning environment and characterized by participation and
interactivity. This paper, designed a collaborative learning
environment where agent act as co-learner, can play different roles
during interaction. Since different roles have been assigned to the
agent, learner will assume that multiple co-learner exists to help and
guide him all throughout the collaborative problem solving process,
but in fact, alone during the learning process. Specifically, it answers
the questions what roles of the agent should be incorporated to
contribute better learning outcomes, how agent will facilitate the
communication process to provide social learning and interactivity
and what are the specific instructional strategies that facilitate learner
participation, increased skill acquisition and develop critical thinking.
On Formalizing Predefined OCL Properties
The ability of UML to handle the modeling process of complex industrial software applications has increased its popularity to the extent of becoming the de-facto language in serving the design purpose. Although, its rich graphical notation naturally oriented towards the object-oriented concept, facilitates the understandability, it hardly successes to report all domainspecific aspects in a satisfactory way. OCL, as the standard language for expressing additional constraints on UML models, has great potential to help improve expressiveness. Unfortunately, it suffers from a weak formalism due to its poor semantic resulting in many obstacles towards the build of tools support and thus its application in the industry field. For this reason, many researches were established to formalize OCL expressions using a more rigorous approach. Our contribution join this work in a complementary way since it focuses specifically on OCL predefined properties which constitute an important part in the construction of OCL expressions. Using formal methods, we mainly succeed in expressing rigorously OCL predefined functions.
Response of Wax Apple Cultivars by Applied GA3 and 2,4-D on Fruit Growth and Fruit Quality
The experiment was performed to evaluate the effect
of GA3, 2,4-D on fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. The
experiment consisted of Red A, Monulla, Atu, Red B cultivars. GA3
and 2,4-D were applied at the small bud and petal fall stage.
Physiological, biochemical characters of fruit were recoded. The
result showed application of GA3, 2,4-D greatly response in
increasing fruit set for all treatment as compared to control. Fruit
weight, fruit size were increased at 10 ppm 2,4-D in ‘Red A’, ‘Red
B’, however it was also enhancing at 10 ppm GA3 in ‘Monulla’,
‘Atu’. For ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ fruit crack reduced by 10 ppm 2,4-D
application, but ‘Red B’, ‘Red A’ gave least fruit crack at 10 and 30
ppm GA3, respectively. ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ and ‘Red B’ resulted in
response well to 10 ppm GA3 on improving TSS, whereas
application of 30 ppm GA3 greatly enhancing TSS in ‘Red A’. For
‘Atu’ titratable acidity markedly reduced by 10 ppm GA3
application, but spraying with 30 ppm GA3 greatly response in
reducing titratable acidity in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’ and ‘Monulla’. It was
concluded that GA3, 2,4-D can be an effective tool to enhancing fruit
set, fruit growth as well as improving fruit quality of wax apple.
Cost-Effective Design of Space Structures Joints: A Review
In construction of any structure, the aesthetic and utility values should be considered in such a way as to make the structure cost-effective. Most structures are composed of elements and joints which are very critical in any skeletal space structure because they majorly determine the performance of the structure. In early times, most space structures were constructed using rigid joints which had the advantage of better performing structures as compared to pin-jointed structures but with the disadvantage of requiring all the construction work to be done on site. The discovery of semi-rigid joints now enables connections to be prefabricated and quickly assembled on site while maintaining good performance. In this paper, cost-effective is discussed basing on strength of connectors at the joints, buckling of joints and overall structure, and the effect of initial geometrical imperfections. Several existing joints are reviewed by classifying them into categories and discussing where they are most suited and how they perform structurally. Also, finite element modeling using ABAQUS is done to determine the buckling behavior. It is observed that some joints are more economical than others. The rise to span ratio and imperfections are also found to affect the buckling of the structures. Based on these, general principles that guide the design of cost-effective joints and structures are discussed.
South African MNEs Entry Strategies in Africa
This is a cross-cultural study that determines South
African multinational enterprises (MNEs) entry strategies as they
invest in Africa. An integrated theoretical framework comprising the
transaction cost theory, Uppsala model, eclectic paradigm and the
distance framework was adopted. A sample of 40 South African
MNEs with 415 existing FDI entries in Africa was drawn. Using an
ordered logistic regression model, the impact of culture on the choice
of degree of control by South African MNEs in Africa was
determined. Cultural distance was one of significant factors that
influenced South African MNEs- choice of degree of control.
Furthermore, South African MNEs are risk averse in all countries in
Africa but minimize the risks differently across sectors. Service
sectors chooses to own their subsidiaries 100% and avoid dealing
with the locals while manufacturing, resources and construction
choose to have a local partner to share the risk.
Analysis and Design of a Novel Active Soft Switched Phase-Shifted Full Bridge Converter
This paper proposes an active soft-switching circuit for
bridge converters aiming to improve the power conversion efficiency.
The proposed circuit achieves loss-less switching for both main and
auxiliary switches without increasing the main switch current/voltage
rating. A winding coupled to the primary of power transformer
ensures ZCS for the auxiliary switches during their turn-off. A 350 W,
100 kHz phase shifted full bridge (PSFB) converter is built to validate
the analysis and design. Theoretical loss calculations for proposed
circuit is presented. The proposed circuit is compared with passive
soft switched PSFB in terms of efficiency and loss in duty cycle.
Main Variables Competition in DFB Lasers under Dual Optical Injection
We theoretically investigate the effects of frequency
detuning and injection power on the nonlinear dynamics of DFB
lasers under dual external optical injection.
How to Build and Evaluate a Solution Method: An Illustration for the Vehicle Routing Problem
The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a famous combinatorial optimization problem. Because of its well-known difficulty, metaheuristics are the most appropriate methods to tackle large and realistic instances. The goal of this paper is to highlight the key ideas for designing VRP metaheuristics according to the following criteria: efficiency, speed, robustness, and ability to take advantage of the problem structure. Such elements can obviously be used to build solution methods for other combinatorial optimization problems, at least in the deterministic field.
Qmulus – A Cloud Driven GPS Based Tracking System for Real-Time Traffic Routing
This paper presents Qmulus- a Cloud Based GPS
Model. Qmulus is designed to compute the best possible route which
would lead the driver to the specified destination in the shortest time
while taking into account real-time constraints. Intelligence
incorporated to Qmulus-s design makes it capable of generating and
assigning priorities to a list of optimal routes through customizable
dynamic updates. The goal of this design is to minimize travel and
cost overheads, maintain reliability and consistency, and implement
scalability and flexibility. The model proposed focuses on
reducing the bridge between a Client Application and a Cloud
service so as to render seamless operations. Qmulus-s system
model is closely integrated and its concept has the potential to be
extended into several other integrated applications making it capable
of adapting to different media and resources.
Intragenic MicroRNAs Binding Sites in MRNAs of Genes Involved in Carcinogenesis
MiRNAs participate in gene regulation of translation.
Some studies have investigated the interactions between genes and
intragenic miRNAs. It is important to study the miRNA binding sites
of genes involved in carcinogenesis. RNAHybrid 2.1 and ERNAhybrid
programmes were used to compute the hybridization free
energy of miRNA binding sites. Of these 54 mRNAs, 22.6%, 37.7%,
and 39.7% of miRNA binding sites were present in the 5'UTRs,
CDSs, and 3'UTRs, respectively. The density of the binding sites for
miRNAs in the 5'UTR ranged from 1.6 to 43.2 times and from 1.8 to
8.0 times greater than in the CDS and 3'UTR, respectively. Three
types of miRNA interactions with mRNAs have been revealed: 5'-
dominant canonical, 3'-compensatory, and complementary binding
sites. MiRNAs regulate gene expression, and information on the
interactions between miRNAs and mRNAs could be useful in
molecular medicine. We recommend that newly described sites
undergo validation by experimental investigation.
Database Modelling Using WSML in the Specification of a Banking Application
We demonstrate through a sample application, Ebanking,
that the Web Service Modelling Language Ontology component
can be used as a very powerful object-oriented database design
language with logic capabilities. Its conceptual syntax allows the
definition of class hierarchies, and logic syntax allows the definition
of constraints in the database. Relations, which are available for
modelling relations of three or more concepts, can be connected to
logical expressions, allowing the implicit specification of database
content. Using a reasoning tool, logic queries can also be made
against the database in simulation mode.
Ductile Crack Growth in Surface Cracked Pressure Vessels
Pressure vessels are usually operating at temperatures
where the conditions of linear elastic fracture mechanics are no
longer met because massive plasticity precedes crack propagation. In
this work the development of a surface crack in a pressure vessel
subject to bending and tension under elastic-plastic fracture
mechanics conditions was investigated. Finite element analysis was
used to evaluate the hydrostatic stress, the J-integral and crack
growth for semi-elliptical surface-breaking cracks. The results
showed non-uniform stress triaxiality and crack driving force around
the crack front at large deformation levels. Different ductile crack
extensions were observed which emphasis the dependent of ductile
tearing on crack geometry and type of loading. In bending the crack
grew only beneath the surface, and growth was suppressed at the
deepest segment. This contrasts to tension where the crack breaks
through the thickness with uniform growth along the entire crack
front except at the free surface. Current investigations showed that
the crack growth developed under linear elastic fracture mechanics
conditions will no longer be applicable under ductile tearing
Hybrid of Hunting Search and Modified Simplex Methods for Grease Position Parameter Design Optimisation
This study proposes a multi-response surface
optimization problem (MRSOP) for determining the proper choices
of a process parameter design (PPD) decision problem in a noisy
environment of a grease position process in an electronic industry.
The proposed models attempts to maximize dual process responses
on the mean of parts between failure on left and right processes. The
conventional modified simplex method and its hybridization of the
stochastic operator from the hunting search algorithm are applied to
determine the proper levels of controllable design parameters
affecting the quality performances. A numerical example
demonstrates the feasibility of applying the proposed model to the
PPD problem via two iterative methods. Its advantages are also
discussed. Numerical results demonstrate that the hybridization is
superior to the use of the conventional method. In this study, the
mean of parts between failure on left and right lines improve by
39.51%, approximately. All experimental data presented in this
research have been normalized to disguise actual performance
measures as raw data are considered to be confidential.
Integrated Approaches to Enhance Aggregate Production Planning with Inventory Uncertainty Based On Improved Harmony Search Algorithm
This work presents a multiple objective linear programming (MOLP) model based on the desirability function approach for solving the aggregate production planning (APP) decision problem upon Masud and Hwang-s model. The proposed model minimises total production costs, carrying or backordering costs and rates of change in labor levels. An industrial case demonstrates the feasibility of applying the proposed model to the APP problems with three scenarios of inventory levels. The proposed model yields an efficient compromise solution and the overall levels of DM satisfaction with the multiple combined response levels. There has been a trend to solve complex planning problems using various metaheuristics. Therefore, in this paper, the multi-objective APP problem is solved by hybrid metaheuristics of the hunting search (HuSIHSA) and firefly (FAIHSA) mechanisms on the improved harmony search algorithm. Results obtained from the solution of are then compared. It is observed that the FAIHSA can be used as a successful alternative solution mechanism for solving APP problems over three scenarios. Furthermore, the FAIHSA provides a systematic framework for facilitating the decision-making process, enabling a decision maker interactively to modify the desirability function approach and related model parameters until a good optimal solution is obtained with proper selection of control parameters when compared.
Effect of Castration on CLA in Meat Goats
Twenty four male Thai native × Anglo-Nubian
crossbred goats were randomly allocated to receive four treatments.
The experiment was conducted for four months and slaughtered that
the Longissimus dorsi muscle was collected for fatty acid analysis.
The results conclude that either castrated method or ages had no
significantly different on monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)
(P>0.05) except erucic acid (C22:1n9). Interaction between castrated
method and ages had significantly different in MUFA (P
The Household Behavior on Solid Waste and Wastewater Management in Municipal Area with Cleanliness Policy Determined by Community
The Bangnanglee Sub-district Administrative Office,
Thailand had initiated a policy to environmental protection with
encouraging household waste management in order to promote civil
responsibility for domestic hygienic. This research studied the
household behaviors on solid waste and wastewater management. A
sample population of 306 families answered a questionnaire. The
study showed that, on average, domestic activities had produced 1.93
kilograms of waste per household per day. It has been found that 79%
of the households made several attempts to reduce their own amount
of waste. 80% of the households stationed their own garbage bins.
71% managed their waste by selling recyclable products. As for the
rest of the waste, 51% burned them, while 29% disposed their waste
in the nearby public trashcans and other 13% have them buried. As
for wastewater, 60% of the households disposed it into the sewage,
whereas 30% disposed them right from their elevated house.
Developing of Thai Classical Music Ensemble in Rattanakosin Period
The research titled “Developing of Thai Classical Music Ensemble in Rattanakosin Period" aimed 1) to study the history of Thai Classical Music Ensemble in Rattanakosin Period and 2) to analyze changing in each period of Rattanakosin Era. This is the historical and documentary research. The data was collected by in-depth interview those musicians, and academic music experts and field study. The focus group discussion was conducted to analyze and conclude the findings. The research found that the history of Thai Classical Music Ensemble in Rattanakosin Period derived from the Ayutthaya period. Thai classical music ensemble consisted of “Wong Pipat", “Wong Mahori", “Wong Kreang Sai". “Wong Kubmai", “Wong Krongkak", “Brass Band", and “Kan Band" which were used to ceremony, ritual, drama, performs and entertainment. Changed of the Thai music in the early Rattanakosin Period were passed from the Ayutthaya Period and the influence of the western civilization. New Band formed in Thai Music were “Orchestra" and “Contemporary Band". The role of Thai music was changed from the ceremonial rituals to entertainment. Development of the Thai music during the reign of King Rama 1 to King Rama 7, was improved from the court. But after the revolution, the musical patronage of the court was maintained by the Government. Thai Classical Music Ensemble were performed to be standard pattern.
Hydrogeological Risk and Mining Tunnels: the Fontane-Rodoretto Mine Turin (Italy)
The interaction of tunneling or mining with
groundwater has become a very relevant problem not only due to the
need to guarantee the safety of workers and to assure the efficiency of
the tunnel drainage systems, but also to safeguard water resources
from impoverishment and pollution risk. Therefore it is very
important to forecast the drainage processes (i.e., the evaluation of
drained discharge and drawdown caused by the excavation). The aim
of this study was to know better the system and to quantify the flow
drained from the Fontane mines, located in Val Germanasca (Turin,
Italy). This allowed to understand the hydrogeological local changes
in time. The work has therefore been structured as follows: the
reconstruction of the conceptual model with the geological,
hydrogeological and geological-structural study; the calculation of
the tunnel inflows (through the use of structural methods) and the
comparison with the measured flow rates; the water balance at the
basin scale. In this way it was possible to understand what are the
relationships between rainfall, groundwater level variations and the
effect of the presence of tunnels as a means of draining water.
Subsequently, it the effects produced by the excavation of the mining
tunnels was quantified, through numerical modeling. In particular,
the modeling made it possible to observe the drawdown variation as a
function of number, excavation depth and different mines linings.
Analysis of the Loaded Gait Subjected to the Trunk Flexion Change
In the paper, the energetic features of the loaded gait
are newly analyzed depending on the trunk flexion change. To
investigate the loaded gait, walking experiments are performed for five
subjects and, the ground reaction forces and kinematic data are
measured. Based on these information, we compute the impulse,
momentum and mechanical works done on the center of body mass,
through the trunk flexion change. As a result, it is shown that the trunk
flexion change does not affect the impulses and momentums during
the step-to-step transition as well. However, the direction of the
pre-collision momentum does change depending on the trunk flexion
change, which is degenerated just after (or during) the collision period.
Preparation and Characterization of M. × Piperita L. Oil Based Gel Formulation
The essential oil of M. × piperita L. was formulated
into a topical gel. The prepared gel was characterized for its pH,
viscosity, spreadiblity, consistency and extrudiblity, while its stability
was evaluated under different temperature conditions. The prepared
M. × piperita oil gel was clear and transparent. The pH value of
developed gel was 6.6, while its viscosity was 1200 cP. Spreadability
and consistency of the M. × piperita oil gel was 10.7 g.cm/sec and 7
mm, respectively. The prepared gel showed good extrudiblity. During
the stability studies, no significant change in pH and viscosity as a
function of time for gel was observed, indicating stability of prepared
formulation. The gel developed in this study is expected to forward
the usage of M. × piperita essential towards commercial application.
A Fuzzy Multi-objective Model for a Machine Selection Problem in a Flexible Manufacturing System
This research presents a fuzzy multi-objective model
for a machine selection problem in a flexible manufacturing system
of a tire company. Two main objectives are minimization of an
average machine error and minimization of the total setup time.
Conventionally, the working team uses trial and error in selecting a
pressing machine for each task due to the complexity and constraints
of the problem. So, both objectives may not satisfy. Moreover, trial
and error takes a lot of time to get the final decision. Therefore, in
this research preemptive fuzzy goal programming model is developed
for solving this multi-objective problem. The proposed model can
obtain the appropriate results that the Decision Making (DM) is
satisfied for both objectives. Besides, alternative choice can be easily
generated by varying the satisfaction level. Additionally, decision
time can be reduced by using the model, which includes all
constraints of the system to generate the solutions. A numerical
example is also illustrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed
Border Limited Adaptive Subdivision Based On Triangle Meshes
Subdivision is a method to create a smooth surface from a coarse mesh by subdividing the entire mesh. The conventional ways to compute and render surfaces are inconvenient both in terms of memory and computational time as the number of meshes will increase exponentially. An adaptive subdivision is the way to reduce the computational time and memory by subdividing only certain selected areas. In this paper, a new adaptive subdivision method for triangle meshes is introduced. This method defines a new adaptive subdivision rules by considering the properties of each triangle's neighbors and is embedded in a traditional Loop's subdivision. It prevents some undesirable side effects that appear in the conventional adaptive ways. Models that were subdivided by our method are compared with other adaptive subdivision methods
The Tyrosinase and Cyclooxygenase Inhibitory Activities and Cytotoxicity Screening of Tamarindus indica Seeds
The methanolic extracts from seeds of tamarind
(Tamarindus indica) was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus extraction
and evaluated for total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu method.
Then, methanolic extract was screened biological activities (In vitro)
for anti-melanogenic activity by tyrosinase inhibition test, antiinflammation
activity by cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and
cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition test, and cytotoxic screening
test with Vero cells. The results showed that total phenolic content,
which contained in extract, was contained 27.72 mg of gallic acid
equivalent per g of dry weight. The ability to inhibit tyrosinase
enzyme, which exerted by Tamarind seed extracts (1 mg/ml) was
52.13 ± 0.42 %. The extract was not possessed inhibitory effect to
COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes and cytotoxic effect to Vero cells. The
finding is concludes that tested seed extract was possessed
antimelanogenic activity with non-toxic effects. However, there was
not exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. Further studies include the
use of advance biological models to confirm this biological activity,
as well as, the isolation and characterization of the purified
compounds that it was contained.
Voice in Pre-service Teacher Development
Recently, Thai education system is engaged in serious and promising reforms. One of the crucial elements in most of these educational reforms is the teacher professional development. Teachers today are under growing pressure to perform. However, most new teachers are not adequately prepared to meet the expectation. Consequently, this paper seeks to investigate the opinion of mentor teachers and university supervisors about professional development in the aspect of learning management skill of the preservice teachers in Rajabhat Universities, then compare the opinion between the mentor teachers and university supervisors about professional development in the aspect of learning management skill of the pre-service teachers. The study involved a cohort of 40 university supervisors and 77 mentor teachers. The research concludes by showing that mentor teachers viewed pre-service teacher as a professional teacher with an effective learning management skill. However, in the perspective of the university supervisor, pre-service teachers still have inadequate learning management skill.
Some Solid Transportation Models with Crisp and Rough Costs
In this paper, some practical solid transportation models are formulated considering per trip capacity of each type of conveyances with crisp and rough unit transportation costs. This is applicable for the system in which full vehicles, e.g. trucks, rail coaches are to be booked for transportation of products so that transportation cost is determined on the full of the conveyances. The models with unit transportation costs as rough variables are transformed into deterministic forms using rough chance constrained programming with the help of trust measure. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the proposed models in crisp environment as well as with unit transportation costs as rough variables.
Model of Controled Six Phase Induction Motor
In this paper, the authors take a look at advantages of
multiphase induction motors comparing them with three phase ones
and present the applications where six-phase induction motors are
used. They elaborate the mathematical model of six-phase induction
motor with two similar stator three phase winding, shifted by 30
degrees in space and three phase winding in rotor, in synchronous
reference frame for soft starting and scalar control. The authors
simulate and discuss results of speed and torque starting transients.
Determination of Extreme Shear Stresses in Teaching Mechanics Using Freely Available Computer Tools
In the present paper the extreme shear stresses with the corresponding planes are established using the freely available computer tools like the Gnuplot, Sage, R, Python and Octave. In order to support these freely available computer tools, their strong symbolical and graphical abilities are illustrated. The nature of the stationary points obtained by the Method of Lagrangian Multipliers can be determined using freely available computer symbolical tools like Sage. The characters of the stationary points can be explained in the easiest way using freely available computer graphical tools like Gnuplot, Sage, R, Python and Octave. The presented figures improve the understanding of the problem and the obtained solutions for the majority of students of civil or mechanical engineering.
AHP and Extent Fuzzy AHP Approach for Prioritization of Performance Measurement Attributes
The decision to recruit manpower in an organization
requires clear identification of the criteria (attributes) that distinguish
successful from unsuccessful performance. The choice of appropriate
attributes or criteria in different levels of hierarchy in an organization
is a multi-criteria decision problem and therefore multi-criteria
decision making (MCDM) techniques can be used for prioritization
of such attributes. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one such
technique that is widely used for deciding among the complex criteria
structure in different levels. In real applications, conventional AHP
still cannot reflect the human thinking style as precise data
concerning human attributes are quite hard to be extracted. Fuzzy
logic offers a systematic base in dealing with situations, which are
ambiguous or not well defined. This study aims at defining a
methodology to improve the quality of prioritization of an
employee-s performance measurement attributes under fuzziness. To
do so, a methodology based on the Extent Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy
Process is proposed. Within the model, four main attributes such as
Subject knowledge and achievements, Research aptitude, Personal
qualities and strengths and Management skills with their subattributes
are defined. The two approaches conventional AHP
approach and the Extent Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach
have been compared on the same hierarchy structure and criteria set.
What Deter Academia to Share Knowledge within Research-Based University Status
This paper discusses the issues and challenge that
academia faced in knowledge sharing at a research university in
Malaysia. The partial results of interview are presented from the
actual study. The main issues in knowledge sharing practices are
university structure and designation and title. The academia
awareness in sharing knowledge is also influenced by culture. Our
investigation highlight that the concept of reciprocal relationship of
sharing knowledge may hinder knowledge sharing awareness among
academia. Hence, we concluded that further investigation could be
carried out on the social interaction and trust culture among academia
in sharing knowledge within research/ranking university
Kaolin for Production of Souvenirs
Ranong province has the best kaolin, and it is the most
useful of all the clay types used in ceramic making. Until recently,
there has been only one community business making ceramics in
Ranong province. And this business could not build the mix of body
and glaze from their raw material without assistance. Considering
these problems, this research is aimed to test the composition of
ceramic body and glaze which suit. Kaolin from Ranong is the raw
material which these search focuses on. All other raw materials use in
the investigation will come from southern Thailand, kaolin and
limestone from Ranong province, ball clay from Surat Thani
province, white sand from Songkhla province, and feldspar from
Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Results can be used to develop the
efficiency of industrial production which in return will enhance the
Design of an Intelligent Location Identification Scheme Based On LANDMARC and BPNs
Radio frequency identification (RFID) applications have grown rapidly in many industries, especially in indoor location identification. The advantage of using received signal strength indicator (RSSI) values as an indoor location measurement method is a cost-effective approach without installing extra hardware. Because the accuracy of many positioning schemes using RSSI values is limited by interference factors and the environment, thus it is challenging to use RFID location techniques based on integrating positioning algorithm design. This study proposes the location estimation approach and analyzes a scheme relying on RSSI values to minimize location errors. In addition, this paper examines different factors that affect location accuracy by integrating the backpropagation neural network (BPN) with the LANDMARC algorithm in a training phase and an online phase. First, the training phase computes coordinates obtained from the LANDMARC algorithm, which uses RSSI values and the real coordinates of reference tags as training data for constructing an appropriate BPN architecture and training length. Second, in the online phase, the LANDMARC algorithm calculates the coordinates of tracking tags, which are then used as BPN inputs to obtain location estimates. The results show that the proposed scheme can estimate locations more accurately compared to LANDMARC without extra devices.
Price Quoting Method for Contract Manufacturer
This is an applied research to propose the method for
price quotation for a contract electronics manufacturer. It has had a
precise price quoting method but such method could not quickly
provide a result as the customer required. This reduces the ability of
company to compete in this kind of business. In this case, the cause
of long time quotation process was analyzed. A lot of product
features have been demanded by customer. By checking routine
processes, it was found that high fraction of quoting time was used
for production time estimating which has effected to the
manufacturing or production cost. Then the historical data of
products including types, number of components, assembling
method, and their assembling time were used to analyze the key
components affecting to production time. The price quoting model
then was proposed. The implementation of proposed model was able
to remarkably reduce quoting time with an acceptable required
Assessment of Sediment Quality in the West Port Based On the Index Analysis Approach
The coastal sediments of West Port of Malaysia was monitored from Nov. 2009 to Oct. 2010 to assess spatial distribution of heavy metals As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Zn and Pb. Sediment samples were collected from 10 stations in dry and rainy season in West Port. The range concentrations measured (Mg/g dry weight ) were from 23.4 to 98.3 for Zn, 22.3 to 80 for Pb, 7.4 to 27.6 Cu, 0.244 to 3.53 for Cd, 7.2 to 22.2 for Ni, 20.2 to 162 for As, 0.11 to 0.409 for Hg and 11.5 to 61.5 for Cr. The geochemical indexes used in this study were Geoaccumulation (Igeo), Contamination Factor (CF) and Pollution Load Index (PLI); these indexes were used to evaluate the levels of sediment contaminations. The results of these indexes show that, the status of West Port sediment quality are moderately polluted by heavy metals except in arsenic which shows the high level of pollution.
Food and Beverage Safety and Satisfaction: A Gender Effect
There has been considerable growth in the issue of
food & beverage safety in Thailand. This is important because the
level of satisfaction in food & beverage safety has impacts on travel
decision made by foreign tourists. Therefore, this paper was aimed to
test if there is any significant gender effect in the level of satisfaction
of food & beverage safety made by foreign tourists in Thailand. In
addition, this paper utilized the Chi Square test of independent to test
if there was an association between gender and sickness because of
food and if there was an association between gender and the
perception of food safety standard. During January to June, 2012, a
total of 400 foreign tourist respondents, 200 male as well as 200
female foreign tourists, were interviewed at the departure lounge at
Suvarnabhumi airport, Thailand. The findings revealed the
astonishing result that there was no significant effect of gender. Also,
there was no significant difference in the association between gender
and being sick because of food as well as the association between
gender and the perception on the standard of food safety during their
trip in Thailand.
Comparison of the Music Sound System between Thailand and Vietnam
Thai and Vietnamese music had been influenced and inspired by the traditional Chinese music. Whereby the differences of the tuning systems as well as the music modes are obviously known . The research examined the character of musical instruments, songs and culture between Thai and Vietnamese. An analyzing of songs and modes and the study of tone vibration as well as timbre had been done accurately. This qualitative research is based on documentary and songs analysis, field study, interviews and focus group discussion of Thai and Vietnamese masters. The research aims are to examine the musical instruments and songs of both Thai and Vietnamese as well as the comparison of the sounding system between Thailand and Vietnam. The finding of the research has revealed that there are similarities in certain kinds of instruments but differences in the sound systems regarding songs and scale of Thailand and Vietnam. Both cultural musical instruments are diverse and synthetic combining native and foreign inspiring. An integral part of Vietnam has been highly impacted by Chinese musical convention. Korea, Mongolia and Japan music have also play an active and effectively influenced as their geographical related. Whereas Thailand has been influenced by Chinese and Indian traditional music. Both Thai and Vietnamese musical instruments can be divided into four groups: plucked strings, bowed strings, winds and percussion. Songs from both countries have their own characteristics. They are playing a role in touching people heart in ceremonies, social functions and an essential element of the native performing arts. The Vietnamese music melodies have been influenced by Chinese music and taken the same character as Chinese songs. Thai song has specific identity and variety showed in its unique melody. Pentatonic scales have effectively been used in composing Thai and Vietnamese songs, but in different implementing concept.
Effect of White Kwao Extract (Pueraria mirifica) on in vitro Development and Implantation Rate of Mouse Embryo
The White Kwao (Pueraria mirifica), a potent phytoestrogenic medicinal plant, has long been use in Thailand as a traditional folkmedicine. However, no scientific information of the direct effect of White Kwao on the development of mammalian embryo was available. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of White Kwao extract on the in vitro development and implantation rate of mouse embryos. This study was designed into two experiments. In the first experiment, the two-cell stage mouse embryos were collected from the oviduct of superovulated mature female mice, and randomly cultured in three different media, the M16, M16 supplemented with 0.52μg esthinylestradiol-17β, and M16 supplemented with 10 mg/ml White Kwao extract. The culture was incubated in CO2 incubator at 37 oC . After the embryos were cultivated, the developments of embryos were observed every 24 hours for 5 days. The development rate of embryos from the two-cell stage to blastocyst stage in the media was with White Kwao was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the control group (68.50% versus 43.50%) but did not differ from the positive control group (68.50% versus 57.66%). In the second experiment, hatched blastocysts, which obtained from three different media, were differently labeled the nuclei with two polynucleotide-specific fluorochromes, the propidium iodide (PI) and the bisbenzimide. The results showed that the number of trophectoderm cells in the blastocysts that cultivated in the media with White Kwao did not significantly differ from the control (80.00 versus 70 cells) and the positive control group (80.00 versus 112.50 cells). The average number of inner cell mass in the White Kwao treated group did not significantly differ from the control group (20.50 versus 16.00 cells) and the positive control group (20.50 versus 20.50 cells). The total cell number including the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass of the individual hatched blastocyst was evaluated. The cell number in the blastocysts obtained from the media with the White Kwao did not significantly differ from the control (94.25 + 9.50 versus 92.33 + 4.05) and the positive control group (94.25 + 9.50 versus 110.33 + 9.16). The results demonstrated that the White Kwao treatment group did have a stimulating effect on the in vitro development of mouse embryos. The exact mechanism that White Kwao stimulated mouse embryo development is not known. The suspect mechanism may in a manner similar to the mechanism that of estrogen stimulated the development of the mouse embryos. Futher studies are needed to transfer the blastocyst into the endometrium of pseudopreagnancy mice to evaluate the effect of White Kwao on implantation
Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana Spore Compatibility with Surfactants
The spores of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana was evaluated for their compatibility with four surfactants; SDS (sodium dodyl sulphate) and CABS-65 (calcium alkyl benzene sulphonate), Tween 20 (polyethylene sorbitan monolaureate) and Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monoleate) at six different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%). Incubated spores showed decrease in concentrations due to conversion of spores to hyphae. The maximum germination recorded in 72 h incubated spores varied with surfactant concentration at 49-68% (SDS), 39- 53% (CABS), 78-92% (Tween 80) and 80-92% (Tween 20), while the optimal surfactant concentration for spore germination was found to be 2.5-5%. The surfactant effect on spores was more pronounced with SDS and CABS-65, where significant deterioration and loss in viability of the incubated spores was observed. The effect of Tween 20 and Tween 80 were comparatively less inhibiting. The results of the study would help in surfactant selection for B. bassiana emulsion preparation.
Event Information Extraction System (EIEE): FSM vs HMM
Automatic Extraction of Event information from
social text stream (emails, social network sites, blogs etc) is a vital
requirement for many applications like Event Planning and
Management systems and security applications. The key information
components needed from Event related text are Event title, location,
participants, date and time. Emails have very unique distinctions over
other social text streams from the perspective of layout and format
and conversation style and are the most commonly used
communication channel for broadcasting and planning events.
Therefore we have chosen emails as our dataset. In our work, we
have employed two statistical NLP methods, named as Finite State
Machines (FSM) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for the
extraction of event related contextual information. An application
has been developed providing a comparison among the two methods
over the event extraction task. It comprises of two modules, one for
each method, and works for both bulk as well as direct user input.
The results are evaluated using Precision, Recall and F-Score.
Experiments show that both methods produce high performance and
accuracy, however HMM was good enough over Title extraction and
FSM proved to be better for Venue, Date, and time.
Advanced ILQ Control for Buck-Converter viaTwo-Degrees of Freedom Servo-System
In this paper, we propose an advanced ILQ control for the buck-converter via two-degrees of freedom servo-system. Our presented strategy is based on Inverse Linear Quadratic (ILQ) servo-system controller without solving Riccati-s equation directly. The optimal controller of the current and voltage control system is designed. The stability and robust control are analyzed. A conscious and persistent effort has been made to improve ILQ control via two-degrees of freedom guarantees the optimal gains on the basis of polynomial pole assignment, which our results of the proposed strategy shows that the advanced ILQ control can be controlled independently the step response and the disturbance response by appending a feed-forward compensator.
Effect of Cassava Root Ensiled with Cassava Top or Legumes on Feed Intake and Digestibility of Dairy Cows
The effect of cassava root ensiled with cassava top or
legumes on voluntary feed intake and milk production were
determined in 12 dairy cows using a 4×3 change-over design.
Experimental period were 30 days long and consisted of 14 days of
adaptation. Silage was prepared from cassava root mixed with
cassava top or legumes at ratio 60:40. Cows were allotted at random
to receive ad libitum one of four rations: T1) control, T2) cassava
root +cassava top-silages, T3) cassava root +hamata - silages and T4)
cassava root +Thapra stylo-silages.
The dry matter intake (BW0.75) was higher (P< 0.05) in cow fed
with silages diets compared with T1. However, the intake of T2 was
higher among treatments. Milk production was lowest in cow fed
with T1. Among silages based diets, milk production was not
significantly different but 4%FCM was higher in cow fed T2. Milk
compositions were not affected by feeding diets.
It is concluded that feeding cassava root ensiled with its leaves as
a supplement increased dry matter intake and significantly improved
4%FCM. The combination of cassava root and legume silages did not
improve the feed intake but did increase the milk production.
Participatory Patterns of Community in Water and Waste Management: A Case Study of Municipality in Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province
This is a survey research using quantitative and qualitative methodology. There were three objectives: 1) To study participatory level of community in water and waste environment management. 2) To study the affecting factors for community participation in water and waste environment management in Ampawa District, Samut Songkram Province. 3) To search for the participatory patterns in water and waste management. The population sample for the quantitative research was 1,364 people living in Ampawa District. The methodology was simple random sampling. Research instrument was a questionnaire and the qualitative research used purposive sampling in 6 Sub Districts which are Ta Ka, Suanluang, Bangkae, Muangmai, Kwae-om, and Bangnanglee Sub District Administration Organization. Total population is 63. For data analysis, the study used content analysis from quantitative research to synthesize and build question frame from the content for interview and conducting focus group interview. The study found that the community participatory in the issue of level in water and waste management are moderate of planning, operation, and evaluation. The issue of being beneficial is at low level. Therefore, the overall participatory level of community in water and waste environment management is at a medium level. The factors affecting the participatory of community in water and waste management are age, the period dwelling in the community and membership in which the mean difference is statistic significant at 0.05 in area of operation, being beneficial, and evaluation. For patterns of community participation, there is the correlation with water and waste management in 4 concerns which are 1) Participation in planning 2) Participation in operation 3) Participation in being beneficial both directly and indirectly benefited 4) Participation in evaluation and monitoring. The recommendation from this study is the need to create conscious awareness in order to increase participation level of people by organizing activities that promote participation with volunteer spirit. Government should open opportunities for people to participate in sharing ideas and create the culture of living together with equality which would build more concrete participation.
A Study of Dose Distribution and Image Quality under an Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM) System for a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT Scanner Using a New Design of Phantom
Automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) systems are available for all CT manufacturers and are used for the majority of patients. Understanding how the systems work and their influence on patient dose and image quality is important for CT users, in order to gain the most effective use of the systems. In the present study, a new phantom was used for evaluating dose distribution and image quality under the ATCM operation for the Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner using different ATCM options and a fixed mAs technique. A routine chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) protocol was selected for study and Gafchromic film was used to measure entrance surface dose (ESD), peripheral dose and central axis dose in the phantom. The results show the dose reductions achievable with various ATCM options, in relation with the target noise. The doses and image noise distribution were more uniform when the ATCM system was implemented compared with the fixed mAs technique. The lower limit set for the tube current will affect the modulations especially for the lower dose option. This limit prevented the tube current being reduced further and therefore the lower dose ATCM setting resembled a fixed mAs technique. Selection of a lower tube current limit is likely to reduce doses for smaller patients in scans of chest and neck regions.
Traditional Grocery Stores and Business Management in Bangkok
This paper was aimed to survey the level of awareness
of traditional grocery stores in Bangkok in these categories: location,
service quality, risk, shopping, worthwhile, shopping satisfaction, and
future shopping intention. The paper was also aimed to survey factors
influencing the decision to shop at traditional grocery stores in
Bangkok in the future. The findings revealed that consumers had a
high level of awareness of traditional grocery stores in Bangkok.
Consumers were aware that the price was higher and it was riskier to
buy goods and services at traditional grocery stores but they still had
a high level of preference to patronage traditional grocery stores. This
was due to the reasons that there was a high level of satisfaction from
the factors of the friendliness of the owner, the ability to negotiate the
price, the ability to buy on credit, free delivery, and the enjoyment to
meet with other customers in the same neighborhood.
Developing Student Teachers to Be Professional Teachers
Practicum placements are an critical factor for student teachers on Education Programs. How can student teachers become professionals? This study was to investigate problems, weakness and obstacles of practicum placements and develop guidelines for partnership in the practicum placements. In response to this issue, a partnership concept was implemented for developing student teachers into professionals. Data were collected through questionnaires on attitude toward problems, weaknesses, and obstacles of practicum placements of student teachers in Rajabhat universities and included focus group interviews. The research revealed that learning management, classroom management, curriculum, assessment and evaluation, classroom action research, and teacher demeanor are the important factors affecting the professional development of Education Program student teachers. Learning management plan and classroom management concerning instructional design, teaching technique, instructional media, and student behavior management are another important aspects influencing the professional development for student teachers.
Case Study of Bus Tourist-s Sightseeing Time in a New Sightseeing Spot
As a result of traffic congestion caused by sightseeing
and shuttle buses using park-and-ride parking lot near sightseeing spot,
the waiting time for tourist increases. In this paper, when bus parking
lot near sightseeing spot are overcrowded and full, a model for tourists
getting off a bus on a congested road and transfer to the sightseeing
spot by foot is proposed and verified. A model of getting off a bus on a
congested road when the sightseeing parking lot is overcrowded was
considered by the case analysis. As a result, effectiveness of the model
of getting off a bus on a congested road could be quantitatively
verified for times when parking capacity is exceeded and the bus
parking lot next to the sightseeing spot is overcrowded.
Constructing a Suitable Model of Distance Training for Community Leader in the Upper Northeastern Region
The objective of this research intends to create a suitable model of distance training for community leaders in the upper northeastern region of Thailand. The implementation of the research process is divided into four steps: The first step is to analyze relevant documents. The second step deals with an interview in depth with experts. The third step is concerned with constructing a model. And the fourth step takes aim at model validation by expert assessments. The findings reveal the two important components for constructing an appropriate model of distance training for community leaders in the upper northeastern region. The first component consists of the context of technology management, e.g., principle, policy and goals. The second component can be viewed in two ways. Firstly, there are elements comprising input, process, output and feedback. Secondly, the sub-components include steps and process in training. The result of expert assessments informs that the researcher-s constructed model is consistent and suitable and overall the most appropriate.
Effects of Ultrasonic Treatment on Germination of Synthetic Sunflower Seeds
One problem of synthetic sunflower cultivation is an
erratic germination of the seeds. To improve the germination, presowing
seed treatment with an ultrasound was tested. All treatments
were carried out at 40 kHz frequency with the intensities of 40, 60,
80 and 100% of the ultrasonic generator total power (250 W) for the
durations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Data on seed germination
percentage, seed vigor index (SVI), root and shoot lengths of
seedlings were collected. The results showed that germination, SVI,
root and shoot lengths of ultrasonic treated seedlings were different
from the control, depending on intensity of the ultrasound. The
effects of ultrasonic treatment were significant on germination,
resulting in a maximum increase of 43% at 40 and 60% intensities
compared to that of the control seeds. In addition, seedlings of these 2
treatments had higher SVI and longer root and shoot lengths than that
of the control seedlings. All treatment durations resulted in higher
germination and SVI, longer root and higher shoot lenghts of
seedlings than the control. Among the duration treatments, only SVI
and seedling root length were significantly different.
Treatment of Recycled Concrete Aggregates by Si-Based Polymers
The recycling of concrete, bricks and masonry rubble
as concrete aggregates is an important way to contribute to a
sustainable material flow. However, there are still various
uncertainties limiting the widespread use of Recycled Concrete
Aggregates (RCA). The fluctuations in the composition of grade
recycled aggregates and their influence on the properties of fresh and
hardened concrete are of particular concern regarding the use of
RCA. Most of problems occurring while using recycled concrete
aggregates as aggregates are due to higher porosity and hence higher
water absorption, lower mechanical strengths, residual impurities on
the surface of the RCA forming weaker bond between cement paste
and aggregate. So, the reuse of RCA is still limited. Efficient
polymer based treatment is proposed in order to reuse RCA easier.
The silicon-based polymer treatments of RCA were carried out and
were compared. This kind of treatment can improve the properties of
RCA such as the rate of water absorption on treated RCA is
Topology Optimization of Cable Truss Web for Prestressed Suspension Bridge
A suspension bridge is the most suitable type of structure for a long-span bridge due to rational use of structural materials. Increased deformability, which is conditioned by appearance of the elastic and kinematic displacements, is the major disadvantage of suspension bridges. The problem of increased kinematic displacements under the action of non-symmetrical load can be solved by prestressing. The prestressed suspension bridge with the span of 200 m was considered as an object of investigations. The cable truss with the cross web was considered as the main load carrying structure of the prestressed suspension bridge. The considered cable truss was optimized by 47 variable factors using Genetic algorithm and FEM program ANSYS. It was stated, that the maximum total displacements are reduced up to 29.9% by using of the cable truss with the rational characteristics instead of the single cable in the case of the worst situated load.
Computational and Experimental Investigation of Supersonic Flow and their Controls
Supersonic open and closed cavity flows are investigated experimentally and computationally. Free stream Mach number of two is set. Schlieren imaging is used to visualise the flow behaviour showing stark differences between open and closed. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate open cavity of flow with aspect ratio of 4. A rear wall treatment is implemented in order to pursue a simple passive control approach. Good qualitative agreement is achieved between the experimental flow visualisation and the CFD in terms of the expansion-shock waves system. The cavity oscillations are shown to be dominated by the first and third Rossister modes combining to high fluctuations of non-linear nature above the cavity rear edge. A simple rear wall treatment in terms of a hole shows mixed effect on the flow oscillations, RMS contours, and time history density fluctuations are given and analysed.
Numerical Method Based On Initial Value-Finite Differences for Free Vibration of Stepped Thickness Plates
The main objective of the present paper is to derive an easy numerical technique for the analysis of the free vibration through the stepped regions of plates. Based on the utilities of the step by step integration initial values IV and Finite differences FD methods, the present improved Initial Value Finite Differences (IVFD) technique is achieved. The first initial conditions are formulated in convenient forms for the step by step integrations while the upper and lower edge conditions are expressed in finite difference modes. Also compatibility conditions are created due to the sudden variation of plate thickness. The present method (IVFD) is applied to solve the fourth order partial differential equation of motion for stepped plate across two different panels under the sudden step compatibility in addition to different types of end conditions. The obtained results are examined and the validity of the present method is proved showing excellent efficiency and rapid convergence.
The Influencing Factors and the Approach to Enhance the Standard of E-Commerce for Small and Medium Enterprises in Bangkok
The objectives of this research paper were to study the
influencing factors that contributed to the success of electronic
commerce (e-commerce) and to study the approach to enhance the
standard of e-commerce for small and medium enterprises (SME).
The research paper focused the study on only sole proprietorship
SMEs in Bangkok, Thailand. The factors contributed to the success
of SME included business management, learning in the organization,
business collaboration, and the quality of website. A quantitative and
qualitative mixed research methodology was used. In terms of
quantitative method, a questionnaire was used to collect data from
251 sole proprietorships. The System Equation Model (SEM) was
utilized as the tool for data analysis. In terms of qualitative method,
an in-depth interview, a dialogue with experts in the field of ecommerce
for SMEs, and content analysis were used.
By using the adjusted causal relationship structure model, it was
revealed that the factors affecting the success of e-commerce for
SMEs were found to be congruent with the empirical data. The
hypothesis testing indicated that business management influenced the
learning in the organization, the learning in the organization
influenced business collaboration and the quality of the website, and
these factors, in turn, influenced the success of SMEs. Moreover, the
approach to enhance the standard of SMEs revealed that the majority
of respondents wanted to enhance the standard of SMEs to a high
level in the category of safety of e-commerce system, basic structure
of e-commerce, development of staff potentials, assistance of budget
and tax reduction, and law improvement regarding the e-commerce
A Real-Time Rendering based on Efficient Updating of Static Objects Buffer
Real-time 3D applications have to guarantee
interactive rendering speed. There is a restriction for the number of
polygons which is rendered due to performance of a graphics hardware
or graphics algorithms. Generally, the rendering performance will be
drastically increased when handling only the dynamic 3d models,
which is much fewer than the static ones. Since shapes and colors of
the static objects don-t change when the viewing direction is fixed, the
information can be reused. We render huge amounts of polygon those
cannot handled by conventional rendering techniques in real-time by
using a static object image and merging it with rendering result of the
dynamic objects. The performance must be decreased as a
consequence of updating the static object image including removing
an static object that starts to move, re-rending the other static objects
being overlapped by the moving ones. Based on visibility of the object
beginning to move, we can skip the updating process. As a result, we
enhance rendering performance and reduce differences of rendering
speed between each frame. Proposed method renders total
200,000,000 polygons that consist of 500,000 dynamic polygons and
the rest are static polygons in about 100 frames per second.
An Investigation into Turbine Blade Tip Leakage Flows at High Speeds
The effect of the blade tip geometry of a high pressure
gas turbine is studied experimentally and computationally for high
speed leakage flows. For this purpose two simplified models are
constructed, one models a flat tip of the blade and the second models
a cavity tip of the blade. Experimental results are obtained from a
transonic wind tunnel to show the static pressure distribution along
the tip wall and provide flow visualization. RANS computations
were carried to provide further insight into the mean flow behavior
and to calculate the discharge coefficient which is a measure of the
flow leaking over the tip. It is shown that in both geometries of tip
the flow separates over the tip to form a separation bubble. The
bubble is higher for the cavity tip while a complete shock wave
system of oblique waves ending with a normal wave can be seen for
the flat tip. The discharge coefficient for the flat tip shows less
dependence on the pressure ratio over the blade tip than the cavity
tip. However, the discharge coefficient for the cavity tip is lower than
that of the flat tip, showing a better ability to reduce the leakage flow
and thus increase the turbine efficiency.
Torsional Statics of Circular Nanostructures: Numerical Approach
Based on the standard finite element method, a new
finite element method which is known as nonlocal finite element
method (NL-FEM) is numerically implemented in this article to
study the nonlocal effects for solving 1D nonlocal elastic problem.
An Eringen-type nonlocal elastic model is considered. In this model,
the constitutive stress-strain law is expressed interms of integral
equation which governs the nonlocal material behavior. The new
NL-FEM is adopted in such a way that the postulated nonlocal elastic
behavior of material is captured by a finite element endowed with a
set of (cross-stiffness) element itself by the other elements in mesh.
An example with their analytical solutions and the relevant numerical
findings for various load and boundary conditions are presented and
discussed in details. It is observed from the numerical solutions that
the torsional deformation angle decreases with increasing nonlocal
nanoscale parameter. It is also noted that the analytical solution fails
to capture the nonlocal effect in some cases where numerical
solutions handle those situation effectively which prove the
reliability and effectiveness of numerical techniques.
The Model of Blended Learning and Its Use at Foreign Language Teaching
In present article the model of Blended Learning, its advantage at foreign language teaching, and also some problems that can arise during its use are considered. The Blended Learning is a special organization of learning, which allows to combine classroom work and modern technologies in electronic distance teaching environment. Nowadays a lot of European educational institutions and companies use such technology. Through this method: student gets the opportunity to learn in a group (classroom) with a teacher and additionally at home at a convenient time; student himself sets the optimal speed and intensity of the learning process; this method helps student to discipline himself and learn to work independently.