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International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46035

Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Preventive Effect of Three Kinds of Bacteriophages to Control Vibrio coralliilyticus Infection in Oyster Larvae
Vibrio corallilyticus is a well-known pathogen of coral. It is also infectious to a variety of shellfish species, including Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae. V. corallilyticus is remained to be a major constraint in marine bivalve aquaculture practice, especially in artificial seed production facility. Owing to the high mortality and contagious nature of the pathogen, large amount of antibiotics has been used for disease prevention and control. However, indiscriminate use of antibiotics may result in food and environmental pollution, and development of antibiotic resistant strains. Therefore, eco-friendly disease preventative measures are imperative for sustainable bivalve culture. The present investigation proposes the application of bacteriophage (phage) as an effective alternative method for controlling V. corallilyticus infection in marine bivalve hatcheries. Isolation of phages from sea water sample was carried out using drop or double layer agar methods. The host range, stability and morphology of the phage isolates were studied. In vivo phage efficacy to prevent V. corallilyticus infection in oyster larvae was also performed. The isolated phages, named pVco-5 and pVco-7 was classified as a podoviridae and pVco-14, was classified as a siphoviridae. Each phages were infective to four strains of seven V. corallilyticus strains tested. When oyster larvae were pre-treated with the phage before bacterial challenge, mortality of the treated oyster larvae was lower than that in the untreated control. This result suggests that each phages have the potential to be used as therapeutic agent for controlling V. corallilyticus infection in marine bivalve hatchery.
Host Plant Range of Aphidophagus Hoverflies in Relation to Their Pray Aphids in Thatta Pakistan
Hoverflies are commonly known as flower flies, sun flies or garden flies. Hoverflies are very important group of insects because their ecosystem services are diverse. They are an attractive group of insects with their striped abdomens. They are day-flying insects from small to large size, have worldwide distribution, but mostly prefer to live in relatively cold weather areas. In the world, about 6,000 species of 200 genera of two sub-families have been described. Their larvae exhibit a variety of feeding modes i.e. aphidophagous, saprophagous, zoophagous and Phytophagus, where adults are floral visitors of hundreds of different plants species. These floral resources enhance the longevity and fecundity of adult dipterous flies. Many syrphid species also have been documented as efficient crop pollinators. Aphids are commonly called plant louse, greenflies and blackflies. They are major pest of crops; about 4000 species of aphids have been described, feeding on 250 species of plants.
Assessment on Rumen Microbial Diversity of Bali Cattle Using 16S rRNA Sequencing
Bacteria, protozoa, Archaea, and fungi are the dominant microorganisms found in the rumen ecosystem that has an important role in converting feed ingredients into components that can be digested and utilized by the livestock host. This study was conducted to assess the diversity of rumen bacteria of bali cattle raised under traditional farming condition. Three adult bali cattle were used in this experiment. The rumen fluid samples from the three experimental animals were obtained by the Stomach Tube method before the morning feeding. The results of study indicated that the Illumina sequencing was successful in identifying 301,589 sequences, averaging 100,533 sequences, from three rumen fluid samples of three cattle. Furthermore, based on the SILVA taxonomic database, there were 19 kinds of phyla that had been successfully identified. Of the 19 phyla, there were only two dominant groups across the three samples, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with an average percentage of 83.68% and 13.43%, respectively. Other groups such as Synergistetes, Spirochaetae, Planctomycetes can also be identified but in relatively small percentage. At the genus level, there were 157 sequences obtained from all three samples. Of this number, the most dominant group was Prevotella 1 with a percentage of 71.82% followed by 6.94% of Christencenellaceae R-7 group. Other groups such as Prevotellaceae UCG-001, Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group, Sphaerochaeta, Ruminococcus 2, Rikenellaceae RC9 gut group, Quinella were also identified but with very low percentages. The sequencing results were able to detect the presence of 3.06% and 3.92% respectively for uncultured rumen bacterium and uncultured bacterium. In conclusion, the results of this experiment can provide an opportunity for a better understanding of the rumen bacterial diversity of the bali cattle raised under traditional farming condition and insight regarding the uncultured rumen bacterium and uncultured bacterium that need to be further explored.
In vitro Analysis of the Effect of Supplementation Oils on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Butyvibrio Fibrisolvense
Some micronutrients in food (milk and meat), called ‘functional food components’ exert beneficial effects other than their routine nutrient function and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an unsaturated fatty acid of ruminant origin, an example of this category. However, recently the fear of hypercholesterolemia due to saturated fats has led to the avoidance of dietary fat especially of animal origin despite its advantages such as lowering blood cholesterol, immuno-modulation and anticarcinogenic property due to the presence of CLA. The dietary increase of linoleic acid (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA) is one of the feeding strategies for increasing the CLA concentration in milk. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is the one potential rumen bacteria, which has high potential to isomerize LA to CLA. The study was conducted to screen the different oils for CLA production, selected based on their LA concentration. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens culture (strain 49, MZ3, 30/10) were isolated from the rumen liquor of fistulated Buffalo (age ≈ 3 years; weight ≈ 250 kg) were used in in-vitro experiments, further work was carried out with three oils viz., sunflower, mustard and soybean oil at different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 g/L of media) to study the growth of bacteria and CLA production at different incubation period (0, 8, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72 h). In the present study, growth of the bacteria was decreased linearly with increase in concentration of three oils. However, highest decrease in growth was recorded at the concentration of 0.30 g of three oils per litre of the media. Highest CLA production was 51.96, 42.08 and 25.60 µg/ml at 0.25 g and it decreased to 48.19, 39.35 and 23.41 µg/ml at 0.3 g supplementation of sunflower, soybean, and mustard oil per litre of the media, respectively at 18 h incubation period. The present study indicates the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens bacteria involves in the biohydrogenation process, and LA rich sunflower meal can be used to improve the CLA production in rumen and thereby increasing the CLA concentration of milk.
Effects of Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder on the Feed Intake and Average Weight of Pullets
The study was carried out to determine the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf powder additive on the feed intake and average weight of pullets. A completely Randomized Design (CRD) was adopted for the study. On the procedure of the experiment, 240 chicks were randomly selected from 252 Isa Brown day-old chicks. The chicks were equally randomly allotted to 12 pens with 20 chicks each. The pens were randomly assigned to four different treatment groups with three replicates each. T1 was fed with control feed while T2, T3, and T4 were fed with 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% Moringa oleifera leaf powder fortified feed respectively. The chicks were fed with uniform feed up to week four. From week five, experimental feeds were given to the pullet up to 20 weeks of age. The birds were placed on the same treatment conditions except different experimental feeds given to different groups. Data on the feed intake were collected daily while the average weight of the pullets was collected weekly using weighing scale. Data collected were analyzed using mean, bar charts and Analysis of Variance. The layers fed with control feed consumed the highest amount of feed in most of the weeks under study. The average weights of all the treatment groups were equal from week 1 to week 4. Little variation in average weight started in week 5 with T2 topping the groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the feed intake and average weight of layers fed with different inclusion rates of Moringa oleifera leaf powder in feeds.
Surveillance for African Swine Fever and Classical Swine Fever in Benue State, Nigeria
A serosurveillance study was conducted to detect the presence of antibodies to African swine fever virus (ASFV), and classical swine fever virus in pigs sampled from piggeries and Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, Nigeria. Four hundred and sixteen (416) pigs from 74 piggeries across 12 LGAs and 44 pigs at the Makurdi central slaughter slab were sampled for serum. The sera collected were analysed using Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit to test for antibodies to ASFV while competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit was used to test for antibodies to CSFV. Of the 416 pigs from piggeries and 44 pigs sampled from the slaughter slab, 7 (1.7 %) and 6 (13.6 %) respectively tested positive to ASFV antibodies and was significantly associated (p < 0.0001). Out of the 12 LGAs sampled, Obi LGA had the highest ASFV antibody detection rate of (4.8 %) and was significantly associated (p < 0.0001). None of the samples tested positive to CSFV antibodies. The study concluded that antibodies to CSFV were absent in the sampled pigs in piggeries and at the Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, while antibodies to ASFV were present in both locations hence the need to keep an eye open for CSF too since both diseases may pose great risk in the study area. Further studies to characterise the ASFV circulating in Benue State and investigate the possible sources is recommended. Routine surveillance to provide a comprehensive and readily accessible data base to plan for the prevention of any fulminating outbreak is also recommended.
The Effect of Different Levels of Thyme on Egg Storage Quality in Laying Hens
The current study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of different levels of thyme leaves (Oregano onites) in laying hens on egg quality traits during various storage time. A total of 36 Babcock white laying hens were divided into three groups with four subgroups in each and fed diets containing 0%, 5% and 10% thyme (Oregano onites) to each group accordingly for 30 days. During the study, the lighting was applied for 16 hours light and 8 hours dark. There was ad libitum feed and water. At the end of the study, eight eggs from each group were analysed on the same day without storage. Remaining eggs were stored at +4°C. Then after 10th, 20th and 30th days of storage, eight eggs from each group were analysed for internal egg quality parameters (egg weight, eggshell breaking strength, yolk colour index and Haugh unit), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS). Results revealed that thyme has shown no effect on eggshell breaking strength. However, Haugh units and egg weight values were higher at %5 inclusion rate group (p < 0.05) according to %10 inclusion rate and control which were similar. Yolk colour of both treatment groups (%5 and %10) was lighter than control (p < 0.05). There was no effect on TOS for all groups and storage times. Although TAC value was showed no differences at fresh and ten days stored eggs, it was increased both %5 and %10 inclusion rate at 20th day of storage. At 30th day of storage, TAC value was still higher at %10 thyme group (p < 0.05) according to %5 thyme and control groups were similar. It is concluded that dietary thyme leave could be used to extend storage time of eggs. However, the further research is required to provide most appropriate form and a dose of dietary thyme leaves in laying hen diets for extending shelf life without adverse effects on egg traits.
Effect of Sodium Arsenite Exposure on Pharmacodynamic of Meloxicam in Male Wistar Rats
Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid with potent toxic effects. It is ubiquitous in the environment and released from both natural and anthropogenic sources. It has the potential to cause various health hazards in exposed populations. Arsenic exposure through drinking water is considered as one of the most serious global environmental threats including Southeast Asia. The aim of present study was to evaluate the modulatory role of subacute exposure to sodium (meta) arsenite on the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic responses mediated by meloxicam in rats. Rats were exposed to arsenic as sodium arsenite through drinking water for 28 days. A single dose of meloxicam (2 mg/kg b. wt.) was administered by oral gavage on the 29th day. The exact time of meloxicam administration depended on the type of test. Rats were divided randomly into 5 groups (n=6). Group I served as normal control and received arsenic free drinking water, while rats in group II were maintained similar to Group I but received meloxicam on 29th day. Groups III, IV and V were pre-exposed to arsenic through drinking water at 0.5, 5.0 and 50 ppm, respectively, for 28 days and was administered meloxicam next day and; pain and inflammation carried out by using formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced inflammatory model(s), respectively by using standard protocol. For assessment of antipyretic effects, one more additional group (Group VI) was taken and given LPS @ 1.8 mg/kg b. wt. for induction of pyrexia (LPS control). Higher dose of arsenic inhibited the meloxicam mediated antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic responses. Further, meloxicam inhibited the arsenic induced level of tumor necrosis factor-α, inetrleukin-1β, interleukin -6 and COX2 mediated prostaglandin E2 in hind paw muscle. These results suggest a functional antagonism of meloxicam by arsenic. This may relate to arsenic mediated local release of tumor necrosis factor-α, inetrleukin-1β, interleukin -6 releases COX2 mediated prostaglandin E2. Based on the experimental study, it is concluded that sub-acute exposure to arsenic through drinking water aggravate pyrexia, inflammation and pain at environment relevant concentration and decrease the therapeutic efficacy of meloxicam at higher level of arsenite exposure. Thus, the observation made has clinical relevance in situations where animals are exposed to arsenite epidemic geographical locations.
Prevalence and Patterns of Ovine Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma in Slaughtered Sheep, Iran
This study was carried out in Semnan province, Northeast of Iran, for a period of six months from April to September 2016. A total number of 4079 local breed sheep divided into three age groups as < 1, 1–2, and > 2 years old were subjected to postmortem examination in Semnan abattoir and subjected to post-slaughter examination to detect the presence of any pathological lesions. Macroscopic lesions of pneumonia were found and detected in the lungs belonging to 259 (6.35%) sheep. In careful gross inspection, 189 (73%) lungs, that were enlarged and failed to collapse and in some cases contained little quantity of foamy fluid in the respiratory tract, were collected for further detailed histopathological investigations. Histopathological lesions of OPA were observed in 6 (3.17%) out of 189 suspected lung samples. These 6 lungs macroscopically were very heavy and appeared 'waterlogged,' and the affected areas of the lungs were solid and light grey in color particularly on the ventral portion or diaphragmatic lobes. The histopathological features of all the 6 affected lungs were almost similar and revealed characteristic lesions of a typical OPA including papillary projections in the lumen of the alveoli and bronchioles, sparse connective tissue stroma, mononuclear cells and connective tissue infiltration and swollen and foamy macrophages in the alveoli and bronchioles in the vicinity of the neoplastic lesions. Except in one case in which beside the above-mentioned changes, a dominant feature of the classic form of OPA means neutrophils and fibrin casts in the alveolar and bronchial lumens were observed. The affected areas were essentially the same and also nearly similar to previous reports. All 6 affected lungs belonged to sheep above 2 years old. It is indicated that there is not always a clear distinction between classical and atypical OPA cases and sometimes both forms are present in the same lung.
Effects of the Supplementation of Potassium Humate at Different Levels to the Dairy Cows' Concentrated Mix during Dry Period on Early Lactation Yield Parameters and Dam/Calf Immunity
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of humic acid (Potassium Humate) at different levels on rations on the effects of both maternal and offspring health, metabolic parameters and immunity levels in transition dairy cows. For this purpose, 50 Holstein dairy cows divided 5 trial groups. Experimental groups were designed as follows: A) Control (0% Humas); B) 0.5 Humas (0,5% in concentrated diet); C) 1 Humas (1% in concentrated diet), D) 1,5 Humas (1,5% in concentrated diet), E) 2 Humas (2% in concentrated diet), respectively. The study lasted from the first day of the dry period to postpartum 30th day. Diets were prepared as isocaloric and isonitrogenic. In the experiment, the day on which the animals gave birth was accepted as ‘0 (zero)’ and blood was taken from tail vein (v. coccygea) at -60, -53, -46, -39, -32, -25, -18, -11, -4, 0, ; Colostrum samples were taken on days 0, 1 and 2; Blood samples were taken on days 0, 1, 2, 15 and 30 from the juguler vein (v. jugularis) of the new born calves. Total blood leukocyte, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, granulocytes, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MWC, RDW, PLT, MPV, PDW, PCT, NEFA, BHBA, Glucose, Total Cholesterol , Triglyceride, LDL, HDL, VLDL, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and Total IgG levels and colostrum IgG levels were determined in this experiment. The results suggest that although the supplementation of humic acid at 2% level adversely affected to production parameters, the addition of humic acid (potassium humate) to the concentrate mix during the dry period (particularly 0.5 and 1% levels) may provide an increasing on mother and the offspring immunity, some improving on serum metabolism parameters and enhancing the milk production.
Renal Amyloidosis in Domestic Iranian Sheep
Amyloidosis represents a heterogenous group of diseases that have in common the deposition of fibrils composed of proteins of beta-pleated sheet structure, which can be specifically identified by histochemistry using the Congo red or similar stains. Between October 2013 to April 2014 (6 months) different patterns of renal amyloidosis was diagnosed on histopathological examination of kidneys belong to 196 out of 7065 slaughtered sheep subjected to postmortem examination. Microscopic examination of renal tissue sections stained with H&E and CR staining techniques revealed 3 patterns of renal amyloid deposition; including glomerular (22.72%), medullary (68.18%), and vascular (9.09%) were recognized. Renal medullary amyloidosis (RMA) was detected as the most prevalence pattern of renal amyloidosis in domestic sheep.
Intrarenal Injection of Pentobarbital Sodium for Euthanasia in Cats: 131 Cases, 2010-2011
The objective of this retrospective study was to determine whether intrarenal injection of pentobarbital sodium is a practicable method of euthanasia in client-owned cats. 131 Cats were anesthetized using a combination of tiletamine, zolazepam, and acepromazine given by of subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Once an appropriate plane of anesthesia was reached, 6 ml of pentobarbital sodium was injected into either the left or right kidney. The patient’s age, sex, estimated weight, presenting condition, estimated dehydration level, palpable characteristics of the kidney pre and post injection, physical response of the cat, and time to cardiopulmonary arrest were recorded. Analysis of 131 records revealed that cats receiving an intrarenal injection of pentobarbital sodium had an average time to cardiopulmonary arrest of 1 minute. The great majority (79%) experienced cardiopulmonary arrest in less than one minute with the remainder experiencing cardiopulmonary arrest between 1 and 8 minutes of the injection. 95% of cats had no observable reaction to intrarenal injection other than cardiopulmonary arrest. In the 19% of cases where kidney swelling was not palpable upon injection, average time to cardiopulmonary arrest increased from 0.9 to 1.6 min. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Intrarenal injections of pentobarbital sodium are similar in effect to intravenous methods of euthanasia. Veterinarians who elect to use intrarenal injections can expect cardiopulmonary arrest to occur quickly in the majority of patients with few agonal reactions. Intrarenal injection of pentobarbital sodium in anesthetized cats has ideally suited for cases of owner observed euthanasia when obtaining intravenous access would difficult or disruptive.
Selection of Developmental Stages of Bovine in vitro-Derived Blastocysts Prior to Vitrification and Embryo Transfer: Implications for Cattle Breeding Programs
Identification of the most suitable stages of bovine in vitro-derived blastocysts (early, expanded and hatching) prior to vitrification is a straightforward process that facilitates the decision as to which blastocyst stage to use for transfer of fresh and vitrified embryos. Research on in vitro evaluation of suitable stages has shown that the more advanced developmental stage of blastocysts is recommended for fresh embryo transfer while the earlier stage is proposed for embryo transfer following vitrification. There is, however, limited information on blastocyst stages using in vivo assessment. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine the optimal stage of a blastocyst for vitrification and embryo transfer through a two-step procedure of embryo transfer followed by pregnancy testing at 35, 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. 410 good quality oocytes aspirated by the ovum pick-up technique from 8 donor cows were subjected to in vitro embryo production, vitrification and embryo transfer. Good quality embryos were selected, subjected to vitrification and embryo transfer. Subsequently, 77 vitrified embryos at different blastocyst stages were transferred to synchronised recipient cows. The overall cleavage and blastocyst rates of oocytes were 68.8% and 41.7%, respectively. In addition, the fertility and blastocyst production of 6 bulls used for in vitro fertilization was examined and shown to be statistically different (P< 0.05). Results of ongoing pregnancy trials conducted at 35 days, 60 days and 90 days will be discussed. However, preliminary data indicate that individual bulls demonstrate distinctly different fertility performance in vitro. Findings from conception rates would provide a useful tool to aid selection of bovine in vitro-derived embryos for vitrification and embryo transfer in commercial settings.
Sanitary Measures in Piggeries: Awareness and Risk Factors of African Swine Fever in Benue State, Nigeria
A study was conducted to determine the level of compliance with sanitary measures in piggeries, awareness and risk factors of African swine fever in Benue State, Nigeria. Questionnaire was distributed to 74 respondents consisting of piggery owners and attendants in different piggeries across 12 LGAs to collect data for this study. Sanitary measures in piggeries were observed to be generally very poor, though respondents admitted being aware of ASF. Piggeries located within 1km radius of a slaughter slab (OR=9.2, 95 % CI - 3.0-28.8), piggeries near refuse dump sites (OR=3.0, 95 % CI - 1.0-9.5) and piggeries where farm workers wear their work clothes outside of the piggery premises (OR=0.2, 95 % CI- 0.1-0.7) showed higher chances of ASFV infection and were significantly associated (p < 0.0001), (p < 0.05) and (p < 0.01), and were identified as potential risk factors. The study concluded that pigs in Benue State are still at risk of an ASF outbreak. Proper sanitary and hygienic practices are advocated and emphasized in piggeries, while routine surveillance for ASFV antibodies in pigs in Benue State is strongly recommended to provide a reliable reference data base to plan for the prevention of any devastating ASF outbreak.
Preliminary Analysis of a Phylogeography Study of Dendropsophus minutus in the Guiana Shield
Dendropsophus minutus, is a species distributed in South America including the slopes of the Andes, the Amazon basin, forests of southeastern Brazil and in Guyana where tropical forests are characteristic. The relationship of amphibians found in this locality is evidenced by molecular markers, with the objective of analyzing if the geographic distance is influencing the structure of the populations of D. minutus in Guyana; we analyzed 65 sequences from the 3 localities of Guyana where haplotype networks, Mantel Test and phylogeny were realized to know the influence. It was evidenced that there is a haplotypic difference in the locality of Guyana compared to Suriname and French Guyana, but this does not have a correlation with the geographic distance, but this one can be influenced by the conditions of the places.
Management Practices in Holding Pens in Pig’s Slaughterhouses in the Valle De Aburrá, Antioquia and Animal Welfare
Introduction: The management of pigs in the holding pens at the slaughterhouses is a key point to minimize levels of stress and fear, improve efficiency, maintain a good quality of meat and avoid economic losses. Holding pens should guarantee drinking water continuously, a minimum space of 1.2 m2/ animal; As well as an adequate management in the conduction of the animals towards stun. Objective: To characterize the management practices in holding pens in slaughterhouses in the Valle de Aburrá. Methods: A descriptive cross - sectional study was carried out in Valle de Aburrá benefit plants, which were authorized by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA). Variables such as management mechanisms to the pens, time of housing, water supply, load density, vocalization, slips and falls of the animals in the pens and mechanism of conduction towards desensitization were analyzed. Results: 225 pigs were analyzed, finding that 35.6% were lowered with slaps from the trucks to the waiting pens; The lairage time was greater than 10 hours in 16% of the animals; 12.9% of pigs had no water permanently; 40.9% was subjected to a high load density, while 19.6% had a low load density. Regarding aspects of animal welfare, 37.3% presented high vocalizations; 29.3% and 14.2% presented slips or falls respectively. Regarding the mechanism of conduction towards desensitization, slapping was used in 56% and electrical prod in 4%. Conclusions: It is necessary to continue promoting the learning of the densities of load, since both high and low densities generate inconveniences in animal welfare, favoring the appearance of lesions and stress in the animals. Also, to promote the rule of permanent water in the pens and a time of housing less than 10 hours. In relation to the driving mechanisms, it is necessary to continue animal husbandry campaigns, encouraging the use of other alternatives such as boards or panels to assist the movement of pigs.
Stun Practices in Swine in the Valle De Aburrá and Animal Welfare
Introduction: Stunning is an important stage in the meat industry due to the repercussions on the characteristics of the carcass. It has been demonstrated that inadequate stun can lead to hematomas, fractures and promote the appearance of pale, soft and exudative meat due to the stress caused in animals. In Colombia, gas narcosis and electrical stunning are the two authorized methods in pigs. Objective: To describe the practices of stunning in the Valle de Aburrá and its relation with animal welfare. Methods: A descriptive cross - sectional study was carried out in Valle de Aburrá slaughterhouses, which were authorized by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA). Variables such as stunning method, presence of vocalization, falls, slips, rhythmic breathing, corneal reflex and attempts to incorporate after stunning, stun time and time between stun and bleeding were analyzed. Results: 225 pigs were analyzed, finding that 50.2% had electrical stun, whose amperage and voltage were 1.23 (A) and 120 (V) respectively; 49.8% of the animals were stunned with CO2 chamber whose concentration was always above 95%, the mean desensitization time was 16.8 seconds (d.e.5.37); the mean time of stunning - bleeding was 47.9 seconds (d.e.13.9); similarly, it was found that 27.1% had vocalizations after stunning; 12% had falls; 10.7% showed rhythmic breathing; 33.3% exhibited corneal reflex; and 10.7% had reincorporation attempts. Conclusions: The methods of stunning used in the Valle de Aburrá, although performed with those permitted by law, are shortcomings in relation to the amperage and voltage used for each type of pig, as well, it is found that welfare animal is being violated to find signology of an inadequate desensitization. It is necessary to promote compliance with the principles of stunning according to Animal Welfare, and keep in mind that in electrical desensitization, the calibration of the equipment must be guaranteed (pressure according to the type of animal or current applied and the position where the electrodes are) and in the narcosis the equipment should be calibrated to ensure proper gas concentration and exposure time.
Management in the Transport of Pigs to Slaughterhouses in the Valle De Aburrá, Antioquia
Introduction: Transport is a crucial link in the porcine chain because it is considered a stressful event in the animal, due to it is a new environment, which generates new interactions, together with factors such as speed, noise, temperature changes, vibrations, deprivation of food and water. Therefore, inadequate handling at this stage can lead to bruises, musculoskeletal injuries, fatigue, and mortality, resulting in canal seizures and economic losses. Objective: To characterize the transport and driving practices for the mobilization of standing pigs directed to slaughter plants in the Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia in 2017. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with the transporters arriving at the slaughterhouses approved by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA) during 2017 in the Valle de Aburrá. The process of obtaining the samples was made from probabilistic sampling. Variables such as journey time, mechanical technical certificate, training in animal welfare, driving speed, material, and condition of floors and separators, supervision of animals during the trip, load density and mortality were analyzed. It was approved by the ethics committee for the use and care of animals CICUA of CES University, Act number 14 of 2015. Results: 190 trucks were analyzed, finding that 12.4% did not have updated mechanical technical certificate; the transporters experience in pig’s transportation was an average of 9.4 years (d.e.7.5). The 85.8% reported not having received training in animal welfare. Other results were that the average speed was 63.04km/hr (d.e 13.46) and the 62% had floors in good condition; nevertheless, the 48% had bad conditions on separators. On the other hand, the 88% did not supervise their animals during the journey, although the 62.2% had an adequate loading density, in relation to the average mortality was 0.2 deaths/travel (d.e. 0.5). Conclusions: Trainers should be encouraged on issues such as proper maintenance of vehicles, animal welfare, obligatory review of animals during mobilization and speed of driving, as these poorly managed indicators generate stress in animals, increasing generation of injuries as well as possible accidents; also, it is necessary to continue to improve aspects such as aluminum floors and separators that favor easy cleaning and maintenance, as well as the appropriate handling in the density of load that generates animal welfare.
Exploring the Optimum Temperature and Diet for Growth and Gastric Emptying Time of Juvenile Malabar Blood Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus)
In this study, we analyzed the effects of water temperature and diet on the growth properties and gastric emptying period of juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) over a 30day experimental period. Fish were collected from a local hatchery of Pulau Ketam, Selangor, Malaysia and immediately transferred to flow-through sea water system and subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (formulated pellet and shrimp). Body weight gain, food consumption, food conversion ratio, food consumption efficiency, specific growth rate, relative growth rate, daily growth rate, and gastric emptying period were significantly influenced by temperature and diet (P< 0.05). The best food conversion ratio was with the shrimp group recorded at 30°C (1.33±0.08). The highest growth rate was observed in the shrimp group at 30°C (3.97±0.57% day-1), and the lowest was observed in the formulated pellet group at 22°C (1.63±0.29% day-1). No significant difference was observed between the groups subjected to temperatures of 26 and 30°C. Similarly, the lowest gastric emptying period was detected in the shrimp group at 30°C (16h), where the proportion of meal residues in the stomach decreased from 100% to less than 8% after 12h of starvation. A significantly longer gastric emptying period was observed in the formulated pellet group at 22°C (28h). Overall, the best results were observed on shrimp group subjected to a 30°C temperature. The data obtained from this study suggest that a shrimp diet fed on L. malabaricus at 30°C will optimize the commercial production of this commercially important fish species.
The Effect of Total Mixture Concentrate Based on Tofu Waste Silage as Feed on Performance of Lambs
The objective of this study was to identify the benefits of total mixture concentrate based on tofu waste silage (TMC-TWS) as ration containing lactic acid bacteria on performance of lambs. Fifteen weaning lambs (2-3 months old) were randomly divided into two treatment groups, treatment group I (TI) was fed with TMC-TWS as ration and treatment group II (TII) was fed with TMC-TWS fresh (without silage fermentation). The performance of lambs was evaluated on day 0, 15, and 30 to have data of body weight per day. Meanwhile, blood sampling and feces were made on the 30th day to get an analysis on the blood profile (erythrocytes (mill/ml), hemoglobin (g/dL), packed cell volume (%), and leukocytes (mill/ml)) and the number of worm eggs in feces. The results of this study showed no significant difference between the effect of different feed on the blood profile (erythrocytes (mill/ml), hemoglobin (g/dL), packed cell volume (%), as well as the number of worm eggs in the feces. However the results showed significant differences if it is low (P< 0.05) due to the treatment group based on sex on body weight gain per day, feed conversion rate and the number of erythrocytes.
Cytogenetic Analysis of Vitrified Warmed in vitro Matured Ovine Oocyte: Beneficial Effects of Ethylene Glycol Tetraacetic Acid, an Intracellular Calcium Chelator
Successful cryopreservation of mature oocytes would create a promising method for female genetic conservation in many threatened mammalian species. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of numerical chromosome abnormalities following vitrification of in vitro matured ovine oocytes using different concentrations of calcium. After in vitro maturation (24h), oocytes were randomly divided into control (fresh) and experimental (vitrified) groups. Accordingly, four experimental groups were established depending on different calcium concentrations in base media of vitrification solution: mPB1⁺ (modified Phosphate Buffered Saline [PBS] with Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺), mPB1⁻ (modified PBS without Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺), mPB1⁺/EGTA (mPB1⁺ containing 2mM Ethylene Glycol Tetraacetic acid [EGTA]), mPB1⁻/EGTA(mPB1⁻ containing 2mM EGTA). Base media supplemented with 20% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) in all experimental groups. In vitro matured oocytes were initially equilibrated in 7.5% Ethylene glycol (EG)+ 7.5% Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the base medium for 3 min followed by an incubation in vitrification solution composed of 15% EG+15% DMSO and 0.5 M trehalose in the base medium for maximum 1 min. After vitrification and warming, oocyte survival was morphologically examined under a stereomicroscope. Viable oocytes were subjected to cytogenetic analysis using karyotyping method. All percentage data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA after arcsine transformation. Differences were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. No significant difference was found between vitrified and fresh groups in oocyte survival rate. Also, the incidence of numerical chromosome abnormalities was significantly affected by the composition of vitrification solution. Our data revealed that vitrification of oocytes in mPB1-/EGTA group led to a significant decline in percentage of abnormal oocytes compared to other vitrified groups (25.0% in mPB1⁻ /EGTA vs. 34.3%, 42.9% and 48.6% in mPB1⁻, mPB1⁺ and mPB1⁺/ EGTA, respectively). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between fresh and mPB1⁻/EGTA group in oocyte abnormalities (8.6% and 25.0%, respectively). In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that supplementation of vitrification solution with EGTA, a specific calcium chelator, significantly reduced the incidence of numerical chromosome abnormalities after cryopreservation.
Antigenic Diversity of Theileria parva Isolates from Cattle and Buffalo at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface in Southern and Eastern Africa
Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle caused by an apicomplexan protozoan parasite of the genus Theileria. In eastern and southern Africa, Theileria infections in cattle are caused by the species Theileria parva whose natural reservoir is the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Currently, East Coast Fever (ECF) caused by the cattle-derived Theileria parva is still a major problem in eastern Africa and some parts of southern Africa but not in South Africa following its eradication in the 1950s. However, Corridor disease (CD) caused by the buffalo-derived Theileria parva still remains a concern in South Africa. The diversity of Theileria parva in South Africa in comparison to other affected countries is poorly defined yet its known to be the survival strategy of this parasite. We assessed the antigenic diversity of Theileria parva isolates from Buffalo and cattle at the wildlife-livestock interface comparing samples from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Antigenic epitopes of eight schizont antigen genes (Tp1, Tp3, Tp4, Tp5, Tp6, Tp7, Tp8 and Tp10) were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA extracted from blood samples collected from cattle and buffalo at the wildlife-livestock interface. Amplicons were purified and then sequenced on NGS platform. Full length open reading frames (ORFs) of two schizont antigen genes (Tp2 and Tp9) and one sporozoite antigen gene, p67 were also amplified from genomic DNA. Amplicons were then purified and cloned for sequencing. Analysis was based on sequence differences in the genes. Preliminary results show an extensively diverse population of Theileria parva circulating in buffalo and cattle populations at the wildlife-livestock interface. Diversity of the antigen genes contributes to the evasion of the immune system of the host by Theileria parva. This possess a concern in that, some of the Theileria parva populations may re-assort and become adapted to cattle to cause a form of theileriosis that is as fatal as ECF in areas where ECF was eradicated or is absent
Influence of Dietary Herbal Blend on Crop Filling, Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Broiler Chickens
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of pure herbal blend on growth performance of boilers. One hundred and twenty birds were randomly distributed into 4 experimental units of 3 replicates (10 birds/replicate) as: negative control (basal diet), positive control (Lincomycin at the rate of 5g/bag), pure herbal blend at the rate of 150g/bag and pure herbal blend at the rate of 300g/bag. The data regarding weekly feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded, and fecal samples were collected at the end of starter and finisher phase for nutrient digestibility trial. The results of feed intake showed significant (P < 0.05) results in 1st (305g), 2nd (696.88g), 3rd (1046.9g) and 4th (1173.2g) week and feed conversion ratio indicated significant (P < 0.05) variations in 1st (2.54) and 4th (2.28) week of age. Also, both starter and finisher phase indicated significant (P < 0.05) differences among all treatment groups in feed intake (2023.4g) and (2302.6g) respectively. The statistical analysis indicated significant (P < 0.05) results in crop filling percentage (86.6%) after 2 hours of first feed supplementation. In case of nutrient digestibility trial, results showed significant (P < 0.05) values of crude protein and crude fat in starter phase as 69.65% and 56.62% respectively, and 69.57% and 48.55% respectively, in finisher phase. Based on overall results, it was concluded that the dietary inclusion of pure herbal blend containing neem tree leaves powder, garlic powder, ginger powder and turmeric powder increase the production performance of broilers.
Effect of Herbal Mineral Blend on Growth Performance of Broilers
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of herbal and mineral mixture on growth performance of boilers. One hundred and eighty birds were randomly distributed into 6 experimental units of 3 replicates (10 birds/replicate) as: negative control (basal diet), positive control (Lincomycin at the rate of 5g/bag), commercially available herbal-mineral product FitFat™ at the rate of 150g/bag and 200g/bag, and herbal-mineral mixture at the rate of 150g/bag and herbal-mineral mixture at the rate of 300g/bag. The data regarding weekly feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded, and fecal samples were collected at the end of starter and finisher phase for nutrient digestibility trial. The results of body weight gain showed significant (P < 0.05) differences in 3rd week of age (506.90g), also, feed intake showed significant (P < 0.05) results in 1st (297.22g), 3rd (936.7g) and 4th (967.8g) week and feed conversion ratio indicated significant (P < 0.05) variations in 1st (1.14) and 3rd (1.74) week of age. The starter phase indicated significant (P < 0.05) differences among all treatments groups in body weight gain (902.2g), feed intake (1843.9g) and feed conversion ratio (1.78). In case of nutrient digestibility trial, results showed significant (P < 0.05) values of dry matter, crude protein, and crude fat in starter phase as 77.74%, 69.37%, and 61.18% respectively and 77.65%, 68.79% and 61.03% respectively, in finisher phase. Based on overall results, it was concluded that the dietary inclusion of combination of herbs and mineral can increase the production performance of broilers.
Fish Catch Composition from Gobind Sagar Reservoir during Years 2006 to 2012
Gobind Sagar Reservoir has been created in Himachal Pradesh, India (31° 25´ N and 76 ° 25´E) by damming River Sutlej at village Bhakra in 1963. Average water spread area of this reservoir is 10,000 hectare. Fishermen have organized themselves in the form of co-operative societies. Twenty six fisheries co-operative societies were working in Gobind Sagar Reservoir up till year 2012. June and July months were observed as closed season; no fishing was done during this period. Proper record maintaining of fish catch was done at different levels by state fisheries department. Different measures like minimum harvestable size, mesh size regulation and prohibition illegal fishing, etc. were taken for fish conservation. Fishermen were actively involved in the management. Gill nets were used for catching fishes from this reservoir. State fisheries department is realizing 15 percent royalty of the sold fish. Data used in this paper is about fish catch during years 2006 to 2012, was obtained from state fisheries department, Himachal Pradesh. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Sperata seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Tor putitora, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Labeo calbasu, Labeo dero and Ctenopharyngodon idella etc. were the fish species exploited for commercial purpose. Total number of individuals of all species caught was 3141236 weighing 5637108.9 kg during years 2006 to 2012. H. molitrix have got introduced accidentally in this reservoir and was making a good share of fish catch in this reservoir. Annual catch of this species was varying between 161279.6 kg, caught in year 2011 and 788030.8 kg caught in year 2009. Total numbers of individuals of C. idella caught were 8966 weighing 64320.2 kg. Catch of Cyprinus carpio was varying between 144826.1 kg caught in year 2006 and 214480.1 kg caught in year 2010. Total catch of Tor putitora was 180263.2 kg during years 2006 to 2012. Total catch of L. dero, S. seenghala and Catla catla remained 100637.4 kg, 75297.8 kg and 561802.9 kg respectively, during years 2006 to 2012. Maximum fish catch was observed during months of August (after observing Closed Season). Maximum catch of exotic carps was from Bhakra area of reservoir which has fewer fluctuations in water levels. Reservoir has been divided into eight beats for administrative purpose. Fish catch was more by co-operative societies operating in the area of reservoir having fewer fluctuations in water level and catch was less by co-operative societies operating in area of more fluctuations in water level. Species wise fish catch by different co-operative societies from their allotted area was studied. This reservoir is one of most scientifically managed reservoirs.
The Pathology of Bovine Rotavirus Infection in Calves That Confirmed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time RT-PCR
Rotavirus is one of the main etiologies of neonatal diarrhea in bovine calves that causes significant economic loss in Bangladesh. The present study was carried out to investigate the pathology of neonatal enteritis in calves due to bovine rotavirus infection in south-eastern part of Bangladesh. Rotavirus was identified by using ELISA, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), real-time RT-PCR. We examined 12 dead calves with history of diarrhea during necropsy. Among 12 dead calves, in gross examination, 6 were found with pathological changes in intestine, 5 calves had congestion of small intestine and rest one had no distinct pathological changes. Intestinal contents and/or faecal samples of all dead calves were collected and examined to confirm the presence of bovine rotavirus A using Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Out 12 samples, 5 (42%) samples revealed presence of bovine rotavirus A in three diagnostic tests. The histopathological changes were found almost exclusively limited in the small intestine. The lesions of rotaviral enteritis ranged from slight to moderate shortening (atrophy) of villi in the jejunum and ileum with necrotic crypts. The villi were blunt and covered by immature epithelial cells. Infected cells, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method, showed characteristic syncytia and eosinophilc intracytoplasmic inclusion body. The presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in enterocytes is the indication of viral etiology. The presence of rotavirus in the affected tissues and/or lesions was confirmed by three different immunological and molecular tests. The findings of histopathological changes will be helpful in future diagnosis of rotaviral infection in dead calves.
Species Profiling of Scarab Beetles with the Help of Light Trap in Western Himalayan Region of Uttarakhand
White grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), locally known as Kurmula, Pagra, Chinchu, is a major destructive pest in western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand state of India. Various crops like cereals (up land paddy, wheat, and barley), vegetables (capsicum, cabbage, tomato, cauliflower, carrot etc) and some pulse (like pigeon pea, green gram, black gram) are grown with limited availability of primary resources. Among the various limitations in successful cultivation of these crops, white grub has been proved a major constraint in for all crops grown in hilly area. The losses incurred due to white grubs are huge in case of commercial crops like sugarcane, groundnut, potato, maize and upland rice. Moreover, it has been proved major constraint in potato production in mid and higher hills of India. Adults emerge in May-June following the onset of monsoon and thereafter defoliate the apple, apricot, plum, and walnut during night while 2nd and 3rd instar grubs feed on live roots of cultivated as well as non cultivated crops from August to January. Survey was conducted in hilly (Pauri and Tehri) as well as plain area (Haridwar district) of Uttarakhand state. Collection of beetle was done from various locations from August to September of five consecutive years with the help of light trap and directly from host plant. The grub was also collected by excavating one square meter area from different locations and reared in laboratory to find out adult. During the collection, the diseased or dead cadaver were also collected and brought in the laboratory and identified the causal organisms. Total 25 species of white grub was identified out of which Holotrichia longipennis, Anomala dimidiata, Holotrichia lineatopennis, Maladera insanabilis, Brahmina sp. make complex problem in different area of Uttarakhand where they cause severe damage to various crops. During the survey, it was observed that white grubs beetles have variation in preference of host plant, even in choice of fruit and leaves of host plant. It was observed that, a white grub species, which identified as Lepidiota mansueta Burmeister., was causing severe havoc to sugarcane crop grown in major sugarcane growing belt of Haridwar district. The study also revealed that Bacillus cereus, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Steinernema, Heterorhabditis are major disease causing agents in immature stage of white grub under rain-fed condition of Uttarakhand which caused 15.55 to 21.63 percent natural mortality of grubs with an average of 18.91 percent. However, among the microorganisms, B. cereus found to be significantly more efficient (7.03 percent mortality) then the entomopathogenic fungi (3.80 percent mortality) and nematodes (3.20 percent mortality).
Dry-Extrusion of Asian Carp, a Sustainable Source of Natural Methionine for Organic Poultry Production
Methionine, a sulfur containing amino acid, is essential for healthy poultry production. Synthetic methionine is commonly used as a supplement in conventional poultry. However, for organic poultry, a natural, cost effective source of methionine that can replace synthetic methionine is unavailable. Invasive Asian carp (AC) are a potential natural methionine source; however, there is no proven technology to utilize this fish methionine. Commercially available rendering is environmentally challenging due to the offensive smell produced during production. We explored extrusion technology as a potential cost effective alternative to fish rendering. We also determined the amino acid composition, digestible amino acids and total metabolizable energy (TMEn) for the extruded AC fish meal. Dry extrusion of AC was carried out by mixing the fish with soybean meal (SBM) in a 1:1 proportion to reduce high moisture in the fishmeal using an Insta Pro Jr. dry extruder followed by drying and grinding of the product. To determine the digestible amino acids and TMEn of the extruded product, a colony of cecectomized Bovans White Roosters was used. Adult roosters (48 weeks of age) were fasted for 30 h and tube fed 35 grams of 3 treatments: (1) extruded AC fish meal, (2) SBM and (3) corn. Excreta from each individual bird was collected for the next 48 h. An additional 10 unfed roosters served as endogenous controls. The gross energy and protein content of the feces from the treatments were determined to calculate the TMEn. Fecal samples and treatment feeds were analyzed for amino acid content and percent digestible amino acid. Results from the analysis suggested that addition of Asian carp increased the methionine content of SBM from 0.63 to 0.83%. Also, the digestibility of amino acid and the TMEn values were greater for the AC meal with SBM than SBM alone. The dry extruded AC meal analysis is indicative that the product can replace SBM alone and enhance natural methionine in a standard poultry ration. The results from feed formulation using different concentrations of the AC fish meal depict a potential diet which can supplement the required methionine content in organic poultry production.
Analyzing the Support to Fisheries in the European Union: Modelling Budgetary Transfers in Wild Fisheries
Fisheries subsidies are focus on reduce management costs or deliver income benefits to fishers. In 2015, total fishery budgetary transfers in 31 OECD countries represented 35% of their total landing value. However, subsidies to fishing have adverse effects on trade and it has been claimed that they may contribute directly to overfishing. Therefore, this paper analyses to what extend fisheries subsidies may 1) influence capture production facing quotas and 2) affect price dynamics. The study uses the fish module in AGMEMOD (Agriculture Member States Modelling, details see Chantreuil et al. (2012)) which covers eight fish categories (cephalopods; crustaceans; demersal marine fish; pelagic marine fish; molluscs excl. cephalopods; other marine finfish species; freshwater and diadromous fish) for EU member states and other selected countries developed under the SUCCESS project. This model incorporates transfer payments directly linked to fisheries operational costs. As aquaculture and wild fishery are not included within the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, data on fisheries subsidies is obtained from the OECD Fisheries Support Estimates (FSE) database, which provides statistics on budgetary transfers to the fisheries sector. Since support has been moving from budgetary transfers to General Service Support Estimate the last years, subsidies in capture production may not present substantial effects. Nevertheless, they would still show the impact across countries and fish categories within the European Union.
Population and Age Structure of the Goby Stigmatogobius pleurostigma in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Stigmatogobius pleurostigma is a commercial fish being caught increasingly in the Mekong Delta. Although it plays an important role for food supply, little is known about this species including morphology, distribution and growth pattern. Meanwhile, its population and age structure is unknown. The present study was conducted in the Mekong Delta to provide new data on population parameters of this goby species. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞= 8.6 cm, K = 0.83 yr⁻¹, and t0 = -0.07 yr⁻¹ basing on length frequency data analysis of 601 individuals. The fish total length at first capture was 3.8 cm; and fishing, natural and total mortalities of the fish population were 2.31 yr⁻¹, 1.17 yr⁻¹, and 3.48 yr⁻¹ respectively. The maximum fish yield (Eₘₐₓ), economic yield (E₀.₁) and yield of 50% reduction of exploitation (E₅₀) rates were 0.704, 0.555 and 0.335 based on the relative yield-per-recruit and biomass-per-recruit analyses. The fish longevity was 3.61 yr, and growth performance was 1.79. Three fish age groups were recorded in this study (0+, 1+ and 2+). The species is a potential aquaculture candidate because of its high growth parameter. This goby stock was overexploited in the Mekong Delta as its exploitation rate (E=0.34) was higher than E₅₀ (0.335). The mesh size of gillnets should be increased and avoid catching fish in June, recruitment time, for future sustainable fishery management.