Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48555

Biomedical and Biological Engineering

663
80700
Scattering Operator and Spectral Clustering for Ultrasound Images: Application on Deep Venous Thrombi
Abstract:
Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a thrombus is formed within a deep vein (most often in the legs). This disease can be deadly if a part or the whole thrombus reaches the lung and causes a Pulmonary Embolism (PE). This disorder, often asymptomatic, has multifactorial causes: immobilization, surgery, pregnancy, age, cancers, and genetic variations. Our project aims to relate the thrombus epidemiology (origins, patient predispositions, PE) to its structure using ultrasound images. Ultrasonography and elastography were collected using Toshiba Aplio 500 at Brest Hospital. This manuscript compares two classification approaches: spectral clustering and scattering operator. The former is based on the graph and matrix theories while the latter cascades wavelet convolutions with nonlinear modulus and averaging operators.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
662
79856
Fabrication of Biosensor Based on Layered Double Hydroxide/Polypyrrole/Carbon Paste Electrode for Determination of Anti-Hypertensive and Prostatic Hyperplasia Drug Terazosin
Abstract:
New insights into the design of highly sensitive, carbon-based electrochemical sensors are presented in this work. This was achieved by exploring the interesting properties of conductive (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide- Dodecyl Sulphate/Polypyrrole nanocomposites which were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of pyrrole during the assembly of (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide, and by employing the anionic surfactant Dodecyl sulphate as a modifier. The morphology and surface area of the nanocomposites changed with the percentage of Pyrrole. Under optimal conditions, the modified carbon paste electrode successfully achieved detection limits of 0.057 and 0.134 nmol.L-1 of Terazosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum fluid, respectively. Moreover, the sensors are highly stable, reusable, and free from interference by other commonly present excipients in drug formulations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
661
79677
Wireless Based System for Continuous Electrocardiography Monitoring during Surgery
Abstract:
This paper presents a system designed for wireless acquisition, the recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and the monitoring of the heart’s health during surgery. This wireless recording system allows us to visualize and monitor the state of the heart’s health during a surgery, even if the patient is moved from the operating theater to post anesthesia care unit. The acquired signal is transmitted via a Bluetooth unit to a PC where the data are displayed, stored and processed. To test the reliability of our system, a comparison between ECG signals processed by a conventional ECG monitoring system (Datex-Ohmeda) and by our wireless system is made. The comparison is based on the shape of the ECG signal, the duration of the QRS complex, the P and T waves, as well as the position of the ST segments with respect to the isoelectric line. The proposed system is presented and discussed. The results have confirmed that the use of Bluetooth during surgery does not affect the devices used and vice versa. Pre- and post-processing steps are briefly discussed. Experimental results are also provided.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
660
79114
Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Chitosan-Gold Nanoparticles, Carbon Nanotubes for Detection of Ovarian Cancer Biomarker
Abstract:
Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality among the gynecological malignancies, and it remains the one of the most prevalent cancer in females worldwide. Tumor markers are biochemical molecules in blood or tissues which can indicates cancers occurrence in the human body. So, the sensitive and specific detection of cancer markers typically recruited for diagnosing and evaluating cancers. Recently extensive research efforts are underway to achieve a simple, inexpensive and accurate device for detection of cancer biomarkers. Compared with conventional immunoassay techniques, electrochemical immunosensors are of great interest, because they are specific, simple, inexpensive, easy to handling and miniaturization. Moreover, in the past decade nanotechnology has played a crucial role in the development of biosensors. In this study, a signal-off electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of CA125 antigen has been developed using chitosan-gold nanoparticles (CS-AuNP) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites. Toluidine blue (TB) is used as redox probe which is immobilized on the electrode surface. CS-AuNP is synthesized by a simple one step method that HAuCl4 is reduced by NH2 groups of chitosan. The CS-AuNP-MWCNT modified electrode has shown excellent electrochemical performance compared with bare Au electrode. MWCNTs and AuNPs increased electrochemical conductivity and accelerate electrons transfer between solution and electrode surface while excessive amine groups on chitosan lead to the effective loading of the biological material (CA125 antibody) and TB on the electrode surface. The electrochemical, immobilization and sensing properties CS-AuNP-MWCNT-TB modified electrodes are characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry with Fe(CN)63−/4−as an electrochemical redox indicator.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
659
78955
Detection of Important Biological Elements in Drug-Drug Interaction Occurrence
Abstract:
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are main cause of the adverse drug reactions and nature of the functional and molecular complexity of drugs behavior in human body make them hard to prevent and treat. With the aid of new technologies derived from mathematical and computational science the DDIs problems can be addressed with minimum cost and efforts. Market basket analysis is known as powerful method to identify co-occurrence of thing to discover patterns and frequency of the elements. In this research, we used market basket analysis to identify important bio-elements in DDIs occurrence. For this, we collected all known DDIs from DrugBank. The obtained data were analyzed by market basket analysis method. We investigated all drug-enzyme, drug-carrier, drug-transporter and drug-target associations. To determine the importance of the extracted bio-elements, extracted rules were evaluated in terms of confidence and support. Market basket analysis of the over 45,000 known DDIs reveals more than 300 important rules that can be used to identify DDIs, CYP 450 family were the most frequent shared bio-elements. We applied extracted rules over 2,000,000 unknown drug pairs that lead to discovery of more than 200,000 potential DDIs. Analysis of the underlying reason behind the DDI phenomena can help to predict and prevent DDI occurrence. Ranking of the extracted rules based on strangeness of them can be a supportive tool to predict the outcome of an unknown DDI.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
658
78748
Multi-Layer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Network Models for Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Using Video-Oculography Signals
Abstract:
Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is a disease based on insulin hormone disorders and causes high blood glucose. Clinical findings determine that diabetes can be diagnosed by electrophysiological signals obtained from the vital organs. 'Diabetic Retinopathy' is one of the most common eye diseases resulting on diabetes and it is the leading cause of vision loss due to structural alteration of the retinal layer vessels. In this study, features of horizontal and vertical Video-Oculography (VOG) signals have been used to classify non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy disease. Twenty-five features are acquired by using discrete wavelet transform with VOG signals which are taken from 21 subjects. Two models, based on multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function, are recommended in the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. The proposed models also can detect level of the disease. We show comparative classification performance of the proposed models. Our results show that proposed the RBF model (100%) results in better classification performance than the MLP model (94%).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
657
78071
The Validation of RadCalc for Clinical Use: An Independent Monitor Unit Verification Software
Authors:
Abstract:
In the matter of patient treatment planning quality assurance in 3D conformational therapy (3D-CRT) and volumetric arc therapy (VMAT or RapidArc), the independent monitor unit verification calculation (MUVC) is an indispensable part of the process. Concerning 3D-CRT treatment planning, the MUVC can be performed manually applying the standard ESTRO formalism. However, due to the complex shape and the amount of beams in advanced treatment planning technic such as RapidArc, the manual independent MUVC is inadequate. Therefore, commercially available software such as RadCalc can be used to perform the MUVC in complex treatment planning been. Indeed, RadCalc (version 6.3 LifeLine Inc.) uses a simplified Clarkson algorithm to compute the dose contribution for individual RapidArc fields to the isocenter. The purpose of this project is the validation of RadCalc in 3D-CRT and RapidArc for treatment planning dosimetry quality assurance at Antoine Lacassagne center (Nice, France). Firstly, the interfaces between RadCalc and our treatment planning systems (TPS) Isogray (version 4.2) and Eclipse (version13.6) were checked for data transfer accuracy. Secondly, we created test plans in both Isogray and Eclipse featuring open fields, wedges fields, and irregular MLC fields. These test plans were transferred from TPSs according to the radiotherapy protocol of DICOM RT to RadCalc and the linac via Mosaiq (version 2.5). Measurements were performed in water phantom using a PTW cylindrical semiflex ionisation chamber (0.3 cm³, 31010) and compared with the TPSs and RadCalc calculation. Finally, 30 3D-CRT plans and 40 RapidArc plans created with patients CT scan were recalculated using the CT scan of a solid PMMA water equivalent phantom for 3D-CRT and the Octavius II phantom (PTW) CT scan for RapidArc. Next, we measure the doses delivered into these phantoms for each plan with a 0.3 cm³ PTW 31010 cylindrical semiflex ionisation chamber (3D-CRT) and 0.015 cm³ PTW PinPoint ionisation chamber (Rapidarc). For our test plans, good agreements were found between calculation (RadCalc and TPSs) and measurement (mean: 1.3%; standard deviation: ± 0.8%). Regarding the patient plans, the measured doses were compared to the calculation in RadCalc and in our TPSs. Moreover, RadCalc calculations were compared to Isogray and Eclispse ones. Agreements better than (2.8%; ± 1.2%) were found between RadCalc and TPSs. As for the comparison between calculation and measurement the agreement for all of our plans was better than (2.3%; ± 1.1%). The independent MU verification calculation software RadCal has been validated for clinical use and for both 3D-CRT and RapidArc techniques. The perspective of this project includes the validation of RadCal for the Tomotherapy machine installed at centre Antoine Lacassagne.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
656
77939
Liver Regeneration of Small in situ Injury
Abstract:
Liver is the center of detoxification and exposed to toxic metabolites all the time. It is highly regenerative after injury, with the ability to restore even after 70% partial hepatectomy. Most of the previous studies were using hepatectomy as injury models for liver regeneration study. There is limited understanding of small-scale liver injury, which can be caused by either low dose drug consumption or hepatocyte routine metabolism. Although these small in situ injuries do not cause immediate symptoms, repeated injuries will lead to aberrant wound healing in liver. Therefore, the cellular dynamics during liver regeneration is critical for our understanding of liver regeneration mechanism. We aim to study the liver regeneration of small-scale in situ liver injury in transgenic mice labeling actin (Lifeact-GFP). Previous studies have been using sample sections and biopsies of liver, which lack real-time information. In order to trace every individual hepatocyte during the regeneration process, we have developed and optimized an intravital imaging system that allows in vivo imaging of mouse liver for consecutive 5 days, allowing real-time cellular tracking and quantification of hepatocytes. We used femtosecond-laser ablation to make controlled and repeatable liver injury model, which mimics the real-life small in situ liver injury. This injury model is the first case of its kind for in vivo study on liver. We found that small-scale in situ liver injury is repaired by the coordination of hypertrophy and migration of hepatocytes. Hypertrophy is only transient at initial phase, while migration is the main driving force to complete the regeneration process. From cellular aspect, Akt/mTOR pathway is activated immediately after injury, which leads to transient hepatocyte hypertrophy. From mechano-sensing aspect, the actin cable, formed at apical surface of wound proximal hepatocytes, provides mechanical tension for hepatocyte migration. This study provides important information on both chemical and mechanical signals that promote liver regeneration of small in situ injury. We conclude that hypertrophy and migration play a dominant role at different stages of liver regeneration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
655
77356
A Sui Generis Technique to Detect Pathogens in Post-Partum Breast Milk Using Image Processing Techniques
Abstract:
Mother’s milk provides the most superior source of nutrition to a child. There is no other substitute to the mother’s milk. Postpartum secretions like breast milk can be analyzed on the go for testing the presence of any harmful pathogen before a mother can feed the child or donate the milk for the milk bank. Since breast feeding is one of the main causes for transmission of diseases to the newborn, it is mandatory to test the secretions. In this paper, we describe the detection of pathogens like E-coli, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Zika and Ebola virus through an innovative method, in which we are developing a unique chip for testing the mother’s milk sample. The chip will contain an antibody specific to the target pathogen that will show a color change if there are enough pathogens present in the fluid that will be considered dangerous. A smart-phone camera will then be acquiring the image of the strip and using various image processing techniques we will detect the color development due to antigen antibody interaction within 5 minutes, thereby not adding to any delay, before the newborn is fed or prior to the collection of the milk for the milk bank. If the target pathogen comes positive through this method, then the health care provider can provide adequate treatment to bring down the number of pathogens. This will reduce the postpartum related mortality and morbidity which arises due to feeding infectious breast milk to own child.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
654
77128
Effectiveness of Dry Needling on Pain and Pressure Point Threshold in Cervicogenic Headache
Abstract:
Headache disorders are one of the 10 most disabling conditions for men and women. Headache that originated from upper cervical spine and refereed to the one side of the head and/or face is known as cervicogenic headache (CH) which constitute15% to 20% among all the headaches. In our best knowledge manual therapy is often advocated for managing CH, but very little focus given on muscle system although it is a musculoskeletal disorder. In this study, 75 patients with CH were selected and divided into two groups Group A: Manual therapy and Group B: dry needling along with manual therapy group. Assessment was done using NPRS (0-10) for pain, wide spread pressure pain threshold using an algometer at the beginning and end of the study. There is a consistent reduction in pain and tenderness in both the group but significant improvement was shown in combined group. Outcome of the study has explored that the effectiveness of dry needling along with Mulligan is more beneficial in patients with cervicogenic headaches.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
653
77099
An Interpretable Data-Driven Approach for the Stratification of the Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Abstract:
The continued exploration of clinically relevant predictive models continues to be an important pursuit. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) portends clinical vital information and as such its accurate prediction is of high importance. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a data-driven model, based on computational intelligence techniques and, in particular, clustering approaches, to predict CRF. Two prediction models were implemented and compared: 1) the traditional Wasserman/Hansen Equations; and 2) an interpretable clustering approach. Data used for this analysis were from the 'FRIEND - Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: The National Data Base'; in the present study a subset of 10690 apparently healthy individuals were utilized. The accuracy of the models was performed through the computation of sensitivity, specificity, and geometric mean values. The results show the superiority of the clustering approach in the accurate estimation of CRF (i.e., maximal oxygen consumption).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
652
77055
Linking Excellence in Biomedical Knowledge and Computational Intelligence Research for Personalized Management of Cardiovascular Diseases within Personal Health Care
Abstract:
The main goal of LINK project is to join competences in intelligent processing in order to create a research ecosystem to address two central scientific and technical challenges for personal health care (PHC) deployment: i) how to merge clinical evidence knowledge in computational decision support systems for PHC management and ii) how to provide achieve personalized services, i.e., solutions adapted to the specific user needs and characteristics. The final goal of one of the work packages (WP2), designated Sustainable Linking and Synergies for Excellence, is the definition, implementation and coordination of the necessary activities to create and to strengthen durable links between the LiNK partners. This work focuses on the strategy that has been followed to achieve the definition of the Research Tracks (RT), which will support a set of actions to be pursued along the LiNK project. These include common research activities, knowledge transfer among the researchers of the consortium, and PhD student and post-doc co-advisement. Moreover, the RTs will establish the basis for the definition of concepts and their evolution to project proposals.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
651
76813
Trastuzumab Decorated Bioadhesive Nanoparticles for Targeted Breast Cancer Therapy
Abstract:
Brest cancer, up-regulated with human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER-2) led to the concept of developing HER-2 targeted anticancer therapeutics. Docetaxel-loaded D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate 1000 conjugated chitosan (TPGS-g-chitosan) nanoparticles were prepared with or without Trastuzumab decoration. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of conventional, non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles were found to be in the range of 126-186 nm and 74-78% respectively. In-vitro, MDA-MB-231 cells showed that docetaxel-loaded non-targeted and HER-2 receptor targeted TPGS-g-chitosan nanoparticles have enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity with a promising bioadhesion property, in comparison to conventional nanoparticles. The IC50 values of non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles from cytotoxic assay were found to be 43 and 223 folds higher than DocelTM. The in-vivo pharmacokinetic study showed 2.33, and 2.82-fold enhancement in relative bioavailability of docetaxel for non-targeted and HER-2 receptor targeted nanoparticles, respectively than DocelTM, and after i.v administration, non-targeted and targeted nanoparticle achieved 3.48 and 5.94 times prolonged half-life in comparison to DocelTM. The area under the curve (AUC), relative bioavailability (FR) and mean residence time (MRT) were found to be higher for non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles compared to DocelTM. Further, histopathology results of non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles showed less toxicity on vital organs such as lungs, liver, and kidney compared to DocelTM.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
650
76682
Investigating Role of Autophagy in Cispaltin Induced Stemness and Chemoresistance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Abstract:
Background: Regardless of the development multimodal treatment strategies, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often associated with a high rate of recurrence, metastasis and chemo- and radio- resistance. The present study inspected the relevance of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression as a putative stem cell compartment in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and deciphered the role of autophagy in regulating the expression of aforementioned proteins, stemness and chemoresistance. Methods: A retrospective analysis of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression with respect to the various clinicopathological factors of sixty OSCC patients were determined via immunohistochemistry. The correlation among CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression was established. Sphere formation assay, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy were conducted to elucidate the stemness and chemoresistance nature of established cisplatin-resistant oral cancer cells (FaDu). The pattern of expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 in parental (FaDu-P) and resistant FaDu cells (FaDu-CDDP-R) were investigated through fluorescence microscopy. Western blot analysis of autophagy marker proteins was performed to compare the status of autophagy in parental and resistant FaDu cell. To investigate the role of autophagy in chemoresistance and stemness, sphere formation assay, immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis was performed post transfection with siATG14 and the level of expression of autophagic proteins, mitochondrial protein and stemness-associated proteins were analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 4.0 software. p-value was defined as follows: not significant (n.s.): p > 0.05;*: p ≤ 0.05; **: p ≤ 0.01; ***: p ≤ 0.001; ****: p ≤ 0.0001 were considered statistically significant. Results: In OSCC, high CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression were significantly correlated with higher tumor grades and poor differentiation. However, the expression of these proteins was not related to the age and sex of OSCC patients. Moreover, the expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 were positively correlated with each other. In vitro and OSCC tissue double labeling experiment data showed that CD44+ cells were highly associated with ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression. Further, FaDu-CDDP-R cells showed higher sphere forming capacity along with increased fraction of the CD44+ population and β-catenin expression FaDu-CDDP-R cells also showed accelerated expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17. A comparatively higher autophagic flux was observed in FaDu-CDDP-R against FaDu-P cells. The expression of mitochondrial proteins was noticeably reduced in resistant cells as compared to parental cells indicating the occurrence of autophagy-mediated mitochondrial degradation in oral cancer. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy was coupled with the decreased formation of orospheres suggesting autophagy-mediated stemness in oral cancer. Blockade of autophagy was also found to induce the restoration of mitochondrial proteins in FaDu-CDDP-R cells indicating the involvement of mitophagy in chemoresistance. Furthermore, a reduced expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 was also observed in ATG14 deficient cells FaDu-P and FaDu-CDDP-R cells. Conclusion: The CD44+ ⁄ABCB1+ ⁄ADAM17+ expression in OSCC might be associated with chemoresistance and a putative CSC compartment. Further, the present study highlights the contribution of mitophagy in chemoresistance and confirms the potential involvement of autophagic regulation in acquisition of stem-like characteristics in OSCC.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
649
76599
Methodology for Obtaining Static Alignment Model
Abstract:
In this paper, a methodology is presented to obtain the Static Alignment Model for any transtibial amputee person. The proposed methodology starts from experimental data collected on the Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, Colombia. The effects of transtibial prosthesis malalignment on amputees were measured in terms of joint angles, center of pressure (COP) and weight distribution. Some statistical tools are used to obtain the model parameters. Mathematical predictive models of prosthetic alignment were created. The proposed models are validated in amputees and finding promising results for the prosthesis Static Alignment. Static alignment process is unique to each subject; nevertheless the proposed methodology can be used in each transtibial amputee.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
648
75884
Electrospun Alginate Nanofibers Containing Spirulina Extract Double-Layered with Polycaprolactone Nanofibers
Abstract:
Nanofibrous sheets are of interest in the beauty industries due to the properties of moisturizing, adhesion to skin and delivery of nutrient materials. The benefit and function of the cosmetic products should not be considered without safety thus a non-toxic manufacturing process is ideal when fabricating the products. In this study, we have developed cosmetic patches consisting of alginate and Spirulina extract, a marine resource which has antibacterial and antioxidant effects, without addition of harmful cross-linkers. The patches obtained their structural stabilities by layer-upon-layer electrospinning of an alginate layer on a formerly spread polycaprolactone (PCL) layer instead of crosslinking method. The morphological characteristics, release of Spirulina extract, water absorption, skin adhesiveness and cytotoxicity of the double-layered patches were assessed. The image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the addition of Spirulina extract has made the fiber diameter of alginate layers thinner. Impregnation of Spirulina extract increased their hydrophilicity, moisture absorption ability and skin adhesive ability. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patches resulted in releasing the Spirulina extract within 30 min. The patches were detected to have no cytotoxicity in the human keratinocyte cell-based MTT assay, but rather showed increased cell viability. All the results indicate the bioactive and hydro-adhesive double-layered patches have an excellent applicability to bioproducts for personal skin care in the trend of ‘A mask pack a day’.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
647
75882
A Promising Thrombolytic and Anticoagulant Serine Protease Purified from Lug Worms Inhabiting Tidal Flats
Abstract:
Ischemic stroke means the caused brain damage due to neurological defects, occurring occlusion of cerebral vascular resulting in thrombus or embolism. t-PA (tissue Plasminogen Activator) is the only thrombolytic agent passed the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). However, t-PA directly dissolves the thrombus (direct activity) through fibrinolysis, showing side effects such as re-occlusion. In this study, we evaluated the thrombolytic activities of the serine protease extracted from lugworms inhabiting tidal flats. The new serine protease identified as 38 kDa by SDS-PAGE was not toxic to brain endothelial cells line (hCMEC/D3). Also, the plasmin synthesis inhibition activity (indirect activity) of the new serine protease was confirmed through fibrin zymography assay and fibrin plate assay. It was higher than direct activity as compared to u-PA (urokinase Plasminogen Activator). The activities were found to be maintained at a wide range of temperature (4-70 ℃) and pH 7-10 compared to previous thrombolytic agents from the azocasein assay. In addition, the new serine protease has shown anticoagulant activity from fibrinogenolytic activity assay. In conclusion, the serine protease in lug worms inhabiting the tidal flats could be considered a promising thrombolytic candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
646
75881
Chitosan Coated Liposome Incorporated Cyanobacterial Pigment for Nasal Administration in the Brain Stroke
Abstract:
When a thrombolysis agent is administered to treat ischemic stroke, excessive reactive oxygen species are generated due to a sudden provision of oxygen and occurs secondary damage cell necrosis. Thus, it is necessary to administrate adjuvant as well as thrombolysis agent to protect and reduce damaged tissue. As cerebral blood vessels have specific structure called blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is not easy to transfer substances from blood to tissue. Therefore, development of a drug carrier is required to increase drug delivery efficiency to brain tissue. In this study, cyanobacterial pigment from the blue-green algae known for having neuroprotective effect as well as antioxidant effect was nasally administrated for bypassing BBB. In order to deliver cyanobacterial pigment efficiently, the nano-sized liposome was used as a carrier. Liposomes were coated with a positive charge of chitosan since negative residues are present at the nasal mucosa the first gateway of nasal administration. Characteristics of liposome including morphology, size and zeta potential were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zeta analyzer. As a result of cytotoxic test, the liposomes were not harmful. Also, being administered a drug to the ischemic stroke animal model, we could confirm that the pharmacological effect of the pigment delivered by chitosan coated liposome was enhanced compared to that of non-coated liposome. Consequently, chitosan coated liposome could be considered as an optimized drug delivery system for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
645
75876
Effective Removal of Tetrodotoxin with Fiber Mat Containing Activated Charcoal
Abstract:
From 2013, small eel farms, which are located in Han River Estuary, South Korea suffer damage because of unknown massive perish. In the middle of discussion that the cause of perish could be environmental changes or waste water, a large amount of unknown nemertean was discovered during that time. Some nemerteans are known releasing neurotoxin substance. In this study, we isolated intestinal bacteria using selective media and conducted 16s rDNA microbial identification by gene alignment. As a result, there was a type of bacteria producing TTX, blocks sodium-channel inducing organism’s death. TTX production from the bacteria was confirmed by ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. Additionally, the activated-charcoal which has an ability to absorb small molecules like toxin was applied to fibrous mesh to prevent ingestion of aquatic organisms and increase applicable area. The viability of zebrafish in the water with TTX and charcoal fiber mat were not decreased meaning it could be used for solving the perishing problem in fish farm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
644
75824
Iron(III)-Tosylate Doped PEDOT and PEG: A Nanoscale Conductivity Study of an Electrochemical System with Biosensing Applications
Abstract:
The addition of PEG of different molecular weights has important effects on the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of iron(III)-tosylate doped PEDOT. This particular polymer can be easily spin coated over plastic discs, optimizing thickness and uniformity of the PEDOT-PEG films. The conductivity and morphological analysis of the hybrid PEDOT-PEG polymer by 4-point probe (4PP), 12-point probe (12PP), and conductive AFM (C-AFM) show strong effects of the PEG doping. Moreover, the conductive films kinetics at the nanoscale, in response to different bias voltages, change radically depending on the PEG molecular weight. The hybrid conductive films show also interesting electrochemical properties, making the PEDOT PEG doping appealing for biosensing applications both for EIS-based and amperometric affinity/catalytic biosensors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
643
75784
Rule-Of-Mixtures: Predicting the Bending Modulus of Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced Dental Composites
Abstract:
Rule of mixtures is the simple analytical model is used to predict various properties of composites before design. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the benefits and limitations of the Rule-of-Mixtures (ROM) for predicting bending modulus of a continuous and unidirectional fiber reinforced composites using in dental applications. The Composites were fabricated from light curing resin (with and without silica nanoparticles) and modified and non-modified fibers. Composite samples were divided into eight groups with ten specimens for each group. The bending modulus (flexural modulus) of samples was determined from the slope of the initial linear region of stress-strain curve on 2mm×2mm×25mm specimens with different designs: fibers corona treatment time (0s, 5s, 7s), fibers silane treatment (0%wt, 2%wt), fibers volume fraction (41%, 33%, 25%) and nanoparticles incorporation in resin (0%wt, 10%wt, 15%wt). To study the fiber and matrix interface after fracture, single edge notch beam (SENB) method and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used. SEM also was used to show the nanoparticles dispersion in resin. Experimental results of bending modulus for composites made of both physical (corona) and chemical (silane) treated fibers were in reasonable agreement with linear ROM estimates, but untreated fibers or non-optimized treated fibers and poor nanoparticles dispersion did not correlate as well with ROM results. This study shows that the ROM is useful to predict the mechanical behavior of unidirectional dental composites but fiber-resin interface and quality of nanoparticles dispersion play important role in ROM accurate predictions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
642
75721
MicroRNA 200c-3p Regulates Autophagy Mediated Upregulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in PC-3 Cells
Abstract:
Autophagy is a cellular response to stress or environment on cell survival. Here, we investigated the role of ectopic expression of miR 200c-3p in autophagy. Ectopic expression of miR 200c-3p increased the expression of IRE1alpha, ATF6 and CHOP by western blot and RT-qPCR. Furthermore, the level of microRNA 200c-3p was enhanced by treatment of TG or overexpression of GRP 78. Also, ectopic expression of miR200c-3p increased the LC3 II expression by western blot and RT-qPCR. Also, we found that western blot assay showed that miR200c-3p inhibitor was blocked the starvation–induced LC3II levels. Furthermore, starvation stress increased the level of miR200c-3p in different kinetics. Ectopic expression of miR200c-3p attenuated LC3II expression in IRE1 siRNA transfected PC3 cells. Here, we first demonstrate that miR200c-3p regulates autophagy via ER stress pathway.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
641
75552
Identity Verification Using k-NN Classifiers and Autistic Genetic Data
Abstract:
DNA data have been used in forensics for decades. However, current research looks at using the DNA as a biometric identity verification modality. The goal is to improve the speed of identification. We aim at using gene data that was initially used for autism detection to find if and how accurate is this data for identification applications. Mainly our goal is to find if our data preprocessing technique yields data useful as a biometric identification tool. We experiment with using the nearest neighbor classifier to identify subjects. Results show that optimal classification rate is achieved when the test set is corrupted by normally distributed noise with zero mean and standard deviation of 1. The classification rate is close to optimal at higher noise standard deviation reaching 3. This shows that the data can be used for identity verification with high accuracy using a simple classifier such as the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN). 
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
640
75468
Smartphone Based Wound Assessment System for Diabetes Patients
Abstract:
Diabetic foot ulcers speak to a critical medical problem. Right now, clinicians and medical caretakers primarily construct their injury evaluation in light of visual examination of wound size and mending status, while the patients themselves rarely have a chance to play a dynamic part. Henceforth, love quantitative and practical examination technique that empowers the patients and their parental figures to take a more dynamic part in every day wound care possibly can quicken wound recuperating, spare travel cost and diminish human services costs. Considering the commonness of cell phones with a high-determination computerized camera, evaluating wounds by breaking down pictures of ceaseless foot ulcers is an alluring choice. In this paper, we propose a novel injury picture examination framework actualized using feature extraction and color segmentation. Here we are using the Normalized minimum distance classifier for classifying the output.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
639
75203
Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Hyaluronic Acid-Polycaprolactone Membrane Containing 0.5 % Atorvastatin Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers as a Nanocomposite Scaffold for Skin Tissue Engineering
Abstract:
Gelatin and hyaluronic acid are commonly used in skin tissue engineering scaffolds, but because of their low mechanical properties and high biodegradation rate, adding a synthetic polymer such as polycaprolactone could improve the scaffold properties. Therefore, we developed a gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone scaffold, containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for skin tissue engineering. The atorvastatin loaded NLCs solution was prepared by solvent evaporation method and freeze drying process. Synthesized atorvastatin loaded NLCs was added to the gelatin and hyaluronic acid solution, and a membrane was fabricated with solvent evaporation method. Thereafter it was coated by a thin layer of polycaprolactone via spine coating set. The resulting scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Moreover, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation in 7 days period, and in vitro drug release of scaffolds were also evaluated. SEM images showed the uniform distributed NLCs with an average size of 100 nm in the scaffold structure. Mechanical test indicated that the scaffold had a 70.08 Mpa tensile modulus which was twofold of tensile modulus of normal human skin. A Franz-cell diffusion test was performed to investigate the scaffold drug release in phosphate buffered saline (pH=7.4) medium. Results showed that 72% of atorvastatin was released during 5 days. In vitro degradation test demonstrated that the membrane was degradated approximately 97%. In conclusion, suitable physicochemical and biological properties of membrane indicated that the developed gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone nanocomposite scaffold containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded NLCs could be used as a good candidate for skin tissue engineering applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
638
75071
Single-Cell Visualization with Minimum Volume Embedding
Authors:
Abstract:
Visualizing the heterogeneity within cell-populations for single-cell RNA-seq data is crucial for studying the functional diversity of a cell. However, because of the high level of noises, outlier, and dropouts, it is very challenging to measure the cell-to-cell similarity (distance), visualize and cluster the data in a low-dimension. Minimum volume embedding (MVE) projects the data into a lower-dimensional space and is a promising tool for data visualization. However, it is computationally inefficient to solve a semi-definite programming (SDP) when the sample size is large. Therefore, it is not applicable to single-cell RNA-seq data with thousands of samples. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm with an accelerated proximal gradient method and visualize the single-cell RNA-seq data efficiently. We demonstrate that the proposed approach separates known subpopulations more accurately in single-cell data sets than other existing dimension reduction methods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
637
74993
Auto Rickshaw Impacts with Pedestrians: A Computational Analysis of Post-Collision Kinematics and Injury Mechanics
Abstract:
Motor vehicle related pedestrian road traffic collisions are a major road safety challenge, since they are a leading cause of death and serious injury worldwide, contributing to a third of the global disease burden. The auto rickshaw, which is a common form of urban transport in many developing countries, plays a major transport role, both as a vehicle for hire and for private use. The most common auto rickshaws are quite unlike ‘typical’ four-wheel motor vehicle, being typically characterised by three wheels, a non-tilting sheet-metal body or open frame construction, a canvas roof and side curtains, a small drivers’ cabin, handlebar controls and a passenger space at the rear. Given the propensity, in developing countries, for auto rickshaws to be used in mixed cityscapes, where pedestrians and vehicles share the roadway, the potential for auto rickshaw impacts with pedestrians is relatively high. Whilst auto rickshaws are used in some Western countries, their limited number and spatial separation from pedestrian walkways, as a result of city planning, has not resulted in significant accident statistics. Thus, auto rickshaws have not been subject to the vehicle impact related pedestrian crash kinematic analyses and/or injury mechanics assessment, typically associated with motor vehicle development in Western Europe, North America and Japan. This study presents a parametric analysis of auto rickshaw related pedestrian impacts by computational simulation, using a Finite Element model of an auto rickshaw and an LS-DYNA 50th percentile male Hybrid III Anthropometric Test Device (dummy). Parametric variables include auto rickshaw impact velocity, auto rickshaw impact region (front, centre or offset) and relative pedestrian impact position (front, side and rear). The output data of each impact simulation was correlated against reported injury metrics, Head Injury Criterion (front, side and rear), Neck injury Criterion (front, side and rear), Abbreviated Injury Scale and reported risk level and adds greater understanding to the issue of auto rickshaw related pedestrian injury risk. The parametric analyses suggest that pedestrians are subject to a relatively high risk of injury during impacts with an auto rickshaw at velocities of 20 km/h or greater, which during some of the impact simulations may even risk fatalities. The present study provides valuable evidence for informing a series of recommendations and guidelines for making the auto rickshaw safer during collisions with pedestrians. Whilst it is acknowledged that the present research findings are based in the field of safety engineering and may over represent injury risk, compared to "Real World" accidents, many of the simulated interactions produced injury response values significantly greater than current threshold curves and thus, justify their inclusion in the study. To reduce the injury risk level and increase the safety of the auto rickshaw, there should be a reduction in the velocity of the auto rickshaw and, or, consideration of engineering solutions, such as retro fitting injury mitigation technologies to those auto rickshaw contact regions which are the subject of the greatest risk of producing pedestrian injury.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
636
74692
Developing Motorized Spectroscopy System for Tissue Scanning
Abstract:
The aim of the presented study was to develop a newly motorized spectroscopy system. Our system is composed of probe and motor parts. The probe part consists of bioimpedance and fiber optic components that include two platinum wires (each 25 micrometer in diameter) and two fiber cables (each 50 micrometers in diameter) respectively. Probe was examined on tissue phantom (polystyrene microspheres with different diameters). In the bioimpedance part of the probe current was transferred to the phantom and conductivity information was obtained. Adjacent two fiber cables were used in the fiber optic part of the system. Light was transferred to the phantom by fiber that was connected to the light source and backscattered light was collected with the other adjacent fiber for analysis. It is known that the nucleus expands and the nucleus-cytoplasm ratio increases during the cancer progression in the cell and this situation is one of the most important criteria for evaluating the tissue for pathologists. The sensitivity of the probe to particle (nucleus) size in phantom was tested during the study. Spectroscopic data obtained from our system on phantom was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. Thus the information about the particle size in the phantom was obtained. Bioimpedance and fiber optic experiments results which were obtained from polystyrene microspheres showed that the impedance value and the oscillation amplitude were increasing while the size of particle was enlarging. These results were compatible with the previous studies. In order to motorize the system within the motor part, three driver electronic circuits were designed primarily. In this part, supply capacitors were placed symmetrically near to the supply inputs which were used for balancing the oscillation. Female capacitors were connected to the control pin. Optic and mechanic switches were made. Drivers were structurally designed as they could command highly calibrated motors. It was considered important to keep the drivers’ dimension as small as we could (4.4x4.4x1.4 cm). Then three miniature step motors were connected to each other along with three drivers. Since spectroscopic techniques are quantitative methods, they yield more objective results than traditional ones. In the future part of this study, it is planning to get spectroscopic data that have optic and impedance information from the cell culture which is normal, low metastatic and high metastatic breast cancer. In case of getting high sensitivity in differentiated cells, it might be possible to scan large surface tissue areas in a short time with small steps. By means of motorize feature of the system, any region of the tissue will not be missed, in this manner we are going to be able to diagnose cancerous parts of the tissue meticulously. This work is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) through 3001 project (115E662).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
635
74581
Classification of Multiple Cancer Types with Deep Convolutional Neural Network
Abstract:
Thousands of patients with metastatic tumors were diagnosed with cancers of unknown primary sites each year. The inability to identify the primary cancer site may lead to inappropriate treatment and unexpected prognosis. Nowadays, a large amount of genomics and transcriptomics cancer data has been generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database has accrued thousands of human cancer tumors and healthy controls, which provides an abundance of resource to differentiate cancer types. Meanwhile, deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown high accuracy on classification among a large number of image object categories. Here, we utilize 25 cancer primary tumors and 3 normal tissues from TCGA and convert their RNA-Seq gene expression profiling to color images; train, validate and test a CNN classifier directly from these images. The performance result shows that our CNN classifier can archive >80% test accuracy on most of the tumors and normal tissues. Since the gene expression pattern of distant metastases is similar to their primary tumors, the CNN classifier may provide a potential computational strategy on identifying the unknown primary origin of metastatic cancer in order to plan appropriate treatment for patients.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
634
74436
Maackiain Attenuates Alpha-Synuclein Accumulation and Improves 6-OHDA-Induced Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration in Parkinson's Disease Animal Model
Abstract:
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and motor impairment. Aggregation of α-synuclein in neuronal cells plays a key role in this disease. At present, therapeutics for PD provides moderate symptomatic benefit but is not able to delay the development of this disease. Current efforts for the treatment of PD are to identify new drugs that show slow or arrest progressive course of PD by interfering with a disease-specific pathogenetic process in PD patients. Maackiain is a bioactive compound isolated from the roots of the Chinese herb Sophora flavescens. The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential for maackiain to ameliorate PD in Caenorhabditis elegans models. Our data reveal that maackiain prevents α-synuclein accumulation in the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans model and also improves dopaminergic neuron degeneration, food-sensing behavior, and life-span in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Caenorhabditis elegans model, thus indicating its potential as a candidate antiparkinsonian drug.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):