Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48564

Cognitive and Language Sciences

834
81222
Reading Strategies of Generation X and Y: A Survey on Learners' Skills and Preferences
Abstract:
Mixed generation classroom is a phenomenon that current higher education establishments are faced with daily trying to meet the needs of modern labor market with its emphasis on lifelong learning and retraining. Representatives of mainly X and Y generations in one classroom acquiring higher education is a challenge to lecturers considering all the characteristics that differ one generation from another. The importance of outlining different strategies and considering the needs of the students lies in the necessity for everyone to acquire the maximum of the provided knowledge as well as to understand each other to study together in one classroom and successfully cooperate in future workplaces. In addition to different generations, there are also learners with different native languages which have an impact on reading and understanding texts in third languages, including possible translation. Current research aims to investigate, describe and compare reading strategies among the representatives of generation X and Y. Hypotheses were formulated - representatives of generation X and Y use different reading strategies which is also different among first and third year students of the before mentioned generations. Current study is an empirical, qualitative study. To achieve the aim of the research, relevant literature was analyzed and a semi-structured questionnaire conducted among the first and third year students of Tallinn Health Care College. Questionnaire consisted of 25 statements on the text reading strategies, 3 multiple choice questions on preferences considering the design and medium of the text, and three open questions on the translation process when working with a text in student’s third language. The results of the questionnaire were categorized, analyzed and compared. Both, generation X and Y described their reading strategies to be 'scanning' and 'surfing'. Compared to generation X, first year generation Y learners valued interactivity and nonlinear texts. Students frequently used strategies of skimming, scanning, translating and highlighting together with relevant-thinking and assistance-seeking. Meanwhile, the third-year generation Y students no longer frequently used translating, resourcing and highlighting while Generation X learners still incorporated these strategies. Knowing about different needs of the generations currently inside the classrooms and on the labor market enables us with tools to provide sustainable education and grants the society a work force that is more flexible and able to move between professions. Future research should be conducted in order to investigate the amount of learning and strategy- adoption between generations. As for reading, main suggestions arising from the research are as follows: make a variety of materials available to students; allow them to select what they want to read and try to make those materials visually attractive, relevant, and appropriately challenging for learners considering the differences of generations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
833
80787
Linguistic Misinterpretation and the Dialogue of Civilizations
Abstract:
Globalization and migrations have made cross-cultural contacts more frequent and intensive. Sometimes, these contacts may lead to misunderstanding between partners of communication and misinterpretations of the verbal messages that some researchers tend to consider as the 'clash of civilizations'. In most cases, reasons for that may be found in cultural and linguistic differences and hence misinterpretations of intentions and behavior. The current research examines factors of verbal and non-verbal communication that should be taken into consideration in verbal and non-verbal contacts. Language is one of the most important manifestations of the cultural code, and it is often considered as one of the special features of a civilization. The Arabic language, in particular, is commonly associated with Islam and the language and the Arab-Muslim civilization. It is one of the most important markers of self-identification for more than 200 million of native speakers. Arabic is the language of the Quran and hence the symbol of religious affiliation for more than one billion Muslims around the globe. Adequate interpretation of Arabic texts requires profound knowledge of its grammar, semantics of its vocabulary. Communicating sides who belong to different cultural groups are guided by different models of behavior and hierarchy of values, besides that the vocabulary each of them uses in the dialogue may convey different semantic realities and vary in connotations. In this context direct, literal translation in most cases cannot adequately convey the original meaning of the original message. Besides that peculiarities and diversities of the extralinguistic information, such as the body language, communicative etiquette, cultural background and religious affiliations may make the dialogue even more difficult. It is very likely that the so called 'clash of civilizations' in most cases is due to misinterpretation of counterpart's means of discourse such as language, cultural codes, and models of behavior rather than lies in basic contradictions between partners of communication. In the process of communication, one has to rely on universal values rather than focus on cultural or religious peculiarities, to take into account current linguistic and extralinguistic context.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
832
80760
Current Trends in the Arabic Linguistics Development: Between National Tradition and Global Tendencies
Abstract:
Globalization is a process of worldwide economic, political and cultural integration. Obviously, this phenomenon has both positive and negative issues. This article analyzes the impact of the modern process of globalization on the national traditions of language teaching and research. In this context, the problem of the ratio of local to global can be viewed from several sides. Firstly, since English is the language of over 80 percent of scientific and technical research worldwide, what should be the language of science in certain region? Secondly, language 'globality' is not always associated with English, because intercultural communications may have their regional peculiarities. For example, in the Arab world, Modern Standard Arabic can also be regarded as 'global' phenomenon, since the mother-tongue languages of the population are local Arabic dialects. In addition, the correlation 'local' versus 'global' is manifested not only in the linguistic sphere but also in the methodology used in language acquisition and research. Thus, the major principles of the Arabic philological tradition, which goes back to the 7th century, are still spread in the modern Arab world. At the same time, the terminology and methods of language research that are peculiar to this tradition are quite far from the issues of general linguistics that underlies the description of all the languages of the world. The present research relies on a comparative analysis of sources in Arabic linguistics, including original works in Arabic dating back to the 12th-13th centuries. As a case study, interaction of local and global is also considered on the example of the Arabic teaching and research in Russia. Speaking about the correlation between local and global it is possible to forecast development of two parallel tendencies: the spread of the phenomena of globalization on one hand, and local implementation of a language policy aimed at preserving native languages, including Arabic, on the other.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
831
80743
Corpora in Secondary Schools Training Courses for English as a Foreign Language Teachers
Abstract:
This paper describes a proposal for a teachers’ training course, focused on the introduction of corpora in the EFL didactics (English as a foreign language) of some Italian secondary schools. The training course is conceived as a part of a TEDD participant’s five months internship. TEDD (Technologies for Education: diversity and devices) is an advanced course held by the Department of Engineering and Information Technology at the University of Trento, Italy. Its main aim is to train a selected, heterogeneous group of graduates to engage with the complex interdependence between education and technology in modern society. The educational approach draws on a plural coexistence of various theories as well as socio-constructivism, constructionism, project-based learning and connectivism. TEDD educational model stands as the main reference source to the design of a formative course for EFL teachers, drawing on the digitalization of didactics and creation of learning interactive materials for L2 intermediate students. The training course lasts ten hours, organized into five sessions. In the first part (first and second session) a series of guided and semi-guided activities drive participants to familiarize with corpora through the use of a digital tools kit. Then, during the second part, participants are specifically involved in the realization of a ML (Mistakes Laboratory) where they create, develop and share digital activities according to their teaching goals with the use of corpora, supported by the digital facilitator. The training course takes place into an ICT laboratory where the teachers work either individually or in pairs, with a computer connected to a wi-fi connection, while the digital facilitator shares inputs, materials and digital assistance simultaneously on a whiteboard and on a digital platform where participants interact and work together both synchronically and diachronically. The adoption of good ICT practices is a fundamental step to promote the introduction and use of Corpus Linguistics in EFL teaching and learning processes, in fact dealing with corpora not only promotes L2 learners’ critical thinking and orienteering versus wild browsing when they are looking for ready-made translations or language usage samples, but it also entails becoming confident with digital tools and activities. The paper will explain reasons, limits and resources of the pedagogical approach adopted to engage EFL teachers with the use of corpora in their didactics through the promotion of digital practices.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
830
80284
Cultural Aspect Representation: An Analysis of EFL Textbook Grade 10 Years 2017 in Indonesia
Authors:
Abstract:
The discourse of language and culture relation is an interesting issue to be researched. The debate is not about what comes first, language or culture, but it strongly argues that learning foreign language also means learning the culture of the language. The more interesting issue found once constructing an EFL textbook dealing with proportional representation among source culture, target culture and international culture. This study investigates cultural content representation in EFL textbook grade 10 year 2017 in Indonesia. Cortazzi and Jin’s theoretical framework is employed to analyse the reading texts, conversations, and images. The finding shows that national character as the main agenda of Indonesian government is revealed in this textbook since the textbook more frequently highlights the source culture (Indonesian culture) compared to target and international culture. This is aligned with the aim of Indonesian government to strengthen the national identity and promoting local culture awareness through education. To conclude, the study is expected to be significant in providing the idea for government to consider cultural balances representation in constructing textbook. Furthermore, teachers and students should be aware of cultural content revealed in the EFL textbook and be able to enhance intercultural communication not only in the classroom but also in a wider society.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
829
80168
Sfard’s Commognitive Framework as a Method of Discourse Analysis in Mathematics
Abstract:
This paper discusses Sfard’s commognitive approach and provides an empirical study as an example to illustrate the theory as method. Traditionally, research in mathematics education focused on the acquisition of mathematical knowledge and the didactic process of knowledge transfer. Through attending to a distinctive form of language in mathematics, as well as mathematics as a discursive subject, alternative views of making meaning in mathematics have emerged; these views are therefore "critical," as in critical discourse analysis. The commognitive discourse analysis method has the potential to bring more clarity to our understanding of students’ mathematical thinking and the process through which students are socialized into school mathematics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
828
79752
Shaping Lexical Concept of 'Mage' through Image Schemas in Dragon Age 'Origins'
Abstract:
Language shapes the human mind and its concept toward things. Using image schemas, in nowadays technology, even AI (artificial intelligence) can concept things in response to their creator negativity or positivity. This is reflected inside one of the most selling game around the world in 2012 called Dragon Age Origins. The AI in form of NPC (Non-Playable Character) inside the game reflects on the creator of the game on negativity or positivity toward the lexical concept of mage. Through image schemas, shaping the lexical concept of mage deemed possible and proved the negativity or positivity creator of the game toward mage. This research analyses the cognitive-semantic process of image schema and shaping the concept of ‘mage’ by describing kinds of image schemas exist in the Dragon Age Origin Game. This research is also aimed to analyse kinds of image schemas and describing the image schemas which shaping the concept of ‘mage’ itself. The methodology used in this research is qualitative where participative observation is employed with five stages and documentation. The results shows that there are four image schemas exist in the game and those image schemas shaping the lexical concept of ‘mage’.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
827
79393
Oedipus as Victim of Fate and Human Psychology: The Fatal Curiosity
Authors:
Abstract:
Oedipus in Oedipus Rex is necessarily a victim of fate and his own psychology. His curiosity brings about his downfall. Ancient Greek plays weren't just portrayals of some obscure tale but were insights into human nature. Oedipus, although a victim of circumstances, digs his own grave by curiously unravelling his past. Jocasta foresees his doom and begs him to stop, but to no avail. The curiosity of Oedipus forces him, almost like a drug, to explore the mystery regarding his birth. This curiosity is not something extraordinary in Oedipus - it is an intrinsic attribute of human nature. Knowledge is not always desired - whether it is Adam or Oedipus, their curiosity caused their eventual downfall. Oedipus was ill-fated since birth. He did not know that Laius was his biological father and therefore killed him. He arrived at Thebes, solved the riddle of the Sphinx, and married Jocasta without knowing that she, in fact, was his biological mother. He begot children and was living happily with his family when a sudden calamity struck Thebes. The calamity, though at first seemed public in nature, but later proved to be very personal for Oedipus. It drives home the fundamental truth about uncertainty of human life. That Laius was slayed by his own son, even after many precautions, proves the helplessness of humans in front of the designs of fate. Oedipus's mutilation of his eyes is also fated. It was committed by him in the heat of the moment and was certainly not a rational decision. It is evident to any modern reader that Oedipus does not have justice. Destiny treats him unfairly. Oedipus, in fact, defends his actions in Oedipus Rex in its sequel Oedipus At Colonus. The research paper discusses the unhappy fate of Oedipus and the role of destiny and his own curiosity in achieving it.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
826
79391
Contextual Senses of Ambiguous Words Based on Cognitive Semantics
Authors:
Abstract:
All linguistic units are context-dependent. They occur in particular settings, from which they derive much of their import, and are recognized by speakers as distinct entities only through a process of abstraction. Most of the words have several concepts associated with them and convey a number of meanings in different contexts in any language. For instance, there are different uses of the word good as an adjective from English. The adjective good expresses many senses like (1) ‘high quality of someone or something’ (2) ‘efficient’ (3) ‘virtuous’ (4) ‘reliable’ etc. These senses will be analyzed by using cognitive semantics framework. The context has the power to insulate one meaning from all the other meanings in communication. This paper will provide a cognitive semantic analysis. The basic tenet of cognitive semantics is the sense of a word is the way we conceptualize it. Our conceptualization is based on the physical experience we go through. Cognitive semantics tries to capture this conceptualization in terms of some categories like schema, frame, and domain. Cognitive semantics is a subfield of cognitive linguistics. Cognitive linguistics studies the language creation, learning, and usage by the reference to human cognition. The semantic structure is conceptual structure which is related to the concepts which are the elements of reason and constitute the meanings of words and linguistic expressions. Cognitive semantics studies how our mind works for the meaning of any word and how it perceives meaning from the environment through senses and works to map with the knowledge which already exists in our mind through experience. In the present paper, the senses are further classified into some categories.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
825
79370
Analysis of Comprehension Skills According to Revised Bloom's Taxonomy
Abstract:
The aim of this research is to determine how the secondary school age children understand the texts they read according to Revised Bloom's Taxonomy. As a result of the literature search made before the application, it is determined that there are very few studies in which reading comprehension skills of the secondary school children are examined and evaluated according to the cognitive processes in Turkey. Thus, this research is needed. An achievement test was developed in order to obtain the findings in the study. This achievement test developed was completed as a result of the expert opinions and evaluations. In the first section of the achievement test, a personal information form was included to determine the actors which are predicted to affect the comprehension skill. After the necessary permissions for the application are received, first the Personal Information Form was given and then Reading Comprehension Achievement Test According to Revised Bloom's Taxonomy was applied to the children. The data obtained in the research was examined with SPSS 15 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) program. Descriptive statistical methods were utilized in the data evaluation; the answers given to the questions were tabulated in frequency and percentage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
824
78766
The Effect of Dissociation in Bipolar Disorder: An EEG Power Analysis
Abstract:
Understanding the biological mechanisms of dissociation in patients with bipolar disorder is important for developing new treatment approaches for the disorder as well as using the appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, we compared EEG power and coherence values for alpha, theta and beta frequency bands between patients having bipolar disorder with dissociation as compared to the bipolar patients without dissociation. Accordingly, we did not find any statistically significant difference in either the absolute or the relative power between the groups. Coherence values were not found to be statistically different, as well. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the existence of dissociation did not influence electrophysiological correlates in bipolar disorder.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
823
78509
Pragmatics of Socio-Linguistic Influence on Neurologist-Patient Interaction in Selected Hospitals in Nigeria
Abstract:
This study examines how social and linguistic variables influenced communication between neurologists and patients in selected university teaching hospitals (UTHs) in southwestern Nigeria. Jacob Mey’s Pragmatic Acts, complemented by Emanuel and Emanuel’s model of doctor-patient relationship, served as the theoretical framework. Data comprising 22 audio-recorded neurologist-patient interactions were collected from two UTHs in the southwestern region of Nigeria. Data revealed that educational attainment of patients has insignificant influence on the interaction where the linguistic prowess of the patient has been impaired for consultative communication. However, the status influenced the degree of attention paid to patients by neurologists and determines the amount of time 'trying to help patients to communicate'. Patients with lower educational status and who could not communicate in English spent more time narrating their ailment to neurologists. Patients with higher educational status and could communicate in English saves consultation time as they express themselves briefly unlike those who were of little or no education in the clinics. Through this, diagnoses and therapeutic processes took eight to 12 minutes. 20 minutes was the longest duration recorded. Neurologist-patient interaction in the observed hospitals is shaped by neurologists’ experience, patients’ social variables and language.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
822
78285
From Victim to Ethical Agent: Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol as Post-Traumatic Writing
Abstract:
Faced with a sudden, unexpected, and overwhelming event, the individual's normal cognitive processing may cease to function, trapping the psyche in "speechless terror", while images, feelings and sensations are experienced with emotional intensity. Unable to master such situation, the individual becomes a trauma victim who will be susceptible to traumatic recollections like intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and repetitive re-living of the primal event in a way that blurs the distinction between past and present, and forecloses the future. Trauma is timeless, repetitious, and contagious; a trauma observer could fall prey to "secondary victimhood". Central to the process of healing the psychic wounds in the aftermath of trauma is verbalizing the traumatic experience (i.e., putting it into words) – an act which provides a chance for assimilation, testimony, and reevaluation. In light of this paradigm, this paper proposes a reading of Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol, written shortly after his release from prison, as a post-traumatic text which traces the disruptive effects of the traumatic experience of Wilde's imprisonment for homosexual offences and the ensuing reversal of fortune he endured. Post-traumatic writing demonstrates the process of "working through" a trauma which may lead to the possibility of ethical agency in the form of a "survivor mission". This paper draws on fundamental concepts and key insights in literary trauma theory which is characterized by interdisciplinarity, combining the perspectives of different fields like critical theory, psychology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, history, and social studies. Of particular relevance to this paper are the concepts of "vicarious traumatization" and "survivor mission", as The Ballad of Reading Gaol was written in response to Wilde's own prison trauma and the indirect traumatization he experienced as a result of witnessing the execution of a fellow prisoner whose story forms the narrative base of the poem. The Ballad displays Wilde's sense of mission which leads him to recognize the social as well as ethical implications of personal tragedy. Through a close textual analysis of The Ballad of Reading Gaol within the framework of literary trauma theory, the paper aims to: (a) demonstrate how the poem's thematic concerns, structure and rhetorical figures reflect the structure of trauma; (b) highlight Wilde's attempts to come to terms with the effects of the cataclysmic experience which transformed him into a social outcast; and (c) show how Wilde manages to transcend the victim status and assumes the role of ethical agent to voice a critique of the Victorian penal system and the standards of morality underlying the cruelties practiced against wrong doers and to solicit social action.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
821
77812
Investigating the Acquisition of English Emotion Terms by Moroccan EFL Learners
Abstract:
Culture influences lexicalization of salient concepts in a society. Hence, languages often have different degrees of equivalence regarding lexical items of different fields. The present study focuses on the field of emotions in English and Moroccan Arabic. Findings of a comparative study that involved fifty English emotions revealed that Moroccan Arabic has equivalence of some English emotion terms, partial equivalence of some emotion terms, and no equivalence for some other terms. It is hypothesized then that emotion terms that have near equivalence in Moroccan Arabic will be easier to acquire for EFL learners, while partially equivalent terms will be difficult to acquire, and those that have no equivalence will be even more difficult to acquire. In order to test these hypotheses, the participants (104 advanced Moroccan EFL learners and 104 native speakers of English) were given two tests: the first is a receptive one in which the participants were asked to choose, among four emotion terms, the term that is appropriate to fill in the blanks for a given situation indicating certain kind of feelings. The second test is a productive one in which the participants were asked to give the emotion term that best described the feelings of the people in the situations given. The results showed that conceptually equivalent terms do not pose any problems for Moroccan EFL learners since they can link the concept to an already existing linguistic category; whereas the results concerning the acquisition of partially equivalent terms indicated that this type of emotion terms were difficult for Moroccan EFL learners to acquire, because they need to restructure the boundaries of the target linguistic categories by expanding them when the term includes other range of meanings that are not subsumed in the L1 term. Surprisingly however, the results concerning the case of non-equivalence revealed that Moroccan EFL learners could internalize the target L2 concepts that have no equivalence in their L1. Thus, it is the category of emotion terms that have partial equivalence in the learners’ L1 that pose problems for them.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
820
77606
Perceptions on Community Media for Effective Acculturation in Nigerian Indigenous Languages
Authors:
Abstract:
This study examined perceptions on the effectiveness, attendant challenges and remedies of community media for effective acculturation in Nigerian languages. The qualitative survey design was adopted with Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) of 50 purposively chosen informants. It was perceived that community media could serve as veritable platform for effective acculturation in Nigerian languages since they would engender the setting of acculturation in Nigerian languages as national objective or goal. It was further held that the strengths of community media for acculturation were in being goal-defined, ensuring local content and diversification. The study identified that as palatable as the proposal for community media for effective acculturation in Nigerian languages is; it would be fraught with some set-backs or challenges that were very much surmountable. Perceptions pointed towards transient nature of community media and funding as challenges, as well as multi-based funding as one remedy. Immediate establishment of community media for the purpose of acculturation in Nigerian languages was recommended.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
819
77571
The Role of Paraphrase in Interpreting Students’ Writing
Abstract:
To improve students’ skill, writing is the most challenging skill to be developed. The reason is that besides helping the students to develop their skill, this activity also helps them to express themselves. This paper depicts how paraphrasing is very helpful to interpret students’ writing. Syntactic units, used tenses and meanings will indeed change once the writings were paraphrased. The objectives of this research are to reveal the inappropriate structure of syntactic units, to show what types of sentences the students often make, and to show how paraphrasing can help to infer the message. The methodology of this research is descriptive qualitative research. In addition, theories of linguistics are also included. This includes theory of Syntax to describe syntactic units and tenses and theory of Semantics to describe theories of meaning and how paraphrasing works. The theories of general linguistics, grammar and writing are also provided to support the theories of Syntax and Semantics. The results of this research are concerned with how the message is received in the end. The message written in the students’ essay is not clear because of the improper structure of syntactic units and use of incorrect of tenses. The students tend to use simple sentences, compound sentences and complex sentences with a few mistakes in their writing. In addition, they tend to create unnecessary phrases. The last point is that this research shows how paraphrase works to attain complete meaning of a sentence.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
818
77239
From a Madwoman in the Attic to a Fairy Land: A Conversation with Antoinette in Jean Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea
Abstract:
Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea, a prequel to Bronte’s Jane Eyre, explores the history of the other and gives voices to the people who were silenced and kept under the darkness of negation and denial for a long time. Jean Wide Sargasso Sea provides an alternative understanding of Charlotte Brontë’s mad Creole woman, i.e., Bertha Mason of Jane Eyre in the postcolonial context. Rhys transforms Charlotte Bronte’s Victorian romance into a realistic narrative. In doing so, she re-reads Bertha as Antoinette, the unspeakable figure of otherness, into an unnameable self, and creates a new stage for the inner self. She in the novel is no longer a lunatic heiress in Rochester’s attic rather in this novel she finds her fantasy, dream and most importantly, voice. Rhys peeps through the character of Antoinette through her fragmented memories, dreams, and identity. Antoinette’s identity is mutilated constantly in the conflicts between colonizers and colonized, male and female, black and white. We shall use postcolonial theories like Bhaba’s hybridity and third space as a methodology to reveal the dialectics of struggle of a doubly colonized woman.We shall see that Bertha Mason was neglected by Bronte because of her madness and was locked in the Rochester’s Attic, but here Rhys beautifully converts her madness as a language of Antoinette, a language for her protest, a language for her liberation, a language for her dreams. In this present paper, we shall try to show how Antoinette tries to free her soul and body from the clutches of her multiple existences, identity, and narratives.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
817
76927
The Question of Choice in an Achievement Test: A Study on the Sudanese Case
Abstract:
Achievement tests administered at national level play a significant role in the lives of test-takers as well as the whole society. This paper aims to investigate the effect of giving students a choice between two optional questions on their overall performance in a high stake achievement test for university admission. It is hypothesized that questions targeting writing-based productive skills and language system necessitate display of abilities which are different from fact-based questions designed around story content. The two items are assumed to reflect different constructs that require different criteria of assessment. Consequently, the student’s overall score is affected by the item they choose to answer, which might not be reflective of their real language abilities. An open-ended interview was carried out with ten teachers working with grade 3 students in model secondary schools to investigate the nature of the two test items and their impact on the student’s performance. The data has proved that giving choice in an achievement test generates different performances that are assessed differently. It is recommended that in order to address the question of fairness, it is important to clearly define and balance the construct of the items that affect the student’s choice and performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
816
76362
Descriptive Analysis of Variations in Maguindanaon Language
Authors:
Abstract:
People who live in the same region and who seemed to speak the same language still vary in some aspects of their language. The variation may occur in terms of pronunciation, lexicon, morphology, and syntax. This qualitative study described the phonological, morphological, and lexical variations of the Maguindanaon language among the ten Maguindanao municipalities. Purposive sampling, in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and sorting and classifying of words according to phonological and morphological as well as lexical structures in data analysis were employed. The variations occurred through phonemic changes and other phonological processes and morphological processes. Phonological processes consisted of vowel lengthening and deletion while morphological processes included affixation, borrowing, and coinage. In the phonological variation, it was observed that there were phonemic changes in one dialect to another. For example, there was a change of phoneme /r/ to /l/. The phoneme /r/ was most likely to occur in Kabuntalan like /biru/, /kurIt/, and /kɘmɅr/ whereas in the rest of the dialects these were /bilu/, /kuIɪt/, and /kɘmɅl/ respectively. Morphologically, the affixation was the main way to know the tenses. For example, the root sarig (expect) when inserted with im becomes simarig, i.e. s + im + arig = simarig (expected). Lexical variation also existed in the Maguindanaon language. Results revealed that the variation in phonology, morphology, and lexicon were observed to be associated primarily on geographic distribution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
815
76340
Formalizing the Sense Relation of Hyponymy from Logical Point of View: A Study of Mathematical Linguistics in Farsi
Abstract:
The present research tries to study the possibility of formalizing the sense relation of hyponymy. It applied mathematical tools and also uses mathematical logic concepts especially those from propositional logic. In order to do so, firstly, it goes over the definitions of hyponymy presented in linguistic dictionaries and semantic textbooks. Then, it introduces a formal translation of the sense relation of hyponymy. Lastly, it examines the efficiency of the suggested formula by some examples of natural language.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
814
75946
Understanding Context and Its Effects in the Implementation of Modern Foreign Language Curriculum in Vietnam
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Abstract:
The key issue for teachers of a modern foreign language is the creation of a pedagogic environment, and this means that an understanding of context is vital. A pedagogic environment addresses the following: time, feedback, relations with other people, curriculum integration, forms of knowledge, resources and control in the pedagogic relationship. In this light, the multiple case study of the implementation of a modern foreign language curriculum focuses on exploring Vietnamese contexts and participants’ perceptions of factors that may affect their implementation process in order to examine thoroughly how the communicative language teaching (CLT) curriculum is being implemented in second language classrooms. A mixed methods approach is utilized to investigate contextual and personal factors that may affect teachers’ implementation of curriculum and pedagogical reform in Vietnam. This project therefore has the capability to inform stakeholders of useful information and identify further changes and measures to solve potential problems to ensure the achievement of the curriculum goals. The expected outcomes may also lead to intercultural language teaching guidelines to support english as a foreign language (EFL) teachers with curriculum design, planning and how to create pedagogic environment to best implement it.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
813
75903
The Organizational Structure, Development Features, and Metadiscoursal Elements in the Expository Writing of College Freshman Students
Abstract:
This study entitled, ‘The Organizational Structure, Development Features, and Metadiscoursal Elements in the Expository Writing of Freshman College Writers’ aimed to examine essays written by college students. It seeks to examine the organizational structure and development features of the essays and describe their defining characteristics, the linguistic elements at both macrostructural and microstructural discourse levels and the types of textual and interpersonal metadiscourse markers that are employed in order to negotiate meanings with their prospective readers. The different frameworks used to analyze the essays include Toulmin’s ( 1984) model for argument structure, Olson’s ( 2003) three-part essay structure; Halliday and Matthiesen (2004) in Herriman (2011) notions of thematic structure, Danes (1974) thematic progression or method of development, Halliday’s (2004) concept of grammatical and lexical cohesion ;Hyland’s (2005) metadiscourse strategies; and Chung and Nation’s( 2003) four-step scale for technical vocabulary. This descriptive study analyzes qualitatively and quantitatively how freshman students generally express their written compositions. Coding of units is done to determine what linguistic features are present in the essays. Findings revealed that students’ expository essays observe a three-part structure having all three moves, the Introduction, the Body and the Conclusion. Stance assertion, stance support, and emerging moves/strategies are found to be employed in the essays. Students have more marked themes on the essays and also prefer constant theme progression as their method of development. The analysis of salient linguistic elements reveals frequently used cohesive devices and metadiscoursal strategies. Based on the findings, an instructional learning plan is being proposed. This plan is characterized by a genre approach that focuses on expository and linguistic conventions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
812
75867
Efficacy of Task Based Language Teaching in a Second Language Classroom Context
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Abstract:
Various approaches and methods for second language classroom teaching have been proposed since the nineteenth century. Task Based Language Teaching has been prevailing approach in a second language classroom context. It is an approach which immerses students in a naturalistic setting. Tasks are the core unit of planning and instruction. This paper aims at expounding the concept of Task Based Language Teaching and how it has been evolved. In this study, researcher will highlight the usefulness of TBLT and the role it played as a powerful tool for learning and teaching in a second language setting. The article will reflect the implementation of various tasks based activities as well as the roles played by learners and teachers and the problems faced by them. In the end, researcher will discuss how TBLT can be implemented in second language classroom pedagogy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
811
75843
The Relation between Learning Styles and English Achievement in the Language Training Centre
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Abstract:
Many studies have been developed to help the students to get good achievement in English learning. They can be from the teaching method or psychological ones. One of the psychological studies in educational research is learning style. In some ways, learning style can affect the achievement of the students. This study aimed to examine 4 (four) learning styles and their relations to English achievement among the students learning English in Language Training Center of Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta (LTC UMY). The method of this study was descriptive analytical. The sample consisted of 39 Accounting students in LTC UMY. The data was collected through questionnaires with Likert-scale. The achievement was obtained from the grade of the students. To analyze the questionnaires and to see the relation between the learning styles and the student achievement, SPSS statistical software of correlational analysis was used. The result showed that both visual and auditory had the same percentage of 35.9% (14 students). 3 students (7.7%) had kinaesthetic learning style and 8 students (20.5%) had visual and auditory ones. Meanwhile, there were 5 students (12.8%) who had visual learning style could increase their grades. Only 1 student (2.5%) who had visual and auditory could improve his grade. Besides grade increase, there were also grade decrease. Students with visual, auditory, visual and auditory, and kinaesthetic learning styles were 3 students (7.7%), 5 students (12%), 4 students (10.2%) and 1 student (2.5%) respectively. In conclusion, there was no significant relationship between learning style and English achievement. Most of the good achievers were the students with visual and auditory learning styles and most of them preferred visual method. The implication is the teachers and material designers could improve their method through visual things to achieve effective English teaching learning.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
810
75047
Acquisition of Overt Pronoun Constraint in L2 Turkish by Adult Korean Speakers
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Abstract:
The aim of this study is to investigate the acquisition of Overt Pronoun Constraint (OPC) by adult Korean L2 Turkish speakers in order to find out how constraints regulating the syntax of null and overt subjects are acquired. OPC is claimed to be a universal feature of all null subject languages restricting the co-indexation between overt embedded pronoun and quantified or wh-question antecedents. However, there is no such restriction when the embedded subject is null or the antecedent is a referential subject. Considered as a principle of Universal Grammar (UG), OPC knowledge of L2 speakers has been widely tested with different language pairs. In the light of previous studies on OPC, it can be argued that L2 learners display early sensitivity to OPC constraints during their interlanguage grammar development. Concerning this, the co-indexation between overt embedded pronoun o (third person pronoun) and referential matrix subject is claimed to be controversial in Turkish, which poses problems with the universality of OPC. However, the current study argues against this claim by providing evidence from advanced Korean speakers that OPC is universal to all null subject languages and OPC knowledge can be accessed with direct access to UG. In other words, the performances of adult Korean speakers on the syntax of null and overt subjects are tested to support this claim. In order to test this, OPC task is used. 15 advanced speakers and a control group of adult native Turkish participants are instructed to determine the co-reference relationship between the subject of embedded clause, either overt pronominal o or null, and the subject of the matrix clause, either quantified pronoun and wh-question or referential antecedent. They are asked to select the interpretation of the embedded subject, either as the same person as in the matrix subject or another person who is not the same person in the matrix subject. These relations are represented with four conditions, and each condition has four questions (16 questions in total). The results claim that both control group and Korean L2 Turkish speakers display sensitivity to all constraints that OPC has, which suggests that OPC works in Turkish as well.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
809
75046
Language Errors Used in “The Space between Us” Movie and Their Effects on Translation Quality: Translation Study toward Discourse Analysis Approach
Abstract:
Both society and education areas teach to have good communication for building the interpersonal skills up. Everyone has the capacity to understand something new, either well comprehension or worst understanding. Worst understanding makes the language errors when the interactions are done by someone in the first meeting, and they do not know before it because of distance area. “The Space between Us” movie delivers the love-adventure story between Mars Boy and Earth Girl. They are so many missing conversations because of the different climate and environment. As the moviegoer also must be focused on the subtitle in order to enjoy well the movie. Furthermore, Indonesia subtitle and English conversation on the movie still have overlapping understanding in the translation. Translation hereby consists of source language -SL- (English conversation) and target language -TL- (Indonesia subtitle). These research gap above is formulated in research question by how the language errors happened in that movie and their effects on translation quality which is deepest analyzed by translation study toward discourse analysis approach. The research goal is to expand the language errors and their translation qualities in order to create a good atmosphere in movie media. The research is studied by embedded research in qualitative design. The research locations consist of setting, participant, and event as focused determined boundary. Sources of datum are “The Space between Us” movie and informant (translation quality rater). The sampling is criterion-based sampling (purposive sampling). Data collection techniques use content analysis and questioner. Data validation applies data source and method triangulation. Data analysis delivers domain, taxonomy, componential, and cultural theme analysis. Data findings on the language errors happened in the movie are referential, register, society, textual, receptive, expressive, individual, group, analogical, transfer, local, and global errors. Data discussions on their effects to translation quality are concentrated by translation techniques on their data findings; they are amplification, borrowing, description, discursive creation, established equivalent, generalization, literal, modulation, particularization, reduction, substitution, and transposition.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
808
74865
Integration of Social Media in Teaching and Learning Activities: A Case Study
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The study investigated on how a small group of pre-service teachers and lecturers used social media to interact and collaborate to complete their tasks. The study is a qualitative case study that explored the lecturers’ reflections and pre-service teachers’ interviews. The lecturers were given the option to choose Facebook or any other social media as their teaching and learning platforms. However, certain guidelines based on were given to lecturers to conduct their teaching and learning activities. The findings revealed that although Facebook was a popular social networking site, it was not a preferred educational platform. Lecturers preferred to use WhatsApp, Canvas, and email. The focus group interview found positive and negative experiences of the pre-service teachers. The study suggested several pedagogical implications and importantly highlighted the need for changes in curriculum to ensure lecturers leverage the potential of technology in education.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
807
74849
Digital Metroliteracies: Space, Diversity and Identity
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This paper looks at the relationship between online space, urban space and digital literacies. The everyday digital literacy practices of Facebook users (with a particular focus on young urban Mongolians) can be understood as ‘metrolingual’ because of the varied ways in which linguistic and cultural resources, spatial repertoires, and online activities are bound together to make meaning. Whereas the initial development of the term metrolingualism was dependent on a notion of physical urban space, we here argue that the digital practices of these Facebook users perform a range of social and cultural identities (sexual, ethnic, and class-based identities) that are both parts of but also adjacent to the metrolingual fabric.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
806
74836
Preschool Story Retelling: Actions and Verb Use
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Story-retelling is a technique frequently used to assess children’s language skills and support their development of narratives. Fourteen preschool children listened to one of two stories from the wordless, illustrated Frog book series and then retold the story using the pictures. A comparison of three verb types (action, mental and other) in the original story model, and children's verb use in their retold stories revealed the salience of action events. The children's stories contained a similar proportion of verb types to the original story. However, the action verbs they used were rarely those they had heard in the original. The implications for the process of lexical encoding and narrative recall are discussed, as well as suggestions for the use of wordless picture books and the language teaching of new verbs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
805
74620
Teaching English as a Foreign Language: Insights from the Philippine Context
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This paper provides insights into teaching English as a Foreign Language in the Philippines. The authors reviewed relevant theories and literature, and provide an analysis of the issues in teaching English in the Philippine setting in the light of these theories. The authors made an investigation in Bagong Barrio National High School (BBNHS) - a public school in Caloocan City. The institution has a population of nearly 3,000 students. The performances of randomly chosen 365 respondents were scrutinised. The study regarding the success of teaching English as a foreign language to Filipino children were highlighted. This includes the respondents’ family background, surroundings, way of living, and their behavior and understanding regarding education. The results show that there is a significant relationship between demonstrative, communal, and logical areas that touch the efficacy of introducing English as a foreign Dialectal. Filipino children, by nature, are adventurous and naturally joyful even for little things. They are born with natural skills and capabilities to discover new things. They highly consider activities and work that ignite their curiosity. They love to be recognised and are inspired the most when given the assurance of acceptance and belongingness. Fun is the appealing influence to ignite and motivate learning. The magic word is excitement. The study reveals the many facets of the accumulation and transmission of erudition, in introduction and administration of English as a foreign phonological; it runs and passes through different channels of diffusion. Along the way, there are particles that act as obstructions in protocols where knowledge are to be gathered. Data gained from the respondents conceals a reality that is beyond one’s imagination. One significant factor that touches the inefficacy of understanding and using English as a foreign language is an erroneous outset gained from an old belief handed down from generation to generation. This accepted perception about the power and influence of the use of language, gives the novices either a negative or a positive notion. The investigation shows that a higher number of dislikes in the use of English can be tracked down from the belief of the story on how the English language came into existence. The belief that only the great and the influential have the right to use English as a means of communication kills the joy of acceptance. A significant notation has to be examined so as to provide a solution or if not eradicate the misconceptions that lie behind the substance of the matter. The result of the authors’ research depicts a substantial correlation between the emotional (demonstrative), social (communal), and intellectual (logical). The focus of this paper is to bring out the right notation and disclose the misconceptions with regards to teaching English as a foreign language. This will concentrate on the emotional, social, and intellectual areas of the Filipino learners and how these areas affect the transmittance and accumulation of learning. The authors’ aim is to formulate logical ways and techniques that would open up new beginnings in understanding and acceptance of the subject matter.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):