Emotions Classification Based on Optimum Allocation Sampling Using Electroencephalogram Signals
Electroencephalogram (EEG) based emotions classification can be used as brain computer interface systems for assessment of the physiological response of human brain. In this paper, a statistical approach optimum allocation sampling (OAS) with statistical and non-statistical features is proposed for the classification of different emotions EEG signals. OAS converts long length non-homogeneous EEG sequence into homogeneous sequence for meaningful features extraction. The homogenous EEG sequence is formed according to minimum variance concept. Such homogenous sequences of EEG signals are used in extraction of following features: interquartile range, second quartile, log-energy entropy, and neg-entropy. The extracted features are applied as inputs to extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier for classification of happy, relax, sad, and fear emotions. The proposed method for emotions classification provides better results as compared to other existing methods.
Experimentally Validated Analytical Model for Thermal Analysis of Multi-Stage Depressed Collector
Multi-stage depressed collectors (MDC) are used as an efficiency enhancement technique in traveling wave tubes the high-energy electron beam, after its interaction with the RF signal, gets velocity sorted and collected at various depressed electrodes of the MDC. The ultimate goal is to identify an optimum thermal management scheme (cooling mechanism) that could extract the heat efficiently from the electrodes. Careful thermal analysis, incorporating the cooling mechanism is required to ensure that the maximum temperature does not exceed the safe limits. A simple analytical model for quick prediction of the thermal has been developed. The model has been developed for the worst-case un-modulated DC condition, where all the thermal power is dissipated in the last electrode (typically, fourth electrode in the case of the four-stage depressed collector). It considers the thermal contact resistances at various braze joints accounting for the practical non-uniformities. Analytical results obtained from the model have been validated with simulated and experimental results.
Support Vector Machine Based Tool to Aid the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis Using Commercial Electromyography Sensor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major auto-immune disease that is the leading cause of non-traumatic impairment of central nervous system in young adults. Success in managing its symptoms and in recovering from the attacks highly depends on accurate medical diagnosis made in advance. The neurological examination is an expert procedure including several different tests and examinations that, despite its complexity, lacks precision. This work gives an investigation of the capabilities of a commercial electromyographic and inertial sensor (MYO Armband by Thalmic Labs Inc.) during the neurological examination. In this initial study, a dataset of electromyographic signals from 71 individuals (including 31 diagnosed with MS and 40 healthy subjects) was firstly acquired under classical conditions of MS diagnosing procedure. Temporal and spectral features of the signals are then extracted in order to train and validate several classification algorithms. A classification rate of 88% was finally obtained using Support Vector Machine. Together with clinicians we propose a set of signal descriptors that correlates with objective components of the neurological examination. The proposed technique, being non-disruptive, simple and easily affordable, is considered to have high potential in aiding the MS diagnosing.
MCERTL: Mutation-Based Correction Engine for Register-Transfer Level Designs
In this paper, we present MCERTL (mutation-based correction engine for RTL designs) as an automatic error correction technique based on mutation analysis. A mutation-based correction methodology is proposed to automatically fix the erroneous RTL designs. The proposed strategy combines the processes of mutation and assertion-based localization. The erroneous statements are mutated to produce possible fixes for the failed RTL code. A concurrent mutation engine is proposed to mitigate the computational cost of running sequential mutants operators. The proposed methodology is evaluated against some benchmarks. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method enables us to automatically locate and correct multiple bugs at reasonable time.
International and Intercultural Communication Design: Case Study of Manipulative Advertising
The purpose of the following research paper is to discuss the differentiating meanings of culture and how popular culture has maintained a great impact on intercultural and international behavior. The following discussion leads to the notion of communicating cultural impact on behavior through advertising and sub-cultural theory in advertising. Although towards the end of the research, the complexities that develop through the above discussion, lead to the solution that ‘advertising gives meaning to the otherwise meaningless and identical objects through linking them to our basic needs’. In today’s fast paced digital world, it is difficult to define culture, literally, since its meaning tends to shift through series of different perceptions such as ‘how’ and ‘why’ it should be used. This notion can be taken towards another notion of popular culture. It is dependent on ‘attitudes, ideas, images, perspectives and other phenomena within the mainstream of a given culture’. Since popular culture is influenced by mass media, it has a way of influencing an individual’s attitude towards certain topics. For example, tattoos are a form of human decorations, that have historic significance, and a huge spectrum of meanings. Advertising is one aspect of marketing that has evolved from the time when it was ‘production oriented’, up till the time it started using different mediums to make its impact more effective. However, this impact has confused us between our needs and desires. The focus in this paper is ‘we consume to acquire a sense of social identity and status, not just for the sake of consumption’. Every culture owns different expressions, which are then used by advertisers to create its impact on the behavior of people sub-culturally and globally, as culture grows through social interaction. Advertisers furthermore play a smart role in highlighting quality of life ranging from ‘survival to well-being’. Hence, this research paper concludes by highlighting that culture is considered as a ‘basic root’ of any community that also provides solution to certain problems; however, advertisers play their part in manipulating society’s literacy and beliefs by rationalizing how relevant certain products/brands are to their beliefs.
A Proposal of Step Index Multimode Fiber Optic Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance with Tri-Metallic Layers
We propose a surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) based optical fiber sensor with tri-metallic layers combinations. The designed SPR sensor structure, with optimized parameters is simulated by using COMSOL Multiphysics simulation tool. The optical fiber sensor is designed by polishing an optical fiber by consistently removing the cladding and by this means, forming the sensing regions. Then we evaluate the effects of two physical parameters of the sensor in an ichorous medium, i.e. the thickness of the nobel metal layer and the refractive index using numerical simulations. We have shown that a sharp dip in reflectance curve can be obtained by using appropriate physical parameters. From the biotechnology point of view, this SPR sensor structure can be utilized as an optical biosensor in ichorous environments for various biomedical relevance areas.
Enhancement of Primary User Detection in Cognitive Radio by Scattering Transform
The detecting of an occupied frequency band is a major issue in cognitive radio systems. The detection process becomes difficult if the signal occupying the band of interest has faded amplitude due to multipath effects. These effects make it hard for an occupying user to be detected. This work mitigates the missed-detection problem in the context of cognitive radio in frequency-selective fading channel by proposing blind channel estimation method that is based on scattering transform. By initially applying conventional energy detection, the missed-detection probability is evaluated, and if it is greater than or equal to 50%, channel estimation is applied on the received signal followed by channel equalization to reduce the channel effects. In the proposed channel estimator, we modify the Morlet wavelet by using its first derivative for better frequency resolution. A mathematical description of the modified function and its frequency resolution is formulated in this work. The improved frequency resolution is required to follow the spectral variation of the channel. The channel estimation error is evaluated in the mean-square sense for different channel settings, and energy detection is applied to the equalized received signal. The simulation results show improvement in reducing the missed-detection probability as compared to the detection based on principal component analysis. This improvement is achieved at the expense of increased estimator complexity, which depends on the number of wavelet filters as related to the channel taps. Also, the detection performance shows an improvement in detection probability for low signal-to-noise scenarios over principal component analysis- based energy detection.
Field Programmable Gate Array Implementation of Adaptive Clock Recovery for Time Division Multiplexing over Internet Protocol Systems
Circuit switched networks widely used until the end of the 20th century have been transformed into packages switched networks. Time Division Multiplexing over Internet Protocol (TDMoIP) is a system that enables Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) traffic to be carried over packet switched networks (PSN). In TDMoIP systems, devices that send TDM data to the PSN and receive it from the network must operate with the same clock frequency. In this study, it was aimed to implement clock synchronization process in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips using time information attached to the packages received from PSN. The designed hardware is verified using the data sets obtained for the different carrier types and comparing the results with the software model. Field tests are also performed by using the real time TDMoIP system.
Red Green Blue Image Encryption Based on Paillier Cryptographic System
In this paper, we present a novel application of the Paillier cryptographic system to the encryption of RGB (Red Green Blue) images. In this method, an RGB image is first separated into its constituent channel images, and the Paillier encryption function is applied to each of the channels pixel intensity values. Next, the encrypted image is combined and compressed if necessary before being transmitted through an unsecured communication channel. The transmitted image is subsequently recovered by a decryption process. We performed a series of security and performance analyses to the recovered images in order to verify their robustness to security attack. The results show that the proposed image encryption scheme produces highly secured encrypted images.
A CMOS-Integrated Hall Plate with High Sensitivity
An improved cross-shaped hall plate with high sensitivity is described in this paper. Among different geometries that have been simulated and measured using Helmholtz coil. The paper describes the physical hall plate design and implementation in a 0.18-µm CMOS technology. In this paper, the biasing is a constant voltage mode. In the voltage mode, magnetic field is converted into an output voltage. The output voltage is typically in the order of micro- to millivolt and therefore, it must be amplified before being transmitted to the outside world. The study, design and performance optimization of hall plate has been carried out with the COMSOL Multiphysics. It is used to estimate the voltage distribution in the hall plate with and without magnetic field and to optimize the geometry. The simulation uses the nominal bias current of 1mA. The applied magnetic field is in the range from 0 mT to 20 mT. Measured results of the one structure over the 10 available samples show for the best sensitivity of 2.5 %/T at 20mT.
A Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Transmit/Receive Switch Subsystem for Communication Systems
Multi-band systems offer a great deal of benefit in modern communication and radar systems. In particular, multi-band antenna-array radar systems with their extended frequency diversity provide numerous advantages in detection, identification, locating and tracking a wide range of targets, including enhanced detection coverage, accurate target location, reduced survey time and cost, increased resolution, improved reliability and target information. An accurate calibration is a critical issue in antenna array systems. The amplitude and phase errors in multi-band and multi-polarization antenna array transceivers result in inaccurate target detection, deteriorated resolution and reduced reliability. Furthermore, the digital beam former without the RF domain phase-shifting is less immune to unfiltered interference signals, which can lead to receiver saturation in array systems. Therefore, implementing integrated front-end architecture, which can support calibration function with low insertion and filtering function from the farthest end of an array transceiver is of great interest. We report a dual K/Ka-band T/R/Calibration switch module with quasi-elliptic dual-bandpass filtering function implementing a Q-enhanced metamaterial transmission line. A unique dual-band frequency response is incorporated in the reception and calibration path of the proposed switch module utilizing the composite right/left-handed meta material transmission line coupled with a Colpitts-style negative generation circuit. The fabricated fully integrated T/R/Calibration switch module in 0.18-μm BiCMOS technology exhibits insertion loss of 4.9-12.3 dB and isolation of more than 45 dB in the reception, transmission and calibration mode of operation. In the reception and calibration mode, the dual-band frequency response centered at 24.5 and 35 GHz exhibits out-of-band rejection of more than 30 dB compared to the pass bands below 10.5 GHz and above 59.5 GHz. The rejection between the pass bands reaches more than 50 dB. In all modes of operation, the IP1-dB is between 4 and 11 dBm. Acknowledgement: This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # 6-241-2-102 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.
Millimeter-Wave Silicon Power Amplifiers for 5g Wireless Communications
Exploding demands for more data, faster data transmission speed, less interference, more users, more wireless devices, and better reliable service-far exceeding those provided in the current mobile communications networks in the RF spectrum below 6 GHz-has led the wireless communication industry to focus on higher, previously unallocated spectrums. High frequencies in RF spectrum near (around 28 GHz) or within the millimeter-wave regime is the logical solution to meet these demands. This high-frequency RF spectrum is of increasingly important for wireless communications due to its large available bandwidths that facilitate various applications requiring large-data high-speed transmissions, reaching up to multi-gigabit per second, of vast information. It also resolves the traffic congestion problems of signals from many wireless devices operating in the current RF spectrum (below 6 GHz), hence handling more traffic. Consequently, the wireless communication industries are moving towards 5G (fifth generation) for next-generation communications such as mobile phones, autonomous vehicles, virtual reality, and the Internet of Things (IoT). The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) proved on 14th July 2016 three frequency bands for 5G around 28, 37 and 39 GHz. We present some silicon-based RFIC power amplifiers (PA) for possible implementation for 5G wireless communications around 28, 37 and 39 GHz. The 16.5-28 GHz PA exhibits measured gain of more than 34.5 dB and very flat output power of 19.4±1.2 dBm across 16.5-28 GHz. The 25.5/37-GHz PA exhibits gain of 21.4 and 17 dB, and maximum output power of 16 and 13 dBm at 25.5 and 37 GHz, respectively, in the single-band mode. In the dual-band mode, the maximum output power is 13 and 9.5 dBm at 25.5 and 37 GHz, respectively. The 10-19/23-29/33-40 GHz PA has maximum output powers of 15, 13.3, and 13.8 dBm at 15, 25, and 35 GHz, respectively, in the single-band mode. When this PA is operated in dual-band mode, it has maximum output powers of 11.4/8.2 dBm at 15/25 GHz, 13.3/3 dBm at 15/35 GHz, and 8.7/6.7 dBm at 25/35 GHz. In the tri-band mode, it exhibits 8.8/5.4/3.8 dBm maximum output power at 15/25/35 GHz.
Acknowledgement: This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # 6-241-2-102 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors
A Real-Time Moving Object Detection and Tracking Scheme and Its Implementation for Video Surveillance System
Detection and tracking of moving objects are very important in many application contexts such as detection and recognition of people, visual surveillance and automatic generation of video effect and so on. However, the task of detecting a real shape of an object in motion becomes tricky due to various challenges like dynamic scene changes, presence of shadow, and illumination variations due to light switch. For such systems, once the moving object is detected, tracking is also a crucial step for those applications that used in military defense, video surveillance, human computer interaction, and medical diagnostics as well as in commercial fields such as video games. In this paper, an object presents in dynamic background is detected using adaptive mixture of Gaussian based analysis of the video sequences. Then the detected moving object is tracked using the region based moving object tracking and inter-frame differential mechanisms to address the partial overlapping and occlusion problems. Firstly, the detection algorithm effectively detects and extracts the moving object target by enhancing and post processing morphological operations. Secondly, the extracted object uses region based moving object tracking and inter-frame difference to improve the tracking speed of real-time moving objects in different video frames. Finally, the plotting method was applied to detect the moving objects effectively and describes the object’s motion being tracked. The experiment has been performed on image sequences acquired both indoor and outdoor environments and one stationary and web camera has been used.
Spectroscopic Investigations of Nd³⁺ Doped Lithium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for 1.06μM Laser Applications
Neodymium doped lithium lead alumino borate glasses were synthesized with the molar composition 10Li₂O – 10PbO – (10-x) Al₂O₃ – 70B₂O₃ – xNd₂O₃ (where, x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol %) via conventional melt quenching technique to understand their lasing potentiality. From the absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters along with various spectroscopic parameters have been estimated. The emission spectra recorded for the as-prepared glasses under investigation exhibit two emission transitions, ⁴F₃/₂→⁴I₁₁/₂ (1063 nm) and ⁴F₃/₂→⁴I₉/₂ (1350 nm) for which radiative parameters have been evaluated. The emission intensity increases with increase in Nd³⁺ ion concentration up to 1 mol %, and beyond concentration quenching took place. The decay profile shows single exponential nature for lower Nd³⁺ ions concentration and non-exponential for higher concentration. To elucidate the nature of energy transfer process, non-exponential decay curves were well fitted to Inokuti-Hirayama model. The relatively high values of emission cross-section, branching ratio, lifetimes and quantum efficiency suggest that 1.0 mol% of Nd³⁺ in LiPbAlB glasses is aptly suitable to generate lasing action in NIR region at 1063 nm.
Bluetooth Piconet System for Children Care Applications
This study mainly concerns a safety device designed for child care. When children are out of sight or the caregivers cannot always pay attention to the situation, through the functions of this device, caregivers can immediately be informed to make sure that the children do not get lost or hurt, and thus, ensure their safety. Starting from the concept, the device is produced based on the relatively low-cost Bluetooth piconet system and a three-axis gyroscope sensor. This device can transmit data to a mobile phone APP through Bluetooth, in order that the user can learn the situation at any time. By simply clipping the device in a pocket or on the waist, after switching on/starting the device, it will send data to the phone to detect the child’s fall and distance. Once the child is beyond the angle or distance set by the APP, it will issue a warning to inform the phone owner.
Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers
High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10um aperture diameter and 4um of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm², which corresponds to an improved f-3dB²/Jbias ratio of 44GHz²/kA/cm². At higher and lower bias current densities the f-3dB²/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 18 GHz²/kA/cm² and 30 GHz²/kA/cm², respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41 ± 10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.
Power Supply Rejection Ratio Enhanced Low Dropout Regulator Using Noise Sensing Circuit
In this paper, we proposed the LDO (low-dropout) regulator which enhanced the PSRR by applying the constant current source generation technique through the BGR(Band Gap Reference) to form the noise sensing circuit. The current source through the BGR has a constant current value even if the applied voltage varies. Then, the noise sensing circuit, which is composed of the current source through the BGR, operated between the error amplifier and the pass transistor gate of the LDO regulator. As a result, the proposed LDO regulator has a PSRR of -68.2dB at 1kHz, -45.85dB at 1MHz and -45dB at 10MHz. The other performance as the conventional LDO regulator was maintained.
An Intelligent Baby Care System Based on IoT and Deep Learning Techniques
Due to the heavy burden and pressure on caring the infants, an integrated automatic baby watching system based on IoT smart sensing and deep learning machine vision techniques is proposed in this paper. By monitoring the infant body conditions such as heartbeat, breathe, body temperature, sleeping posture, as well as the surrounding conditions such as stab objects, light, noise, humidity and temperature, the proposed system can analyze and predict the obvious/potential dangerous conditions according to the observing data and then adopt suitable actions in real time to prevent the infant from hurt. Thus reduce the burden of the caregiver and improve safety efficiency of the caring work. The experimental results show that the proposed system works successfully for the infant caring work thus can be implemented in various life fields practically.
Breast Cancer Sensing and Imaging Utilized Printed Ultra Wide Band Spherical Sensor Array
High precision of printed microwave sensor utilized for sensing and monitoring the potential breast cancer existed in women breast tissue was optimally computed. The single element of UWB printed sensor that successfully modeled through several numerical optimizations was multiple fabricated and incorporated with woman bra to form the spherical sensors array. One sample of UWB microwave sensor obtained through the numerical computation and optimization was chosen to be fabricated. In overall, the spherical sensors array consists of twelve stair patch structures, and each element was individually measured to characterize its electrical properties, especially the return loss parameter. The comparison of S11 profiles of all UWB sensor elements is discussed. The constructed UWB sensor is well verified using HFSS programming, CST programming, and experimental measurement. Numerically, both HFSS and CST confirmed the potential operation bandwidth of UWB sensor is more or less 4.5 GHz. However, the measured bandwidth provided is about 1.2 GHz due to the technical difficulties existed during the manufacturing step. The configuration of UWB microwave sensing and monitoring system implemented consists of 12 element UWB printed sensors, vector network analyzer (VNA) to perform as the transceiver and signal processing part, the PC Desktop/Laptop acting as the image processing and displaying unit. In practice, all the reflected power collected from whole surface of artificial breast model are grouped into several numbers of pixel color classes positioned on the corresponding row and column (pixel number). The total number of power pixels applied in 2D-imaging process was specified to 100 pixels (or the power distribution pixels dimension 10x10). This was determined by considering the total area of breast phantom of average Asian women breast size and synchronizing with the single UWB sensor physical dimension. The interesting microwave imaging results were plotted and together with some technical problems arisen on developing the breast sensing and monitoring system are examined in the paper.
Interference Management in Long Term Evolution-Advanced System
Incorporating Home eNodeB (HeNB) in cellular networks, e.g. Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A), is beneficial for extending coverage and enhancing capacity at low price especially within the non-line-of sight (NLOS) environments such as homes. HeNB or femtocell is a small low powered base station which provides radio coverage to the mobile users in an indoor environment. This deployment results in a heterogeneous network where the available spectrum becomes shared between two layers. Therefore, a problem of Inter Cell Interference (ICI) appears. This issue is the main challenge in LTE-A. To deal with this challenge, various techniques based on frequency, time and power control are proposed. This paper deals with the impact of carrier aggregation and higher order MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) schemes on the LTE-Advanced performance. Simulation results show the advantages of these schemes on the system capacity (4.109 b/s/Hz when bandwidth B=100 MHz and when applying MIMO 8x8 for SINR=30 dB), maximum theoretical peak data rate (more than 4 Gbps for B=100 MHz and when MIMO 8x8 is used) and spectral efficiency (15 b/s/Hz and 30b/s/Hz when MIMO 4x4 and MIMO 8x8 are applying respectively for SINR=30 dB).
Happiness, Media and Sustainability of Communities in Donkeaw, Mearim District, Chiang Mai
This study of the ‘happiness’ and ‘sustainability’ in the community of Donkeaw, Amphoe Mae Rim, Chiang Mai Province during the non-election period in Thailand, noted that their happiness levels are in the middle-average range. This was found using a mixed approach of qualitative and quantitative methods (N=386, α=0.05). The study explores indicators for six aspects of well-being and happiness, including, good local governance, administrative support for the health system that maintains people’s mental and physical health, environment and weather, job security and a regular income aids them in managing a sustainable lifestyle. The impact of economic security and community relationships on social and cultural capital, and the way these aspects impact on the life style of the community, affects the sustainable well-being of people. Moreover, living with transparency and participatory communication led to diverse rewards in many areas.
Contribution to the Success of the Energy Audit in the Industrial Environment: A Case Study about Audit of Interior Lighting for an Industrial Site in Morocco
The energy audit is the essential initial step to ensure a good definition of energy control actions. The in-depth study of the various energy-consuming equipments makes it possible to determine the actions and investments with best cost for the company. The analysis focuses on the energy consumption of production equipment and utilities (lighting, heating, air conditioning, ventilation, transport). Successful implementation of this approach requires, however, to take account of a number of prerequisites. This paper proposes a number of useful recommendations concerning the energy audit in order to achieve better results and a case study concerning the lighting audit of a Moroccan company by showing the gains that can be made through this audit.
Cavity-Type Periodically-Poled LiNbO₃ Device for Highly-Efficient Third-Harmonic Generation
We develop a periodically-poled LiNbO₃ (PPLN) device for highly-efficient third-harmonic generation (THG), where the THG efficiency is enhanced with a cavity. THG can usually be produced via χ⁽³⁾-nonlinear materials by optical pumping with very high pump-power. Instead, we here propose THG by moderate-power pumping through a specially-designed PPLN device containing only χ⁽²⁾-nonlinearity, where sum-frequency generation in the χ⁽²⁾ process is employed for the mixing of a pump beam and a second-harmonic-generation (SHG) beam produced from the pump beam. The cavity is designed to increase the SHG power with dichroic mirrors attached to both ends of the device that perfectly reflect the SHG beam back to the device and yet let the pump and THG beams pass through the mirrors. This brings about a THG-power enhancement because of THG power proportional to the enhanced SHG power. We examine the THG-efficiency dependence on the pump power and show that very high THG-efficiency is obtained at moderate pump-power when compared with that of a cavity-free PPLN device.
Design of an Automatic Windshield-Breaking Device for Abnormal Situation in Moving Vehicles
This research is to design a device to deal with an emergency situation in which abnormal gas produced or vehicle is accidentally drawn into water or driven into a sewer. The device is put at the corner of front windshield and connected to mobile phone through Bluetooth interface. Once the situation is happened, it would break the windshield and, at the same time, make an emergency call to call on the following rescuing action. The device operated are divided into two steps to prevent making mistakes on detecting water level or abnormal gas concentration. The first alarm is the primitive judgment condition, which enables the driver to react the situation. Once the second alarm is happened, the system would recognize the primitive reaction is invalid or inefficient, the driver is in danger and the windshield should be break immediately. This design is to the greatest extent prevent unnecessarily damaging the car and to ensure the safety of the driver and passengers.
E-Learning System for Automatic Generation and Evaluation of Per-Student Customized Tasks for Hardware Modeling Courses
VHDL is a powerful hardware description language to describe algorithms and functionalities to be automatically converted to digital circuits. Therefore it is an important instrument which students should learn. Unfortunately, decreasing teacher-to-student ratios limit the possibilities to offer a personalized guidance based on the students’ needs. The declared goal of the VHDL E-Learning System (VELS) is to give students the possibilities to learn at their own pace and learn from their own mistakes while considering their previous knowledge. VELS is a flexible tool that, once configured, fully automatically generates individual VHDL assignments for students and receives VHDL models submitted by students. It simulates and checks these models, approves or gives feedback on these models, and allows multiple submissions such that students can improve their models iteratively. The VHDL E-Learning System is a Python based daemon on a remote server, and the interaction with students is performed via email. The assignments are parameterized such that every student gets a different variant of the problem. After configuration VELS interacts fully automatically with the students and no tutor intervention is required. This facilitates large classes while each student can still get many assignments, try various solutions and get them checked. Thus, students can work at any place and time of their own choice. Various features provide flexibility for teachers: 1) A tool that intuitively assists in defining new tasks, 2) An interface to add support for different simulation backends, 3) A web interface to configure tutored and untutored courses, 4) An exam mode for university labs with no internet access, 5) Different scheduling modes: free task selection or strict sequence of assignments. 15 different task families have been implemented, from basic boolean functions up to modeling a simple but complete microcomputer. The main work to generate a new task is to formulate the assignment precisely, unambiguously, and to design the testbench that is deployed by VELS to check submitted solutions. VELS has been used for two years in four courses, two at the undergraduate and two at the graduate level. In total over 700 students have used the system. The tool is published under the open-source license GPLv2, making it freely accessible to teachers at schools and universities around the globe. This paper describes the goals and intention of the system, its design and implementation, and the experience of running and using it.
Non-Contact Digital Music Instrument Using Light Sensing Technology
A Non-Contact Digital Music System has been conceptualized and implemented to create a new era of digital music. This system replaces the strings of a traditional stringed instrument with laser beams to avoid bruising of the user’s hand. The system consists of seven laser modules, detector modules and distance sensors that form the basic hardware blocks of this instrument. Arduino AT mega 2560 microcontroller is used as the primary interface between the hardware and the software. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is used as the protocol to establish communication between the instrument and the virtual synthesizer software.
Automatic Extraction of Arbitrarily Shaped Buildings from a Very High Resolution Satellite Imagery
Satellite imagery is one of the emerging technologies which is extensively utilized in various applications such as detection/extraction of man-made structures, monitoring of sensitive areas, creating graphic maps etc. The main approach here is the automated detection of buildings from very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite images. Initially, the shadow and the building region are investigated and building extraction is mainly focused. Once all the landscape is collected, a trimming process is done so as to eliminate the landscapes that may occur due to non-building objects. Finally, the label method is used to extract the building regions. The label method may be altered for efficient building extraction. The images used for the analysis are the ones which are extracted from the sensors having resolution less than 1 meter (VHR). This method provides an efficient way to produce good results. The additional overhead of mid processing is eliminated without compromising the quality of the output to ease out processing steps required and time consumed in the same.
Review of Dielectric Permittivity Measurement Techniques
The prime objective of this manuscript is to provide intensive review of the techniques used for permittivity measurements. The measurement techniques, relevant for any desired application, rely on the nature of the measured dielectric material, both electrically and physically, the degree of accuracy required, and the frequency of interest. Regardless of the way that distinctive sorts of instruments can be utilized, measuring devices that provide reliable determinations of the required electrical properties including the obscure material in the frequency range of interest can be considered. The challenge in making precise dielectric property or permittivity measurements is in designing of the material specimen holder for those measurements (RF and MW frequency ranges) and adequately modeling the circuit for reliable computation of the permittivity from the electrical measurements. If the RF circuit parameters such as the impedance or admittance are estimated appropriately at a certain frequency, the material’s permittivity at this frequency can be estimated by the equations which relate the way in which the dielectric properties of the material affect on the parameters of the circuit.
Stability of Porous SiC Based Materials under Relevant Conditions of Radiation and Temperature
SiC based composites are candidates for possible use as structural and functional materials in the future fusion reactors, the main role is intended for the blanket modules. In the blanket, the neutrons produced in the fusion reaction slow down and their energy is transformed into heat in order to finally generate electrical power. In the blanket design named Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL), a PbLi alloy for power conversion and tritium breeding circulates inside hollow channels called Flow Channel Inserts (FCIs). These FCI must protect the steel structures against the highly corrosive PbLi liquid and the high temperatures, but also provide electrical insulation in order to minimize magnetohydrodynamic interactions of the flowing liquid metal with the high magnetic field present in a magnetically confined fusion environment. Due to their nominally high temperature and radiation stability as well as corrosion resistance, SiC is the main choice for the flow channel inserts. The significantly lower manufacturing cost presents porous SiC (dense coating is required in order to assure protection against corrosion and as a tritium barrier) as a firm alternative to SiC/SiC composites for this purpose. This application requires the materials to be exposed to high radiation levels and extreme temperatures, conditions for which previous studies have shown noticeable changes in both the microstructure and the electrical properties of different types of silicon carbide. Both initial properties and radiation/temperature induced damage strongly depend on the crystal structure, polytype, impurities/additives that are determined by the fabrication process, so the development of a suitable material requires full control of these variables. For this work, several SiC samples with different percentage of porosity and sintering additives have been manufactured by the so-called sacrificial template method at the Ceit-IK4 Technology Center (San Sebastián, Spain), and characterized at Ciemat (Madrid, Spain). Electrical conductivity was measured as a function of temperature before and after irradiation with 1.8 MeV electrons in the Ciemat HVEC Van de Graaff accelerator up to 140 MGy (~ 2·10 -5 dpa). Radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) was also examined during irradiation at 550 ºC for different dose rates (from 0.5 to 5 kGy/s). Although no significant RIC was found in general for any of the samples, electrical conductivity increase with irradiation dose was observed to occur for some compositions with a linear tendency. However, first results indicate enhanced radiation resistance for coated samples. Preliminary thermogravimetric tests of selected samples, together with posterior XRD analysis allowed interpret radiation-induced modification of the electrical conductivity in terms of changes in the SiC crystalline structure. Further analysis is needed in order to confirm this.
Optimized Weight Selection of Control Data Based on Quotient Space of Multi-Geometric Features
The geometric processing of multi-source remote sensing data using control data of different scale and different accuracy is an important research direction of multi-platform system for earth observation. In the existing block bundle adjustment methods, as the controlling information in the adjustment system, the approach using single observation scale and precision is unable to screen out the control information and to give reasonable and effective corresponding weights, which reduces the convergence and adjustment reliability of the results. Referring to the relevant theory and technology of quotient space, in this project, several subjects are researched. Multi-layer quotient space of multi-geometric features is constructed to describe and filter control data. Normalized granularity merging mechanism of multi-layer control information is studied and based on the normalized scale factor, the strategy to optimize the weight selection of control data which is less relevant to the adjustment system can be realized. At the same time, geometric positioning experiment is conducted using multi-source remote sensing data, aerial images, and multiclass control data to verify the theoretical research results. This research is expected to break through the cliché of the single scale and single accuracy control data in the adjustment process and expand the theory and technology of photogrammetry. Thus the problem to process multi-source remote sensing data will be solved both theoretically and practically.