Role of Matric Suction in Mechanics behind Swelling Characteristics of Expansive Soils
Expansive soils in the unsaturated state are part of vadose zone and encountered in several arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Influence of high temperature, low precipitation and alternate cycles of wetting and drying are responsible for the chemical weathering of rocks, which results in the formation of expansive soils. Shrinkage-swelling (expansive) soils cover a substantial portion of area in India. Damages caused by expansive soils to various geotechnical structures are alarming. Matric suction develops in unsaturated soil due to capillarity and surface tension phenomena. Matric suction influences the geometric arrangement of soil skeleton, which induces the volume change behaviour of expansive soil. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the role of matric suction in the mechanism behind swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Four different soils have been collected from different parts of India for the current research. Soil sample S1, S2, S3 and S4 were collected from Nagpur, Bharuch, Bharuch-Dahej highway and Ahmedabad respectively. DFSI (Differential Free Swell Index) of these soils samples; S1, S2, S3, and S4; were determined to be 134%, 104%, 70% and 30% respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis of samples exhibited that percentage of Montmorillonite mineral present in the soils reduced with the decrease in DFSI. A series of constant volume swell pressure tests and in-contact filter paper tests were performed to evaluate swelling pressure and matric suction of all four soils at 30% saturation and 1.46 g/cc dry density. Results indicated that soils possessing higher DFSI exhibited higher matric suction as compared to lower DFSI expansive soils. Significant influence of matric suction on swelling pressure of expansive soils was observed with varying DFSI values. Higher matric suction of soil might govern the water uptake in the interlayer spaces of Montmorillonite mineral present in expansive soil leading to crystalline swelling.
Influence of Water Retention Characteristics of Bentonites on Unsaturated Seepage Modeling
Seepage analysis in unsaturated soil is essential to study the movement of water in geotechnical and geoenvironmental problems like the design of dams, slope stability analysis, the design of waste containment liners/ covers and groundwater contamination, etc. Therefore, it is mandatory to obtain the water retention characteristic curve (WRCC) and its influence on the seepage modeling results. The determination of WRCC involves the measurement of suction and water content, whereas seepage modeling involves the solution of a partial differential equation (PDE) under a given set of boundary conditions, initial soil condition and soil properties, etc. In this study, WRCC of four types of commercially available bentonites were determined in the laboratory and fitting parameters were obtained for each bentonite. Transient seepage analysis was then carried out in a two-dimensional cylindrical column using a finite element method based software SEEP/W, under a specified total head (H) boundary condition. The WRCC fitting parameters thus obtained were used as an input parameter in the software and the results of pore water pressure (PWP) and volumetric water content (VWC) with time were studied for the different cases.
Hydro-Mechanical Characterization of PolyChlorinated Biphenyls Polluted Sediments in Interaction with Geomaterials for Landfilling
This paper focuses on the hydro-mechanical behavior of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) polluted sediments when stored in landfills and the interaction between PCBs and geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) with respect to hydraulic performance of the liner and the overall performance and stability of landfills. A European decree, adopted in the French regulation forbids the reintroducing of contaminated dredged sediments containing more than 0,64mg/kg Σ 7 PCBs to rivers. At these concentrations, sediments are considered hazardous and a remediation process must be adopted to prevent the release of PCBs into the environment. Dredging and landfilling polluted sediments is considered an eco-environmental remediation solution. French regulations authorize the storage of PCBs contaminated components with less than 50mg/kg in municipal solid waste facilities. Contaminant migration via leachate may be possible. The interactions between PCBs contaminated sediments and the GCL barrier present in the bottom of a landfill for security confinement are not known. Moreover, the hydro-mechanical behavior of stored sediments may affect the performance and the stability of the landfill. In this article, hydro-mechanical characterization of the polluted sediment is presented. This characterization led to predict the behavior of the sediment at the storage site. Chemical testing showed that the concentration of PCBs in sediment samples is between 1.7 and 2,0 mg/kg. Physical characterization showed that the sediment is organic silty sand soil (%Silt=65, %Sand=27, %OM=8) characterized by a high plasticity index (Ip=37%). Permeability tests using permeameter and filter press showed that sediment permeability is in the order of 10-9 m/s. Compressibility tests showed that the sediment is a very compressible soil with Cc=0,53 and Cα =0,0086. In addition, effects of PCB on the swelling behavior of bentonite were studied and the hydraulic performance of the GCL in interaction with PCBs was examined. Swelling tests showed that PCBs don’t affect the swelling behavior of bentonite. Permeability tests were conducted on a 1.0 m pilot scale experiment, simulating a storage facility. PCBs contaminated sediments were directly placed over a passive barrier containing GCL to study the influence of the direct contact of polluted sediment leachate with the GCL. An automatic water system has been designed to simulate precipitation. Effluent quantity and quality have been examined. The sediment settlements and the water level in the sediment have been monitored. The results showed that desiccation affected the behavior of the sediment in the pilot test and that laboratory tests alone are not sufficient to predict the behavior of the sediment in landfill facility. Furthermore, the concentration of PCB in the sediment leachate was very low ( < 0,013 µg/l) and that the permeability of the GCL was affected by other components present in the sediment leachate. Desiccation and cracks were the main parameters that affected the hydro-mechanical behavior of the sediment in the pilot test. In order to reduce these infects, the polluted sediment should be stored at a water content inferior to its shrinkage limit (w=39%). We also propose to conduct other pilot tests with the maximum concentration of PCBs allowed in municipal solid waste facility of 50 mg/kg.
Generalized Model Estimating Strength of Bauxite Residue-Lime Mix
The present work investigates the effect of multiple parameters on the unconfined compressive strength of the bauxite residue-lime mix. A number of unconfined compressive strength tests considering various curing time, lime content, dry density and moisture content were carried out. The results show that an empirical correlation may be successfully developed using volumetric lime content, porosity, moisture content, curing time unconfined compressive strength for the range of the bauxite residue-lime mix studied. The proposed empirical correlations efficiently predict the strength of bauxite residue-lime mix, and it can be used as a generalized empirical equation to estimate unconfined compressive strength.
Investigation on Perception, Awareness and Health Impact of Air Pollution in Rural and Urban Area in Mymensingh Regions of Bangladesh
Air pollution is one of the major environmental problems that have gained importance in all over the world. Air pollution is a problem for all of us. The present study was conducted to explore the people’s perception level and awareness of air pollution in selected areas of Mymensingh in Bangladesh. Health impacts of air pollution also studied through personal interview and structured questionnaire. The relationship of independent variables (age, educational qualification, family size, residence and communication exposure) with the respondent’s perception level and awareness of air pollution (dependent variable) was studied to achieve the objectives of the study. About 600 respondents were selected randomly from six sites for collecting data during the period of July 2016 to June 2017. Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients were computed to examine the relationship between the concerned variables. The results revealed that about half (46.67%) of the respondents had a medium level of perception and awareness about air pollution in their areas where 31.67 percent had low, and 21.67 percent had a high level. In rural areas of the study sites, 43.33 percent respondents had low, 50 percent had medium, and only 6.67 percent had high perception and awareness on air pollution. In case of urban areas, 20 percent respondents had low, 43.33 percent had medium, and 36.67 percent had a high level of awareness and perception on air pollution. The majority of the respondents (93.33 percent) were lacking of proper awareness about air pollution in rural areas while 63.33 percent in urban areas. Out of five independent variables, three variables such as- educational qualification, residence status and communication exposure had positive and significant relationship. Age of respondents had negative and significant relationship with their awareness of air pollution where family size of the respondents had no significant relationship with their perception and awareness of air pollution. Thousands of people live in urban areas where urban smog, particle pollution, and toxic pollutants pose serious health concerns. But most of the respondents of the urban sites are not familiarize about the real causes of air pollution. Respondents exposed higher level of experience for air pollutants, such as- irritation of the eyes, coughing, tightness of chest and many health difficulties. But respondents of both rural and urban area hugely suffered such health problems and the tendency of certain difficulties increased day by day. In this study, most of the respondents had lack of knowledge on the causes of such health difficulties due to their lower perception level. Proper attempts should be taken to raise literacy level, communication exposure to increase the perception and awareness of air pollution among the respondents of the study areas. Extra care with above concerned fields should be taken to increase perception and awareness of air pollution in rural areas.
Evaluation of Shear Strength Parameters of Rudsar Sandy Soil Stabilized with Waste Rubber Chips
So far, a lot of research has been done on the use of waste rubber in order to secure soft soils in road beds, erosion control, as a lightweight material for embankment behind retaining wall and stabilization of slopes. The use of waste rubber chips not only can be of great importance in terms of the environment but also can be used to increase the shear strength of soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variation of the internal friction angle of liquefiable sandy soil using waste rubber chips. For this purpose, the geotechnical properties of unmodified and modified soil samples by waste lining rubber chips have been evaluated and analyzed by performing the triaxial consolidated drained test. In order to prepare the laboratory specimens the sandy soil in part of Rudsar shores in Gilan province, north of Iran with high liquefaction potential has been replaced by two percent of waste rubber chips. Samples have been compressed until reaching the two levels of density of 15.5 and 16.7 kN/m³. Also, in order to find the optimal length of chips in sandy soil, the rectangular rubber chips with the widths of 0.5 and 1 cm and the lengths of 0.5, 1 and 2 cm were used. The results showed that the addition of rubber chips to liquefiable sandy soil greatly increases the shear resistance of these soils. Also, it can be seen that decreasing the width and increasing the length-to-width ratio of rubber chips has a direct impact on the shear strength of the modified soil samples with rubber chips.
Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Geocell Reinforcement above Buried Pipes on Surface Settlement and Vertical Pressure
Dynamic traffic loads cause deformation of underground pipes, resulting in vehicle discomfort. This makes it necessary to reinforce the layers of soil above underground pipes. In this study, the subbase layer was reinforced. Finite element software (PLAXIS 3D) was used to in the simulation, which includes geocell reinforcement, vehicle loading, soil layers and Glass fiber Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipe. Geocell reinforcement was modeled using a geogrid element, which was defined as a slender structure element that has the ability to withstand axial stresses but not to resist bending. Geogrids cannot withstand compression, but they can withstand tensile forces. Comparisons have been made between the numerical models and experimental works, and a good agreement was obtained. Using the mathematical model, the performance of three different pipes of diameter 600 mm, 800 mm and 1000 mm, and three different vehicular speeds of 20 km/h, 40 km/h, and 60 km/h, was examined to determine their impact on surface settlement and vertical pressure at the pipe crown for two cases: with and without geocell reinforcement. The results showed that for a pipe diameter of 600 mm under geocell reinforcement, surface settlement decreases by 94 % when the speed of the vehicle is 20 km/h and by 98 % when the speed of the vehicle is 60 km/h. Vertical pressure decreases by 81 % when the diameter of the pipe is 600 mm while the value decreases to 58 % for a pipe with diameter 1000mm. The results show that geocell reinforcement causes a significant and positive reduction in surface settlement and vertical stress above the pipe crown, leading to an increase in pipe safety.
Case Study: GeoMat Installation against Slope Erosion
Erosion (soil erosion) is a phenomenon in which the soil on the slope surface is exposed to natural influences such as wind, rainfall, etc. in open areas. The most natural solution to prevent erosion is to plant surfaces exposed to erosion. However, proper ground and natural conditions must be provided in order for planting to occur. Erosion is prevented in a fast and natural way and the loss of soil is reduced mostly. Lead to allowing plants to hold onto the soil with its three-dimensional and hollow structure are as follows: The types of geomat called MacMat that is used in a case study in Turkey in order to prevent water carry over due to rainfall. The geosynthetic combined with double twisted steel wire mesh. That consists of 95% Zn–5% Al alloy coated double twisted steel wire based that is a reinforced MacMat (geosynthetic three-dimensional erosion control mat) obtained by a polypropylene consisted (mesh type 8x10-Wire diam. 2.70 mm–95% Zn–5% Al alloy coated). That is developed by the progress of the technology. When using reinforced MacMat on top clay liners, fixing pins should not be used as they will rupture the mats. Mats are simply anchored (J Type) in the top trench and, if necessary, in intermediate berm trenches. If the slope angle greater than 20°, it is necessary to use additional rebar depending soil properties also. These applications may have specific technical and installation requirements. In that project, the main purpose is erosion control after that is greening. There is a slope area around the factory which is located in Gebze, İstanbul.
Stability of Pump Station Cavern in Chagrin Shale with Time
An assessment of the long-term stability of a cavern in Chagrin shale excavated by the sequential excavation method was performed during and after construction. During the excavation of the cavern, deformations of rock mass were measured at the surface of excavation and within the rock mass by surface and deep measurement instruments. Rock deformations were measured during construction which appeared to result from the as-built excavation sequence that had potentially disturbed the rock and its behavior. Also some additional time dependent rock deformations were observed during and post excavation. Several opinions have been expressed to explain this time dependent deformation including stress changes induced by excavation, strain softening (or creep) in the beddings with and without clay and creep of the shaley rock under compressive stresses. In order to analyze and replicate rock behavior observed during excavation, including current and post excavation elastic, plastic, and time dependent deformation, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed. The analysis was also intended to estimate long term deformation of the rock mass around the excavation. Rock mass behavior including time dependent deformation was measured by means of rock surface convergence points, MPBXs, extended creep testing on the long anchors, and load history data from load cells attached to several long anchors. Direct creep testing of Chagrin Shale was performed on core samples from the wall of the Pump Room. Results of these measurements were used to calibrate the FEA of the excavation. These analyses incorporate time dependent constitutive modeling for the rock to evaluate the potential long term movement in the roof, walls, and invert of the cavern. The modeling was performed due to the concerns regarding the unanticipated behavior of the rock mass as well as the forecast of long term deformation and stability of rock around the excavation.
Shear Strength Envelope Characteristics of LimeTreated Clays
The effectiveness of lime treatment of soils has been commonly evaluated in terms of improved workability and increased undrained unconfined compressive strength in connection to road and airfield construction. The most common method of strength measurement has been the unconfined compression test. However, if the objective of lime treatment is to improve long-term stability of first-time or reactivated landslides in stiff clays and shales, permanent changes in the size and shape of clay particles must be realized to increase drained frictional resistance. Lime-soil interactions that may produce less platy and larger soil particles begin and continue with time under the highly alkaline pH environment. In this research, pH measurements are used to monitor chemical environment and progress of reactions. Atterberg limits are measured to identify changes in particle size and shape indirectly. Also, fully softened and residual strength measurements are used to examine an improvement in frictional resistance due to lime-soil interactions. The main variables are soil plasticity and mineralogy, lime content, water content, and curing period. Lime effect on frictional resistance is examined using samples of clays with different mineralogy and characteristics which may react with lime to various extents. Drained direct shear tests on reconstituted lime-treated clay specimens with various properties have been performed to measure fully softened shear strength. To measure residual shear strength, drained multiple reversal direct shear tests on precut specimens were conducted. This way, soil particles are oriented along the direction of shearing to the maximum possible extent and provide minimum frictional resistance. This is applicable to reactivated and part of first-time landslides. The Brenna clay, which is the highly plastic lacustrine clay of Lake Agassiz causing slope instability along the banks of the Red River, is one of the soil samples used in this study. The Brenna Formation characterized as a uniform, soft to firm, dark grey, glaciolacustrine clay with little or no visible stratification, is full of slickensided surfaces. The major source of sediment for the Brenna Formation was the highly plastic montmorillonitic Pierre Shale bedrock. The other soil used in this study is one of the main sources of slope instability in Harris County Flood Control District (HCFCD), i.e. the Beaumont clay. The shear strengths of untreated and treated clays were obtained under various normal pressures to evaluate the shear envelope nonlinearity.
An Evaluation of Discontinuities in Rock Mass Using Coupled Hydromechanical Finite Element and Discrete Element Analyses
The paper will present the design and construction of the underground excavations of a pump station forebay and its related components including connector tunnels, access shaft, riser shaft and well shafts. The underground openings include an 8 m-diameter riser shaft, an 8-m-diameter access shaft, 34 2.4-m-diameter well shafts, a 107-m-long forebay with a cross section having a height of 11 m and width of 10 m, and a 6 m by 6 m stub connector tunnel between the access shaft and a future forebay extension. The riser shaft extends down from the existing forebay connector tunnel at elevation 247 m to the crown of the forebay at elevation 770.0 feet. The access shaft will extend from the platform at the surface down to El. 223.5 m. The pump station will have the capacity to deliver 600 million gallons per day. The project is located on an uplifted horst consisting of a mass of Precambrian metamorphic rock trending in a north-south direction. The eastern slope of the area is very steep and pronounced and is likely the result of high-angle normal faulting. Toward the west, the area is bordered by a high angle normal fault and recent alluvial, lacustrine, and colluvial deposits. An evaluation of rock mass properties, fault and discontinuities, foliation and joints, and in situ stresses was performed. The response of the rock mass was evaluated in 3DEC using Discrete Element Method (DEM) by explicitly accounting for both major and minor discontinuities within the rock mass (i.e. joints, shear zones, faults). Moreover, the stability of the entire subsurface structure including the forebay, access and riser shafts, future forebay, well shafts, and connecting tunnels and their interactions with each other were evaluated using a 3D coupled hydromechanical Finite Element Analysis (FEA).
In-situ and Laboratory Characterization of Fiji Lateritic Soils
Fiji has three major landforms such as plains, low mountains, and hills. The low land soils are formed on beach sand. Fiji soils contain high concentration of iron (III), aluminum oxides and hydroxides. The soil possesses reddish or yellowish colour. The characterization of lateritic soils collected from different locations along the national highway in Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. The research has been carried out mainly to understand the physical and strength properties to assess their suitability for the highway and building construction. In this paper, the field tests such as dynamic cone penetrometer test, field vane shear, field density and laboratory tests such as unconfined compression stress, compaction, grain size analysis and Atterberg limits are conducted. The test results are analyzed and presented. From the results, it is revealed that the soils are having more percentage of silt and clay which is more than 80% and 5 to 15% of fine to medium sand is noticed. The dynamic cone penetrometer results up to 3m depth had similar penetration resistance. For the first 1m depth, the rate of penetration is found 300mm per 3 to 4 blows. In all the sites it is further noticed that the rate of penetration at depths beyond 1.5 m is decreasing for the same number of blows as compared to the top soil. From the penetration resistance measured through dynamic cone penetrometer test, the California bearing ratio and allowable bearing capacities are 4 to 5% and 50 to 100 kPa for the top 1m layer and below 1m these values are increasing. The California bearing ratio of these soils for below 1m depth is in the order of 10% to 20%. The safe bearing capacity of these soils below 1m and up to 3m depth is varying from 150 kPa to 250 kPa. The field vane shear was measured within a depth of 1m from the surface and the values were almost similar varying from 60 kPa to 120 kPa. The liquid limit and plastic limits of these soils are in the range of 40 to 60% and 20 to 25%. Overall it is found that the top 1m soil along the national highway in majority places possess a soft to medium stiff behavior with low to medium bearing capacity as well low California bearing ratio values. It is recommended to ascertain these soils behavior in terms of geotechnical parameters before taking up any construction activity.
A Case Study of the Ground Collapse Due to Excavation Using Non-Destructive Testing
A ground collapse can be caused by natural and artificial factors. Ground collapses that have occurred frequently in Korea were observed and classified into different types by the main contributing factor. In this study, ground collapse induced by groundwater level disturbance in an excavation site was analyzed. Also, ground loosening region around the excavation site was detected and analyzed using non-destructive testing, such as GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) survey and Electrical Resistivity. The result of the surveys showed that the ground was loosened widely over the surrounding area of the excavation due to groundwater discharge.
Shear Modulus Degradation of a Liquefiable Sand Deposit by Shaking Table Tests
Strength and deformability characteristics of a liquefiable sand deposit including the development of earthquake-induced shear stress and shear strain as well as soil softening via the progressive degradation of shear modulus were studied via shaking table experiments. To do so, a model of a liquefiable sand deposit was constructed and densely instrumented where accelerations, pressures, and displacements at different locations were continuously monitored. Furthermore, the confinement effects on the strength and deformation characteristics of the liquefiable sand deposit due to an external surcharge by placing a heavy concrete slab (i.e. the model of an actual structural rigid pavement) on the ground surface were examined. The results indicate that as the number of seismic-loading cycles increases, the sand deposit softens progressively as large shear strains takes place in different sand elements. Liquefaction state is reached after the combined effects of the progressive degradation of the initial shear modulus associated with the continuous decrease in the mean principal stress and the buildup of the excess of pore pressure take place in the sand deposit. Finally, the confinement effects given by a concrete slab placed on the surface of the sand deposit resulted in an favorable increasing in the initial shear modulus, an increase in the mean principal stress and a decrease in the softening rate (i.e. the decreasing rate in shear modulus) of the sand, thus making the onset of liquefaction to take place at a later stage. This is, only after the sand deposit having a concrete slab experienced a higher number of seismic loading cycles liquefaction took place, in contrast to an ordinary sand deposit having no concrete slab.
Transient Electrical Resistivity and Elastic Wave Velocity of Sand-Cement-Inorganic Binder Mixture
The cement milk grout has been used for ground improvement. Due to the environmental issues related to cement, the reduction of cement usage is requesting. In this study, inorganic binder is introduced to reduce the use of cement contents for ground improvement. To evaluate transient electrical and mechanical properties of sand-cement-inorganic binder mixture, two non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Free Free Resonant Column (FFRC) tests were adopted in addition to unconfined compressive strength test. Electrical resistivity, longitudinal wave velocity and damping ratio of sand-cement admixture samples improved with addition of inorganic binders were measured. Experimental tests were performed considering four different mixing ratios and three different cement contents depending on the curing time. Results show that mixing ratio and curing time have considerable effects on electrical and mechanical properties of mixture. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) decreases as the cement content decreases. However, sufficient grout strength can be obtained with increase of content of inorganic binder. From the results, it is found that the inorganic binder can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of mixture and reduce the cement content. It is expected that data and trends proposed in this study can be used as reference in predicting grouting quality in the field.
Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Dynamic Harmonic Loads
Stone column technique has been successfully employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of foundations. A series of finite element numerical analyses of harmonic dynamic loading have been conducted on strengthened raft footing to study the effects of single and group stone columns on settlement of circular footings. The settlement of circular raft footing that improved by single and group of stone columns are studied under harmonic dynamic loading. This loading is caused by heavy machinery foundations. A detailed numerical investigation on behavior of single column and group of stone columns is carried out by varying parameters like weight of machinery, loading frequency and period. The result implies that presence of single and group of stone columns enhanced dynamic behavior of the footing so that the maximum and residual settlement of footing significantly decreased.
Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test
In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30 %. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase while clay content decrease and effective confining pressure increase. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.
Analytical Approach to Study the Uncertainties Related to the Behavior of Structures Submitted to Differential Settlement
Recent developments in civil engineering create multiple interaction problems between the soil and the structure. One of the major problems is the impact of ground movements on buildings. Consequently, managing risks associated with these movements, requires a determination of the different influencing factors and a specific knowledge of their variability/uncertainty. The main purpose of this research is to study the behavior of structures submitted to differential settlement, in order to assess their vulnerability, taking into consideration the different sources of uncertainties. Analytical approach is applied to investigate on the one hand the influence of these uncertainties that are related to the soil, and on the other hand to investigate the structure stiffness variation with the presence of openings and the movement transmitted between them as related to the origin and shape of the free-field movement. Results reveal the effect of taking these uncertainties into consideration, and specify the dominant and most significant parameters that control the ground movement associated with the Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) phenomenon.
Experimental and Numerical Study of Uplift Resistance of Buried Pipeline in Gravel
Offshore pipelines are widely used to transfer hydrocarbons such as oil and gas from field to shore. It is necessary to transport these hydrocarbons at high temperature and pressure to ease the flow. However, constrained expansion set up by thermal and internal pressure may lead to the creation of axial compressive forces, which may cause buckling of offshore pipelines. In order to stop upheaval buckling and to minimize the effect of hydrodynamic forces on pipeline, provision of thick soil or rock cover above pipeline is required, which will increase the uplift resistance. A detailed review of available literature is performed to understand the effect of pull-out rate, the relative density of sand, effect of waves and currents on pipelines, importance of reinforcing the pipeline with geogrids, influence of height of cover depth above pipeline. In the present study, natural sand and gravel samples collected from Narmada river and offshore India respectively were characterized before testing. Two series of small-scale pull-out experiments were conducted on 470 mm diameter pipe buried in gravel to investigate the effectiveness of height of cover depth and geotextile on uplift resistance of pipelines. The first series of tests were in submerged gravel and the second series of tests were in submerged gravel reinforced with a single layer of geotextile. The geotextile was located directly on the pipe. Cover to diameter ratio varied from 2 to 4 with intervals of 0.5. The obtained experimental results were verified using commercial finite element package Abaqus. Small-scale experimental results and finite element parametric studies demonstrated the strong influence of geotextile and height of backfill material on uplift resistance of pipeline. It is concluded that with the application of a geotextile layer, depth of burial of a pipeline can be reduced.
Directional Ground Improvement Technique for Urban Tunnel Projects in Vietnam
Almost all big cities in Vietnam are often located in the river deltas. Therefore the ground condition on these cities is mostly soft soil. As a result, the soil strengthen works are mandatory in order to prevent the harmful to the third parties and tunnel structure itself in urban tunnel projects in Vietnam. This paper will particularly introduce the large diameter jet-grouted column technique that is recently being successfully applied in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. The success application of this technique for protecting the historical sensitive building and for water cutoff objective of launching and arriving shafts in the urban tunnel project, will be analyzed from construction process, quality control and lessons learnt. From this situation, the large diameter jet-grouted column technique can extend to another urban tunnel projects in Vietnam and other countries which have similar soft soil conditions.
Effect of Acid and Alkali Treatment on Physical and Surface Charge Properties of Clayey Soils
Most of the surface related phenomena in the case of fine-grained soil are attributed to their unique surface charge properties and specific surface area. The temporal variations in soil behavior, to some extent, can be credited to the changes in these properties. Among the multitude of factors that affect the charge and surface area of clay minerals, the inherent system chemistry occupies the cardinal position. The impact is more profound when the chemistry change is manifested in terms of the system pH. pH plays a significant role by modifying the edge charges of clay minerals and facilitating mineral dissolution. Hence there is a need to address the variations in physical and charge properties of fine-grained soils treated over a range of acidic as well as alkaline conditions.
In the present study, three soils (two soils commercially procured and one natural soil) exhibiting distinct mineralogical compositions are subjected to different pH environment over a range of 2 to 13. The soil-solutions prepared at a definite liquid to solid ratio are adjusted to the required pH value by adding measured quantities of 0.1M HCl/0.1M NaOH. The studies are conducted over a range of interaction time, varying from 1 to 96 hours. The treated soils are then analyzed for their physical properties in terms of specific surface area and particle size characteristics. Further, modifications in surface morphology are evaluated from scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. Changes in the surface charge properties are assessed in terms of zeta potential measurements. Studies show significant variations in total surface area, probably because of the dissolution of clay minerals. This observation is further substantiated by the morphological analysis with SEM imaging. The zeta potential measurements on soils indicate noticeable variation upon pH treatment, which is partially ascribed to the modifications in the pH-dependant edge charges and partially due to the clay mineral dissolution. The results provide valuable insight into the role of pH in a clay-electrolyte system upon surface related phenomena such as species adsorption, fabric modification etc.
Liquefaction Potential Analysis and Numerical Modeling-Container Terminal of Algiers Port
The aim of the present paper is to study the liquefaction potential of the container terminal of Algiers port site and perform a numerical modeling of its dynamic response under Boumerdes earthquake. The soil liquefaction potential was analyzed using two methods. The first is an analytical method requiring a series of observations and empirical correlations carried out from in-situ investigations, namely the SPT (Standard Penetration Test). In addition, the liquefaction safety factor obtained was verified according to the recommendations of the Eurocode rules and the Algerian earthquake regulation. The MSF coefficient was determined to obtain a corrected CSR value corresponding to a seismic motion with magnitude of 7 on the Richter scale. The second analysis is carried out using Plaxis2D (version 2016) software using soil parameters determined from standard triaxial and œdometric tests. The numerical modeling was established in order to study dynamic response and verify the liquefaction potential of Algiers port under Boumerdes earthquake taking into account the presence of the container static load.
Evaluation of Critical State Behavior of Granular Soil in Confined Compression Tests
Identification of steady/critical state of coarse granular soil is challenging at conventional pressures. This study examines the drained and undrained triaxial tests for large strains on loose to dense, uniformly graded, Leighton Buzzard Fraction A sand. The triaxial tests are conducted under controlled test conditions. The comparison of soil behavior on shear strength characteristics at different effective stresses has been studied at the medium to large strains levels and the uniqueness of the critical state was discussed. The test results showed that there were two steady/critical state lines for drained and undrained conditions at confining pressures less than 1000 kPa. A critical state friction angle is not constant and the overall scatter in the steady/critical state line for the tested sand is ±0.01 in terms of void ratio at stress levels less than 1000 kPa.
Application of Geosynthetics for the Recovery of Located Road on Geological Failure
The present work deals with the use of drainage geo-composite as a deep drainage and geogrid element to reinforce the base of the body of the landfill destined to the road pavement on geological faults in the stretch of the TO-342 Highway, between the cities of Miracema and Miranorte, in the State of Tocantins / TO, Brazil, which for many years was the main link between TO-010 and BR-153, after the city of Palmas, also in the state of Tocantins / TO, Brazil. For this application, geotechnical and geological studies were carried out by means of SPT percussion drilling, drilling and rotary drilling, to understand the problem, identifying the type of faults, filling material and the definition of the water table. According to the geological and geotechnical studies carried out, the area where the route was defined, passes through a zone of longitudinal fault to the runway, with strong breaking / fracturing, with presence of voids, intense alteration and with advanced argilization of the rock and with the filling up parts of the faults by organic and compressible soils leachate from other horizons. This geology presents as a geotechnical aggravating agent a medium of high hydraulic load and very low resistance to penetration. For more than 20 years, the region presented constant excessive deformations in the upper layers of the pavement, which after routine services of regularization, reconformation, re-compaction of the layers and application of the asphalt coating. The faults were quickly propagated to the surface of the asphalt pavement, generating a longitudinal shear, forming steps (unevenness), close to 40 cm, causing numerous accidents and discomfort to the drivers, since the geometric positioning was in a horizontal curve. Several projects were presented to the region's highway department to solve the problem. Due to the need for partial closure of the runway, the short time for execution, the use of geosynthetics was proposed and the most adequate solution for the problem was taken into account the movement of existing geological faults and the position of the water level in relation to several Layers of pavement and failure. In order to avoid any flow of water in the body of the landfill and in the filling material of the faults, a drainage curtain solution was used, carried out at 4.0 meters depth, with drainage geo-composite and as reinforcement element and inhibitor of the possible A geogrid of 200 kN / m of resistance was inserted at the base of the reconstituted landfill. Recent evaluations, after 13 years of application of the solution, show the efficiency of the technique used, supported by the geotechnical studies carried out in the area.
Influence of Bottom Ash on the Geotechnical Parameters of Clayey Soil
Clayey soils exhibit undesirable problems in civil engineering project: poor bearing soil capacity, shrinkage, cracking, …etc. On the other hand, the increasing production of bottom ash and its disposal in an eco-friendly manner is a matter of concern. Soil stabilization using bottom ash is a new technic in the geo-environmental engineering. It can be used wherever a soft clayey soil is encountered in foundations or road subgrade, instead of using old technics such as cement-soil mixing. This new technology can be used for road embankments and clayey foundations platform (shallow or deep foundations) instead of replacing bad soil or using old technics which aren’t eco-friendly. Moreover, applying this new technic in our geotechnical engineering projects can reduce the disposal of the bottom ash problem which is getting bigger day after day. The research consists of mixing clayey soil with different percentages of bottom ash at different values of water content, and evaluates the mechanical properties of every mix: the percentages of bottom ash are 10% 20% 30% 40% and 50% with values of water content of 25% 35% and 45% of the mix’s weight. Before testing the different mixes, clayey soil’s properties were determined: Atterbeg limits, soil’s cohesion and friction angle and particle size distribution. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties and behavior of every mix, different tests are conducted: -Direct shear test in order to determine the cohesion and internal friction angle of every mix. -Unconfined compressive strength (stress strain curve) to determine mix’s elastic modulus and compressive strength. Soil samples are prepared in accordance with the ASTM standards, and tested at different times, in order to be able to emphasize the influence of the curing period on the variation of the mix’s mechanical properties and characteristics. As of today, the results obtained are very promising: the mix’s cohesion and friction angle vary in function of the bottom ash percentage, water content and curing period: the cohesion increases enormously before decreasing for a long curing period (values of mix’s cohesion are larger than intact soil’s cohesion) while internal friction angle keeps on increasing even when the curing period is 28 days (the tests largest curing period), which give us a better soil behavior: less cracks and better soil bearing capacity.
Geotechnical Evaluation and Sizing of the Reinforcement Layer on Soft Soil in the Construction of the North Triage Road Clover, in Brasilia Federal District, Brazil
The constant growth of the fleet of vehicles in the big cities, makes that the Engineering is dynamic, with respect to the new solutions for traffic flow in general. In the Federal District (DF), Brazil, it is no different. The city of Brasilia, Capital of Brazil, and Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, is projected to 500 thousand inhabitants, and today circulates more than 3 million people in the city, and with a fleet of more than one vehicle for every two inhabitants. The growth of the city to the North region, made that the urban planning presented solutions for the fleet in constant growth. In this context, a complex of viaducts, road accesses, creation of new rolling roads and duplication of the Bragueto bridge over Paranoa lake in the northern part of the city was designed, giving access to the BR-020 highway, denominated Clover of North Triage (TTN). In the geopedological context, the region is composed of hydromorphic soils, with the presence of the water level at some times of the year. From the geotechnical point of view, are soils with SPT < 4 and Resistance not drained, Su < 50 kPa. According to urban planning in Brasília, special art works can not rise in the urban landscape, contrasting with the urban characteristics of the architects Lúcio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer. Architects hired to design the new Capital of Brazil. The urban criterion then created the technical impasse, resulting in the technical need to ‘bury’ the works of art and in turn the access greenhouses at different levels, in regions of low support soil and water level Outcrossing, generally inducing the need for this study and design. For the adoption of the appropriate solution, Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Vane Test, Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) and auger boring campaigns were carried out. With the comparison of the results of these tests, the profiles of resistance of the soils and water levels were created in the studied sections. Geometric factors such as existing sidewalks and lack of elevation for the discharge of deep drainage water have inhibited traditional techniques for total removal of soft soils, thus avoiding the use of temporary drawdown and shoring of excavations. Thus, a structural layer was designed to reinforce the subgrade by means of the ‘needling’ of the soft soil, without the need for longitudinal drains. In this context, the article presents the geological and geotechnical studies carried out, but also the dimensioning of the reinforcement layer on the soft soil with a view to the main objective of this solution that is to allow the execution of the civil works without the interference in the roads in use, Execution of services in rainy periods, presentation of solution compatible with drainage characteristics and soft soil reinforcement.
Numerical Investigation of Static and Dynamic Responses of Fiber Reinforced Sand
Soil reinforced with randomly distributed fibers is an attractive means to improve the performance of soil in a cost effective manner. Static and dynamic characterization of fiber reinforced soil have become important to evaluate adequate performance for all classes of geotechnical engineering problems. Present study investigates the behaviour of fiber reinforced cohesionless soil through numerical simulation of triaxial specimen. The numerical model has been validated with the existing literature of laboratory triaxial compression testing. A parametric study has been done to find out optimum fiber content for shear resistance. Cyclic triaxial testing has been simulated and the stress-strain response of fiber-reinforced sand has been examined considering different combination of fiber contents. Shear modulus values and damping values of fiber-reinforced sand are evaluated. It has been observed from results that for 1.0 percent fiber content shear modulus increased 2.28 times and damping ratio decreased 4.6 times. The influence of amplitude of cyclic strain, confining pressure and frequency of loading on the dynamic properties of fiber reinforced sand has been investigated and presented.
4D Monitoring of Subsurface Conditions in Concrete Infrastructure Prior to Failure Using Ground Penetrating Radar
Monitoring for the deterioration of concrete infrastructure is an important assessment tool for an engineer and difficulties can be experienced with monitoring for deterioration within an infrastructure. If a failure crack, or fluid seepage through such a crack, is observed from the surface often the source location of the deterioration is not known. Geophysical methods are used to assist engineers with assessing the subsurface conditions of materials. Techniques such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) provide information on the location of buried infrastructure such as pipes and conduits, positions of reinforcements within concrete blocks, and regions of voids/cavities behind tunnel lining. This experiment underlines the application of GPR as an infrastructure-monitoring tool to highlight and monitor regions of possible deterioration within a concrete test wall due to an increase in the generation of fractures; in particular, during a time period of applied load to a concrete wall up to and including structural failure. A three-point load was applied to a concrete test wall of dimensions 1700 x 600 x 300 mm³ in increments of 10 kN, until the wall structurally failed at 107.6 kN. At each increment of applied load, the load was kept constant and the wall was scanned using GPR along profile lines across the wall surface. The measured radar amplitude responses of the GPR profiles, at each applied load interval, were reconstructed into depth-slice grids and presented at fixed depth-slice intervals. The corresponding depth-slices were subtracted from each data set to compare the radar amplitude response between datasets and monitor for changes in the radar amplitude response. At lower values of applied load (i.e., 0-60 kN), few changes were observed in the difference of radar amplitude responses between data sets. At higher values of applied load (i.e., 100 kN), closer to structural failure, larger differences in radar amplitude response between data sets were highlighted in the GPR data; up to 300% increase in radar amplitude response at some locations between the 0 kN and 100 kN radar datasets. Distinct regions were observed in the 100 kN difference dataset (i.e., 100 kN-0 kN) close to the location of the final failure crack. The key regions observed were a conical feature located between approximately 3.0-12.0 cm depth from surface and a vertical linear feature located approximately 12.1-21.0 cm depth from surface. These key regions have been interpreted as locations exhibiting an increased change in pore-space due to increased mechanical loading, or locations displaying an increase in volume of micro-cracks, or locations showing the development of a larger macro-crack. The experiment showed that GPR is a useful geophysical monitoring tool to assist engineers with highlighting and monitoring regions of large changes of radar amplitude response that may be associated with locations of significant internal structural change (e.g. crack development). GPR is a non-destructive technique that is fast to deploy in a production setting. GPR can assist with reducing risk and costs in future infrastructure maintenance programs by highlighting and monitoring locations within the structure exhibiting large changes in radar amplitude over calendar-time.
Use of Statistical Correlations for the Estimation of Shear Wave Velocity from Standard Penetration Test-N-Values: Case Study of Algiers Area
Along with shear wave, many soil parameters are associated with the standard penetration test (SPT) as a dynamic in situ experiment. Both SPT-N data and geophysical data do not often exist in the same area. Statistical analysis of correlation between these parameters is an alternate method to estimate Vₛ conveniently and without additional investigations or data acquisition. Shear wave velocity is a basic engineering tool required to define dynamic properties of soils. In many instances, engineers opt for empirical correlations between shear wave velocity (Vₛ) and reliable static field test data like standard penetration test (SPT) N value, CPT (Cone Penetration Test) values, etc., to estimate shear wave velocity or dynamic soil parameters. The relation between Vs and SPT- N values of Algiers area is predicted using the collected data, and it is also compared with the previously suggested formulas of Vₛ determination by measuring Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each model. Algiers area is situated in high seismic zone (Zone III [RPA 2003: réglement parasismique algerien]), therefore the study is important for this region. The principal aim of this paper is to compare the field measurements of Down-hole test and the empirical models to show which one of these proposed formulas are applicable to predict and deduce shear wave velocity values.
Effect of Fines Content on Static Liquefaction Susceptibility of Sandy Soil
Investigation of liquefaction susceptibility of materials that have been used in embankments, slopes, dams, and foundations is very essential. Many catastrophic geo-hazards such as flow slides, declination of foundations, and damage to earth structure are associated with static liquefaction that may occur during abrupt shearing of these materials. Many artificial backfill materials are mixtures of sand with fines and other composition. In order to provide some clarifications and evaluations on the role of fines in static liquefaction behaviour of sand sandy soils, the effect of fines on the liquefaction susceptibility of sand was examined experimentally in present work over a range of fines content, relative density, and initial confining pressure. The results of an experimental study on various sand-fines mixtures are presented. Undrained static triaxial compression tests were conducted on saturated Perth sand containing 5% bentonite at three different relative densities, namely (10, 50, and 90 %), and saturated Perth sand containing both 5% bentonite and slag (2%, 4%, and 6%) at single relative density 10%. Undrained static triaxial tests were performed at three different initial confining pressures namely 100, 150, and 200 kPa. The brittleness index was used to quantify the liquefaction potential of sand-bentonite-slag mixtures. The results demonstrated that the liquefaction susceptibility of sand-5% bentonite mixture was more than liquefaction susceptibility of clean sandy soil. However, liquefaction potential decreased when both of two fines (Bentonite and Slag) were used. Liquefaction susceptibility of all mixtures decreased with increasing relative density and initial confining pressure.