Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46035

Marine and Atmospheric Sciences

Multi-Functional, Versatile, Floating Structures for Use in Coastal Areas around the Maltese Islands
Background: Islands in the Mediterranean region offer opportunities for various industries to take advantage of the facilitation and use of versatile floating structures in coastal areas. In the context of dense land use, marine structures can contribute to ensure both terrestrial and marine resource sustainability. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present and critically discuss an array of issues that characterize the design process of a floating structure for coastal areas and to present the challenges and opportunities of providing such multifunctional and versatile structures around the Maltese coastline. Research Design: A three-tier research design commenced with a systematic literature review. Semi-structured interviews with stakeholders including a naval architect, a marine engineer and civil designers were conducted. A second stage preceded a focus group with stakeholders in design and construction of marine lightweight structures. The three tier research design ensured triangulation of issues. All phases of the study were governed by research ethics. Findings: Findings were grouped into three main themes: excellence, impact and implementation. These included design considerations, applications and potential impacts on local industry. Literature for the design and construction of marine structures in the Maltese Islands presented multiple gaps in the application of marine structures for local industries. Weather conditions, depth of sea bed and wave actions presented limitations on the design capabilities of the structure. Conclusion: Water structures offer great potential and conclusions demonstrate the applicability of such designs for Maltese waters. There is still no such provision within Maltese coastal areas for multi-purpose use. The introduction of such facilities present a range of benefits for visiting tourists and locals thereby offering wide range of services to tourism and marine industry. Costs for construction and adverse weather conditions were amongst the main limitations that shaped design capacities of the water structures.
Transcriptomic and Translational Regulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors after Different Feedings in Salmon
Data from the Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries reported that >1.2 million tons of Atlantic salmon were produced in Norway aquaculture industry in 2016. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are one of the key transcription factor families that respond to nutritional ligands. Recent studies have shown the connection between PPARs with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in aquaculture. To our knowledge, there is no published data about the effects of krill meal, soybean meal, Bactocell ® and butyrate feedings compared to control group on PPARs gene and protein expressions in Atlantic salmon. Fish, 1year +postsmolt, average weight 250 gram were cultured for 12 weeks after acclimatization by control commercial feeding in 2 weeks after hatchery. Water oxygen rate, salinity, and temperature were monitored every second day. At the end of the trial, fish were taken from tanks randomly, and four replicates per group were collected and stored in -80 freezers until analysis. Total RNA extracted from posterior part of dorsal fin muscle tissues and Nanodrop and Bioanalyzer was used to check the quality of RNA. Gene expression of PPAR α, β and γ were determined by RT-PCR. The expression of genes of interest was measured relative to control group after normalization to three reference genes. Total protein concentration was calculated by Bradford method, and protein expression was determined with primary PPARγ antibody by western blot. All data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Benjamini-Hochberg and Bonferroni tests. Probability values < 0.05 considered significant. Bactocell® and butyrate groups showed significantly lower PPARα expression. PPARβ and γ were not significantly different among groups. PPARγ mRNA expression was approximately consistent with protein expression pattern, except than butyrate group showed lower mRNA level. The order of PPARγ expression was Bactocell® > soy meal > butyrate > krill meal > control respectively. PPARβ gene expression decreased more in soy meal > butyrate > krill meal > Bactocell® > control groups respectively. In conclusion, the increased expression of PPARγ and α is proposed to represent a reduction tendency of lipid storage in fish fed by Bactocell®, butyrate, soy and krill meal.
Spatio-Temporal Variation of Gaseous Pollutants and the Contribution of Particulate Matters in Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand
The elevated levels of air pollutants in regional atmospheric environments is a significant problem that affects human health in Thailand, particularly in the Chao Phraya River Basin. Of concern are issues surrounding ambient air pollution such as particulate matter, gaseous pollutants and more specifically concerning air pollution along the river. Therefore, the spatio-temporal study of air pollution in this real environment can gain more accurate air quality data for making formalized environmental policy in river basins. In order to inform such a policy, a study was conducted over a period of January –December, 2015 to continually collect measurements of various pollutants in both urban and regional locations in the Chao Phraya River Basin. This study investigated the air pollutants in many diverse environments along the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand in 2015. Multivariate Analysis Techniques such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Path analysis were utilised to classify air pollution in the surveyed location. Measurements were collected in both urban and rural areas to see if significant differences existed between the two locations in terms of air pollution levels. The meteorological parameters of various particulates were collected continually from a Thai pollution control department monitoring station over a period of January –December, 2015. Of interest to this study were the readings of SO2, CO, NOx, O3, and PM10. Results showed a daily arithmetic mean concentration of SO2, CO, NOx, O3, PM10 reading at 3±1 ppb, 0.5± 0.5 ppm, 30±21 ppb, 19±16 ppb, and 40±20 ug/m3 in urban locations (Bangkok). During the same time period, the readings for the same measurements in rural areas, Ayutthaya (were 1±0.5 ppb, 0.1± 0.05 ppm, 25±17 ppb, 30±21 ppb, and 35±10 ug/m3respectively. This show that Bangkok were located in highly polluted environments that are dominated source emitted from vehicles. Further, results were analysed to ascertain if significant seasonal variation existed in the measurements. It was found that levels of both gaseous pollutants and particle matter in dry season were higher than the wet season. More broadly, the results show that levels of pollutants were measured highest in locations along the Chao Phraya. River Basin known to have a large number of vehicles and biomass burning. This correlation suggests that the principle pollutants were from these anthropogenic sources. This study contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding ambient air pollution such as particulate matter, gaseous pollutants and more specifically concerning air pollution along the Chao Phraya River Basin. Further, this study is one of the first to utilise continuous mobile monitoring along a river in order to gain accurate measurements during a data collection period. Overall, the results of this study can be used for making formalized environmental policy in river basins in order to reduce the physical effects on human health.
Effects of Rinse Water pH on the Anti-Corrosion Properties of Trivalent Chromium Process (TCP) Conversion Coatings on AA2024-T3 Alloy
Trivalent chromium process (TCP) conversion coatings are replacements for the historically-used chromate conversion coatings (CCC). These coatings are part of a multi-layer coating system that is typically used to protect aerospace aluminum alloys from corrosion when in service. Unfortunately, the anti-corrosion performance of TCP on Cu-rich Al alloys, like AA2024-T3, is inferior to that provided by CCC. Work is ongoing in our laboratory to better understand the coating chemistry and physical structure on this alloy as well as the early stage failure mechanisms. We are also studying how different post-treatments of the TCP coatings affect their anti-corrosion performance. In this presentation, we will report on how the final rinse water pH affects the coating structure and anti-corrosion performance. Two commercial TCP coatings were studied: Bonderite T5900 (Henkel) and 650 ChromitAL (SurTec). Both coatings were formed by immersion on degreased and deoxidized alloys. The final coating rinse (2 min immersion) was with 0.1 M phosphate buffer at pH values of 5, 6, 7 and 8. Aging effects (7-days in lab air) were also investigated. Electrochemical methods were used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coatings in naturally-aerated 0.5 M Na2SO4 + 0.01 M NaCl at room temperature. SEM/EDS and contact angle measurements were used to characterize the coatings. Preliminary results indicate that the maximum corrosion protection might be achieved at pH 6 (greater suppressed anodic polarization currents and more positive Epit). Additionally, preliminary results indicate that the two conversion coatings perform differently after the pH rinse.
Public Participation for an Effective Flood Risk Management: Building Social Capacities in Ribera Alta Del Ebro, Spain
While coming decades are likely to see a higher flood risk in Europe and greater socio-economic damages, traditional flood risk management has become inefficient. In response to that, new approaches such as capacity building and public participation have recently been incorporated in natural hazards mitigation policy (i.e. Sendai Framework for Action, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and EU Floods Directive). By integrating capacity building and public participation, we present a research concerning the promotion of participatory social capacity building actions for flood risk mitigation at the local level. Social capacities have been defined as the resources and abilities available at individual and collective level that can be used to anticipate, respond to, cope with, recover from and adapt to external stressors. Social capacity building is understood as a process of identifying communities’ social capacities and of applying collaborative strategies to improve them. This paper presents a proposal of systematization of participatory social capacity building process for flood risk mitigation, and its implementation in a high risk of flooding area in the Ebro river basin: Ribera Alta del Ebro. To develop this process, we designed and tested a tool that allows measuring and building five types of social capacities: knowledge, motivation, networks, participation and finance. The tool implementation has allowed us to assess social capacities in the area. Upon the results of the assessment we have developed a co-decision process with stakeholders and flood risk management authorities on which participatory activities could be employed to improve social capacities for flood risk mitigation. Based on the results of this process, and focused on the weaker social capacities, we developed a set of participatory actions in the area oriented to general public and stakeholders: informative sessions on flood risk management plan and flood insurances, interpretative river descents on flood risk management (with journalists, teachers, and general public), interpretative visit to the floodplain, workshop on agricultural insurance, deliberative workshop on project funding, deliberative workshops in schools on flood risk management (playing with a flood risk model). The combination of obtaining data through a mixed-methods approach of qualitative inquiry and quantitative surveys, as well as action research through co-decision processes and pilot participatory activities, show us the significant impact of public participation on social capacity building for flood risk mitigation and contributes to the understanding of which main factors intervene in this process.
Multi-Model Super Ensemble Based Advanced Approaches for Monsoon Rainfall Prediction
Traditionally, monsoon forecasts have encountered many difficulties that stem from numerous issues such as lack of adequate upper air observations, mesoscale nature of convection, proper resolution, radiative interactions, planetary boundary layer physics, mesoscale air-sea fluxes, representation of orography, etc. Uncertainties in any of these areas lead to large systematic errors. Global circulation models (GCMs), which are developed independently at different institutes, each of which carries somewhat different representation of the above processes, can be combined to reduce the collective local biases in space, time, and for different variables from different models. This is the basic concept behind the multi-model superensemble and comprises of a training and a forecast phase. The training phase learns from the recent past performances of models and is used to determine statistical weights from a least square minimization via a simple multiple regression. These weights are then used in the forecast phase. The superensemble forecasts carry the highest skill compared to simple ensemble mean, bias corrected ensemble mean and the best model out of the participating member models. This approach is a powerful post-processing method for the estimation of weather forecast parameters reducing the direct model output errors. Although it can be applied successfully to the continuous parameters like temperature, humidity, wind speed, mean sea level pressure etc., in this paper, this approach is applied to rainfall, a parameter quite difficult to handle with standard post-processing methods, due to its high temporal and spatial variability. The present study aims at the development of advanced superensemble schemes comprising of 1-5 day daily precipitation forecasts from five state-of-the-art global circulation models (GCMs), i.e., European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (Europe), National Center for Environmental Prediction (USA), China Meteorological Administration (China), Canadian Meteorological Centre (Canada) and U.K. Meteorological Office (U.K.) obtained from THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE), which is one of the most complete data set available. The novel approaches include the dynamical model selection approach in which the selection of the superior models from the participating member models at each grid and for each forecast step in the training period is carried out. Multi-model superensemble based on the training using similar conditions is also discussed in the present study, which is based on the assumption that training with the similar type of conditions may provide the better forecasts in spite of the sequential training which is being used in the conventional multi-model ensemble (MME) approaches. Further, a variety of methods that incorporate a 'neighborhood' around each grid point which is available in literature to allow for spatial error or uncertainty, have also been experimented with the above mentioned approaches. The comparison of these schemes with respect to the observations verifies that the newly developed approaches provide more unified and skillful prediction of the summer monsoon (viz. June to September) rainfall compared to the conventional multi-model approach and the member models.
An Advanced Approach to Detect and Enumerate Soil-Transmitted Helminth Ova from Wastewater
Parasitic diseases have a devastating, long-term impact on human health and welfare. More than two billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), including the roundworms (Ascaris), hookworms (Necator and Ancylostoma) and whipworm (Trichuris) with majority occurring in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Despite its low prevalence in developed countries, the removal of STHs from wastewater remains crucial to allow the safe use of sludge or recycled water in agriculture. Conventional methods such as incubation and optical microscopy are cumbersome; consequently, the results drastically vary from person-to-person observing the ova (eggs) under microscope. Although PCR-based methods are an alternative to conventional techniques, it lacks the ability to distinguish between viable and non-viable helminth ova. As a result, wastewater treatment industries are in major need for radically new and innovative tools to detect and quantify STHs eggs with precision, accuracy and being cost-effective. In our study, we focus on the following novel and innovative techniques: -Recombinase polymerase amplification and Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (RPA-SERS) based detection of helminth ova. -Use of metal nanoparticles and their relative nanozyme activity. -Colorimetric detection, differentiation and enumeration of genera of helminth ova using hydrolytic enzymes (chitinase and lipase). -Propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR to detect viable helminth ova. -Modified assay to recover and enumerate helminth eggs from fresh raw sewage. -Transcriptome analysis of ascaris ova in fresh raw sewage. The aforementioned techniques have the potential to replace current conventional and molecular methods thereby producing a standard protocol for the determination and enumeration of helminth ova in sewage sludge.
Hemotoxic and Wound Healing Potential of Sea-Star Astropecten indicus
Oceans are a huge reservoir of novel bioactive natural products, but numerous marine resources have not been explored till date. One such resource is the coelomic fluid of the sea-star Astropecten indicus. These sea-stars are found abundantly along the coast of Goa, India and their biochemical and pharmacological profiles have not been investigated. SDS-PAGE analysis of its coelomic fluid (SCF) showed that it comprises of numerous proteins and polypeptides. SCF was found to be fibrinogenolytically potent at a concentration of 4µg/ml and its active proteins were majorly metalloproteinase in nature as studied by zymography. Fibrinolytic and caseinolytic activity of SCF was observed at a concentration of 4µg/ml. SCF was found to promote aggregation of ADP and collagen induced platelet aggregation at concentration of 5µg/ml. In vitro studies on effect of SCF on cultured cells showed its cell proliferative activity at a dose of 2.5 µg/ml. Wound healing activity of SCF at a dose of 2.5µg/ml was also observed in vitro on A-549, HEK-293 and HaCaT cells. SCF was found to show no hemolytic effects on human RBCs. SCF has been fractionated using ion-exchange chromatography and HPLC to yield a semi-pure protein comprising of fibrinogenolytic and wound healing activities in vitro. Further purification of SCF to yield a pure protein is in progress. We report the potent fibrinogenolytic, pro-platelet aggregation, cell proliferative and wound healing potential of the coelomic fluid of the coelomic fluid of the sea-star Astropecten indicus.
Flood Risk Management in Low Income Countries: Balancing Risk and Development
The Sendai Framework notes that disaster risk reduction is essential for sustainable development, and Disaster Risk Reduction is included in 3 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and 4 of the SDG targets. However, apart from promoting better governance and resourcing of disaster management agencies, little guidance is given how low-income nations can balance investments across the SDGs to achieve sustainable development in an increasingly climate vulnerable world with increasing prevalence of flood and drought disasters. As one of the world’s poorest nations, Malawi must balance investments across all the SDGs. This paper explores how Malawi’s National Guidelines for Community-based Flood Risk Management integrate sustainable development and flood management objectives at different administrative levels. While Malawi periodically suffers from large, widespread flooding, the greatest impacts are felt through the smaller annual floods and flash floods. The Guidelines address this through principles that recognize that while the protection of human life is the most important priority for flood risk management, addressing the impacts of floods on the rural poor and the economy requires different approaches. The National Guidelines are therefore underpinned by the following; 1. In the short-term investments in flood risk management must focus on breaking the poverty – vulnerability cycle; 2. In the long-term investments in the other SDGs will have the greatest flood risk management benefits; 3. If measures are in place to prevent loss of life and protect strategic infrastructure, it is better to protect more people against small and medium size floods than fewer people against larger floods; 4. Flood prevention measures should focus on small (1:5 return period) floods; 5. Flood protection measures should focus on small and medium floods (1:20 return period) while minimizing the risk of failure in larger floods; 6. The impacts of larger floods ( > 1:50) must be addressed through improved preparedness; 7. The impacts of climate change on flood frequencies are best addressed by focusing on growth not overdesign; and 8. Manage floods and droughts conjunctively. The National Guidelines weave these principles into Malawi’s approach to flood risk management through recommendations for planning and implementing flood prevention, protection and preparedness measures at district, traditional authority and village levels.
Utilising Indigenous Knowledge to Design Dykes in Malawi
Malawi is one of the world’s poorest nations and consequently, the design of flood risk management infrastructure comes with a different set of challenges. There is a lack of good quality hydromet data, both in spatial terms and in the quality thereof and the challenge in the design of flood risk management infrastructure is compounded by the fact that maintenance is almost completely non-existent and that solutions have to be simple to be effective. Solutions should not require any further resources to remain functional after completion, and they should be resilient. They also have to be cost effective. The Lower Shire Valley of Malawi suffers from frequent flood events. Various flood risk management interventions have been designed across the valley during the course of the Shire River Basin Management Project – Phase I, and due to the data poor environment, indigenous knowledge was relied upon to a great extent for hydrological and hydraulic model calibration and verification. However, indigenous knowledge comes with the caveat that it is ‘fuzzy’ and that it can be manipulated for political reasons. The experience in the Lower Shire valley suggests that indigenous knowledge is unlikely to invent a problem where none exists, but that flood depths and extents may be exaggerated to secure prioritization of the intervention. Indigenous knowledge relies on the memory of a community and cannot foresee events that exceed past experience, that could occur differently to those that have occurred in the past, or where flood management interventions change the flow regime. This complicates communication of planned interventions to local inhabitants. Indigenous knowledge is, for the most part, intuitive, but flooding can sometimes be counter intuitive, and the rural poor may have a lower trust of technology. Due to a near complete lack of maintenance of infrastructure, infrastructure has to be designed with no moving parts and no requirement for energy inputs. This precludes pumps, valves, flap gates and sophisticated warning systems. Designs of dykes during this project included ‘flood warning spillways’, that double up as pedestrian and animal crossing points, which provide warning of impending dangerous water levels behind dykes to residents before water levels that could cause a possible dyke failure are reached. Locally available materials and erosion protection using vegetation were used wherever possible to keep costs down.
A Numerical Study of the Tidal Currents in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea
This study focuses on the tidal oscillation and its speed to create a general pattern in seas. The purpose of the analysis is to find out the amplitude and phase for several important tidal components. Therefore, Regional Ocean Models (ROMS) was rendered to consider the correlation and accuracy of this pattern. Finding tidal harmonic components allows us to predict tide at this region. Better prediction of these tides, making standard platform, making suitable wave breakers, helping coastal building, navigation, fisheries, port management and tsunami research. Result shows a fair accuracy in the SSH. It reveals tidal currents are highest in Hormuz Strait and the narrow and shallow region between Kish Island. To investigate flow patterns of the region, the results of limited size model of FVCOM were utilized. Many features of the present day view of ocean circulation have some precedent in tidal and long- wave studies. Tidal waves are categorized to be among the long waves. So that tidal currents studies have indeed effects in subsequent studies of sea and ocean circulations.
Numerical Simulations of the Transition Flow of Model Propellers for Predicting Open Water Performance
Simulations of the transition flow of model propellers are important for predicting hydrodynamic performance and studying scale effects. In this paper, the transition flow of a model propeller under different loadings are simulated using a transition model provided by STAR-CCM+, and the influence of turbulence intensity (TI) on the transition, especially friction and pressure components of propeller performance, was studied. Before that, the transition model was applied to simulate the transition flow of a flat plate and an airfoil. Predicted transitions agree well with experimental results. Then, the transition model was applied for propeller simulations in open water, and the influence of TI was studied. Under the heavy and moderate loadings, thrust and torque of the propeller predicted by the transition model (different TI) and two turbulence models are very close and agree well with measurements. However, under the light loading, only the transition model with low TI predicts the most accurate results. Above all, the friction components of propeller performance predicted by the transition model with different TI have obvious difference.
Numerical Simulation of the Flow Channel in the Curved Plane Oil Skimmer
Oil spills at sea can cause severe marine environmental damage, including bringing huge hazards to living resources and human beings. In situ burning or chemical dispersant methods can be used to handle the oil spills sometimes, but, these approaches will bring secondary pollution and fail in some situations. Oil recovery techniques have also been developed to recover oil using oil skimmer equipment installed on ships. While the hydrodynamic process of the oil flowing through the oil skimmer is very complicated and important for evaluating the recovery efficiency. Based on this, a two dimensional numerical simulation platform for simulating the hydrodynamic process of the oil flowing through the oil skimmer is established based on the Navier-Stokes equations for viscous, incompressible fluid. Finally, the influence of the design of the flow channel in the curved plane oil skimmer on the hydrodynamic process of the oil flowing through the oil skimmer is investigated based on the established simulation platform.
Simulation of Optimal Runoff Hydrograph Using Ensemble of Radar Rainfall and Blending of Runoffs Model
Recently, the localized heavy rainfall and typhoons are frequently occurred due to the climate change, and the damage is becoming bigger. Therefore, we may need more accurate prediction of the rainfall and runoff. However, the gauge rainfall has the limited accuracy in space. Radar rainfall is better than gauge rainfall for the explanation of the spatial variability of rainfall, but it is mostly underestimated with uncertainty involved. Therefore, the ensemble of radar rainfall was simulated using error structure to overcome the uncertainty and gauge rainfall. The simulated ensemble was used as the input data of the rainfall-runoff models for obtaining the ensemble of runoff hydrographs. The previous studies discussed the accuracy of the rainfall-runoff model. Even if the same input data such as rainfall is used for the runoff analysis using the models in the same basin, the models can have different results because of the uncertainty involved in the models. Therefore, we used two models of the SSARR model which is the lumped model, and the Vflo model which is a distributed model and tried to simulate the optimum runoff considering the uncertainty of each rainfall-runoff model. The study basin is located in Han River basin, and we obtained one integrated runoff hydrograph which is an optimum runoff hydrograph using the blending methods such as Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Simple Model Average (SMA), Mean Square Error (MSE). From this study, we could confirm the accuracy of rainfall and rainfall-runoff model using ensemble scenario and various rainfall-runoff model, and we can use this result to study flood control measure due to climate change.
Evidence of Behavioural Thermoregulation by Dugongs (Dugong dugon) at the High Latitude Limit to Their Range in Eastern Australia
Marine mammals live in an environment with water temperatures nearly always lower than the mammalian core body temperature of 35 - 38°C. Marine mammals can lose heat at high rates and have evolved a range of adaptations to minimise heat loss. Our project tracked dugongs to examine if there was a discoverable relationship between the animals’ movements and the temperature of their environment that might suggest behavioural thermoregulation. Twenty-nine dugongs were fitted with acoustic and satellite/GPS transmitters in 2012, 2013 and 2014 in Moreton Bay Queensland at the high latitude limit of the species’ winter range in eastern Australia on 30 occasions (one animal was tagged twice). All 22 animals that stayed in the area and had functional transmitters made at least one (and up to 66) return trip(s) to the warmer oceanic waters outside the bay where seagrass is unavailable. Individual dugongs went in and out of the bay in synchrony with the tides and typically spent about 6 hours in the oceanic water. There was a diel pattern in the movements: 85% of outgoing trips occurred between midnight and noon. There were significant individual differences, but the likelihood of a dugong leaving the bay was independent of body length or sex. In Quarter 2 (April – June), the odds of a dugong making a trip increased by about 40% for each 1°C increase in the temperature difference between the bay and the warmer adjacent oceanic waters. In Quarter 3, the odds of making a trip were lower when the outside –inside bay temperature differences were small or negative but increased by a factor of up to 2.12 for each 1°C difference in outside – inside temperatures. In Quarter 4, the odds of making a trip were higher when it was cooler outside the bay and decreased by a factor of nearly 0.5 for each 1°C difference in outside – inside bay temperatures. The activity spaces of the dugongs generally declined as winter progressed suggesting a change in the cost-effectiveness of moving outside the bay. Our analysis suggests that dugongs can thermoregulate their core temperature through the behaviour of moving to water having more favourable temperature.
2D-Numerical Modelling of Local Scour around a Circular Pier in Steady Current
In the present investigation, the scour around a circular pier subjected to a steady current were studied numerically using two-dimensional MIKE21 Flow Model (FM) and Sand Transport (ST)Modulewhich is developed by Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI), Denmark. The unstructured flexible mesh generated with rectangular flume dimension of 10 m wide, 1 m deep, and 30 m long. The grain size of the sand was d50 = 0.16 mm, sediment size, sediment gradation=1.16, pier diameter D= 30 mm and depth-averaged current velocity, U = 0.449 m/s are considered in the model. The estimated scour depth obtained from this model is validated and it is observed that the results of the model have good agreement with flume experimental results.In order to estimate the scour depth, several simulations were made for three cases viz., Case I:change in sediment transport model description in the numerical model viz, i) Engelund-Hansen model, ii) Engelund-Fredsøe model, and iii) Van Rijn model, Case II: change in current velocity for keeping constant pile diameter D=0.03 m and Case III:change in pier diameter for constant depth averaged current speed U=0.449 m/s.In case I simulations, the results indicate that the scour depth S/D is the order of 1.73 for Engelund-Hansen model, 0.64 for Engelund-Fredsøe model and 0.46 for VanRijn model. The scour depth estimates using Engelund-Hansen method compares well the experimental results.In case II, simulations show that the scour depth increases with increasing current component of the flow.In case III simulations, the results indicate that the scour depth increases with increase in pier diameter and it stabilize attains steady value when the Froude number> 2.71.All the results of the numerical simulations are clearly matches with reported values of the experimental results. Hence, this MIKE21 FM –Sand Transport model can be used as a suitable tool to estimate the scour depth for field applications. Moreover, to provide suitable scour protection methods, the maximum scour depth is to be predicted, Engelund-Hansen method can be adopted to estimate the scour depth in the steady current region.
Modeling of Diurnal Pattern of Air Temperature in a Tropical Environment: Ile-Ife and Ibadan, Nigeria
Existing diurnal air temperature models simulate night time air temperature over Nigeria with high biases. An improved parameterization is presented for modeling the diurnal pattern of air temperature (Ta) which is applicable in the calculation of turbulent heat fluxes in Global climate models, based on Nigeria Micrometeorological Experimental site (NIMEX) surface layer observations. Five diurnal Ta models for estimating hourly Ta from daily maximum, daily minimum, and daily mean air temperature were validated using root-mean-square error (RMSE), Mean Error Bias (MBE) and scatter graphs. The original Fourier series model showed better performance for unstable air temperature parameterizations while the stable Ta was strongly overestimated with a large error. The model was improved with the inclusion of the atmospheric cooling rate that accounts for the temperature inversion that occurs during the nocturnal boundary layer condition. The MBE and RMSE estimated by the modified Fourier series model reduced by 4.45 oC and 3.12 oC during the transitional period from dry to wet stable atmospheric conditions. The modified Fourier series model gave good estimation of the diurnal weather patterns of Ta when compared with other existing models for a tropical environment.
Analysis and Study of Growth Rates of Indigenous Phytoplankton in Enriched Spent Oil Impacted Ecosystems in South Western Nigeria Coastal Waters
In order to determine the effect of spent oil on the growth rates of indigenous phytoplankton in an aquaculture pond, a study was carried out on varying concentrations of samples using the bioassay procedure for a period of 14 days. Four divisions Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Bacillariophyta were observed in the water samples collected from the Aquaculture pond. The growth response was measured using a microprocessor photocolorimeter at optical density of 680nm. A general assessment of spent oil contaminated samples showed either a sharp rise or fall in growth rate from day 0 to day 2 followed by increased growth response for most higher concentration of pollutants up to Day 8, then fluctuations in the growth response pattern for the other days. There was no marked significant difference in the growth response of phytoplankton in the spent oil impacted water samples. The lowest and highest phytoplankton abundance was recorded in 10/90ml and 2.5/97.5ml spent oil impacted water sample respectively. Oscillatoria limosa, Chlorella sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. showed high tolerance to oil pollution and these species used as bioindicators of an organic polluted environment increased abundantly and can therefore be employed in the cleanup and bioremediation process of an oil polluted freshwater body.
Institutional Superposition, over Management and Coastal Economic Development:Coastal Areas in China
The coastal zone is the intersection of land and sea system, and also is the connecting zone of the two economic systems of land and sea. In the world, all countries attach great importance to the coastal zone management and the coastal zone economy. In China, the government has developed a number of related coastal management policies and institutional, such as marine functional zoning, main function zoning, integrated coastal zone management, to ensure the sustainable utilization of the coastal zone and promote the development of coastal economic. However, in practice, the effect is not satisfactory. This paper analyses the coastal areas of coastal zone management on coastal economic growth contribution based on coastal areas economic development data with the 2007-2015 in China, which uses the method of the evaluation index system of coastal zone management institutional efficiency. The results show that the coastal zone management institutional objectives are not clear, and the institutional has high repeatability. At the same time, over management of coastal zone leads to low economic efficiency because the government management boundary is blurred.
Evaluation of Sustainable Blue Economy Development Performance: Method and Case
After Rio+20,the blue economy rises all over the world, and it has become the focus field of national development. At present, the blue economy has become a new growth point in the field of global economy and the direction of the development of ‘green’ in the ocean. However, in fact, the key factors affecting the development of the blue economy have not been explored in depth, and the development policies and performance of the blue economy have not been scientifically evaluated. This cannot provide useful guidance for the development of the blue economy. Therefore, it is urgent to establish a quantitative evaluation framework to measure the performance of the blue economic development. Based on the full understanding of the connotation and elements of the blue economy, and studying the literature, this article has built an universality and operability evaluation index system, including ecological environment, social justice, sustainable growth, policy measures, and so on. And this article also established a sound evaluation framework of blue economic development performance. At the same time, this article takes China as a sample to test the framework of the adaptability, and to assess the performance of China's blue economic.
Regional Rates of Sand Supply to the New South Wales Coast: Southeastern Australia
Coastal behavior is best investigated using a sediment budget approach, based on the identification of sediment sources and sinks. Grain size distribution over the New South Wales (NSW) continental shelf has been widely characterized since the 1970’s. Coarser sediment has generally accumulated on the outer shelf, and/or nearshore zones, with the latter related to the presence of nearshore reef and bedrocks. The central part of the NSW shelf is characterized by the presence of fine sediments distributed parallel to the coastline. This study presents new grain size distribution maps along the NSW continental shelf, built using all available NSW and Commonwealth Government holdings. All available seabed bathymetric data form prior projects, single and multibeam sonar, and aerial LiDAR surveys were integrated into a single bathymetric surface for the NSW continental shelf. Grain size information was extracted from the sediment sample data collected in more than 30 studies. The information extracted from the sediment collections varied between reports. Thus, given the inconsistency of the grain size data, a common grain size classification was her defined using the phi scale. The new sediment distribution maps produced, together with new detailed seabed bathymetric data enabled us to revise the delineation of sediment compartments to more accurately reflect the true nature of sediment movement on the inner shelf and nearshore. Accordingly, nine primary mega coastal compartments were delineated along the NSW coast and shelf. The sediment compartments are bounded by prominent nearshore headlands and reefs, and major river and estuarine inlets that act as sediment sources and/or sinks. The new sediment grain size distribution was used as an input in the morphological modelling to quantify the sediment transport patterns (and indicative rates of transport), used to investigate sand supply rates and processes from the lower shoreface to the NSW coast. The rate of sand supply to the NSW coast from deep water is a major uncertainty in projecting future coastal response to sea-level rise. Offshore transport of sand is generally expected as beaches respond to rising sea levels but an onshore supply from the lower shoreface has the potential to offset some of the impacts of sea-level rise, such as coastline recession. Sediment exchange between the lower shoreface and sub-aerial beach has been modelled across the south, central, mid-north and far-north coast of NSW. Our model approach is that high-energy storm events are the primary agents of sand transport in deep water, while non-storm conditions are responsible for re-distributing sand within the beach and surf zone.
The Photocatalytic Approach for the Conversion of Polluted Seawater CO₂ into Renewable Source of Energy
Photocatalytic way of reduction of CO₂ in polluted seawater into chemical fuel, methanol, was successfully gained over Cu/C-co-doped TiO₂ nanoparticles under UV and natural sunlight. A homemade stirred batch annular reactor was used to carry out the photocatalytic reduction experiments. Photocatalysts with various Cu loadings (0, 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 wt.%) were synthesized by the sol-gel procedure and were characterized by XRD, SEM, UV–Vis, FTIR, and XPS. The photocatalytic production of methanol was promoted by the co-doping with C and Cu into TiO₂. This improvement was attributed to the modification of bandgap energy and the hindrance of the charges recombination. The polluted seawater showing the yield depended on its background hydrographic parameters. We assessed two types of polluted seawater system, the observed yield was 2910 and 990 µmol g⁻¹ after 5 h of illumination under UV and natural sunlight respectively in system 1 and the corresponding yield in system 2 was 2250 and 910 µmol g⁻¹ after 5 h of illumination. The production of methanol in the case of oxygen-depleted water was low, this is mainly attributed to the competition of methanogenic bacteria over methanol production. The results indicated that the methanol yield produced by Cu-C/TiO₂ was much higher than those of carbon-modified titanium oxide (C/TiO₂) and Degussa (P25-TiO₂). Under the current experimental condition, the optimum loading was achieved by the doping of 3 wt % of Cu. The highest methanol yield was obtained over 1 g L-1 of 3wt% Cu/C-TiO₂.
Tidal Current Behaviors and Remarkable Bathymetric Change in the South-Western Part of Khor Abdullah, Kuwait
A study of the tidal current behavior and bathymetric changes was undertaken in order to establish an information base for future coastal management. The average velocity for tidal current was 0.46 m/s and the maximum velocity was 1.08 m/s during ebb tide. During spring tides, maximum velocities range from 0.90 to 1.08 m/s, whereas maximum velocities vary from 0.40 to 0.60 m/s during neap tides. Despite greater current velocities during flood tide, the bathymetric features enhance the dominance of the ebb tide. This can be related to the abundance of fine sediments from the ebb current approaching the study area, and the relatively coarser sediment from the approaching flood current. Significant bathymetric changes for the period from 1985 to 1998 were found with dominance of erosion process. Approximately 96.5% of depth changes occurred within the depth change classes of -5 to 5 m. The high erosion processes within the study area will subsequently result in high accretion processes, particularly in the north, the location of the proposed Boubyan Port and its navigation channel.
Extraction of Road Edge Lines from High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Energy Function and Snake Model
In this paper, the strategy to extract double road edge lines from acquired road stripe image was explored. The workflow is as follows: the road stripes are acquired by probabilistic boosting tree algorithm and morphological algorithm immediately, and road centerlines are detected by thinning algorithm, so the initial road edge lines can be acquired along the road centerlines. Then we refine the results with big variation of local curvature of centerlines. Specifically, the energy function of edge line is constructed by gradient feature and spectral information, and Dijkstra algorithm is used to optimize the initial road edge lines. The Snake model is constructed to solve the fracture problem of intersection, and the discrete dynamic programming algorithm is used to solve the model. After that, we could get the final road network. Experiment results show that the strategy proposed in this paper can be used to extract the continuous and smooth road edge lines from high-resolution remote sensing images with an accuracy of 88% in our study area.
Analysis of the Contribution of Coastal and Marine Physical Factors to Oil Slick Movement: Case Study of Misrata, Libya
Developing a coastal oil spill management plan for the Misratah coast is the motivating factor for building a database for coastal and marine systems and energy resources. Wind direction and speed, currents, bathymetry, coastal topography and offshore dynamics influence oil spill deposition in coastal water. Therefore, oceanographic and climatological data can be used to understand oil slick movement and potential oil deposits on shoreline area and the behaviour of oil spill trajectories on the sea surface. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the coastal and marine physical factors under strong wave conditions and various bathymetric and coastal topography gradients in the western coastal area of Libya on the movement of oil slicks. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a GNOME simulation model based on current and wind speed/direction. The results in this paper show that (1) Oil slick might reach the Misratah shoreline area in two days in the summer and winter. Seasons. (2 ) The North coast of Misratah is the potential oil deposit area on the Misratah coast. (3) Tarball pollution was observed along the North coast of Misratah. (4) Two scenarios for the summer and the winter season were run, along the western coast of Libya . (5) The eastern coast is at a lower potential risk due to the influence of wind and current energy in the Gulf of Sidra. (6) The Misratah coastline is more vulnerable to oil spill movement in the summer than in winter seasons. (7) Oil slick takes from 2 to 5 days to reach the saltmarsh in the eastern Misratah coast. (8) Oil slick moves 300 km in 30 days from the spill resource location near the Libyan western border to the Misratah coast.(9) Bathymetric features have a profound effect on oil spill movement. (9)Oil dispersion simulations using GNOME are carried out taking into account high-resolution wind and current data.
Effects of Net Height of Crab Entangling Nets on the Capture of Targeted Economically Important Portunid Species and Non-Target Species
This study determined the effects of net height on the capture performance of crab entangling nets. Fishing trials were conducted using nets with the following net heights: 1) 12 meshes down (MD), 2) 24 MD and 3) 50 MD. A total of 1,290 individuals comprising of 87 species belonging to 53 families were caught. One-way ANOVA showed that net height significantly affects various catch parameters such as catch per unit effort (CPUE) of the total and target catch, amount of non-target catch, sizes and species richness. The use of appropriate net height is a potential technical measure for a selective but still efficient crab entangling net fishery. Lower net height significantly reduced non-target catch up to 70%. While lower nets decreased the CPUE of target catch such as blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus and christian crab Charybdis feriatus up to 65% in 12 MD, catch in 24 MD was not significantly different with that in 50 MD. The use of 24 MD also resulted in capturing larger-sized Portunus pelagicus. Catch species richness decreased up to 58% in lower nets. These results are useful to fisheries managers and government institutions to develop or improve existing regulations towards a sustainable crab fishery particularly blue swimming crabs.
Total Phenol, Pigments and Antioxidant Activity of Seaweeds Collected from, Rameshwaram, South-East Coast of India
Introduction: The present research work was undertaken to investigate the total phenols, pigments and in-vitro antioxidant activity of total thirty-three seaweeds species collected two times during April and November’ 2016 from two stations viz. Olaikuda and Vadagadu, at Rameshwaram, south-east coast of India. Method: The total phenol, pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid and methanol, ethanol and acetone extracts of seaweeds were used to estimate the DPPH scavenging activity phenols with the spectrophotometric method. Results: The DPPH scavenging activity of brown seaweeds is comparatively higher than green and red seaweeds. The methanolic extract of seaweeds showed higher DPPH scavenging activity than ethanol and acetone extracts. The DPPH scavenging activity of methanol extract of green seaweed ranges from 74.22-93.54%, followed by ethanol extract 70.52-84.03% and acetone extract 4.30-81.48% likewise in brown seaweeds 84.12-97.67% methanol extract, 70.68-78.00% ethanol extract, 77.27-86.90% acetone; in red seaweeds methanol extract 77.33-86.90%, ethanol extract 73.02- 94.51% and acetone extract 26.61-78.78%. The methanolic extract of Turbinaria deccurens showed maximum DPPH scavenging activity 97.67%, and acetone extract of Chaetomorpha antennina showed minimum DPPH scavenging activity 4.30%. The total phenol content was maximum in Padina boryana 24.74±0.22 (mg/gm), followed by Turbinaria conoides 23.83±0.23 (mg/gm), Padina tetrastromatica 21.43±0.48 (mg/gm) and minimum in Amphiroa anceps 1.70±0.21 (mg/gm). The chlorophyll a content was maximum in Gracilaria folifera 13.38 (mg/gm) followed by Chaetomorpha antennina 11.25 (mg/gm) and minimum in Hydroclatharatus clathratus 0.25 (mg/gm) followed by Turbinaria deccurens 0.30 (mg/gm) likewise chlorophyll b was maximum in Chaetomorpha antennina 8.61 (mg/gm) followed by Kappaphycus alverigea 7.19 (mg/gm) and minimum in Sargassum cristaefollium 0.066 (mg/gm). The carotenoid content was maximum in Caulerpa racemosa is 0.030 (mg/gm) likewise Caulerpa scallipelliformis 0.027 (mg/gm) and Chaetomorpha antennina 0.0.25(mg/gm). Conclusion: It has been reported in various literatures that bioactive compounds are rich in brown algae and they have therapeutic and medicinal activities for different diseases. From our study, it has been concluded that DPPH scavenging activity and total phenol content both are high in brown seaweeds. So, future investigation on the specific seaweeds for their medicinal values will be useful for identification of bioactive compounds.
The Underestimate of the Annual Maximum Rainfall Depths Due to Coarse Time Resolution Data
A considerable part of rainfall data to be used in the hydrological practice is available in aggregated form within constant time intervals. This can produce undesirable effects, like the underestimate of the annual maximum rainfall depth, Hd, associated with a given duration, d, that is the basic quantity in the development of rainfall depth-duration-frequency relationships and in determining if climate change is producing effects on extreme event intensities and frequencies. The errors in the evaluation of Hd from data characterized by a coarse temporal aggregation, ta, and a procedure to reduce the non-homogeneity of the Hd series are here investigated. Our results indicate that: 1) in the worst conditions, for d=ta, the estimation of a single Hd value can be affected by an underestimation error up to 50%, while the average underestimation error for a series with at least 15-20 Hd values, is less than or equal to 16.7%; 2) the underestimation error values follow an exponential probability density function; 3) each very long time series of Hd contains many underestimated values; 4) relationships between the non-dimensional ratio ta/d and the average underestimate of Hd, derived from continuous rainfall data observed in many stations of Central Italy, may overcome this issue; 5) these equations should allow to improve the Hd estimates and the associated depth-duration-frequency curves at least in areas with similar climatic conditions.
Study of the Process of Climate Change According to the Data Simulation Using Lars.WG Software during 2010-2030: Case Study of Semnan Province
Temperature rise on Earth has had harmful effects on the Earth's surface and has led to change in precipitation patterns all around the world. The present research was aimed to study the process of climate change according to the data simulation in future and compare these parameters with current situation in the studied stations in Semnan province including Garmsar, Shahroud and Semnan. In this regard, Lars.WG software, HADCM₃ model, and A₂ scenario were used for 2010-2030. In this model, climatic parameters such as maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and radiation were used daily. The obtained results indicated that there will be 4.4% increase in precipitation in Semnan province compared with the observed data and in general, there will be 1.9% increase in temperature. This temperature rise has significant impact on precipitation patterns. Most of precipitation will be raining (torrential rains in some cases). According to the results, from west to east, the country will experience more temperature rise and will be warmer.
Sea Level Change and Vulnerability Assessment in the Coastal Zone of Mumbai, India: A Geospatial Approach
Climate change induced sea level rise increases storm surge, erosion, and inundation, which are stirred by an intricate interplay of physical environmental components at the coastal region. The Mumbai coast is much vulnerable to accelerated regional sea level change due to its highly dense population, highly developed economy, and low topography. To determine the significant causes behind coastal vulnerability, this study analyzes four different iterations of CVI by incorporating the pixel based differentially weighted rank values of the selected five geological (CVI5), three physical (CVI8 with including geological variables), and four socio-economic variables (CVI4). However, CVI5 and CVI8 results yielded broadly similar natures, but after including socio-economic variables (CVI4), the results CVI (CVI12) has been changed at Mumbai and Kurla coastal portion that indicates the study coastal areas are mostly sensible with socio-economic variables. Therefore, the results of CVI12 show that out of 274.1 km of coastline analyzed, 55.83 % of the coast is very low vulnerable, 60.91 % of the coast is moderately vulnerable while 50.75 % is very high vulnerable. Finding also admits that in the context of growing urban population and the increasing rate of economic activities, socio-economic variables are most important variable to use for validating and testing the CVI. Finally, some recommendations are presented for concerned decision makers and stakeholders to develop appropriate coastal management plans, nourishment projects and mitigation measures considering socio-economic variables.