Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46035

Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

Effect of Magnesium Inoculation on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Spheroidal Cast Iron Knuckle: A Focus on the Steering Arm
The steering knuckle is an integral component of the suspension and stability control system of modern vehicles. Good mechanical properties with an emphasis on the fatigue properties are essential for this component as it is subjected to cyclical load of significant magnitude during service. These properties are a function of the microstructure achieved in the component during the various manufacturing processes including forging and casting. The strut mount of the knuckle is required to meet specified microstructure and mechanical properties. However, in line with the recent trend of stringent quality requirements of cast components, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have had to extend the specifications to other sections of the knuckle. This paper evaluates the effect of cored wire inoculation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the steering arm of a typical spheroidal cast iron component. The investigation shows that the use of a cored wire having higher rare earth content formulation could possibly lead to a homogeneous matrix containing consistent graphite nodule morphology. However, this was found not to be the condition for better mechanical properties along the knuckle arm in line with required specifications. The findings in this paper contribute to a better understanding of steering knuckle properties to allow its production for safer automobile applications.
The Effects of Orientation on Energy and Plasticity of Metallic Crystalline-Amorphous Interface
Commercial applications of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were restricted due to the sudden brittle failure mode which was the main drawback in these new class of materials. Therefore, crystalline-amorphous (C-A) composites were introduced as a toughening strategy in BMGs. In spite of numerous researches in the area of metallic C-A composites, the fundamental structure-property relation in these composites that are not exactly known yet. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the fundamental properties of crystalline-amorphous interface in a model system of Cu/CuZr by using molecular dynamics simulations. Several parameters including interface energy and mechanical properties were investigated by means of atomic models and employing Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential function. It is found that the crystalline-amorphous interfacial energy weakly depends on the orientation of the crystalline layer, which is in stark contrast to that in a regular crystalline grain boundary. Additionally, the results showed that the interface controls the yielding of the crystalline-amorphous composites during uniaxial tension either by serving as sources for dislocation nucleation in the crystalline layer or triggering local shear transformation zones in amorphous layer. The critical resolved shear stress required to nucleate the first dislocation is also found to strongly depend on the crystalline orientation. Furthermore, it is found that the interaction between dislocations and shear localization at the crystalline-amorphous interface oriented in different directions can lead to a change in the deformation mode. For instance, while the dislocation and shear banding are aligned to each other in {0 0 1} interface plane, the misorientation angle between these failure mechanisms causing more homogeneous deformation in {1 1 0} and {1 1 1} crystalline-amorphous interfaces. These results should help clarify the failure mechanism of crystalline-amorphous composites under various loading conditions.
Improvement of Overall Equipment Effectiveness of Load Haul Dump Machines in Underground Mines
Every organization in the competitive world tends to improve its economy by increasing their production and productivity rates. Unequivocally, the production in Indian underground mines over the years is not satisfactory, due to a variety of reasons. There are manifold of avenues for the betterment of production, and one such approach is through enhanced utilization of mechanized equipment such as Load Haul Dumper (LHD). This is used as loading and hauling purpose in underground mines. In view of the aforementioned facts, this paper delves into identification of the key influencing factors such as LHDs maintenance effectiveness, vehicle condition, operator skill and utilization of the machines on performance of LHDs. An attempt has been made for improvement of performance of the equipment through evaluation of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). Two different approaches for evaluation of OEE have been adopted and compared under various operating conditions. The use of OEE calculation in terms of percentage availability, performance and quality and the hitherto existing situation of the underground mine production is evaluated. Necessary recommendations are suggested to mining industry on the basis of OEE.
Multi-Analyte Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide-Based Dielectric Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor Sensing Membranes
Dielectric electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor sensing membranes-based biosensors have been intensively investigated because of their simple fabrication, low cost, and fast response. However, to enhance their sensing performance, it is worthwhile to explore alternative materials, distinct processes, and novel treatments. An ISFET can be viewed as a variation of MOSFET with the dielectric oxide layer as the sensing membrane. Then, modulation on the work function of the gate caused by electrolytes in various ion concentrations could be used to calculate the ion concentrations. Recently, owing to the advancement of CMOS technology, some high dielectric materials substrates as the sensing membranes of electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structures. The EIS with a stacked-layer of SiO₂ layer between the sensing membrane and the silicon substrate exhibited a high pH sensitivity and good long-term stability. IGZO is a wide-bandgap (~3.15eV) semiconductor of the III-VI semiconductor group with several preferable properties, including good transparency, high electron mobility, wide band gap, and comparable with CMOS technology. IGZO was sputtered by reactive radio frequency (RF) on a p-type silicon wafer with various gas ratios of Ar:O₂ and was treated with rapid thermal annealing in O₂ ambient. The sensing performance, including sensitivity, hysteresis, and drift rate was measured and XRD, XPS, and AFM analyses were also used to study the material properties of the IGZO membrane. Moreover, IGZO was used as a sensing membrane in dielectric EIS bio-sensor structures. In addition to traditional pH sensing capability, detection for concentrations of Na+, K+, urea, glucose, and creatinine was performed. Moreover, post rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment was confirmed to improve the material properties and enhance the multi-analyte sensing capability for various ions or chemicals in solutions. In this study, the IGZO sensing membrane with annealing in O₂ ambient exhibited a higher sensitivity, higher linearity, higher H+ selectivity, lower hysteresis voltage and lower drift rate. Results indicate that the IGZO dielectric sensing membrane on the EIS structure is promising for future bio-medical device applications.
An Investigation of Raw Material Effects on Nano SiC Based Foam Glass Production
Foam glass is an innovative material which composed of glass and carbon/carbonate based minerals; and has incomparable properties like light weight, high thermal insulation and cellular structure with sufficient rigidity. In the present study, the effects of the glass type and mineral addition on the foam glass properties were investigated. Nano sized SiC was fixed as foaming agent at the whole of the samples, mixed glass waste and sheet glass were selectively used as glass sources; finally Al₂O₃ was optionally used as mineral additive. These raw material powders were mixed homogenously, pressed at same pressure and sintered at same schedule. Finally, obtained samples were characterized based on the required properties of foam glass material, and optimum results were determined. At the end of the study, 0.049 W/mK thermal conductivity, 72 % porosity, and 0.21 kg/cm² apparent density with 2.41 MPa compressive strength values were achieved with using nano sized SiC, sheet glass and Al₂O₃ mineral additive. It can be said that the foam glass materials can be preferred as an alternative insulation material rather than polymeric based conventional insulation materials because of supplying high thermal insulation properties without containing unhealthy chemicals and burn risks.
Advances in Natural Fiber Surface Treatment Methodologies for Upgradation in Properties of Their Reinforced Composites
Natural fiber reinforced polymer composite is a very attractive area among the scientific community because of their low cost, eco-friendly and sustainable in nature. Among all advantages there are few issues which need to be addressed, those issues are the poor adhesion and compatibility between two opposite nature materials that is fiber and matrix and their relatively high water absorption. Therefore, natural fiber modifications are necessary to improve their adhesion with different matrices. Excellent properties could be achieved with the surface treatment of these natural fibers ultimately leads to property up-gradation of their reinforced composites with different polymer matrices. Lot of work is going on to improve the adhesion between reinforced fiber phase and polymer matrix phase to improve the properties of composites. Researchers have suggested various methods for natural fiber treatment like silane treatment, treatment with alkali, acetylation, acrylation, maleate coupling, etc. In this study a review is done on the different methods used for the surface treatment of natural fibers and what are the advance treatment methodologies for natural fiber surface treatment for property improvement of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites.
Influences of Thermal Treatments on Dielectric Behaviors of Carbon Nanotubes-BaTiO₃ Hybrids Reinforced Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composites
Incorporated carbon nanotube-BaTiO₃ hybrids (H-CNT-BT) with core-shell structure, a better dispersion of CNTs can be achieved in a semi-crystalline polymeric matrix, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Carried by BT particles, CNTs are easy to mutually connect which helps to obtain an extremely low percolation threshold (fc). After thermal treatments, the dielectric constants (ε’) of samples further increase which depends on the conditions of thermal treatments such as annealing temperatures, annealing durations and cooling ways. Thus, in order to study more comprehensively about the influence of thermal treatments on composite’s dielectric behaviors, in situ synchrotron X-ray is used to detect re-crystalline behavior of PVDF. Results of wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) show that after the thermal treatment, the content of β polymorph (the polymorph with the highest ε’ among all the polymorphs of PVDF’s crystalline structure) has increased nearly double times at the interfacial region of CNT-PVDF, and the thickness of amorphous layers (La) in PVDF’s long periods (Lp) has shrunk around 10 Å. The evolution of CNT’s network possibly occurs in the procedure of La shrinkage, where the strong interfacial polarization may be aroused and increases ε’ at low frequency. Moreover, an increase in the thickness of crystalline lamella may also arouse more orientational polarization and improve ε’ at high frequency.
Characterization of Carbon/Polyamide 6,6 (C/PA66) Composite Material for Dry and Wet Conditions
Absorption of moisture may cause many problems in a composite material, such as delamination, degradation of the strength and increase in the weight. For small coupons, the increase in weight may be negligible, however, for large structures increase in weight due to moisture absorption may be quite significant. Polyamides (PA6, PA66) absorb more moisture as compared to other thermoplastics. There are many parameters which affect the moisture absorption of the composite material for example temperature, pressure, type of matrix and fibers, thickness of the material and relative humidity (RH) etc. So, it is utmost important to investigate the impact of moisture on PA66 based composites which can be done by characterizing the mechanical properties of composite materials both for dry and wet conditions. In this study, laminates of C/PA66 composite are manufactured by first heating the commingled material in conventional oven at a temperature of 220 °C followed by pressing in a manual hot press for 20 minutes with preheated platen at 220 °C. To observe the moisture absorption of the composite, coupons of the material were placed in a climate chamber at five different conditions 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% RH for 24 hours. Five specimens were used for each condition. These coupons were weighed before placing in the climate chamber and just after removing from the chamber to observe the moisture absorption of the material. The mechanical characterization such as tensile strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and DMTA of C/PA66 material are performed at 0, 50 and 100 % RH. The work is going on for the testing of the material and results will be presented in full paper.
Development of Micelle-Mediated Sr(II) Fluorescent Analysis System
Fluorescent probes are useful for the selective detection of trace amount of ions and biomolecular imaging in living cells. Various kinds of metal ion-selective fluorescent compounds have been developed, and some compounds have been applied as effective metal ion-selective fluorescent probes. However, because competition between the ligand and water molecules for the metal ion constitutes a major contribution to the stability of a complex in aqueous solution, it is difficult to develop a highly sensitive, selective, and stable fluorescent probe in aqueous solution. The micelles, these are formed in the surfactant aqueous solution, provides a unique hydrophobic nano-environment for stabilizing metal-organic complexes in aqueous solution. Therefore, we focused on the unique properties of micelles to develop a new fluorescence analysis system. We have been developed a fluorescence analysis system for Sr(II) by using a Sr(II) fluorescent sensor, N-(2-hydroxy-3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-phenyl)-1-aza-18-crown-6-ether (BIC), and studied its complexation behavior with Sr(II) in micellar solution. We revealed that the stability constant of Sr(II)-BIC complex was 10 times higher than that in aqueous solution. In addition, its detection limit value was also improved up to 300 times by this system. However, the mechanisms of these phenomena have remained obscure. In this study, we investigated the structure of Sr(II)-BIC complex in aqueous micellar solution by combining use the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and neutron reflectivity (NR) method to understand the unique properties of the fluorescence analysis system from the view point of structural chemistry. EXAFS and NR experiments were performed on BL-27B at KEK-PF and on BL17 SHARAKU at J-PARC MLF, respectively. The obtained EXAFS spectra and their fitting results indicated that Sr(II) and BIC formed a Sr(18-crown-6-ether)-like complex in aqueous micellar solution. The EXAFS results also indicated that the hydrophilic head group of surfactant molecule was directly coordinated with Sr(II). In addition, the NR results also indicated that Sr(II)-BIC complex would interact with the surface of micelle molecules. Therefore, we concluded that Sr(II), BIC, and surfactant molecule formed a ternary complexes in aqueous micellar solution, and at least, it is clear that the improvement of the stability constant in micellar solution is attributed to the result of the formation of Sr(BIC)(surfactant) complex.
The Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 25 Dye by Polypyrrole/Titanium Dioxide and Polypyrrole/Zinc Oxide Composites
The composite preparation of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide photocatalysts with the conductive polymers gives the opportunity to carry out the catalysis reactions not only under UV light but also under visible light. Such processes may efficiently use sunlight in degradation of different organic pollutants and present new design for wastewater treatment. The paper presents the preparation procedure, material characteristics and photocatalytic efficiency of polypyrrole/titanium dioxide and polypyrrole/zinc oxide composites (PPy/TiO2 and PPy/ZnO). The obtained composite samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic efficiency of the samples was determined following the decomposition of Acid Blue 25 dye (AB 25) under UV and visible light by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The efficiency of degradation is determined by total organic carbon content (TOC) after photocatalysis processes. The results show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of the samples under visible light, so the prepared composite samples are recognized as efficient catalysts in degradation process of AB 25 dye. It can be concluded that the preparation of TiO2 or ZnO composites with PPy can serve as a very efficient method for the improvement of TiO2 and ZnO photocatalytic performance under visible light.
Preparation of Self-reinforced Poly(lactic Acid) Composites Using Melt-Blown Microfibrous Mats
As sustainability became a major topic of scientific publications, biocomposites also gained importance among other structural materials. Over the last few decades, a wide variety of biopolymers had been developed, but poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has been considered as the most promising bio-based and biodegradable polymer. For durable applications, however, the poor mechanical and thermal resistance of PLA have to be improved. Self-reinforcement (SR) is a good way to increase the impact strength and heat deflection temperature (HDT) of a thermoplastic polymer, moreover, the SR composites are fully recyclable. In this work, SR-PLA composites were produced using melt-blown PLA nonwoven mats as starting material. Three types of PLA differing at D-lactide content were processed by the melt-blowing technology. A yield of 0,8 g/min, and 2-20 µm filament diameter were achieved. The crystallinity of the PLA microfibres was enhanced by thermal annealing, 2-3 fold increase in the degree of crystallinity was obtained, as measured by differential scanning calorymerty (DSC). The obtained PLA mats were then processed via hot compaction technique and formed into SR-PLA composites. The composite preparation conditions were comprehensively studied focusing on the morphological (SEM), thermal (DSC) and mechanical properties of the obtained unique, microstructural SR-PLA composites. Substantial improvement in ductility and toughness was achieved when compared to isotropic PLA film.
Cyclic Plastic Deformation of 20mn-Mo-Ni 55 Steel in Dynamic Strain Ageing Regime
Low cycle fatigue behavior of a ferritic, martensitic pressure vessel steel at dynamic strain ageing regime of 250°C to 280°C has been investigated. Dynamic strain ageing is a mechanism that has attracted interests of researchers due to its fascinating inexplicable repetitive nature for quite a long time. The interaction of dynamic strain ageing and cyclic plasticity has been studied from the mechanistic point of view. Dynamic strain ageing gives rise to identical serrated flow behavior in tensile and compressive halves of hysteresis loops and this has been found to gives rise to initial cyclic hardening followed by softening behavior, where as in non-DSA regime continuous cyclic softening has been found to be the dominant mechanism. An appreciable sensitivity towards nature of serrations has been observed due to degree of hardening of stable loop. The increase in degree of hardening with strain amplitude in the regime where only A type serrations are present and it decreases with strain amplitude where A+B type of serrations are present. Masing type of locus has been found in the behavior of metal at 280°C. Cyclic Stress Strain curve and Master curve has been constructed to decipher among the fatigue strength and ductility coefficients. Fractographic examinations have also shown a competition between progression of striations and secondary cracking.
Structural and Magnetic Properties of Calcium Mixed Ferrites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method
Ferrites are iron based oxides with technologically significant magnetic properties and have widespread applications in medicine, technology, and industry. There has been a growing interest in the study of magnetic, electrical and structural properties of mixed ferrites. In the present work, structural and magnetic properties of Nickel and Calcium substituted Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles were investigated. NiₓCa₁₋ₓFe₂O₄ nanoparticles (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and the samples were subsequently sintered at 900°C. The magnetic and structural properties of NiₓCa₁₋ₓFe₂O₄ were investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer and X-Ray diffraction. The XRD results revealed that the synthesized particles have nanometer size and it varies from 46-72 nm as the calcium concentration diminishes. The variation is explained based on the increase in the reaction rate with Ni concentration which favors the formation of ultrafine particles of mixed ferrites. VSM results show pure CaFe₂O₄ exhibit paramagnetic behavior with low saturation value. As the concentration of Ca decreases, a transition occurs from paramagnetic state to ferromagnetic state. When the concentration of Ni becomes dominant, magnetic saturation, coercivity, and retentivity become high, indicating near ferromagnetic behavior of the compound.
Direct Approach in Modeling Particle Breakage Using Discrete Element Method
Current study is aimed to develop an available in-house discrete element method (DEM) code and link it with direct breakage event. So, it became possible to determine the particle breakage and then its fragments size distribution, simultaneous with DEM simulation. It directly applies the particle breakage inside the DEM computation algorithm and if any breakage happens the original particle is replaced with daughters. In this way, the calculation will be followed based on a new updated particles list which is very similar to the real grinding environment. To validate developed model, a grinding ball impacting an unconfined particle bed was simulated. Since considering an entire ball mill would be too computationally demanding, this method provided a simplified environment to test the model. Accordingly, a representative volume of the ball mill was simulated inside a box, which could emulate media (ball)–powder bed impacts in a ball mill and during particle bed impact tests. Mono, binary and ternary particle beds were simulated to determine the effects of granular composition on breakage kinetics. The results obtained from the DEM simulations showed a reduction in the specific breakage rate for coarse particles in binary mixtures. The origin of this phenomenon, commonly known as cushioning or decelerated breakage in dry milling processes, was explained by the DEM simulations. Fine particles in a particle bed increase mechanical energy loss, and reduce and distribute interparticle forces thereby inhibiting the breakage of the coarse component. On the other hand, the specific breakage rate of fine particles increased due to contacts associated with coarse particles. Such phenomenon, known as acceleration, was shown to be less significant, but should be considered in future attempts to accurately quantify non-linear breakage kinetics in the modeling of dry milling processes.
Synthesis and Characterization of Zr and V Co-Doped BaTiO₃ Ceramic
BaZrTiO3 ceramics having high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss are interesting material for being used as commercial capacitor applications. BZT (BaZrTiO3) has attracted attentions for their many applications for the microwave technology as the doping of Zr4+ on Ti4+ has advantage to the stability of the system. In the present work, co-doping of Zr and V with BaTiO3 ceramics was synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction technique and sintered at 1200 K for 6 hours, and their structural and ferroelectric properties were studied. The XRD (x-ray diffraction) pattern of BZT (BaZrTiO3) ceramics shows that the crystalline sample is single phase tetragonal structure with P4mm space group. The result revealed that Zr ion enters the unit cell maintaining the perovskite structure of BZT ceramics and the impedance spectroscopy of the sample performed in selected frequency and temperature range.
Study on the Dynamic Characteristics Change of Welded Beam Due to Vibration Aging
Fatigue fracture of an aluminum welded structure is a phenomenon frequently occurring from pores in a weld. In order to grasp the state of the welded structure in operation in real time, the acceleration signal of the structure is measured. At this time, the vibration characteristic of the signal according to the fatigue load is an important parameter of the state diagnosis. This paper was an experimental study on the variation of vibration characteristics of welded beams with vibration aging (especially bending vibration). First simple beams were produced according to welding conditions. Each beam was vibrated and measured beam's PSD (power spectral density) according to the degree of aging. Also, modal testing was conducted to compare the transfer functions of welded beams. Testing result shows that the natural frequencies of the beam changed with the vibration aging due to the change of stiffness in welding part and its stiffness was estimated by the finite element method.
Microstructure and Oxidation Behaviors of Al, Y Modified Silicide Coatings Prepared on an Nb-Si Based Ultrahigh Temperature Alloy
The microstructure of an Si-Al-Y co-deposition coating prepared on an Nb-Si based ultra high temperature alloy by pack cementation process at 1250°C for eight hours was studied. The results showed that the coating was composed of a (Nb,X)Si₂ (X represents Ti, Cr and Hf elements) outer layer, a (Ti,Nb)₅Si₄ middle layer and an Al, Cr-rich inner layer. For comparison, the oxidation behaviors of the coating at 800, 1050 and 1350°C were investigated respectively. Linear oxidation kinetics was found with the parabolic rate constants of 5.29×10⁻², 9×10⁻²and 5.81 mg² cm⁻⁴ h⁻¹, respectively. Catastrophic pesting oxidation has not been found at 800°C even for 100 h. The surface of the scale was covered by compact glassy SiO₂ film. The coating was able to effectively protect the Nb-Si based alloy from oxidation at 1350°C for at least 100 h. The formation process of the scale was testified following an epitaxial growth mechanism. The mechanism responsible for the oxidation behavior of the Si-Al-Y co-deposition coating at 800, 1050 and 1350°C was proposed.
Pressure Drop Study in Moving and Stationary Beds with Lateral Gas Injection
Moving beds are widely used in metallurgical and chemical industries such as blast furnaces, catalyst reforming, drying, etc. Some of the studies have been done with lateral gas injection in this direction. However, proper pressure drop studies are lacking specially in the presence of nozzle protrusion inside the packed bed and cavity formation. The later study is more useful for metallurgical industries for the processes such as blast furnaces, shaft reduction and, COREX. In this experimental work, a two dimensional cold model with slot type nozzle for lateral gas injection along with the plastic beads as packing material and dry air as gas have been used. The variation of pressure drop is recorded at various horizontal and vertical directions in presence of cavity and nozzle protrusion. The study has been performed in both moving and stationary beds. Also, the experiments have been carried out in both increasing as well as decreasing gas flow conditions. Experiments have been performed at various gas flow rates and packed bed heights. Some interesting results have been reported such as there is no pressure variation in the moving bed for both the increasing and decreasing gas flow condition that is different from the stationary bed. Pressure hysteresis loop has been observed in a stationary bed.
Impact of Gd³⁺ Substitution on Structural, Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles
In this report, the impact of Gd³⁺ substitution in ZnFe₂O₄ spinel ferrite nanoparticles on structural, optical and magnetic properties was investigated. ZnFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄ (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) nanoparticles were synthesized by honey-mediated sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the formation of cubic spinel ferrite crystal structure. The morphology and elemental analysis were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Visible reflectance spectroscopy revealed band gap variation with concentration of Gd³⁺ substitution in ZnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. Magnetic property was studied using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles showed ferromagnetic behaviour. The evaluated magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanence showed variation with Gd³⁺ substitution in spinel ferrite nanoparticles. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).
Design and Development of Bioactive a-Hydroxy Carboxylate Group Modified MnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticle: Comparative Fluorescence Study, Magnetism and DNA Nuclease Activity
Three new α-hydroxy carboxylate group functionalized MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to explore the microscopic origin of ligand modified fluorescence and magnetic properties of nearly monodispersed MnFe₂O₄ NPs. The surface functionalization has been carried out with three small organic ligands (tartrate, malate, and citrate) having different number of α-hydroxy carboxylate functional group along with steric effect. Detailed study unveils that α-hydroxy carboxylate moiety of the ligands plays key role to generate intrinsic fluorescence in functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NPs through the activation of ligand to metal charge transfer transitions, associated with ligand-Mn²⁺/Fe³⁺ interactions along with d-d transition corresponding to d-orbital energy level splitting of Fe³⁺ ions on NP surface. Further, MnFe₂O₄ NPs show a maximum 140.88% increase in coercivity and 97.95% decrease in magnetization compared to its bare one upon functionalization. The ligands that induce smallest crystal field splitting of d-orbital energy level of transition metal ions are found to result in strongest ferromagnetic activation of the NPs. Finally, our developed tartrate functionalized MnFe₂O₄ (T-MnFe₂O₄) NPs have been utilized for studying DNA binding interaction and nuclease activity for stimulating their beneficial activities toward diverse biomedical applications. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs bind calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode. The ability of T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs to induce DNA cleavage was studied by gel electrophoresis technique where the complex is found to promote the cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA from the super coiled form I to linear coiled form II and nicked coiled form III with good efficiency. This may be taken into account for designing new biomolecular detection agents and anti-cancer drug which can open up a new door toward diverse non-invasive biomedical applications.
Synthesis and Functionalization of MnFe₂O₄ Nano−Hollow Spheres for Optical and Catalytic Properties
Herein, we synthesize MnFe₂O₄ nano−hollow spheres (NHSs) of average diameter 100 nm through a facile template free solvothermal process and carry out a time dependent morphological study to investigate their process of core excavation. Further, a surface engineering of as−synthesized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs has been executed with organic disodium tartrate dihydrate ligand and interestingly, the surface modified MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to capable of emerging multicolor fluorescence starting from blue, green to red. The magnetic measurements through vibrating sample magnetometer demonstrate that room temperature superparamagnetic nature of MnFe₂O₄ NHSs remains unaltered after surface modification. Moreover, functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to exhibit excellent reusable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of cationic dye, methylene blue with rate constant of 2.64×10−2 min.
Influence of Graphene Content on Corrosion Behavior of Electrodeposited Zinc–Graphene Composite Coatings
Zinc coating as a sacrificial protection plays an important role in the traditional steel anticorrosion field. Adding second-phase reinforcement particles into zinc matrix is an interesting approach to further enhance its corrosion performance. In this paper, pure Zn and Zn–graphene composite coatings of different graphene contents were prepared by direct current electrodeposition on 304 stainless steel substrate. The coatings were characterized by XRD, SEM/EDS, and Raman spectroscopy. Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic methods were used to study their corrosion behavior. Result obtained have shown that the concentration of grapheme oxide (GO) in zinc sulfate bath has an important effect on textured structure and surface morphology of Zn–graphene composite coatings. The coating prepared with 1.0g/L GO has shown the best corrosion resistance compared to other coatings prepared in this study.
High Performance Ceramic-Based Phthalonitrile Micro and Nanocomposites
The current work discusses the effects of adding various types of ceramic fillers on the curing behavior, thermal, mechanical, anticorrosion, and UV shielding properties of the bisphenol-A based phthalonitrile resins. The effects of different ceramic filler contents and sizes as well as their surface treatments are also discussed in terms of their impact on the morphology and mechanisms of enhancement. The synergistic effect obtained by these combinations extends the use of the phthalonitrile resins to more exigent applications such as aerospace and military. The presented results reveal the significant advantages that can be obtained from the preparation of hybrid materials based on phthalonitrile resins and open the way for further research in the field.
Hydraulic Modelling of Industrial Slurry Transport Systems
The transport of solid particles in a gaseous or liquid carrier fluid, usually referred to as slurry transport, is an important technology in various industrial fields. The planning and design of slurry transport systems requires a detailed knowledge about the development of pressure, velocity, and solid concentrations within the systems. This information can be gained either by experiments or simulations, where the latter is potentially cheaper and enables to consider the entire planned system before it is built. Compared to single-phase flows, which can be described quite well with modern simulation tools, slurry flows come along with additional physical phenomena which make precise modelling very challenging. Examples are the settling of slurry particles, which is difficult to describe and can cause unstable flow patterns, and the non-Newtonian viscous behavior of the carrier fluid if a large concentration of small slurry particles is dispersed. This work aims to present an overview of the available modelling approaches for slurry flows and on the application of these approaches to industrial systems. Models of different precision and complexity are considered, from simpler models for the pressure loss as the Durand correlation, via more complex models as the iterative Wasp et al. method or the two-layer model by Wilson et al. which both take the distribution of the particles over the pipe height into account, up to computationally very expensive coupled computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) calculations. It is discussed how the presented models can be applied to different types of slurry flows in an industrial context, examples are slurries with sand, coal, potash or copper and iron ore tailings.
Electrocatalysts for Lithium-Sulfur Energy Storage Systems
Li-S- (Lithium-Sulfur-) battery systems provide very high specific gravimetric energy (2600 Wh/kg) and volumetric energy density (2800Wh/l). Hence, Li-S batteries are one of the key technologies for both the upcoming electromobility and stationary applications. Furthermore, the Li-S battery system is potentially cheap and environmentally benign. However, the technical implementation suffers from cycling stability, low charge and discharge rates and incomplete understanding of the complex polysulfide reaction mechanism. The aim of this work is to develop an effective electrocatalyst for the polysulfide reactions so that the electrode kinetics of the sulfur half-cell will be improved. Accordingly, the overvoltage will be decreased, and the efficiency of the cell will be increased. An enhanced electroactive surface additionally improves the charge and discharge rates. To reach this goal, functionalized electrocatalytic coatings are investigated to accelerate the kinetics of the polysulfide reactions. In order to determine a suitable electrocatalyst, apparent exchange current densities of a variety of materials (Ni, Co, Pt, Cr, Al, Cu, ITO, stainless steel) have been evaluated in a polysulfide containing electrolyte by potentiodynamic measurements and a Butler-Volmer fit including diffusion limitation. The samples have been examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after the potentiodynamic measurements. Up to now, our work shows that cobalt is a promising material with good electrocatalytic properties for the polysulfide reactions and good chemical stability in the system. Furthermore, an electrodeposition from a modified Watt’s nickel electrolyte with a sulfur source seems to provide an autocatalytic effect, but the electrocatalytic behavior decreases after several cycles of the current-potential-curve.
In situ High Temperature Characterization of Diamond-Like Carbon Films
The tribological performance of DLC films is limited by graphitization at elevated temperatures. Despite of numerous studies on the thermal stability of DLC films, a comprehensive in-situ characterization at elevated temperature is still lacking. In this study, DLC films were deposited using filtered cathodic arc vacuum method. Thermal stability of the films was characterized in-situally using a synchronized technique integrating Raman spectroscopy and depth-sensing measurements. Tests were performed in a high temperature chamber coupled with feedback control to make it possible to study the temperature effects in the range of 21 – 450 ̊C. Co-located SPM and Raman microscopy maps at different temperature over a specific area on the surface of the film were prepared. The results show that the thermal stability of the DLC films depends on their sp3 content. Films with lower sp3 content endure graphitization during the temperature-course used in this study. The graphitization is accompanied with significant changes in surface roughness and Raman spectrum of the film. Surface roughness of the films start to change even before graphitization transformation could be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Depth-sensing tests (nanoindentation, nano-scratch and wear) endorse the surface roughness change seen before graphitization occurrence. This in-situ study showed that the surface of the films is more sensitive to temperature rise compared to the bulk. We presume the changes observed in films hardness, surface roughness and scratch resistance with temperature rise, before graphitization occurrence, is due to surface relaxation.
Effect of Flux Salts on the Recovery Extent and Quality of Metal Values from Spent Rechargeable Lead Batteries
Lead-calcium alloy containing up to 0.10% calcium was recovered from spent rechargeable sealed acid lead batteries. Two techniques were investigated to explore the effect of flux salts on the extent and quality of the recovered alloy, pyro-metallurgical and electrochemical methods. About 10 kg of the spent batteries were collected for testing. The sample was washed with hot water and dried. The plastic cases of the batteries were mechanically cut, and the contents were dismantled manually, the plastic containers were shredded for recycling. The electrode plates were freed from the loose powder and placed in SiC crucible and covered with alkali chloride salts. The loaded crucible was heated in an electronically controlled chamber furnace type Nabertherm C3 at temperatures up to 800 °C. The obtained metals were analyzed. The effect of temperature, rate of heating, atmospheric conditions, composition of the flux salts on the extent and quality of the recovered products were studied. Results revealed that the spent rechargeable batteries contain 6 blocks of 6 plates of Pb-Ca alloy each. Direct heating of these plates in a silicon carbide crucible under ambient conditions produces lead metal poor in calcium content ( < 0.07%) due to partial oxidation of the alloying calcium element. Rate of temperature increase has a considerable effect on the yield of the lead alloy extraction. Flux salts composition benefits the recovery process. Sodium salts are more powerful as compared to potassium salts. Lead calcium alloy meeting the standard specification was successfully recovered from the spent rechargeable acid lead batteries with a very competitive cost to the same alloy prepared from primary resources.
Experimental Study of Tunable Layout Printed Fresnel Lens Structure Based on Dye Doped Liquid Crystal (DDLC)
In this article, we introduce a layout printing way for producing Fresnel zone on 1294-1b doped liquid crystal with Methyl-Red azo dye. We made a Fresnel zone mask with 25 zones and radius of 5 mm using lithography technique. With layout printing way, we recorded mask’s pattern on cell with λ=532 nm solid state diode pump laser. With recording Fresnel zone pattern on cell and making Fresnel lens, on the surface of the cell, odd and even zones will be formed. The printed pattern, because of Azo dye’s photoisomerization, was permanent. Experimentally, we saw focal length tunability from 32 cm to 43 cm.
Electrical and Optical Properties of Polyaniline: Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots Nanocomposites
In this study, a series of the cadmium sulphide quantum dots/polyaniline nanocomposites with varying compositions were prepared by in-situ polymerization technique and were characterized using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to find out the energy band gap of the nanoparticles and the nanocomposites. Temperature dependence of DC electrical conductivity and temperature and frequency dependence of AC conductivity were investigated to study the charge transport mechanism in the nanocomposites. DC conductivity was found to be a typical for a semiconducting behavior following Mott’s 1D variable range hoping model. The frequency dependent AC conductivity followed the universal power law.
Determination of the Cooling Rate Dependency of High Entropy Alloys Using a High-Temperature Drop-on-Demand Droplet Generator
High entropy alloys (HEAs), having adjustable properties and enhanced stability compared with intermetallic compounds, are solid solution alloys that contain more than five principal elements with almost equal atomic percentage. The concept of producing such alloys pave the way for developing advanced materials with unique properties. However, the synthesis of such alloys may require advanced processes with high cooling rates depending on which alloy elements are used. In this study, the micro spheres of different diameters of HEAs were generated via a drop-on-demand droplet generator and subsequently solidified during free-fall in an argon atmosphere. Such droplet generators can generate individual droplets with high reproducibility regarding droplet diameter, trajectory and cooling while avoiding any interparticle momentum or thermal coupling. Metallography as well as X-ray diffraction investigations for each diameter of the generated metallic droplets where then carried out to obtain information about the microstructural state. To calculate the cooling rate of the droplets, a droplet cooling model was developed and validated using model alloys such as CuSn%6 and AlCu%4.5 for which a correlation of secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) and cooling rate is well-known. Droplets were generated from these alloys and their SDAS was determined using quantitative metallography. The cooling rate was then determined from the SDAS and used to validate the cooling rates obtained from the droplet cooling model. The application of that model on the HEA then leads to the cooling rate dependency and hence to the identification of process windows for the synthesis of these alloys. These process windows were then compared with cooling rates obtained in processes such as powder production, spray forming, selective laser melting and casting to predict if a synthesis is possible with these processes.