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International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48555

Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

1553
81425
Graphene-Graphene Oxide Dopping Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Polyamide Composites
Abstract:
Graphene and graphene oxide have been intensively studied due to the very good properties, which are intrinsic to the material or come from the easy doping of those with other functional groups. Graphene and graphene oxide have known a broad band of useful applications, in electronic devices, drug delivery systems, medical devices, sensors and opto-electronics, coating materials, sorbents of different agents for environmental applications, etc. The board range of applications does not come only from the use of graphene or graphene oxide alone, or by its prior functionalization with different moieties, but also it is a building block and an important component in many composite devices, its addition coming with new functionalities on the final composite or strengthening the ones that are already existent on the parent product. An attempt to improve the mechanical properties of polyamide elastomers by compounding with graphene oxide in the parent polymer composition was attempted. The addition of the graphene oxide contributes to the properties of the final product, improving the hardness and aging resistance. Graphene oxide has a lower hardness and textile strength, and if the amount of graphene oxide in the final product is not correctly estimated, it can lead to mechanical properties which are comparable to the starting material or even worse, the graphene oxide agglomerates becoming a tearing point in the final material if the amount added is too high (in a value greater than 3% towards the parent material measured in mass percentages). Two different types of tests were done on the obtained materials, the hardness standard test and the tensile strength standard test, and they were made on the obtained materials before and after the aging process. For the aging process, an accelerated aging was used in order to simulate the effect of natural aging over a long period of time. The accelerated aging was made in extreme heat. For all materials, FT-IR spectra were recorded using FT-IR spectroscopy. From the FT-IR spectra only the bands corresponding to the polyamide were intense, while the characteristic bands for graphene oxide were very small in comparison due to the very small amounts introduced in the final composite along with the low absorptivity of the graphene backbone and limited number of functional groups. In conclusion, some compositions showed very promising results, both in tensile strength test and in hardness tests. The best ratio of graphene to elastomer was between 0.6 and 0.8%, this addition extending the life of the product. Acknowledgements: The present work was possible due to the EU-funding grant POSCCE-A2O2.2.1-2013-1, Project No. 638/12.03.2014, code SMIS-CSNR 48652. The financial contribution received from the national project ‘New nanostructured polymeric composites for centre pivot liners, centre plate and other components for the railway industry (RONERANANOSTRUCT)’, No: 18 PTE (PN-III-P2-2.1-PTE-2016-0146) is also acknowledged.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1552
79759
Improvement of Overall Equipment Effectiveness of Load Haul Dump Machines in Underground Coal Mines
Abstract:
Every organization in the competitive world tends to improve its economy by increasing their production and productivity rates. Unequivocally, the production in Indian underground mines over the years is not satisfactory, due to a variety of reasons. There are manifold of avenues for the betterment of production, and one such approach is through enhanced utilization of mechanized equipment such as Load Haul Dumper (LHD). This is used as loading and hauling purpose in underground mines. In view of the aforementioned facts, this paper delves into identification of the key influencing factors such as LHDs maintenance effectiveness, vehicle condition, operator skill and utilization of the machines on performance of LHDs. An attempt has been made for improvement of performance of the equipment through evaluation of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). Two different approaches for evaluation of OEE have been adopted and compared under various operating conditions. The use of OEE calculation in terms of percentage availability, performance and quality and the hitherto existing situation of the underground mine production is evaluated. Necessary recommendations are suggested to mining industry on the basis of OEE.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1551
79352
Development of Micelle-Mediated Sr(II) Fluorescent Analysis System
Abstract:
Fluorescent probes are useful for the selective detection of trace amount of ions and biomolecular imaging in living cells. Various kinds of metal ion-selective fluorescent compounds have been developed, and some compounds have been applied as effective metal ion-selective fluorescent probes. However, because competition between the ligand and water molecules for the metal ion constitutes a major contribution to the stability of a complex in aqueous solution, it is difficult to develop a highly sensitive, selective, and stable fluorescent probe in aqueous solution. The micelles, these are formed in the surfactant aqueous solution, provides a unique hydrophobic nano-environment for stabilizing metal-organic complexes in aqueous solution. Therefore, we focused on the unique properties of micelles to develop a new fluorescence analysis system. We have been developed a fluorescence analysis system for Sr(II) by using a Sr(II) fluorescent sensor, N-(2-hydroxy-3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-phenyl)-1-aza-18-crown-6-ether (BIC), and studied its complexation behavior with Sr(II) in micellar solution. We revealed that the stability constant of Sr(II)-BIC complex was 10 times higher than that in aqueous solution. In addition, its detection limit value was also improved up to 300 times by this system. However, the mechanisms of these phenomena have remained obscure. In this study, we investigated the structure of Sr(II)-BIC complex in aqueous micellar solution by combining use the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and neutron reflectivity (NR) method to understand the unique properties of the fluorescence analysis system from the view point of structural chemistry. EXAFS and NR experiments were performed on BL-27B at KEK-PF and on BL17 SHARAKU at J-PARC MLF, respectively. The obtained EXAFS spectra and their fitting results indicated that Sr(II) and BIC formed a Sr(18-crown-6-ether)-like complex in aqueous micellar solution. The EXAFS results also indicated that the hydrophilic head group of surfactant molecule was directly coordinated with Sr(II). In addition, the NR results also indicated that Sr(II)-BIC complex would interact with the surface of micelle molecules. Therefore, we concluded that Sr(II), BIC, and surfactant molecule formed a ternary complexes in aqueous micellar solution, and at least, it is clear that the improvement of the stability constant in micellar solution is attributed to the result of the formation of Sr(BIC)(surfactant) complex.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1550
79035
Study on the Dynamic Characteristics Change of Welded Beam Due to Vibration Aging
Abstract:
Fatigue fracture of an aluminum welded structure is a phenomenon frequently occurring from pores in a weld. In order to grasp the state of the welded structure in operation in real time, the acceleration signal of the structure is measured. At this time, the vibration characteristic of the signal according to the fatigue load is an important parameter of the state diagnosis. This paper was an experimental study on the variation of vibration characteristics of welded beams with vibration aging (especially bending vibration). First simple beams were produced according to welding conditions. Each beam was vibrated and measured beam's PSD (power spectral density) according to the degree of aging. Also, modal testing was conducted to compare the transfer functions of welded beams. Testing result shows that the natural frequencies of the beam changed with the vibration aging due to the change of stiffness in welding part and its stiffness was estimated by the finite element method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1549
78905
Impact of Gd³⁺ Substitution on Structural, Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles
Abstract:
In this report, the impact of Gd³⁺ substitution in ZnFe₂O₄ spinel ferrite nanoparticles on structural, optical and magnetic properties was investigated. ZnFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄ (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) nanoparticles were synthesized by honey-mediated sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the formation of cubic spinel ferrite crystal structure. The morphology and elemental analysis were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Visible reflectance spectroscopy revealed band gap variation with concentration of Gd³⁺ substitution in ZnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. Magnetic property was studied using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles showed ferromagnetic behaviour. The evaluated magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanence showed variation with Gd³⁺ substitution in spinel ferrite nanoparticles. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1548
78511
Effect of Flux Salts on the Recovery Extent and Quality of Metal Values from Spent Rechargeable Lead Batteries
Abstract:
Lead-calcium alloy containing up to 0.10% calcium was recovered from spent rechargeable sealed acid lead batteries. Two techniques were investigated to explore the effect of flux salts on the extent and quality of the recovered alloy, pyro-metallurgical and electrochemical methods. About 10 kg of the spent batteries were collected for testing. The sample was washed with hot water and dried. The plastic cases of the batteries were mechanically cut, and the contents were dismantled manually, the plastic containers were shredded for recycling. The electrode plates were freed from the loose powder and placed in SiC crucible and covered with alkali chloride salts. The loaded crucible was heated in an electronically controlled chamber furnace type Nabertherm C3 at temperatures up to 800 °C. The obtained metals were analyzed. The effect of temperature, rate of heating, atmospheric conditions, composition of the flux salts on the extent and quality of the recovered products were studied. Results revealed that the spent rechargeable batteries contain 6 blocks of 6 plates of Pb-Ca alloy each. Direct heating of these plates in a silicon carbide crucible under ambient conditions produces lead metal poor in calcium content ( < 0.07%) due to partial oxidation of the alloying calcium element. Rate of temperature increase has a considerable effect on the yield of the lead alloy extraction. Flux salts composition benefits the recovery process. Sodium salts are more powerful as compared to potassium salts. Lead calcium alloy meeting the standard specification was successfully recovered from the spent rechargeable acid lead batteries with a very competitive cost to the same alloy prepared from primary resources.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1547
77807
Corrosion Properties of Friction Welded Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys; Duralumin and AA6063
Abstract:
With the increased needs for lightweight materials in automobile industry, the usage of aluminum alloys becomes prevailed as components and car bodies due to their comparative specific strength. These parts composed of different aluminum alloys should be connected each other, where welding technologies are commonly applied. Among various welding methods, friction welding method as a solid state welding gets to be popular in joining aluminum alloys as it does not produce a defect such as blowhole that is often formed during typical welding processes. Once two metals are joined, corrosion would become an issue due to different electrochemical potentials. In this study, we investigated variations of corrosion properties when Duralumin and AA6063 were joined by friction welding. From the polarization test, it was found that the potential of the welded was placed between those of two original metals, which could be explained by a concept of mixed potential. Pitting is a common form as a result of the corrosion of aluminum alloys when they are exposed to 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. However, when two different aluminum alloys (Duralumin and AA6063) were joined, pitting corrosion occurred severely and uniformly in Duralumin while there were a few pits around precipitates in AA6063, indicating that AA6063 was cathodically protected.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1546
77806
Continuous Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles by Hydrazine Reduction
Abstract:
The synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by the reduction of nickel chloride with hydrazine in an aqueous solution. The effect of hydrazine concentration on batch-processed particle characteristics was investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Both average particle size and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were decreasing with increasing hydrazine concentration. The continuous synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by microemulsion method was also studied using FESEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The average size and geometric standard deviation of continuous-processed particles were 87.4 nm and 1.16, respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed continuous-processed particles were pure nickel crystalline with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1545
77805
Chemical Stability of Ceramic Crucibles to Molten Titanium
Abstract:
Titanium is widely used due to its high specific strength, good biocompatibility, and excellent corrosion resistance. In order to produce titanium powders, it is necessary to melt titanium, and generally it is conducted by an induction heating method using Al₂O₃ ceramic crucible. However, since titanium reacts chemically with Al₂O₃, it is difficult to melt titanium by the induction heating method using Al₂O₃ crucible. To avoid this problem, we studied the chemical stability of the various crucibles such as Al₂O₃, MgO, ZrO₂, and Y₂O₃ crucibles to molten titanium. After titanium lumps (Grade 2, O(oxygen)< 0.25wt%) were placed in each crucible, they were heated to 1800℃ with a heating rate of 5 ℃/min, held at 1800℃ for 30 min, and finally cooled to room temperature with a cooling rate of 5 ℃/min. All heat treatments were carried out in high purity Ar atmosphere. To evaluate the chemical stability, thermodynamic data such as Ellingham diagram were utilized, and also Vickers hardness test, microstructure analysis, and EPMA quantitative analysis were performed. As a result, Al₂O₃, MgO and ZrO₂ crucibles chemically reacted with molten titanium, but Y₂O₃ crucible rarely reacted with it.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1544
77712
Study of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene/1-Octene Copolymer Based Nanocomposites
Abstract:
Ethylene/1-octene copolymer was modified incorporating three types of nanofillers differed in their dimensionality in order to investigate the effect of filler dimensionality on mechanical properties, for instance, tensile strength, microhardness etc. The samples were prepared by melt mixing followed by compression moldings. The microstructure of the novel material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Other important properties such as melting, crystallizing and thermal stability were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The FTIR and XRD results showed that the composites were formed by physical mixing. The TEM result supported the homogeneous dispersion of nanofillers in the matrix. The mechanical characterization performed by tensile testing showed that the composites with 1D nanofiller effectively reinforced the polymer. TGA results revealed that the thermal stability of pure EOC is marginally improved by the addition of nanofillers. Likewise, melting and crystallizing properties of the composites are not much different from that of pure.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1543
77211
Luminescent Dye-Doped Polymer Nanofibers Produced by Electrospinning Technique
Abstract:
Among the numerous methods for obtaining polymer nanofibers, the electrospinning technique distinguishes itself due to the more growing interest induced by its proved utility leading to developing and improving of the method and the appearance of novel materials. In particular, production of polymeric nanofibers in which different dopants are introduced was intensively studied in the last years because of the increased interest for the obtaining of functional electrospun nanofibers. Electrospinning is a facile method of obtaining polymer nanofibers with diameters from tens of nanometers to micrometrical sizes that are cheap, flexible, scalable, functional and biocompatible. Besides the multiple applications in medicine, polymeric nanofibers obtained by electrospinning permit manipulation of light at nanometric dimensions when doped with organic dyes or different nanoparticles. It is a simple technique that uses an electrical field to draw fine polymer nanofibers from solutions and does not require complicated devices or high temperatures. Different morphologies of the electrospun nanofibers can be obtained for the same polymeric host when different parameters of the electrospinning process are used. Consequently, we can obtain tuneable optical properties of the electrospun nanofibers (e.g. changing the wavelength of the emission peak) by varying the parameters of the fabrication method. We focus on obtaining doped polymer nanofibers with enhanced optical properties using the electrospinning technique. The aim of the paper is to produce dye-doped polymer nanofibers’ mats incorporating uniformly dispersed dyes. Transmission and fluorescence of the fibers will be evaluated by spectroscopy methods. The morphological properties of the electrospun dye-doped polymer fibers will be evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We will tailor the luminescent properties of the material by doping the polymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone or polymethylmetacrilate) with different dyes (coumarins, rhodamines and sulforhodamines). The tailoring will be made taking into consideration the possibility of changing the luminescent properties of electrospun polymeric nanofibers that are doped with different dyes by using different parameters for the electrospinning technique (electric voltage, distance between electrodes, flow rate of the solution, etc.). Furthermore, we can evaluated the influence of the concentration of the dyes on the emissive properties of dye-doped polymer nanofibers using different concentrations. The advantages offered by the electrospinning technique when producing polymeric fibers are given by the simplicity of the method, the tunability of the morphology allowed by the possibility of controlling all the process parameters (temperature, viscosity of polymeric solution, applied voltage, distance between electrodes, etc.), and by the absence of necessity of using harsh and supplementary chemicals such as the ones used in the traditional nanofabrication techniques. Acknowledgments: The authors acknowledge the financial support received through IFA CEA Project No. C5-08/2016.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1542
77139
The Actuation of Semicrystalline Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Tie Molecules: A Computational and Experimental Study
Abstract:
The area of artificial muscles has received significant attention from many research domains including soft robotics, biomechanics and smart textiles in recent years. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been used to form artificial muscles since it contracts upon heating when under load. In this study, PVDF fibers were produced by melt spinning technique at different solid state draw ratios and then actuation mechanism for PVDF tie molecules within the semicrystalline region of PVDF polymer has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Tie molecules are polymer chains that link two (or more) crystalline regions in semicrystalline polymers. The changes in fiber length upon heating have been investigated using a novel simulation technique. The results show that conformational changes of the tie molecules from the longer all-trans conformation at low temperature (β structure) to the shorter conformation (α structure) at higher temperature accrue by increasing the temperature. These results may be applied to understand the actuation observed for PVDF upon heating.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1541
77104
Experiment Study on the Influence of Tool Materials on the Drilling of Thick Stacked Plate of 2219 Aluminum Alloy
Abstract:
The drilling and riveting processes are widely used in the assembly of carrier rocket, which makes the efficiency and quality of drilling become the important factor affecting the assembly process. According to the problem existing in the drilling of thick stacked plate (thickness larger than 10mm) of carrier rocket, such as drill break, large noise and burr etc., experimental study of the influence of tool material on the drilling was carried out. The cutting force was measured by a piezoelectric dynamometer, the aperture was measured with an outline projector, and the burr is observed and measured by a digital stereo microscope. Through the measurement, the effects of tool material on the drilling were analyzed from the aspects of drilling force, diameter, and burr. The results show that, compared with carbide drill and coated carbide one, the drilling force of high speed steel is larger. But, the application of high speed steel also has some advantages, e.g. a higher number of hole can be obtained, the height of burr is small, the exit is smooth and the slim burr is less, and the tool experiences wear but not fracture. Therefore, the high speed steel tool is suitable for the drilling of thick stacked plate of 2219 Aluminum alloy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1540
76819
Hot Deformability of Si-Steel Strips Containing Al
Abstract:
The present work is dealing with 2% Si-steel alloy. The alloy contains 0.05% C as well as 0.85% Al. The alloy under investigation would be used for electrical transformation purposes. A heating (expansion) - cooling (contraction) dilation investigation was executed to detect the a, a+g, and g transformation temperatures at the inflection points of the dilation curve. On heating, primary a &nbsp;was detected at a temperature range between room temperature and 687 oC. The domain of a+g was detected in the range between 687 oC and 746 oC. g phase exists in the closed g region at the range between 746 oC and 1043 oC. The domain of a phase appears again at a temperature range between 1043 and 1105 oC, and followed by secondary a at temperature higher than 1105 oC. A physical simulation of thermo-mechanical processing on the as-cast alloy was carried out. The simulation process took into consideration the hot flat rolling pilot plant parameters. The process was executed on the thermo-mechanical simulator (Gleeble 3500). The process was designed to include seven consecutive passes. The 1st pass represents the roughing stage, while the remaining six passes represent finish rolling stage. The whole process was executed at the temperature range from 1100 oC to 900 oC. The amount of strain starts with 23.5% at the roughing pass and decreases continuously to reach 7.5 % at the last finishing pass. The flow curve of the alloy can be abstracted from the stress-strain curves representing simulated passes. It shows alloy hardening from a pass to the other up to pass no. 6, as a result of decreasing the deformation temperature and increasing of cumulative strain. After pass no. 6, the deformation process enhances the dynamic recrystallization phenomena to appear, where the z-parameter would be high.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1539
76727
Consolidation of Carbonyl Nickel Powders by Hot Pressing
Abstract:
In the current study, carbonyl nickel powders were sintered by uniaxial hot pressing technique. Loose starting powders were poured directly into a graphite die with a 15.4 mm inner diameter. Two graphite punches with an outer diameter of 15 mm were inserted into the die; then the powders were sintered at different sintering temperatures, holding times and pressure conditions. The sintered samples were polished and examined by optical microscopy. Hardness and bending behavior of the sintered samples were investigated in order to determine the mechanical properties of the sintered nickel samples. To carried out the friction properties of the produced samples wear tests were studied using a pin on disc tribometer. Load and distance were selected as wear test parameters. The fracture surface of the samples after bending test was also carried out by using scanning electron microscopy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1538
76693
Dynamic Thermomechanical Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints
Abstract:
Composite materials are increasingly being used as a substitute for metallic materials in many technological applications like aeronautics, aerospace, marine and civil engineering applications. For composite materials, the thermomechanical response evolves with the strain rate. The energy balance equation for anisotropic, elastic materials includes heat source terms that govern the conversion of some of the kinetic work into heat. The remainder contributes to the stored energy creating the damage process in the composite material. In this paper, we investigate the bulk thermomechanical behavior of adhesively-bonded composite assemblies to quantitatively asses the temperature rise which accompanies adiabatic deformations. In particular, adhesively bonded joints in glass/vinylester composite material are subjected to in-plane dynamic loads under a range of strain rates. Dynamic thermomechanical behavior of this material is investigated using compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB) coupled with a high speed infrared camera and a high speed camera to measure in real time the dynamic behavior, the damage kinetic and the temperature variation in the material. The interest of using high speed IR camera is in order to view in real time the evolution of heat dissipation in the material when damage occurs. But, this technique does not produce thermal values in correlation with the stress-strain curves of composite material because of its high time response in comparison with the dynamic test time. For this reason, the authors revisit the application of specific thermocouples placed on the surface of the material to ensure the real thermal measurements under dynamic loading using small thermocouples. Experiments with dynamically loaded material show that the thermocouples record temperatures values with a short typical rise time as a result of the conversion of kinetic work into heat during compression test. This results show that small thermocouples can be used to provide an important complement to other noncontact techniques such as the high speed infrared camera. Significant temperature rise was observed in in-plane compression tests especially under high strain rates. During the tests, it has been noticed that sudden temperature rise occur when macroscopic damage occur. This rise in temperature is linked to the rate of damage. The more serve the damage is, a higher localized temperature is detected. This shows the strong relationship between the occurrence of damage and induced heat dissipation. For the case of the in plane tests, the damage takes place more abruptly as the strain rate is increased. The difference observed in the obtained thermomechanical response in plane compression is explained only by the difference in the damage process being active during the compression tests. In this study, we highlighted the dependence of the thermomechanical response on the strain rate of bonded specimens. The effect of heat dissipation of this material cannot hence be ignored and should be taken into account when defining damage models during impact loading.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1537
76625
Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Ore
Abstract:
The present work aims to study the leaching of Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore by hydrochloric acid and simultaneous reduction by iron powder method to dissolve its titanium and iron contents. Iron content in the produced liquor is separated by solvent extraction using TBP as a solvent. All parameters affecting the efficiency of the dissolution process were separately studied including the acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio which controls the ilmenite/acid molar ratio, temperature, time and grain size. The optimum conditions at which maximum leaching occur are 30% HCl acid with a solid/liquid ratio of 1/30 at 80 °C for 4 h using ore ground to -350 mesh size. At the same time, all parameters affecting on solvent extraction and stripping of iron content from the produced liquor were studied. Results show that the best extraction is at solvent/solution 1/1 by shaking at 240 RPM for 45 minutes at 30 °C whereas best striping of iron at H₂O/solvent 2/1.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1536
76609
Refinement of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Poly (Ethylene-Co-Glycidyle Methacrylate)/ Hexagonal Boron Nitride Blend-Composites through Electron-Beam Irradiation
Abstract:
The main objective of this work is to determine the influence of electron beam irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties of Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/Poly (ethylene-co-glycidyle methacrylate) (PEGM)/Hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) blend-composites. To reduce the brittleness and improve the toughness of PLA, the PLA/PEGM blend is prepared by using twin-screw Micro compounder. However, the heat deflection temperature (HDT) and other tensile properties were reduced. The HBN has been incorporated into the PLA/PEGM blend as part per hundred i.e. 5 phr and 10phr to improve the HDT. The prepared specimens of blend and blend-composites were irradiated to high energy (4.5 MeV) electron beam (E-beam) at different radiation doses to introduce the cross linking among the polymer chains and uniform dispersion of HBN particles in the PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The further improvement in the notched impact strength and HDT have been achieved in the case of PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN 5phr blend composite shows high notched impact strength and HDT as compared to other unirradiated and E-beam irradiated blend and blend-composites. The improvements in the yield strength and tensile modulus have also been noticed in the case of E-beam irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites as compared to unirradiated blend-composites.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1535
76565
Reduction Behavior of Medium Grade Manganese Ore from Karangnunggal during a Sintering Process in Methane Gas
Abstract:
In this investigation, manganese has been produced from medium grade manganese ore from Karangnunggal mine (West Java, Indonesia). The ores were grinded using a jar mill to pass through a 150 mesh sieve. The effects of keeping it at a temperature of 1200 °C in methane gas on the structural properties have been studied. The material’s properties have been characterized on the basis of the experimental data obtained using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It has been found that the ore contains MnO₂ as the main constituents at about 46.80 wt.%. It can be also observed that the ore particles are agglomerated forming dense grains with different texture and morphology. The irregular-shaped grains with dark contrast, the large brighter grains, and smaller grains with bright texture and smooth surfaces are associated with the presence of manganese, calcium, and quartz, respectively. From XRD patterns, MnO₂ is reduced to hausmannite (Mn₃O₄), manganosite (MnO) and manganese carbide (Mn₇C₃). At a temperature of 1200°C the keeping time does not have any effect on the formation of crystals and the crystalline phases remain almost unchanged in the time range from 15 to 90 minutes. An increase of the keeping time up to 45 minutes during the sintering process leads to an increase of the MnO concentration, while at 90 minutes, the concentration decreases. At longer keeping times the excess reaction of the methane gas and manganese oxide in the ore causes an increase of carbon deposition. As a result, it blocks the particle surface and then hinders the reduction process of manganese oxide. From FTIR spectrum allows one to explain that the appearance of C=O stretching mode arises from absorption of atmospheric methane and manganese oxide of the ore. The intensity of this band increases with increasing the keeping time, indicating an increase of carbon deposition on the surface of manganese oxide.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1534
76280
Influence of Boron and Germanium Doping on Physical-Mechanical Properties of Monocrystalline Silicon
Abstract:
Boron-doped Czochralski (CZ) silicon of p-type, widely used in the photovoltaic industry is suffering from the light-induced-degradation (LID) of bulk electrophysical characteristics. This is caused by specific metastable B-O defects, which are characterized by strong recombination activity. In this regard, it is actual to suppress B-O defects in CZ silicon. One of the methods is doping of silicon by different isovalent elements (Ge, C, Sn). The present work deals with the investigations of the influence of germanium doping on the internal friction and shear modulus amplitude dependences in the temperature interval of 600-800⁰C and 0.5-5 Hz frequency range in boron-containing monocrystalline silicon. Experimental specimens were grown by Czochralski method (CZ) in [111] direction. Four different specimens were investigated: Si+0,5at%Ge:B (5.1015cm-3), Si+0,5at%Ge:B (1.1019cm-3), Si+2at%Ge:B (5.1015cm-3) and Si+2at%Ge:B (1.1019cm-3). Increasing tendency of dislocation density and inhomogeneous distribution in silicon crystals with high content of boron and germanium were revealed by metallographic studies on the optical microscope of NMM-80RF/TRF. Weak increase of current carriers-holes concentration and slight decrease of their mobility were observed by Van der Pauw method on Ecopia HMS-3000 device. Non-monotonous changes of dislocation origin defects mobility and microplastic deformation characteristics influenced by measuring temperatures and boron and germanium concentrations were revealed. Possible mechanisms of changes of mechanical characteristics in Si-Ge experimental specimens were discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1533
76153
The Role of Physically Adsorbing Species of Oxyhydryl Reagents in Flotation Aggregate Formation
Abstract:
The authors discuss the collecting abilities of desorbable species (DS) of saturated fatty acids. The DS species of the reagent are understood as species capable of moving from the surface of the mineral particle to the bubble at the moment of the rupture of the interlayer of liquid separating these objects of interaction. DS species of carboxylic acids (molecules and ionic-molecular complexes) have the ability to spread over the surface of the bubble. The rate of their spreading at pH 7 and 10 over the water surface is determined. The collectibility criterion of saturated fatty acids is proposed. The values of forces exerted by the spreading DS species of reagents on liquid in the interlayer and the liquid flow rate from the interlayer are determined.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1532
75697
Studying the Possibility to Weld AA1100 Aluminum Alloy by Friction Stir Spot Welding
Abstract:
Friction stir welding is a modern and an environmentally friendly solid state joining process used to joint relatively lighter family of materials. Recently, friction stir spot welding has been used instead of resistance spot welding which has received considerable attention from the automotive industry. It is environmentally friendly process that eliminated heat and pollution. In this research, friction stir spot welding has been used to study the possibility to weld AA1100 aluminum alloy sheet with 3 mm thickness by overlapping the edges of sheet as lap joint. The process was done using a drilling machine instead of milling machine. Different tool rotational speeds of 760, 1065, 1445, and 2000 RPM have been applied with manual and automatic compression to study their effect on the quality of welded joints. Heat generation, pressure applied, and depth of tool penetration have been measured during the welding process. The result shows that there is a possibility to weld AA1100 sheets; however, there is some surface defect that happened due to insufficient condition of welding. Moreover, the relationship between rotational speed, pressure, heat generation and tool depth penetration was created.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1531
75472
Biocompatible Porous Titanium Scaffolds Produced Using a Novel Space Holder Technique
Abstract:
Synthetic scaffolds are a highly promising new approach to replace both autografts and allografts to repair and remodel damaged bone tissue. Biocompatible porous titanium scaffold was manufactured through a powder metallurgy approach. Magnesium powder was used as space holder material which was compacted with titanium powder and removed during sintering. Evaluation of the porosity and mechanical properties showed a high level of compatibility with human bone. Interconnectivity between pores is higher than 95% for porosity as low as 30%. The elastic moduli are 39 GPa, 16 GPa and 9 GPa for 30%, 40% and 50% porosity samples which match well to that of natural bone (4-30 GPa). The yield strengths for 30% and 40% porosity samples of 315 MPa and 175 MPa are superior to that of human bone (130-180 MPa). In-vitro cell culture tests on the scaffold samples using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) demonstrated their biocompatibility and indicated osseointegration potential. The scaffolds allowed cells to adhere and spread both on the surface and inside the pore structures. With increasing levels of porosity/interconnectivity, improved cell proliferation is obtained within the pores. It is concluded that samples with 30% porosity exhibit the best biocompatibility. The results suggest that porous titanium scaffolds generated using this manufacturing route have excellent potential for hard tissue engineering applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1530
75455
Extension of D Blast Furnace Campaign Life at Tata Steel Ltd
Abstract:
Extension of blast furnace campaign life is highly desired for blast furnace operators mainly because of reduction of operating cost and to avoid capital expenditure cost. Tata Steel Ltd, Jamshedpur plant operates seven blast furnaces with combination of old and new technologies. The focus of Tata Steel Ltd is to push for increasing productivity with good quality product and increasing campaign life. This has been challenging for older furnaces because older furnaces are generally equipped with less automation, old design and old equipment. Good operational practices, appropriate remedial measures, and regular planned maintenance helps to achieve long campaign life of old furnaces. Good operating practices like stable and consistent productivity, control of burden distribution, remedial measures like stack gunning and shotcreting for protection of stack wall, enhanced cooling system, and intermediate stack repair helps to achieve long campaign life of old blast furnaces. This paper describes experiences with the current old equipment and design of Tata Steel’s D Blast Furnace for campaign life extension.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1529
75451
Physical Properties of Alkali Resistant-Glass Fibers in Continuous Fiber Spinning Conditions
Abstract:
In this study, a glass fiber is fabricated using a continuous spinning process from alkali resistant (AR) glass with 4 wt% zirconia. In order to confirm the melting properties of the marble glass, the raw material is placed into a Pt crucible and melted at 1650 ℃ for 2 h, and then annealed. In order to confirm the transparency of the clear marble glass, the visible transmittance is measured, and the fiber spinning condition is investigated by using high temperature viscosity measurements. A change in the diameter is observed according to the winding speed in the range of 100–900 rpm; it is also verified as a function of the fiberizing temperature in the range of 1200–1260 ℃. The optimum winding speed and spinning temperature are 500 rpm and 1240 ℃, respectively. The properties of the prepared spinning fiber are confirmed using optical microscope, tensile strength, modulus, and alkali-resistant tests.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1528
75187
Olive Stone Valorization to Its Application on the Ceramic Industry
Abstract:
Olive oil is a product of particular importance within the Mediterranean and Spanish agricultural food system, and more specifically in Andalusia, owing to be the world's main production area. Olive oil processing generates olive stones which are dried and cleaned to remove pulp and olive stones fines to produce biofuel characterized to have high energy efficiency in combustion processes. Olive stones fine fraction is not too much appreciated as biofuel, so it is important the study of alternative solutions to be valorized. Some researchers have studied recycling different waste to produce ceramic bricks. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of olive stones addition on the properties of fired clay bricks for building construction. Olive stones were substituted by volume (7.5%, 15%, and 25%) to brick raw material in three different sizes (lower than 1 mm, lower than 2 mm and between 1 and 2 mm). In order to obtain comparable results, a series without olive stones was also prepared. The prepared mixtures were compacted in laboratory type extrusion under a pressure of 2.5MPa for rectangular shaped (30 mm x 60 mm x 10 mm). Dried and fired industrial conditions were applied to obtain laboratory brick samples. Mass loss after sintering, bulk density, porosity, water absorption and compressive strength of fired samples were investigated and compared with a sample manufactured without biomass. Results obtained have shown that olive stone addition decreased mechanical properties due to the increase in water absorption, although values tested satisfied the requirements in EN 772-1 about methods of test for masonry units (Part 1: Determination of compressive strength). Finally, important advantages related to the properties of bricks as well as their environmental effects could be obtained with the use of biomass studied to produce ceramic bricks. The increasing of the percentage of olive stones incorporated decreased bulk density and then increased the porosity of bricks. On the one hand, this lower density supposes a weight reduction of bricks to be transported, handled as well as the lightening of building; on the other hand, biomass in clay contributes to auto thermal combustion which involves lower fuel consumption during firing step. Consequently, the production of porous clay bricks using olive stones could reduce atmospheric emissions and improve their life cycle assessment, producing eco-friendly clay bricks.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1527
75038
Flexural Response of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Sandwich Panels with 3D Woven Honeycomb Core
Abstract:
The use of textile preform in the advanced fields including aerospace, automotive and marine has exponentially grown in recent years. These preforms offer excellent advantages such as being lightweight and low-cost, and also, their suitability for creating different fiber architectures with different materials whilst improved mechanical properties in certain aspects. In this study, a novel honeycomb core is developed by a 3Dweaving process. The assembly of the layers is achieved thanks to innovative weaving design. Polyester yarn is selected for the 3D woven honeycomb core (3DWHC). The core is used to manufacture a sandwich panel with 2x2 twill glass fiber composite face sheets. These 3DWHC sandwich panels will be tested in three-point bending. The in-plane and out-of-plane (through-the-thickness) mechanical response of the core will be examined as a function of cell size in addition to the flexural response of the sandwich panel. The failure mechanisms of the core and the sandwich skins will be reported in addition to flexural strength and stiffness. Possible engineering applications will be identified.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1526
75008
Multiscale Hub: An Open-Source Framework for Practical Atomistic-To-Continuum Coupling
Abstract:
Despite vast amount of existing theoretical knowledge, the implementation of a universal multiscale modeling, analysis, and simulation software framework remains challenging. Existing multiscale software and solutions are often domain-specific, closed-source and mandate a high-level of experience and skills in both multiscale analysis and programming. Furthermore, tools currently existing for Atomistic-to-Continuum (AtC) multiscaling are developed with the assumptions such as accessibility of high-performance computing facilities to the users. These issues mentioned plus many other challenges have reduced the adoption of multiscale in academia and especially industry. In the current work, we introduce Multiscale Hub (MsHub), an effort towards making AtC more accessible through cloud services. As a joint effort between academia and industry, MsHub provides a universal web-enabled framework for practical multiscaling. Developed on top of universally acclaimed scientific programming language Python, the package currently provides an open-source, comprehensive, easy-to-use framework for AtC coupling. MsHub offers an easy to use interface to prominent molecular dynamics and multiphysics continuum mechanics packages such as LAMMPS and MFEM (a free, lightweight, scalable C++ library for finite element methods). In this work, we first report on the design philosophy of MsHub, challenges identified and issues faced regarding its implementation. MsHub takes the advantage of a comprehensive set of tools and algorithms developed for AtC that can be used for a variety of governing physics. We then briefly report key AtC algorithms implemented in MsHub. Finally, we conclude with a few examples illustrating the capabilities of the package and its future directions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1525
74998
Comparison of Tribological Properties of TiO₂, ZrO₂ and TiO₂–ZrO₂ Composite Films Prepared by Sol–Gel Method
Abstract:
In this study, TiO₂, ZrO₂, and TiO₂–ZrO₂ composite films were coated on Cp-Ti substrates by sol-gel method. Structures of uncoated and coated samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction and SEM. XRD data identified anatase phase in TiO₂ coated samples and tetragonal zirconia phase in ZrO₂ coated samples while both of anatase and tetragonal zirconia phases in TiO₂–ZrO₂ composite films. The mechanical and wear properties of samples were investigated using micro hardness, pin-on-disk tribotester, and 3D profilometer. The best wear resistance was obtained from TiO₂–ZrO₂ composite films. This can be attributed to their high surface hardness, low surface roughness and high thickness of the film.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1524
74991
Comparison of Structure and Corrosion Properties of Titanium Oxide Films Prepared by Thermal Oxidation, DC Plasma Oxidation, and by the Sol-Gel
Abstract:
In this work, TiO₂ films were deposited on Cp-Ti substrates by thermal oxidation, DC plasma oxidation, and by the sol-gel method. Microstructures of uncoated and TiO₂ film coated samples were examined by X-ray diffraction and SEM. Thin oxide film consisting of anatase (A) and rutile (R) TiO₂ structures was observed on the surface of CP-Ti by under three different treatments. Also, the more intense anatase and rutile peaks appeared at samples plasma oxidized at 700˚C. The thicknesses of films were about 1.8 μm at the TiO₂ film coated samples by sol-gel and about 2.7 μm at thermal oxidated samples, while it was measured as 3.9 μm at the plasma oxidated samples. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of uncoated and coated specimens was mainly carried out by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Results showed that at the plasma oxidated samples exhibited a better resistance property to corrosion than that of other treatments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):