Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46035

Medical and Health Sciences

Effects of Safety Intervention Program towards Behaviors among Rubber Wood Processing Workers Using Theory of Planned Behavior
Rubber wood processing is one of the most important industries in southern Thailand. The process has several safety hazards for example unsafe wood cutting machine guarding, wood dust, noise, and heavy lifting. However, workers’ occupational health and safety measures to promote their behaviors are still limited. This quasi-experimental research was to determine factors affecting workers’ safety behaviors using theory of planned behavior after implementing job safety intervention program. The purposes were to (1) determine factors affecting workers’ behaviors and (2) to evaluate effectiveness of the intervention program. The sample of study was 66 workers from a rubber wood processing factory. Factors in the Theory of Planned Behavior model (TPB) were measured before and after the intervention. The factors of TPB included attitude towards behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intention, and behavior. Firstly, Job Safety Analysis (JSA) was conducted and Safety Standard Operation Procedures (SSOP) were established. The questionnaire was also used to collect workers’ characteristics and TPB factors. Then, job safety intervention program to promote workers’ behavior according to SSOP were implemented for a four month period. The program included SSOP training, personal protective equipment use, and safety promotional campaign. After that, the TPB factors were again collected. Paired sample t-test and independent t-test were used to analyze the data. The result revealed that attitude towards behavior and intention increased significantly after the intervention at p< 0.05. These factors also significantly determined the workers’ safety behavior according to SSOP at p< 0.05. However, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were not significantly changed nor related to safety behaviors. In conclusion, attitude towards behavior and workers’ intention should be promoted to encourage workers’ safety behaviors. SSOP intervention program e.g. short meeting, safety training, and promotional campaign should be continuously implemented in a routine basis to improve workers’ behavior.
Cutaneous Meningioma of the Scalp: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature
Cutaneous meningioma of the scalp was first introduced in 1904; however, to date it remains a rare entity. We present a 47 year old man with a chief complaint of a bump on his scalp. His past medical history was significant for a head trauma in childhood. About ten years ago, patient noticed a painless mass on his scalp. On physical exam, a 4.5 x 5.0 cm soft well circumscribed lesion was palpable at the apex of his occiput, which was not freely mobile while soft and easily compressible. MRI with and without contrast was performed which did not show periosteal invasion or intracranial lesion; however, a specific diagnosis was not reached. The patient was concerned that the lesion had recently enlarged and became disfiguring, therefore he underwent excisional biopsy. During the surgery, the mass was found to be superficial with no signs of periosteal invasion. Histologic exam showed nests of bland appearing epithelioid cells, scattered psammoma bodies and fibrosis of the subcutaneous tissue. No significant hypercellularity, cytologic atypia, prominent mitotic figures, or necrosis was noted. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed which showed focal positive reactivity of the lesional cells for EMA and Cytokeratin. A diagnosis of cutaneous meningioma was made. At the request of patient and surgeon, the glass slides and a paraffin block were sent for second opinions to two different institutions, both of which concurred our original diagnosis of cutaneous meningioma.
Application of Bioreactors in Regenerative Dentistry: Literature Review
Background: Bioreactors in tissue engineering are used as devices that apply mechanical means to influence biological processes. They are commonly employed for stem cell culturing, growth and expansion as well as in 3D tissue culture. Contemporarily there use is well established and is tested extensively in the medical sciences, for tissue-regeneration and tissue engineering of organs like bone, cartilage, blood vessels, skin grafts, cardiac muscle etc. Methodology: Literature search, both electronic and hand search, was done using the following MeSH and keywords: bioreactors, bioreactors and dentistry, bioreactors & dental tissue engineering, bioreactors and regenerative dentistry. Articles published only in English language were included for review. Results: Bioreactors like, spinner flask-, rotating wall-, flow perfusion-, and micro-bioreactors and in-vivo bioreactor have been employed and tested for the regeneration of dental and like-tissues. These include gingival tissue, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, mucosa, cementum and blood vessels. Based on their working dynamics they can be customized in future for regeneration of pulp tissue and whole tooth regeneration. Apart from this, they have been successfully used in testing the clinical efficacy and biological safety of dental biomaterials. Conclusion: Bioreactors have potential use in testing dental biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches aimed at regenerative dentistry.
Efficacy of Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program with the Reduction of HbA1c in Overweight Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Retrospective Study
To evaluate the efficacy of Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program with the reduction of HbA1c in overweight Diabetes Mellitus Type II patients retrospectively. Methods: Retrospective study was carried out on 34 overweight type II diabetic patients (Mean Age = 54.58 ±11.38 yrs). A total of 34 patients were enrolled after screening of 68 patients (HbA1c 7-10%). The patients were on concomitant drugs namely insulin (11.76%), DPP-4 inhibitor (17.64%), Biguanide (55.88%), Sulfonylurea (52.94%), thiazolidinedione (11.76%), other medications (20.58%) and no allopathic medications (14.70%). The patients were given Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program consisting of panchkarma procedures namely snehana (external oleation), swedana (passive heat therapy) and basti (enema), which was completed in 15 sittings. During the therapy and next 90 days, the patients followed low carbohydrate and moderate protein & fat diet. The primary endpoint of this study was the evaluation of reduction in HbA1c at the end of the follow-up after 90 days. Results: Thirty-four overweight type II diabetic patients (mean age: 54.58[±11.38], HbA1c[7-10%], 67.64% male and 32.35% female) were enrolled in the study. A significant reduction was observed in HbA1c levels (14.30%, p< 0.05) at the end of the 90 days follow-up as compared to baseline. Also, BMI was reduced by 5.87%. There was reduction in the usage of the concomitant drugs namely insulin (2.94%), DPP-4 inhibitor (2.94%), Biguanide (32.35%), Sulfonylurea (35.29%), thiazolidinedione (5.88%), other medications(17.64%) and no allopathic medications (32.35%). Conclusion: The results of the study highlight not only in the reduction of HbA1c, but also in BMI and drug tapering of the CDC program in the overweight type II diabetic patients with HbA1c (7-10%).
Efficacy of Heart Failure Reversal Treatment Followed by 90 Days Follow up in Chronic Heart Failure Patients with Low Ejection Fraction
The present study was designed to evaluate efficacy of heart failure reversal therapy (HFRT) that uses herbal procedure (panchakarma) and allied therapies, in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with low ejection fraction. Methods: This efficacy study was conducted in CHF patients (aged: 25-65 years, ejection fraction (EF) < 30%) wherein HFRT (60-75 minutes) consisting of snehana (external oleation), swedana (passive heat therapy), hrudaydhara(concoction dripping treatment) and basti(enema) was administered twice daily for 7 days. During this therapy and next 30 days, patients followed the study dinarcharya and were prescribed ARJ kadha in addition to their conventional treatment. The primary endpoint of this study was evaluation of maximum aerobic capacity uptake (MAC) as assessed by 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) using Cahalins equation from baseline, at end of 7 day treatment, follow-up after 30 days and 90 days. EF was assessed by 2D Echo at baseline and after 30 days of follow-up. Results: CHF patients with < 30% EF (N=52, mean [SD] age: 58.8 [10.8], 85% men) were enrolled in the study. There was a 100% compliance to study therapy. A significant improvement was observed in MAC levels (7.11%, p =0.029), at end of 7 day therapy as compared to baseline. This improvement was maintained at two follow-up visits. Moreover, ejection fraction was observed to be increased by 6.38%, p=0,012 as compared to baseline at day 7 of the therapy. Conclusions: This 90 day follow up study highlights benefit of HFRT, as a part of maintenance treatment for CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction.
Analysis of Trends in Equity of Maternal Health Care in South India
The paper analyses the pattern and trend of maternal health care in south Indian states. It studies the interstate disparities in terms of maternal health care. It also compares the trends in terms of achieving the target of sustainable development Goal is related to maternal health. The maternal health care (MHC) development is one of the key indicators for the development of health sector in the country and assumes significance from the socioeconomic and developmental perspectives. Maternal health care mainly consists of composite care during pregnancy, child birth as well as postpartum period. Antenatal care, identification, referral and management of high risk pregnancies, safe and healthy child birth and early postnatal care are some of the important issues pertaining to maternal health. Data is collected from national family health survey 1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06, and 2015-16. A concentration index is used to study the disparities in equity of maternal health among south Indian states. The study shows that there has been an improvement in maternal health care in south Indian states with Kerala topping among the states. But there exist disparities among the south Indian states.
Ultrasound as an Aid to Predict the Onset of Leaking in Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever: Experience of a Dengue Treatment Facility in South Asia
Introduction: Dengue is a major Public Health burden of two clinical entities, Dengue Fever & Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF). The vast majority of dengue deaths occur in DHF patients, where the diagnosis hinges on the presence of fluid leakage. Limited Ultrasound Scans (USS) of chest and abdomen are used widely at Centre for Clinical Management of Dengue & Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (CCMDDHF), as the primary method for detecting fluid leaking in DHF. This study analyses the relationship between haematological and USS findings at the onset of leaking and to further determine the usefulness of ultrasound in diagnosing DHF. Methods: A prospective analysis of 80 serologically confirmed dengue patients initially admitted to a General Medical and Paediatric wards who were subsequently transferred to the CCMDDHF from March to September 2017 were analysed. In addition to repeated blood counts and capillary haematocrits’, serial USS were done to detect the onset fluid leaking by three competent and experienced doctors at CCMDDHF. Results: 80 patients (male: female: 38:42) with a mean age of 20 years (SD ±16.8, range 3-74) were evaluated. Dropping of platelet counts below 100,000 and haematocrit rise towards 20% started 4±1.3 day of fever with a mean platelet value of 69x103(range17-98x103). Gallbladder wall thickening was the commonest (98.7%) USS finding followed by fluid in hepato-renal pouch (95%), pelvic fluid (58.7%), right-sided pleural effusion (35%), bilateral effusions (7.5%). USS evidence of plasma leakage was detected in 11.25 %( n=9) of DHF cases from 1 day before significant haematocrit rise was noted. 35 (43.7%) patients with lowering platelets and haematocrit rise showed no objective evidence of plasma leaking on ultrasound scan. Conclusion: This outbreak underscores the importance of USS as a useful, sensitive and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of suspected DHF cases, facilitating the tracking of progress of leaking and management of epidemics.
Pattern of Biopsy Proven Renal Disease and Association between the Clinical Findings with Renal Pathology in Eastern Nepal
Background: The pattern of glomerular disease varies worldwide. In absence of kidney disease/Kidney biopsy registry in Nepal, the exact etiology of different forms of glomerular disease is primarily unknown in our country. Method: We retrospectively analyzed 175 cases of renal biopsies performed from dated September 2014 to August 2016 at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Results: The commonest indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (34.9%), followed by Systemic lupus erythematosus with suspected renal involvement (22.3%). Majority of patients were in the 30-60 year bracket (57.2%), with the mean age of the patients being 35.37 years. The average number of glomeruli per core was 13, with inadequate sampling in 5.1%. IgA nephropathy (17%) was found to be the most common primary glomerular disease, followed by membranous nephropathy (14.6%) and FSGS (14.6%). The commonest secondary glomerular disease was lupus nephritis. Complications associated with renal biopsy were pain at biopsy site in 18% of cases, hematuria in 6% and perinephric hematoma in 4% cases. Conclusion: The commonest primary and secondary glomerular disease was IgA nephropathy and lupus nephritis respectively. The high prevalence of Systemic lupus erythematosus with lupus nephritis among Nepalese in comparison with other developing countries warrants further evaluation. As an initial attempt towards documentation of glomerular diseases in the national context, this study should serve as a stepping stone towards the eventual establishment of a full-fledged national registry of glomerular diseases in Nepal.
Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian Version of the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale in Iranian Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia
Background: The caregivers’ assessment of their own caregiving is considered the most important concept in exploring their experiences and has a major role in care outcomes. The rising number of people with dementia and their need for care makes family caregiving really important matter to consider and evaluate. Objectives: This study was conducted with the aim to naturalize and validate the Persian version of the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale (RCAS) in family caregivers of older adults with dementia. Patients and Method: In this cross-sectional methodological study, the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale (RCAS) was translated using International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) protocol, and then a panel of experts examined its face and content validities. To ensure construct validity, the translated Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale (RCAS) was completed by 236 family caregivers, and factor construct of the scale was assessed with 5 initial factors using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was found using Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest using intraclass correlation coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed in LISREL-8.8 software in Windows®. Results: Participating caregivers' mean age was 53.5±13.13 years. Content and face validities of the scale were confirmed according to the views expressed by family caregivers and panel of experts. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) results showed appropriate values for all fitness indices (RMSEA=0.046, df/X2=2.428, CFI=0.98, AGFI=0.84, GFI=0.9), and the 5-factor model was confirmed with 27 items. Overall Cronbach's alpha was reported 0.894, and test retest showed overall ICC=0.94. Conclusion: The Persian version of RCAS is a valid and reliable tool for family caregivers' assessment of their caregiving of older adults with dementia, and can be useful in assessing family caregiving interventions.
Role of Mismatch Repair Protein Expression in Colorectal Cancer: A Study from North India
Purpose: To study the mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression and its clinicopathological correlation in colorectal cancer patients in North India. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on histologically proven 52 (38 males and 14 females) patients with adenocarcinoma of colorectum. MMR protein loss was determined by using immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and MSH6. Results: 52 patients (38 males and 14 females) underwent resection for colorectal cancer with the median age of 52 years (16-81 years). 35% of the patients (n=18) were younger than 50 years of the age. 3 patients had associated history of malignancy in the family. 29 (56%) patients had right colon cancer, 9 (17%) left colon cancer and 14 (27%) rectal cancer. 2 patients each had synchronous and metachronous cancer. Histology revealed well-differentiated tumour in 16, moderately differentiated in 10 and poorly differentiated tumour in 26 patients. MMR protein loss was seen in 15 (29%) patients. Seven (46%) of these patients were less than 50 years of age. Combined loss of MSH2 and MSH6 was seen most commonly and it was found in 6 patients. 12 (80%) patients with MMR protein loss had tumour located proximal to the splenic flexure compared to 3 (20%) located distal to the splenic flexure. There was no difference in MMR protein loss based on patients' age, gender, degree of tumour differentiation, stage of the disease and tumour histological characteristics. Conclusions: This study revealed that there was less than 30% MMR protein loss in colorectal cancer patients. The loss was most commonly seen in right sided colon cancer than left. A larger study is further required to validate these findings.
The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Vigilance, Fatigue, and Performance during Simulated Train Driving
Drowsiness is one of the main factors that contribute to the occurrence of accidents, particularly in the transportation sector. While the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive functions have been reported, the exact relationships remain a critical issue. This study aimed at quantifying the effects of extreme sleep deprivation on vigilance, fatigue, and performance during simulated train driving. A total of 12 participants were asked to drive a train simulator continuously for 4 hours, either in a sleep deprived condition (2-hr of sleep) or normal (8-hr of sleep) condition. Dependent variables obtained during the task included Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) parameters, degree of fatigue (assessed via Visual Analogue Scale/VAS) and sleepiness (reported using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale/KSS), and driving performance (the number of speed limit violations). Findings from this study demonstrated substantial decrements in vigilance in the sleep-deprived condition. This condition also resulted in 75% increase in speed violation and a two-fold increase in the degree of fatigue and sleepiness. Extreme sleep deprivation was clearly associated with substantially poorer response. The exact effects, however, were dependent upon the types of responses.
Comparison of Trunk and Hip Muscle Activities and Anterior Pelvic Tilt Angle during Three Different Bridging Exercises in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain
Bridging exercise in supine position with the hips and knees flexed have been commonly performed as one of the therapeutic exercises and is a comfortable and pain-free position to most individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Many previous studies have investigated the beneficial way of performing bridging exercises to improve activation of abdominal and gluteal muscle and reduce muscle activity of hamstrings (HAM) and erector spinae (ES) and compensatory lumbopelvic motion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different bridging exercises on the HAM, ES, gluteus maximus (Gmax), gluteus medius (Gmed), and transverse abdominis/internal abdominis oblique (TrA/IO) activities and anterior pelvic tilt angle in subjects with CLBP. Seventeen subjects with CLBP participated in this study. They performed bridging under three different conditions (with 30° hip abduction, isometric hip abduction, and isometric hip adduction). Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity, and the ImageJ software was used to calculate anterior pelvic tilt angle. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of the measured variables. HAM activity was significantly lower in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction than in bridging with isometric hip adduction. Gmax and Gmed activities were significantly greater in bridging with isometric hip abduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip adduction. TrA/IO muscle activity was significantly greater and anterior pelvic tilt angle was significantly lower in bridging with isometric hip adduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction. Bridging with isometric hip abduction using Thera-Band can effectively reduce HAM activity, and increase Gmax and Gmed activities in subjects with CLBP. Bridging with isometric hip adduction using a pressure biofeedback unit can be a beneficial exercise to improve TrA/IO activity and minimize anterior pelvic tilt in subjects with CLBP.
Evaluation of Oral Biofilm Suppression by Carribean Herbal Extracts
Background and significance: Oral biofilm formation is a well-known causative factor for caries and periodontal diseases. Scientists over the years have been trying to find a solution against the formation of oral biofilms. Though several advances have been made to understand the microbial ecology and how the bio film survives, it is still an enigma to researchers to find a chemical product that not only can inhibit the formation of oral bio film but also not disturb the oral micro flora required for oral health and not to cause damage to the cells of the oral cavity. One such product that has never been investigated much are herbal preparations. Some of the microorganisms important in the formation of biofilm are Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundi, Streptococuss oralis and Prevotella intermedia. The aim of this study was to study the antimicrobial property of some herbal extracts available in Trinidad and Tobago against these pathogens. The significance of this study is that identification of biologically effective plant extracts can result in indigenous development of mouth rinses and tooth pastes that the people can benefit from to not only develop effective but also a cheap solution. Methodology: The extracts from the leaves of Plectranthus ambonicus, Ocmium tenuiflorum, Azadirchata indica, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava were prepared by dissolving them in water. The extracts from the roots of Curcuma longa were prepared similarly and the antimicrobial activity of these six plant extracts was determined by the agar well diffusion method using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundi, Streptococuss oralis and Prevotella intermedia and compared with chlorhexidine. Results: The six plant extracts showed variable effect on the oral micro-organisms. Ocmium tenuiflorum (16.66 ± 0.44, 14 ± 0.58, 13.33 ± 0.88, 12.83 ± 0.60), Azadirchata indica (17.5 ± 0.28, 14.83 ± 0.17, 15 ± 0.58, 12.83 ± 0.6) and Curcuma longa (16.16 ± 0.44, 13.66 ± 0.88, 12.33 ± 0.88, 11.33 ± 0.67) were found to have highest inhibitory activity against all the four pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococuss oralis, Actinomyces naeslundi, and Prevotella intermedia) respectively. Conclusion: Although the extracts were not pure compounds we obtained antimicrobial results which determine that they are potent antimicrobial agents. Further derivation of pure compounds from these extracts could be lucrative as it might lead to the development of a cost effective and biologically safe medicine to act against oral biofilms. Acknowledgement: The authors would like to acknowledge the Campus Research and Publication Fund Committee, The University of the West Indies for funding this study and would also like to acknowledge Dr. Leonette Cox, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago for helping to prepare the plant extracts.
Support Vector Machine Based Retinal Therapeutic for Glaucoma Using Machine Learning Algorithm
Glaucoma is a group of visual maladies represented by the scheduled optic nerve neuropathy; means to the increasing dwindling in vision ground, resulting in loss of sight. In this paper, a novel support vector machine based retinal therapeutic for glaucoma using machine learning algorithm is conservative. The algorithm has fitting pragmatism; subsequently sustained on correlation clustering mode, it visualizes perfect computations in the multi-dimensional space. Support vector clustering turns out to be comparable to the scale-space advance that investigates the cluster organization by means of a kernel density estimation of the likelihood distribution, where cluster midpoints are idiosyncratic by the neighborhood maxima of the concreteness. The predicted planning has 91% attainment rate on data set deterrent on a consolidation of 500 realistic images of resolute and glaucoma retina; therefore, the computational benefit of depending on the cluster overlapping system pedestal on machine learning algorithm has complete performance in glaucoma therapeutic.
Signs, Signals and Syndromes: Algorithmic Surveillance and Global Health Security in the 21st Century
This article offers a critical analysis of the rise of syndromic surveillance systems for the advanced detection of pandemic threats within contemporary global health security frameworks. The article traces the iterative evolution and ascendancy of three such novel syndromic surveillance systems for the strengthening of health security initiatives over the past two decades: 1) The Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases (ProMED-mail); 2) The Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN); and 3) HealthMap. This article demonstrates how each newly introduced syndromic surveillance system has become increasingly oriented towards the integration of digital algorithms into core surveillance capacities to continually harness and forecast upon infinitely generating sets of digital, open-source data, potentially indicative of forthcoming pandemic threats. This article argues that the increased centrality of the algorithm within these next-generation syndromic surveillance systems produces a new and distinct form of infectious disease surveillance for the governing of emergent pathogenic contingencies. Conceptually, the article also shows how the rise of this algorithmic mode of infectious disease surveillance produces divergences in the governmental rationalities of global health security, leading to the rise of an algorithmic governmentality within contemporary contexts of Big Data and these surveillance systems. Empirically, this article demonstrates how this new form of algorithmic infectious disease surveillance has been rapidly integrated into diplomatic, legal, and political frameworks to strengthen the practice of global health security – producing subtle, yet distinct shifts in the outbreak notification and reporting transparency of states, increasingly scrutinized by the algorithmic gaze of syndromic surveillance.
Impact of 99m Tc-MDP bone SPECT/CT Imaging in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome
Objective: Back pain is a major health problem costing billions of health budgets annually in Taiwan. Thousands of back pain surgeries are performed annually with up to 40% of patients complaining of back pain at time of post-surgery causing failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), although diagnosis in these patients may be complex. The aim of study is to assess the feasibility of using bone SPECT-CT imaging to localize the active lesions causing persistent, recurrent or new backache after spine surgery. Materials and Methods: Bone SPECT-CT imaging was performed after the intravenous injection of 20 mCi of 99mTc-MDP for all the patients with diagnosis of FBSS. Patients were evaluated using status of subjectively pain relief, functional improvement and degree of satisfaction by reviewing the medical records and questionnaires in a 2 more years’ follow-up. Results: We enrolled a total of 16 patients were surveyed in our hospital from Jan. 2015 to Dec. 2016. Four people on SPEC/CT imaging ensured significant lesions were undergone a revised surgery (surgical treatment group). The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) decreased 5.3 points and mean Oswestry disability index (ODI) improved 38 points in the surgical group. The remaining 12 on SPECT/CT imaging were diagnosed as no significant lesions then received drug treatment (medical treatment group). The mean VAS only decreased 2 .1 point and mean ODI improved 12.6 points in the medical treatment group. In the posttherapeutic evaluation, the pain of the surgical treatment group showed a satisfactory improvement. In the medical treatment group, 10 of the 12 were also satisfied with the symptom relief while the other 2 did not improve significantly. Conclusions: Findings on SPECT-CT imaging appears to be easily explained the patients' pain. We recommended that SPECT/CT imaging was a feasible and useful clinical tool to improve diagnostic confidence or specificity when evaluating patients with FBSS.
Aquatic Therapy Improving Balance Function of Individuals with Stroke: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Introduction: Improving balance function for individuals after stroke is a crucial target in physiotherapy. Aquatic therapy which challenges individual’s postural control in an unstable fluid environment may be beneficial in enhancing balance functions. The purposes of the systematic review with meta-analyses were to validate the effects of aquatic therapy in improving balance functions for individuals with strokes in contrast to conventional physiotherapy. Method: Available studies were explored from three electronic databases: Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science. During literature search, the published date of studies was not limited. The study design of the included studies should be randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the studies should contain at least one outcome measurement of balance function. The PEDro scale was adopted to assess the quality of included studies, while the 'Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence' was used to evaluate the level of evidence. After the data extraction, studies with same outcome measures were pooled together for meta-analysis. Result: Seven studies with 172 participants were included in analyses. The research quality of the studies was ranged from fair to good (4 to 8 points). Level of evidence of the included studies was graded as level 2 and 3. Finally, scores of Berg Balance Scale and Timed up and Go test were pooled and analyzed separately. The pooled results shown significant improvement in balance function [mean difference (MD): 1.39 points; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-2.29; p=0.002] and mobility (MD: 0.9 seconds; 95% CI: 0.07-1.73; p=0.03) of stroke individuals after aquatic therapy compared to conventional therapy. Although there were significant differences between two treatment groups, the differences in improvement were relatively small. Conclusion: The aquatic therapy improved general balance function and mobility in the individuals with stroke better than conventional physiotherapy.
Developing a Health Literacy Questionnaire in Breast Cancer
Objective: The main objective of this study was designing a breast cancer health literacy questionnaire and assess its psychometric properties. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was performed to develop a primary questionnaire consisting of five domains. Qualitative and quantitative content validity were assessed by relevant experts, and after some modifications, the content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) were calculated. Qualitative and quantitative face validity were evaluated by a number of patients, and the impact score for each item was calculated. 225 women with breast cancer were asked to fill out the questionnaire and construct validity was determined by using exploratory factor analysis. The reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results: A 36-item questionnaire with five domains of reading, having access, understanding, assessing/judgment, and decision making/behavior was designed. 2 items were omitted in the qualitative content validity process. All items achieved optimum values in CVI, CVR and impact scores. Content and face validity of the questionnaire were confirmed too. According to the exploratory factor analysis, the five-factor solution accounted for 64.98 percent of the observed variance. Conclusion: Due to the obtained satisfactory validity and reliability, this tool can be used to assess health literacy in women with breast cancer. Health policy makers can use these findings for improving health-related behaviors in breast cancer patients.
A Natural Killer T Cell Subset That Protects against Airway Hyperreactivity
We examined characteristics of a Natural Killer T (NKT) cell subpopulation that developed during influenza infection in neonatal mice, and that suppressed the subsequent development of allergic asthma in a mouse model. This NKT cell subset expressed CD38 but not CD4, produced IFN-γ, but not IL-17, IL-4 or IL-13, and inhibited the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) through contact-dependent suppressive activity against helper CD4 T cells. The NKT subset expanded in the lungs of neonatal mice after infection with influenza, but also after treatment of neonatal mice with a Th1-biasing α-GalCer glycolipid analogue, Nu-α-GalCer. These results suggest that early/neonatal exposure to infection or to antigenic challenge can affect subsequent lung immunity by altering the profile of cells residing in the lung and that some subsets of NKT cells can have direct inhibitory activity against CD4+ T cells in allergic asthma. Importantly, our results also suggest a potential therapy for young children that might provide protection against the development of asthma.
Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Trauma Patients: Clinical Presentation and Risk Factor Analysis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) in trauma patients is known to be associated with multiple factors, especially shock and consequent inadequate renal perfusion, yet its clinical presentation is little known in severe trauma patients. Our aim was to investigate the clinical presentation of acute kidney injury and its outcome in severe trauma patients at a level I trauma center. A total of 93 consecutive adult trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of more than 15 were analyzed retrospectively from our Level I trauma center data base. Patients with direct renal injury were excluded. Patients were dichotomized into two groups, according to the presence of AKI. Various clinical parameters were compared between two groups, with Student’s T test and Mann-Whitney’s U test. The AKI group was further dichotomized into patients who recovered within seven days, and those who required more than 7days for recovery or those who did not recover at all. Various clinical parameters associated with outcome were further analyzed. Patients with AKI (n=33, 35%) presented with significantly higher age (61.4±17.3 vs. 45.4±17.3, p < 0.0001), incidence of comorbidities (hypertension; 51.5% vs. 13.3%, OR 6.906 95%CI 2.515-18.967, diabetes; 27.3% vs. 6.7%, OR 5.250, 95%CI 1.472-18.722), odds of head and neck trauma (69.7% vs. 41.7%, OR 3.220, 95%CI 1.306-7.942) and presence of shock during emergency room care (66.7% vs 21.7% OR 7.231, 95%CI, 2.798-18.687). Among AKI patients, patients who recovered within 1 week showed lower peak lactate (4.7mmol/L, 95%CI 2.9-6.5 vs 7.3mmol/L, 95%CI 5.0-9.6, p < 0.0287), lesser units of transfusion during first 24 hours (pRBC; 20.4unit, 95%CI 12.5-28.3 vs. 58.9unit, 95%CI 39.4-78.5, p=0.0003, FFP; 16.6unit, 95%CI 6.8-26.4 vs. 56.1unit, 95%CI 26.9-85.2, p=0.0027). In severe trauma patients, patients with AKI showed different clinical presentations and worse outcomes. Initial presence of shock and higher DIC profiles may be important risk factors for AKI in severe trauma patients. In patients with AKI, peak lactate level and amounts of transfusion are related to recovery.
Parp1 Links Transcription of a Subset of Rbl2-Dependent Genes with Cell Cycle Progression
Apart from protecting genome, PARP1 has been documented to regulate many intracellular processes inter alia gene transcription by physically interacting with chromatin bound proteins and by their ADP-ribosylation. Our recent findings indicate that expression of PARP1 decreases during the differentiation of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to monocytes as a consequence of differentiation-associated cell growth arrest and formation of E2F4-RBL2-HDAC1-SWI/SNF repressive complex at the promoter of this gene. Since the RBL2 complexes repress genes in a E2F-dependent manner and are widespread in the genome in G0 arrested cells, we asked (a) if RBL2 directly contributes to defining monocyte phenotype and function by targeting gene promoters and (b) if RBL2 controls gene transcription indirectly by repressing PARP1. For identification of genes controlled by RBL2 and/or PARP1,we used primer libraries for surface receptors and TLR signaling mediators, genes were silenced by siRNA or shRNA, analysis of gene promoter occupation by selected proteins was carried out by ChIP-qPCR, while statistical analysis in GraphPad Prism 5 and STATISTICA, ChIP-Seq data were analysed in Galaxy On the list of 28 genes regulated by RBL2, we identified only four solely repressed by RBL2-E2F4-HDAC1-BRM complex. Surprisingly, 24 out of 28 emerged genes controlled by RBL2 were co-regulated by PARP1 in six different manners. In one mode of RBL2/PARP1 co-operation, represented by MAP2K6 and MAPK3, PARP1 was found to associate with gene promoters upon RBL2 silencing, which was previously shown to restore PARP1 expression in monocytes. PARP1 effect on gene transcription was observed only in the presence of active EP300, which acetylated gene promoters and activated transcription. Further analysis revealed that PARP1 binding to MA2K6 and MAPK3 promoters enabled recruitment of EP300 in monocytes, while in proliferating cancer cell lines, which actively transcribe PARP1, this protein maintained EP300 at the promoters of MA2K6 and MAPK3. Genome-wide analysis revealed a similar distribution of PARP1 and EP300 around transcription start sites and the co-occupancy of some gene promoters by PARP1 and EP300 in cancer cells. Here, we described a new RBL2/PARP1/EP300 axis which controls gene transcription regardless of the cell type. In this model cell, cycle-dependent transcription of PARP1 regulates expression of some genes repressed by RBL2 upon cell cycle limitation. Thus, RBL2 may indirectly regulate transcription of some genes by controlling the expression of EP300-recruiting PARP1. Acknowledgement: This work was financed by Polish National Science Centre grants nr DEC-2013/11/D/NZ2/00033 and DEC-2015/19/N/NZ2/01735. L.V. is funded by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office grants GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00020 TUMORDNS, GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00048-STAYALIVE and OTKA K112336. AR is supported by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 776/STYP/11/2016.
Exhaled Breath Condensate in Lung Cancer: A Non-Invasive Sample for Easier Mutations Detection by Next Generation Sequencing
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a unique sample that allows studying different genetic changes in lung carcinoma through a non-invasive way. With the aid of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, analysis of genetic mutations has been more efficient with increased sensitivity for detection of genetic variants. In order to investigate the possibility of applying this method for cancer diagnostics, mutations in EBC DNA from lung cancer patients and healthy individuals were studied by using NGS. The key aim is to assess the feasibility of using this approach to detect clinically important mutations in EBC. EBC was collected from 20 healthy individuals and 9 lung cancer patients (four lung adenocarcinomas, four 8 squamous cell carcinoma, and one case of mesothelioma). Mutations in hotpot regions of 22 genes were studied by using Ampliseq Colon and Lung cancer panel and sequenced on Ion PGM. Results demonstrated that all nine patients showed a total of 19 cosmic mutations in APC, BRAF, EGFR, ERBB4, FBXW7, FGFR1, KRAS, MAP2K1, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, RET, SMAD4, and TP53. In controls, 15 individuals showed 35 cosmic mutations in BRAF, CTNNB1, DDR2, EGFR, ERBB2, FBXW7, FGFR3, KRAS, MET, NOTCH1, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, SMAD4, and TP53. Additionally, 45 novel mutations not reported previously were also seen in patients’ samples, and 106 novel mutations were seen in controls’ specimens. KRAS exon 2 mutations G12D was identified in one control specimen with mutant allele fraction of 6.8%, while KRAS G13D mutation seen in one patient sample showed mutant allele fraction of 17%. These findings illustrate that hotspot mutations are present in DNA from EBC of both cancer patients and healthy controls. As some of the cosmic mutations were seen in controls too, no firm conclusion can be drawn on the clinical importance of cosmic mutations in patients. Mutations reported in controls could represent early neoplastic changes or normal homeostatic process of apoptosis occurring in lung tissue to get rid of mutant cells. At the same time, mutations detected in patients might represent a non-invasive easily accessible way for early cancer detection. Follow up of individuals with important cancer mutations is necessary to clarify the significance of these mutations in both healthy individuals and cancer patients.
Effects of Anti-FGL2 Monoclonal Antibody SPF89 on Vascular Inflammation
Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) has recently been identified to play an important role in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis through a thrombin-dependent manner. Here, a murine monoclonal antibody was raised against the critical residue Ser(89) of FGL2, and the effects of the anti-FGL2 mAb (SPF89) were analyzed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and THP-1 cells. Firstly, it was proved that SPF89, which belongs to the IgG1 subtype with a KD value of 44.5 pM, could specifically show the expression levels of protein FGL2 in different cell lines of known target gene status. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated endothelial cell proliferation was significantly inhibited with a decline of phosphorylation nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in a dose-dependent manner after SPF89 treatment. Furthermore, SPF89 reduced LPS-induced expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, Matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2, Integrin αvβ3, and interleukin-6 in HUVECs. In macrophage-like THP-1 cells, SPF89 effectively inhibited LPS and low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation. However, these anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of anti-FGL2 mAb in HUVECs and THP-1 cells were significantly reduced after treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. All the above suggest, by efficiently inhibiting LPS-induced pro-inflammatory effects in vascular endothelial cells by attenuating NF-κB dependent pathway, the new anti-FGL2 mAb SPF89 could to be a potential therapeutic candidate for protecting the vascular endothelium against inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. This work was supported by the Program of Sichuan Science and Technology Department (2017FZ0069) and Collaborative Innovation Program of Sichuan for Elderly Care and Health(YLZBZ1511).
Comparison of Radiation Dosage and Image Quality: Digital Breast Tomosynthesis vs. Full-Field Digital Mammography
Purpose: With increasing concern of individual radiation exposure doses, studies analyzing radiation dosage in breast imaging modalities are required. Aim of this study is to compare radiation dosage and image quality between digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM). Methods and Materials: 303 patients (mean age 52.1 years) who studied DBT and FFDM were retrospectively reviewed. Radiation dosage data were obtained by radiation dosage scoring and monitoring program: Radimetrics (Bayer HealthCare, Whippany, NJ). Entrance dose and mean glandular doses in each breast were obtained in both imaging modalities. To compare the image quality of DBT with two-dimensional synthesized mammogram (2DSM) and FFDM, 5-point scoring of lesion clarity was assessed and the better modality between the two was selected. Interobserver performance was compared with kappa values and diagnostic accuracy was compared using McNemar test. The parameters of radiation dosages (entrance dose, mean glandular dose) and image quality were compared between two modalities by using paired t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: For entrance dose and mean glandular doses for each breasts, DBT had lower values compared with FFDM (p-value < 0.0001). Diagnostic accuracy did not have statistical difference, but lesion clarity score was higher in DBT with 2DSM and DBT was chosen as a better modality compared with FFDM. Conclusion: DBT showed lower radiation entrance dose and also lower mean glandular doses to both breasts compared with FFDM. Also, DBT with 2DSM had better image quality than FFDM with similar diagnostic accuracy, suggesting that DBT may have a potential to be performed as an alternative to FFDM.
The Effectiveness of Psychosocial Interventions for Survivors of Natural Disasters: A Systematic Review
Background: Natural disasters are traumatic global events that are becoming increasing more common, with significant psychosocial impact on survivors. This impact results not only in psychosocial distress but, for many, can lead to psychosocial disorders and chronic psychopathology. While there are currently available interventions that seek to prevent and treat these psychosocial sequelae, their effectiveness is uncertain. The evidence-base is emerging with more primary studies evaluating the effectiveness of various psychosocial interventions for survivors of natural disasters, which remains to be synthesized. Aim of Review: To identify, critically appraise and synthesize the current evidence-base on the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in preventing or treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and/or Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in adults and children who are survivors of natural disasters. Methods: A protocol was developed as a guide to carry out this review. A systematic search was conducted in eight international electronic databases, three grey literature databases, one dissertation and thesis repository, websites of six humanitarian and non-governmental organizations renowned for their work on natural disasters, as well as bibliographic and citation searching for eligible articles. Papers meeting the specific inclusion criteria underwent quality assessment using the Downs and Black checklist. Data were extracted from the included papers and analysed by way of narrative synthesis. Results: Database and website searching returned 3777 papers where 31 met the criteria for inclusion. Additional 2 papers were obtained through bibliographic and citation searching. Methodological quality of most papers was fair. Twenty-five studies evaluated psychological interventions, five, social interventions whereas three studies evaluated ‘mixed’ psychological and social interventions. All studies, irrespective of methodological quality, reported post-intervention reductions in symptom scores for PTSD, depression and/or anxiety and where assessed, reduced diagnosis of PTSD and MDD, and produced improvements in self-efficacy and quality of life. Statistically significant results were seen in 27 studies. However, three studies demonstrated that the evaluated interventions may not have been very beneficial. Conclusions: The overall positive results suggest that any psychosocial interventions are favourable and should be delivered to all natural disaster survivors, irrespective of age, country, and phase of disaster. Yet, heterogeneity and methodological shortcomings of the current evidence-base makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions needed to formulate categorical guidance or frameworks. Further, rigorously conducted research is needed in this area, although the feasibility of such, given the context and nature of the problem, is also recognized.
Telemedicine in Physician Assistant Education: A Partnership with Community Agency
A core challenge of physician assistant education is preparing professionals for lifelong learning. While this conventionally has encompassed scientific advances, students must also embrace new care delivery models and technologies. Telemedicine, the provision of care via two-way audio and video, is an example of a technological advance reforming health care. During a three-semester sequence of Hospital Community Experiences, physician assistant students were assigned experiences with Answer Health on Demand, a telemedicine collaborative. Preceding the experiences, the agency lectured on the application of telemedicine. Students were then introduced to the technology and partnered with a provider. Prior to observing the patient-provider interaction, patient consent was obtained. Afterwards, students completed a reflection paper on lessons learned and the potential impact of telemedicine on their careers. Thematic analysis was completed on the students’ reflection papers (n=13). Preceding the lecture and experience, over 75% of students (10/13) were unaware of telemedicine. Several stated they were 'skeptical' about the effectiveness of 'impersonal' health care appointments. After the experience, all students remarked that telemedicine will play a large role in the future of healthcare and will provide benefits by improving access in rural areas, decreasing wait time, and saving cost. More importantly, 30% of students (4/13) commented that telemedicine is a technology they can see themselves using in their future practice. Initial results indicate that collaborative interaction between students and telemedicine providers enhanced student learning and exposed students to technological advances in the delivery of care. Further, results indicate that students perceived telemedicine more favorably as a viable delivery method after the experience.
Effectiveness of Cranberry Ingesting for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection to our best knowledge. Objective: This study is to investigate whether cranberry ingesting could improve the urinary tract infection. Methods: We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library for relevant randomized controlled trials without language limitations between 9 March 1994 and June 30, 2017, with a priori defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The search terms included (cranberry OR Vaccinium macrocarpon OR Vaccinium oxy-coccus OR Vaccinium microcarpum OR Vaccinium erythrocarpum OR Vaccinium) AND (urinary tract infection OR bacteriuria OR pyuria) AND (effect OR effective-ness OR efficacy) AND (random OR randomized). Results: There were 26 studies met the selection criteria included among 4709 eligible participants. We analyzed all trials in meta-analysis. The random-effects pooled risk ratio (RR) for the group using cranberry versus using placebo was 0.75; 95%CI[0.63, 0.880]; p-value=0.0002) and heterogeneity was 56%. Furthermore, we divided the subjects into different subgroup to analysis. Ingesting cranberry seemed to be more effective in some subgroups, including the patients with recurrent UTI (RR, 0.71; 95%CI[0.54,0.93]; p-value=0.002) (I²= 65%) and female population (RR, 0.73, 95%CI[0.58,0.92]; p-value=0.002) (I²= 59%). The prevention effect was not different between cranberry and trimethoprim (RR, 1.25, 95%CI[0.67, 2.33]; p-value=0.49) (I²= 68%). No matter the forms of cranberry were capsules or juice, the efficacy was useful. Conclusions: It is showed that cranberry ingesting is usefully associated with prevention UTI. There are more effective in prevention of UTI in some groups.
Family Caregivers' Burden in Providing Care to the Hospitalized Elderly: Findings from Two Hospitals in Kolkata, India
Family caregivers are vital in providing physical and emotional care to the aged. Providing care to aged involves physical as well as psycho-socio-economic challenges, compels the caregiver to fit in manifold roles, feel overburdened; which in turn requires them to change their priorities in life. The study conducted on family caregivers of the hospitalized elderly explores caregiver’s burden using Zarit Burden Scale (ZBS). The data has been collected from two randomly selected Multispecialty Hospitals in Kolkata (India), after obtaining ethical clearance from the Institutional Review Board of both the hospitals. The predictors of burden were also assessed using interview schedules. Among fifty-seven caregivers who participated in the study, caregiver’s burden was identified among thirty respondents with twenty-six having mild to moderate burden and four having moderate to severe burden. Majority of the caregivers were found to be female, reflecting the gendered nature of caregiving. Family caregivers spent more than six hours per day on caregiving, which severely disturbed their work-life including loss of job. The study revealed that the caregivers’ marital status, family structure, academic qualification, occupation and time spent on caregiving are related to family caregivers’ burden. The burden of care giving was accentuated by poor access to information, counseling, and lack of supportive services. The paper concludes by indicating the need for greater state interventions for caregivers.
Assessing the Feasibility of a Paediatric Early Warning Score in a Rural Ugandan Hospital
Background: Paediatric early warning scores (PEWS) are widely used across the developed world and have been shown to facilitate detection of deteriorating patients and improve clinical outcomes. Despite evidence for their efficacy, the use of PEWS in the developing world is limited. The objective of this work was to evaluate the current system for monitoring paediatric vital signs in a rural Ugandan hospital and to assess the feasibility of implementing a PEWS. Methods: To evaluate the current system for monitoring vital signs a questionnaire-based interview was carried out with staff members on the paediatric ward of a rural Ugandan hospital. Responses were analyzed using a combination of Likert scales, multiple choice questions, and thematic analysis. To assess the feasibility of implementing a PEWS, we calculated a modified PEWS (mPEWS) for inpatients aged under 5 and collected 7-day outcome data to see whether mPEWS could predict mortality. We also attempted to calculate the burden of critical illness using mPEWS≥4 as a marker of critical illness. Results: In total 8 interviews were carried out, revealing a concerning lack of consensus amongst staff regarding which vital signs were routinely monitored. Temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturations and blood pressure were considered routine by 100%, 87.5%, 75%, 62.5% and 12.5% of participants respectively. There was also a lack of consensus regarding the minimum frequency of observation which ranged from half (12.5% of participants), 4 (12.5%), 12 (50%) and 24-hourly (25%). Knowledge of abnormal vital signs was poor. For example, only 25% of participants we aware that tachycardia and bradypnoea were concerning. Recording of vital signs was absent, 100% of inpatient observation charts (n=23) were incomplete. A mPEWS was calculated for 23 inpatients, and remarkably the admission diagnosis was malaria in 96%. We could not use mPEWS to predict mortality because the 7-day mortality was 0%. We estimated the proportion of critically unwell patients to be 4%, using mPEWS ≥4 as a marker. Conclusions: The current system for monitoring vital signs has substantial limitations including a lack of consensus regarding which vital signs are monitored and how frequently, a poor knowledge of vital sign reference ranges and absence of documentation. Although we were unable to calculate the test characteristics of mPEWS, the burden of critical illness was estimated at 4%. Implementation of mPEWS has potential to address many of the limitations of the current system. Given the overwhelming burden of malaria in our cohort, future work should investigate the implementation of a malaria-specific mPEWS.
Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection and Associated Risk Factors among School Children in a Selected Barangay in the Philippines
Soil-transmitted helminth infection remains to be one of the leading public health problem worldwide, which is common in the rural developing regions especially among children. This study aimed to detect the presence of soil transmitted helminths among children and its associated transmission factors. Descriptive cross sectional research was the design used in the study and questionnaires were administered. Stool samples were collected among the samples (n=108) and were analyzed using kato thick method. Results showed that 61 out of 108 respondents are infected by soil transmitted helminth infection with A. lumbricoides the highest, followed by hookworm and T. trichuria. Parent's educational attainment, hand washing practices, and water sources were found to be associated with presence of Soil Transmitted Helminth infection.