High Pressure Processing of Jackfruit Bulbs: Effect on Color, Nutrient Profile and Enzyme Inactivation
Jackfruit (ArtocarpusheterophyllusL.) is an underutilized yet highly nutritious fruit with unique flavour, known for its therapeutic and culinary properties. Fresh jackfruit bulb has a very short shelf life due to high moisture and sugar content leading to microbial and enzymatic browning, hindering its consumer acceptability and marketability. An attempt has been made for the preservation of the ripe jackfruit bulbs, by the application of high pressure (HP) over a range of 200-500 MPa at ambient temperature for dwell times ranging from 5 to 20 min. The physicochemical properties of jackfruit bulbs such as the pH, TSS, and titrable acidity were not affected by the pressurization process. The ripening index of the fruit bulb also decreased following HP treatment. While the ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity of jackfruit bulb were well retained by high pressure processing (HPP), the total phenols and carotenoids showed a slight increase. The HPP significantly affected the colour and textural properties of jackfruit bulb. High pressure processing was highly effective in reducing the browning index of jackfruit bulbs in comparison to untreated bulbs. The firmness of the bulbs improved upon the pressure treatment with longer dwelling time. The polyphenol oxidase has been identified as the most prominent oxidative enzyme in the jackfruit bulb. The enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase were significantly reduced by up to 40% following treatment at 400 MPa/15 min. HPP of jackfruit bulbs at ambient temperatures is shown to be highly beneficial in improving the shelf stability, retaining its nutrient profile, color, and appearance while ensuring the maximum inactivation of the spoilage enzymes.
Effect of High Pressure Treatment on Soaking Characteristics of Soybean and Extracted Milk Properties
This study investigates the effect of ultrasound assisted high pressure (HP) treatment on the soaking characteristic of soybeans and extracted soy milk quality. The soybean (variety) was subjected to sonication (US) at ambient temperature for 15 and 30 min followed by HP treatment in the range of 200-400 MPa for dwell times 5-10 min. The bean samples were also compared with HPP samples (200-400 MPa; 5-10 mins), overnight soaked samples (12-15 h) and thermal treated samples (100 °C/30 min) followed by overnight soaking for 12-15 h soaking. Rapid soaking within 40 min was achieved by the combined US-HPP treatment, and it reduced the soaking time by about 25 times in comparison to overnight soaking or thermal treatment followed by soaking. Reducing the soaking time of soybeans is expected to suppress the development of undesirable beany flavor of soy milk developed during normal soaking milk extraction. The optimum moisture uptake by the sonicated-pressure treated soybeans was 60-62% (w.b) similar to that obtained after overnight soaking for 12-15 h or thermal treatment followed by overnight soaking. pH of soy milk was not much affected by the different US-HPP treatments and overnight soaking which centered around the range of 6.6-6.7 much like the normal cow milk. For milk extracted from thermally treated soy samples, pH reduced to 6.2. Total soluble solids (TSS) were found to be maximum for the normal overnight soaked soy samples, and it was in the range of 10.3-10.6. For the HPP treated soy milk, the TSS reduced to 7.4 while sonication further reduced it to 6.2. TSS was found to be getting reduced with increasing time of ultrasonication. Further reduction in TSS to 2.3 was observed in soy milk produced from thermally treated samples following overnight soaking. Our results conclude that thermally treated beans milk is less stable and more acidic, soaking is very rapid compared to overnight soaking hence milk productivity can be enhanced with less development of undesirable beany flavor.
Effect of Extrusion Processing Parameters on Protein in Banana Flour: Characterisation, Structural and Functional Changes Using SDS-PAGE Method and FTIR
Extrusion processing is a high-temperature short time (HTST) treatment which can improve protein quality and digestibility together with retaining active nutrients. In-vitro protein digestibility of plant protein-based foods is generally enhanced by extrusion. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of extrusion cooking on in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and conformational modification of protein in green banana flour extrudates. Green banana flour was extruded through a co-rotating twin-screw extruder varying the moisture content, barrel temperature, screw speed in the range of 5-20 %, 70-120 °C, 150-250 rpm, respectively, at constant feed rate. Response surface methodology was used to optimise the result for IVPD. Polyacrylamide sodium dodecyl sulphate slab gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method was used to separate and characterize proteins by applying electric current and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provided a convenient and powerful means to monitor interactions and changes in functional and conformational properties of extrudates. Results showed that protein digestibility was highest in extrudate produced at 120°C, 200 rpm and 5% feed moisture. SDS-PAGE analysis and FTIR analysis was done for the optimised sample having highest IVPD. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that there were no changes in primary structure of protein while the secondary and tertiary structure changed. In order to explain this behaviour, infrared spectroscopy analysis was carried out, mainly in the amide I and II regions. Moreover, curve fitting analysis showed the conformational changes produced in the flour due to protein denaturation. The quantitative analysis of the changes in the amide I and II regions provided information about the modifications produced in banana flour extrudates.
Inhibition of α-Glucosidase and Xanthine Oxidase by Curcumin and Its Analogs
Curcumin is the main active compound of turmeric that can inhibit the activities of α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase (XO). α-Glucosidase and XO inhibitors are widely used to treat patients with diabetes mellitus and gout, respectively; therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the inhibitory activities of curcumin and its analogs against α-glucosidase and XO. Our results demonstrated that CM-F had the strongest antioxidant activity with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 9.39 ± 0.16 μM, which was superior to vitamin E (EC50=17.03 ± 0.09 μM). CM-F also exhibited potent inhibitory activity against XO with an IC50 value of 6.14 ± 0.38 μM and enzyme kinetic results revealed competitive inhibition of XO. We also found that CM-1 and CM-2 inhibited α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 21.06 ± 0.92 μM and 5.95 ± 0.09 μM, respectively, and kinetic studies indicated that both CM-1 and CM-2 are mixed competitive inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Furthermore, docking simulation identified five hydrogen bonds between XO and CM-F; however, only one and two hydrogen bonds are involved in CM-1 and CM-2 binding to α-glucosidase, respectively. Accordingly, curcumin and its analogs have the potential to be used in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus and gout.
Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance as a Potential Analytical Tool to Assess Thermisation in Ewe's Milk
Some of the artisanal cheeses products of European Countries certificated as PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) are made from raw milk. To recognise potential frauds (e.g. pasteurisation or thermisation of milk aimed at raw milk cheese production), the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is currently applied only for pasteurisation, although it is known to have notable limitations for the validation of ALP enzymatic state in nonbovine milk. It is known that frauds considerably impact on customers and certificating institutions, sometimes resulting in a damage of the product image and potential economic losses for cheesemaking producers. Robust, validated, and univocal analytical methods are therefore needed to allow Food Control and Security Organisms, to recognise a potential fraud. In an attempt to develop a new reliable method to overcome this issue, Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR) spectroscopy has been applied in the described work. Daily fresh milk was analysed raw (680.00 µL in each 10-mm NMR glass tube) at least in triplicate. Thermally treated samples were also produced, by putting each NMR tube of fresh raw milk in water pre-heated at temperatures from 68°C up to 72°C and for up to 3 min, with continuous agitation, and quench-cooled to 25°C in a water and ice solution. Raw and thermally treated samples were analysed in terms of 1H T2 transverse relaxation times with a CPMG sequence (Recycle Delay: 6 s, interpulse spacing: 0.05 ms, 8000 data points) and quasi-continuous distributions of T2 relaxation times were obtained by CONTIN analysis. In line with previous data collected by high field NMR techniques, a decrease in the spin-spin relaxation constant T2 of the predominant 1H population was detected in heat-treated milk as compared to raw milk. The decrease of T2 parameter is consistent with changes in chemical exchange and diffusive phenomena, likely associated to changes in milk protein (i.e. whey proteins and casein) arrangement promoted by heat treatment. Furthermore, experimental data suggest that molecular alterations are strictly dependent on the specific heat treatment conditions (temperature/time). Such molecular variations in milk, which are likely transferred to cheese during cheesemaking, highlight the possibility to extend the TD-NMR technique directly on cheese to develop a method for assessing a fraud related to the use of a milk thermal treatment in PDO raw milk cheese. Results suggest that TDNMR assays might pave a new way to the detailed characterisation of heat treatments of milk.
Effects of Particle Sizes of Maize Flour on the Quality of Traditional Maize Snack, Kokoro
The effects of particle sizes of maize flour on the quality of traditional maize snack (Kokoro) were investigated. Maize flour of different sieve mesh sizes of 1.00mm, 1.9 mm, 1.4 mm, 1.68 mm and 2.0 mm was used to produce Kokoro. The samples were analysed for protein, fat, moisture content, crude fibre, ash and sensory evaluation. The various mixture obtained were separately processed into snacks following essential traditional method of production. The result of the sensory evaluation showed that Kokoro of sample 546 using 1.0mm mesh sieve size was the most preferred and sample 513 using 2.00 was least preferred. The result revealed that the more the maize was well blended the more acceptable the product is to the consumer.
Simple Assessments to Demystify Complementary Feeding: Leveraging a Successful Literacy Initiative Assessment Approach in Gujarat, India
Age approporiate complementary feeding has been stressed upon for sound young child nutrition and appropriate growth. National Infant and Young Child Feeding guidelines, policies and programs indicate cognizance of the issue taken by the country’s government, policy makers and technical experts. However, it is important that ordinary people, the caregivers of young children too understand the importance of appropriate feeding. For this, an interface might be required where ordinary people could participate in assessing the gaps in IYCF as a first step to take subsequent action. In this context an attempt was made to extrapolate a citizen led learning level survey that has been involving around 25000 ordinary citizens to reach out to 600,000 children annually for over a decade in India. Based on this philosophy of involving ordinary people in simple assessments to produce understandable actionable evidence, a rapid diet assessment tool was developed and collected from caregivers of 90 < 3year children from two urban clusters in Ahmedabad and Baroda, Gujarat. Target sample for pilot was selected after cluster census. Around half the mothers reported that they had not yet introduced water or other fluids to their < 6 month babies. However, about a third were already feeding them food other than mother’s milk. Although complementary feeding was initiated in almost all (95%) children more than 6 months old, frequency was suboptimal in 60%; in 80% cases no measure was taken to either improve energy or nutrient density; only 33% were fed protective foods; Green Leafy Vegetables consumption was negligible (1.4%). Anganwadi food was not consumed. By engaging ordinary people to generate evidence and understand the gaps, such assessments have the potential to be used to generate useful evidence for action at scale as well as locally.
Evaluation of Toxic Elements in Thai Rice Samples
Toxic elements in rice samples are great concern in Thailand because rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for Thai people. Furthermore, rice is an economic crop of Thailand for export. In this study, the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in rice samples collected from the paddy fields in the northern, northeastern and southern regions of Thailand were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in fifty-five rice samples were 0.112 0.056, 0.029 0.037 and 0.030.033 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. All rice samples showed As, Cd and Pb lower than the limit data of Codex. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of As, Cd, and Pb from rice consumption were 0.026 0.013, 0.007 0.009 and 0.007 0.008 mg day⁻¹, respectively. The percentage contribution to Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) values of As, Cd and Pb for Thai male (body weight of 69 kg) was 17.6%, 9.7% and 2.9%, respectively, and for Thai female (body weight of 57 kg) was 21.3%, 11.7% and 3.5%, respectively. The findings indicated that all studied rice samples are safe for consumption.
Factors Influencing the Choice of Food Intake of Students of the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing the student’s choice of food intake, a case study of the Federal Polytechnic, Bida. A review of the past work was done, and many key points were noted. A sample population of 1000 students was selected randomly (i.e. 200 students from each school) who were in the 2011/2012 academic session. The factor influencing the students' foods intake ranges from economic factors (food cost, income, availability of food), physical factors (easy to cook, shortest time), social factors (cultural, family and meal pattern) attitudes, belief and knowledge about food were discovered. The data collected were tabulated in frequency and percentages. It was revealed that ‘easy method of cooking and preparation’ influenced students’ choice of food intake more (34%) and the food frequency questionnaire shows that the students eat more of carbohydrates foods compared to other classes of food. The cooking skills of students were low (1%) which may be responsible for the limitations in the food choices. It is, therefore, recommended that students should be equipped with sound cooking skills to increase their range of food intake. Variety is needed in diet/meal because the required nutrients are scattered among many different foods.
Effect of Spermidine on Physicochemical Properties of Protein Based Films
Protein-based edible films and coatings have attracted an increasing interest in recent years since they might be used to protect pharmaceuticals or improve the shelf life of different food products. Among them, several plant proteins represent an abundant, inexpensive and renewable raw source. These natural biopolymers are used as film forming agents, being able to form intermolecular linkages by various interactions. However, without the addition of a plasticizing agent, many biomaterials are brittle and, consequently, very difficult to be manipulated. Plasticizers are generally small and non-volatile organic additives used to increase film extensibility and reduce its crystallinity, brittleness and water vapor permeability. Plasticizers normally act by decreasing the intermolecular forces along the polymer chains, thus reducing the relative number of polymer-polymer contacts, producing a decrease in cohesion and tensile strength and thereby increasing film flexibility allowing its deformation without rupture. The most commonly studied plasticizers are polyols, like glycerol (GLY) and some mono or oligosaccharides. In particular, GLY not only increases film extensibility but also migrates inside the film network often causing the loss of desirable mechanical properties of the material. Therefore, replacing GLY with a different plasticizer might help to improve film characteristics allowing potential industrial applications. To improve film properties, it seemed of interest to test as plasticizers some cationic small molecules like polyamines (PAs). Putrescine, spermidine (SPD), and spermine are PAs widely distributed in nature and of particular interest for their biological activities that may have some beneficial health effects. Since PAs contains amino instead of hydroxyl functional groups, they are able to trigger ionic interactions with negatively charged proteins. Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia; BV) is an ancient grain legume crop, originated in the Mediterranean region, which can be found today in many countries around the world. This annual Vicia genus shows several favorable features, being their seeds a cheap and abundant protein source. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different concentrations of SPD on the mechanical and permeability properties of films prepared with native or heat denatured BV proteins in the presence of different concentrations of SPD and/or GLY. Therefore, a BV seed protein concentrate (BVPC), containing about 77% proteins, was used to prepare film forming solutions (FFSs), whereas GLY and SPD were added as film plasticizers, either singly or in combination, at various concentrations. Since a primary plasticizer is generally defined as a molecule that when added to a material makes it softer, more flexible and easier to be processed, our findings lead to consider SPD as a possible primary plasticizer of protein-based films. In fact, the addition of millimolar concentrations of SPD to BVPC FFS allowed obtaining handleable biomaterials with improved properties. Moreover, SPD can be also considered as a secondary plasticizer, namely an 'extender', because of its ability even to enhance the plasticizing performance of GLY. In conclusion, our studies indicate that innovative edible protein-based films and coatings can be obtained by using PAs as new plasticizers.
Potential Application of Artocarpus odoratisimmus Seed Flour in Bread Production
The search for lesser known and underutilized crops, many of which are potentially valuable as human and animal foods has been the focus of research in recent years. Tarap (Artocarpus odoratisimmus) is one of the most delicious tropical fruit and can be found extensively in Borneo, particularly in Sabah and Sarawak. This study was conducted in order to determine the proximate composition, mineral contents as well as to study the effect of the seed flour on the quality of bread produced. Tarap seed powder (TSP) was incorporated (up to 20%) with wheat flour and used to produce bread. The moisture content, ash, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber were measured using AOAC methods while the mineral content was determined using AAS. The effect of substitution of wheat flour with Tarap seed flour on the quality of dough and bread was investigated using various techniques. Farinograph tests were applied to determine the effect of seaweed powder on the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, while texture profile analysis (TPA) was used to measure the textural properties of the final product. Besides that sensory evaluations were also conducted. On a dry weight basis, the TSP was composed of 12.50% moisture, 8.78% protein, 15.60% fat, 1.17% ash, 49.65% carbohydrate and 12.30% of crude fiber. The highest mineral found were Mg, followed by K, Ca, Fe and Na respectively. Farinograh results found that as TSP percentage increased, dough consistency, water absorption capacity and development time of dough decreased. Sensory analysis results showed that bread with 10% of TSP was the most accepted by panelists where the highest acceptability score were found for aroma, taste, colour, crumb texture as well as overall acceptance. The breads with more than 10% of TSP obtained lower acceptability score in most of attributes tested.
Assessing Acute Toxicity And Endocrine Disruption Potential Of Selected Packages Internal Layers Extracts
In the scientific literature related to the widely understood issue of packaging materials designed to have contact with food (food contact materials), there is much information on raw materials used for their production, as well as their physiochemical properties, types, and parameters. However, not much attention is given to the issues concerning migration of toxic substances from packaging and its actual influence on the health of the final consumer, even though health protection and food safety are the priority tasks. The goal of this study was to estimate the impact of particular foodstuff packaging type, food production, and storage conditions on the degree of leaching of potentially toxic compounds and endocrine disruptors to foodstuffs using the acute toxicity test Microtox and XenoScreen YES YAS assay. The selected foodstuff packaging materials were metal cans used for fish storage and tetrapak. Five stimulants respectful to specific kinds of food were chosen in order to assess global migration: distilled water for aqueous foods with a pH above 4.5; acetic acid at 3% in distilled water for acidic aqueous food with pH below 4.5; ethanol at 5% for any food that may contain alcohol; dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and artificial saliva were used in regard to the possibility of using it as an simulation medium. For each packaging three independent variables (temperature and contact time) factorial design simulant was performed. Xenobiotics migration from epoxy resins was studied at three different temperatures (25°C, 65°C, and 121°C) and extraction time of 12h, 48h and 2 weeks. Such experimental design leads to 9 experiments for each food simulant as conditions for each experiment are obtained by combination of temperature and contact time levels. Each experiment was run in triplicate for acute toxicity and in duplicate for estrogen disruption potential determination. Multi-factor analysis of variation (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the effects of the three main factors solvent, temperature (temperature regime for cup), contact time and their interactions on the respected dependent variable (acute toxicity or estrogen disruption potential). From all stimulants studied the most toxic were can and tetrapak lining acetic acid extracts that are indication for significant migration of toxic compounds. This migration increased with increase of contact time and temperature and justified the hypothesis that food products with low pH values cause significant damage internal resin filling. Can lining extracts of all simulation medias excluding distilled water and artificial saliva proved to contain androgen agonists even at 25°C and extraction time of 12h. For tetrapak extracts significant endocrine potential for acetic acid, DMSO and saliva were detected.
The Food and Nutrition Security in Brazilian Quilombo: The Account of Experiences in Two Titled Territories
Socioeconomic inequalities in Brazil have accentuated the aggravations of poverty among the most vulnerable populations, among which are the quilombola communities. The objective was to reflect on a situation of food and nutritional security in two Brazilian quilombola communities. The data were collected by means of reports of experience through the production of talk wheels in two quilombola communities (Itamatatiua and Mesquita), located in the cities of Alcântara and Cidade Ocidental. Access to health services and health promotion actions were still incipient in the quilombola communities visited. The perceptions of the participants of the quilombolas revealed that there are still repressed demands that have rendered the fulfillment of the principles of equity, universality and integrality, both for access to health and for access and availability of food. They recognize in governmental instances a socioeconomic-cultural valorization and nutritional qualities intrinsic to the foods produced by them. Although they have been used as communities of quilombolas live and their level of access to services and programs, dealing with quilombola communities does not mean dealing with 'isolated groups or a strictly homogeneous population.' It demands a great need of attention in relation to the access and availability of food, besides overcoming barriers that made it an unfeasible valuation of social, economic and cultural precepts, intrinsic to the thought about food and nutritional security in Brazilian quilombos.
qPCR Method for Detection of Halal Food Adulteration
Nowadays, European producers are increasingly interested in the production of halal meat products. Halal meat has been increasingly appearing in the EU's market network and meat products from European producers are being exported to Islamic countries. Halal criteria are mainly related to the origin of muscle used in production, and also to the way products are obtained and processed. Although the EU has legislatively addressed the question of food authenticity, the circumstances of previous years when products with undeclared horse or poultry meat content appeared on EU markets raised the question of the effectiveness of control mechanisms. Replacement of expensive or not-available types of meat for low-priced meat has been on a global scale for a long time. Likewise, halal products may be contaminated (falsified) by pork or food components obtained from pigs. These components include collagen, offal, pork fat, mechanically separated pork, emulsifier, blood, dried blood, dried blood plasma, gelatin, and others. These substances can influence sensory properties of the meat products - color, aroma, flavor, consistency and texture or they are added for preservation and stabilization. Food manufacturers sometimes access these substances mainly due to their dense availability and low prices. However, the use of these substances is not always declared on the product packaging. Verification of the presence of declared ingredients, including the detection of undeclared ingredients, are among the basic control procedures for determining the authenticity of food. Molecular biology methods, based on DNA analysis, offer rapid and sensitive testing. The PCR method and its modification can be successfully used to identify animal species in single- and multi-ingredient raw and processed foods and qPCR is the first choice for food analysis. Like all PCR-based methods, it is simple to implement and its greatest advantage is the absence of post-PCR visualization by electrophoresis. qPCR allows detection of trace amounts of nucleic acids, and by comparing an unknown sample with a calibration curve, it can also provide information on the absolute quantity of individual components in the sample. Our study addresses a problem that is related to the fact that the molecular biological approach of most of the work associated with the identification and quantification of animal species is based on the construction of specific primers amplifying the selected section of the mitochondrial genome. In addition, the sections amplified in conventional PCR are relatively long (hundreds of bp) and unsuitable for use in qPCR, because in DNA fragmentation, amplification of long target sequences is quite limited. Our study focuses on finding a suitable genomic DNA target and optimizing qPCR to reduce variability and distortion of results, which is necessary for the correct interpretation of quantification results. In halal products, the impact of falsification of meat products by the addition of components derived from pigs is all the greater that it is not just about the economic aspect but above all about the religious and social aspect. This work was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (QJ1530107).
In vitro Study of Inflammatory Gene Expression Suppression of Strawberry and Blackberry Extracts
The physiology of various inflammatory diseases is a complex process mediated by inflammatory and immune cells such as macrophages and monocytes. Chronic inflammation, as observed in many cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, occurs when the low-grade inflammatory response fails to resolve with time. Because of the complexity of the chronic inflammatory disease, major efforts have focused on identifying novel anti-inflammatory agents and dietary regimes that prevent the pro-inflammatory process at the early stage of gene expression of key pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. The ability of the extracts of three blackberry cultivars (‘Jumbo’, ‘Black Satin’ and ‘Dirksen’), and one strawberry cultivar (‘Camarosa’) to inhibit four well-known genetic biomarkers of inflammation: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxynase-2 (Cox-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in an in vitro lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model were investigated. Moreover, the effect of latter extracts on the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production was assessed. Assay was conducted with 50 µg/mL crude extract concentration, an amount that is easily achievable in the gastrointestinal tract after berries consumption. The mRNA expression levels of Cox-2 and IL-6 were reduced consistently (more than 30%) by extracts of ‘Jumbo’ and ‘Black Satin’ blackberries. Strawberry extracts showed high reduction in mRNA expression levels of IL-6 (more than 65%) and exhibited moderate reduction in mRNA expression of Cox-2 (more than 35%). The latter behavior mirrors the intracellular ROS production of the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages after the treatment with blackberry ‘Black Satin’ and ‘Jumbo’, and strawberry ‘Camarosa’ extracts, suggesting that phytochemicals from these fruits may play a role in the health maintenance by reducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, effective inhibition in the gene expression of IL-1β and iNOS was not observed by any of blackberry and strawberry extracts. However, suppression in the NO production in the activated macrophages among 5–25% was observed by ‘Jumbo’ and ‘Black Satin’ blackberry extracts and ‘Camarosa’ strawberry extracts, suggesting a higher NO suppression property by phytochemicals of these fruits. All these results suggest the potential beneficial effects of studied berries as functional foods with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles. Moreover, the underlying role of phytochemicals from these fruits in the protection of inflammatory process will deserve to be further explored.
The Effects of Different Feedings on Chemical Characteristics of Atlantic Salmon Fillet
The quality of fish muscle is a key factor in fish industry, and dietary ingredients can influence fish quality. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of krill meal, soybean meal, Bactocell® and butyrate fortified feeds and control diet on characteristics of salmon fillet. Thirty Atlantic salmon (6 per each group) were farmed for 12 weeks. All the fish were killed and frozen immediately. The white muscle from top posterior part of dorsal fin was dissected to analyze fat content, carotenoid content, content of water-soluble and salt-soluble proteins, cathepsin B and cathepsin B-L activities. ANOVA test was used to analyze mean and standard error of mean values at 0.05 significance level. There were significant difference in cathepsin B activity, water-soluble proteins and salt-soluble proteins (p-value= 0.005, 0.009 and 0.002). The mean values of other factors were not significantly different among the groups. Cathepsin B activity was higher in soymeal group. Water-soluble proteins were reported higher in soy meal and krill groups and salt-soluble proteins were significantly higher in soy meal and butyrate rich diets. Although soy meal has proven effect on enteritis, it results in higher percentage of protein in fillets. On the other hand, this feeding may have role in textural deterioration of fillets owing to higher values of endogenous cathepsin B in soymeal group.
Rheology and Structural Arrest of Dense Dairy Suspensions: A Soft Matter Approach
The rheological properties of dairy products critically depend on the underlying organisation of proteins at multiple length scales. When heated and acidified, milk proteins form particle gel that is viscoelastic, solvent rich, ‘soft’ material. In this work recent developments on the rheology of soft particles suspensions were used to interpret and potentially define the properties of dairy gel structures. It is discovered that at volume fractions below random close packing (RCP), the Maron-Pierce-Quemada (MPQ) model accurately predicts the viscosity of the dairy gel suspensions without fitting parameters; the MPQ model has been shown previously to provide reasonable predictions of the viscosity of hard sphere suspensions from the volume fraction, solvent viscosity and RCP. This surprising finding demonstrates that up to RCP, the dairy gel system behaves as a hard sphere suspension and that the structural aggregates behave as discrete particulates akin to what is observed for microgel suspensions. At effective phase volumes well above RCP, the system is a soft solid. In this region, it is discovered that the storage modulus of the sheared AMG scales with the storage modulus of the set gel. The storage modulus in this regime is reasonably well described as a function of effective phase volume by the Evans and Lips model. Findings of this work has potential to aid in rational design and control of dairy food structure-properties.
Chaenomeles superba Leaves Extract as Natural Preservative of Pork Meat Products
Curing salt is a commonly used preservative in meat products which consists of sodium chloride – 99.5% and sodium nitrate (III) – 0.5%. However, during heating processes (e.g., grilling), nitrates (III) react with proteins, peptides or amines and as a result, carcinogenic nitrosoamines are released. Therefore, more and more research focus on searching for new, natural methods of meat products preservation. Due to strong antioxidant and antibacterial activity, as well as health benefits, polyphenolic extracts are of great interest now. Even though polyphenols occur in all parts of plants, leaves contain the highest amounts of these compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using Chaenomeles superba leaves extract as natural preservative of pork meat products and potential substitute of curing salt. Leaves were collected in August in central Poland, and polyphenols were extracted with water. Identification and quantification of polyphenols were performed using LC-MS (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry) and HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) methods. The influence of polyphenolic extract (concentration of 1-10%) on the viability of selected meat spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta MMAP4, Staphylococcus aureus ŁOCK 0891, Pseudomonas fragi ATCC 4973, Enterobacter aerogenes PCM 532) was analyzed using acridine orange dye and fluorescence microscopy method. The following pork meat products were produced: sausage with the addition of 2% of Chaenomeles superba leaves extract, control sausage with NaCl, sausage with curing mixture. During refrigerated storage in MAP (modified atmosphere packaging), microbiological analysis, measurement of lipid oxidation (TBARS), water holding capacity, color measurement (CIEL*a*b*) and sensory analysis were performed. The following polyphenols were identified in Chaenomeles superba leaves extract: hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic, chlorogenic, cryptochlorogenic and p-coumaroylquinic acids), flavons (luteolin-rutinoside), flavanons (naringenin-glucoside) and flavonols (kaempferol-glucoside). The highest concentration of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives was detected. The extract showed antibacterial activity at minimal concentration of 1% against B. thermosphacta, S. aureus and P. fragi and 2% against E. aerogenes. Chaenomeles superba leaves extract slightly improved microbial quality of pork sausages during refrigerated storage in MAP compared to sausage with NaCl. The extract significantly inhibited lipid oxidation and improved water holding capacity of meat products. No influence was observed on color parameters and only curing salt gave characteristic pink-red color of sausages. The extract did not have any negative effect on sensory attributes of pork sausages. In conclusion, Chaenomeles superba leaves extract is an interesting antibacterial and antioxidant agent and show potential as natural preservative of pork meat products. More research should be conducted to improve microbial quality, and color parameters of pork sausages with Chaenomeles superba leaves extract.
in vitro Assessment of Bioactive Properties and Dose-Dependent Antioxidant Activities of Commercial Grape Cultivars in Taiwan
Grapes are excellent sources of bioactive compounds, which have been suggested to be responsible for lowering the risk of chronic diseases. Fresh and freeze-dried extracts of Kyoho and Jubilee, commercial grape varieties available in Taiwan and attractive for their quality berries, were investigated for their total phenolics and total ﬂavonoids contents and related dose-dependent antioxidants properties using various in vitro assays. The efficiency of the extraction yield ranged from 7.10 % to 25.53 % (w/w), depending on solvent used. Fresh samples of Kyoho and Jubilee exhibited total polyphenolic contents (351.56 ± 23.08 and 328.67 ± 16.54 µg GAE/mL, respectively), whereas Kyoho freeze-dried methanol: water extracts contains the good levels of total flavonoids (4767.82 ± 22.20 µg QE/mL). Kyoho and Jubilee freeze-dried extracts exhibited the highest total flavonoid contents. There was a weak correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid assays (r= -0.05, R2 = 0.02, p > 0.05). Kyoho fresh and freeze-dried samples showed the DPPH (11.51 – 77.82 %), superoxide scavenging activity (33.61 – 81.95 %), and total antioxidant inhibition (92.01 – 99.28 %), respectively. Total flavonoids were statistically correlated with EC50 DPPH scavenging radicals (r =0.91, p < 0.01), EC50 nitric oxide (r = 0.25, p > 0.05), and EC50 lipid peroxidation radicals (r = 0.38, p > 0.05). These results suggested that the two commercial grape cultivars in Taiwan could be used as a good source of natural antioxidants. Thus, consumption of grapes as a source antioxidant might lower the risk of chronic diseases. Moreover, future studies will investigate and develop phenolic acid profile for the cultivars in Taiwan.
Analysis of Microbiological Quality and Detection of Antibiotic Residue in Bovine Raw Milk Produced in Blida State, Algeria
Bovine raw milk represents a favorable environment for the growth of several food-spoilage strains and some pathogens. It must meet stringent standards to ensure the highest microbiological and toxicological qualities.In order to assess the microbiological risks associated with the consumption of this food, we conducted this study to determine the microbiological quality of bovine raw milk (54 samples) commercialized at the state of Blida (Algeria). The samples analyzed were unsatisfactory in terms of total flora where 61.11% of samples were considered as non acceptable in terms of quality standards, fecal coliforms (40.74%), fecal streptococci (55.55%) and staphylococci (74.07%). Salmonella and Clostridium strains were not detected in all the samples. Furthermore, antibiotic residues were found in 26% of analysed samples. These results reflect non-compliance with the rules of good hygiene practices at milking, storage, transportatio, and sale of milk. Bovine raw milk consumed presents a serious health risk to the population of the study areas.The livestock coaching actors and dissemination of good hygiene practices throughout the production chain are needed to improve the quality of local milk.
Occurrence of Ranavirus in Edible Frogs and Fish Sold for Human Consumption in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria
Ranaviruses are belonging to the viral Family Iridoviridae, are a group of globally emerging pathogens recognized as major viral pathogens of cold-blooded vertebrates. They cause systemic infection in ﬁshes, amphibians, and reptiles. Ranaviruses have been associated with numerous disease outbreaks in natural and cultured populations of fish, amphibians, and reptiles. To investigate the presence of the ranavirus in fish and edible frogs sourced from dams and ponds in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 425 frogs (Rana spp.) and fishes (n=215 and n=200, respectively) were randomly collected based on consent and availability. Liver, kidney, and spleen tissue samples from each animal were pooled and homogenized. The samples were screened for ranavirus using the Indirect Enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An overall prevalence of 46.1% (196/425) was obtained from the study. Frogs had a prevalence of 51.2% (110/215) while fish had 43% (86/200). This is the first study on ranavirus in fish and edible frogs in Nigeria. This study has established that edible frogs (Rana spp) and fishes sold in Zaria, Nigeria were infected with ranavirus which may have great economic importance to the nation’s aquaculture. In view of occasional massive economic losses observed in fishery industry due to deaths of unknown origin, this preliminary investigation is useful in directing veterinarians, policy makers and researchers on need to survey for ranavirus and also enlighten the relevant stakeholders on its prevention and control in Nigeria.
In vitro Antioxidant, Anticancer Properties and Probiotic Characteristics of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains
Probiotic strains can potentially be used as bio-preservatives and functional food supplement. Eight lactic acid bacteria strains (LAB) Lactobacillus brevis NRRL B-4527; Streptococcus thermophilus BLM 58; Pediococcusacidilactici ATCC 8042; Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCUG 1452; Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 51436; Lactococcuslactis sub sp. lactisDSM 20481; Lactobacillus plantarum DMSZ 20079 and Lactobacillus plantarumTF103 were selected to screen the antioxidant, anticancer potential and probiotic properties. LAB strains exhibited good probiotic, antioxidant properties and showed antagonistic activity against food-borne pathogenic (Bacillus subtilis DB 100 host; Candida albicans ATCCMYA-2876; Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3584; Escherichia coli BA 12296; Klebsiellapneumoniae ATCC12296; Salmonella senftenberg ATCC 8400 and Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 10788). Further, in vitro probiotic properties of eight strains displayed excellent acid tolerance, bile tolerance, simulated gastrointestinal juice tolerance, in vitro adhesion ability for HT-29 cell line. The antioxidant effect of intracellular and cell-free extract of lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, namely, resistance to hydrogen peroxide, DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, and hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS). The results showed that intracellular and cell-free supernatant of S. Thermophilus BLM 58, L. lactissubsp.lactis DSM 20481, P. acidilactici ATCC 8042, L. brevis NRRL B-4527 strains possess excellent antioxidant capacity. The intracellular of S. Thermophilus BLM 58 and P. acidilactici ATCC 8042 also showed excellent anticancer activity against Caco-2, MCF-7, HepG-2, and PC-3. Antioxidative property of selected lactic acid bacteria strains would be useful in the functional food manufacturing industry. They could beneficially affect the consumer by providing dietary source of antioxidants.
Effects of Plasma Technology in Biodegradable Films for Food Packaging
Biodegradable films for food packaging have gained growing attention due to environmental pollution caused by synthetic films and the interest in the better use of resources from nature. Important research advances were made in the development of materials from proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. However, the commercial use of these new generation of sustainable materials for food packaging is still limited due to their low mechanical and barrier properties that could compromise the food quality and safety. Thus, strategies to improve the performance of these materials have been tested, such as chemical modifications, incorporation of reinforcing structures and others. Cold plasma is a versatile, fast and environmentally friendly technology. It consists of a partially ionized gas containing free electrons, ions, and radicals and neutral particles able to react with polymers and start different reactions, leading to the polymer degradation, functionalization, etching and/or cross-linking. In the present study, biodegradable films from fish protein prepared through the casting technique were plasma treated using an AC glow discharge equipment. The reactor was preliminary evacuated to ~7 Pa and the films were exposed to air plasma for 2, 5 and 8 min. The films were evaluated by their mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and changes in the protein structure were observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Potential cross-links and elimination of surface defects by etching might be the reason for the increase in tensile strength and decrease in the elongation at break observed. Among the times of plasma application tested, no differences were observed when higher times of exposure were used. The X-ray pattern showed a broad peak at 2θ = 19.51º that corresponds to the distance of 4.6Å by applying the Bragg’s law. This distance corresponds to the average backbone distance within the α-helix. Thus, the changes observed in the films might indicate that the helical configuration of fish protein was disturbed by plasma treatment. SEM images showed surface damage in the films with 5 and 8 min of plasma treatment, indicating that 2 min was the most adequate time of treatment. It was verified that plasma removes water from the films once weight loss of 4.45% was registered for films treated during 2 min. However, after 24 h in 50% of relative humidity, the water lost was recovered. WVP increased from 0.53 to 0.65 g.mm/h.m².kPa after plasma treatment during 2 min, that is desired for some foods applications which require water passage through the packaging. In general, the plasma technology affects the properties and structure of fish protein films. Since this technology changes the surface of polymers, these films might be used to develop multilayer materials, as well as to incorporate active substances in the surface to obtain active packaging.
Inflammatory Alleviation on Microglia Cells by an Apoptotic Mimicry
Microglia is a macrophage that resides in brain, and overactive microglia may result in brain neuron damage or inflammation. In this study, the phospholipids was extracted from squid skin and manufactured into a liposome (SQ liposome) to mimic apoptotic body. We then evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of SQ liposome on mouse microglial cell line (BV-2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. First, the major phospholipid constituents in the squid skin extract were including 46.2% of phosphatidylcholine, 18.4% of phosphatidylethanolamine, 7.7% of phosphatidylserine, 3.5% of phosphatidylinositol, 4.9% of Lysophosphatidylcholine and 19.3% of other phospholipids by HPLC-UV analysis. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the squid skin extract were 11.8 and 28.7%, respectively. The microscopic images showed that microglia cells can engulf apoptotic cells or SQ-liposome. In cell based studies, there was no cytotoxicity to BV-2 as the concentration of SQ-liposome was less than 2.5 mg/mL. The LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were significant suppressed (P < 0.05) by pretreated 0.03~2.5mg/ml SQ liposome. Oppositely, the anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion were enhanced (P < 0.05). The results suggested that SQ-liposome possess anti-inflammatory properties on BV-2 and may be a good strategy for against neuro-inflammatory disease.
Shelf Life and Overall Quality of Pretreated and Modified Atmosphere Packaged ‘Ready-to-Eat’ Pomegranate arils cv. Bhagwa Stored at 1⁰C
The effect of different pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of minimally processed pomegranate arils of Bhagwa cultivar was evaluated during storage at 1⁰C for 16 days. Hand extracted pomegranate arils were pretreated with different antioxidants and surfactants viz., 100ppm sodium hypochlorite plus 0.5 percent ascorbic acid plus 0.5 percent citric acid, 10 and 20 percent honey solution, 0.1 percent nanosilver stipulated food grade hydrogen peroxide alone and in combination with 10 percent honey solution and control. The disinfected, rinsed and air-dried pomegranate arils were packed in polypropylene punnets (135g each) with different modified atmospheres and stored up to 16 days at 1⁰C. Changes in colour, pH, total soluble solids, sugars, anthocyanins, phenols, acidity, antioxidant activity, microbial and yeast and mold count over initial values were recorded in all the treatments under study but highest on those without antioxidant and surfactant treatments. Pretreated arils stored at 1⁰C recorded decrease in L*, b* value, pH, levels of non-reducing and total sugars, polyphenols, antioxidant activity and acceptability of arils and increase in total soluble solids, a* value, anthocyanins and microbial count. Increase in anthocyanin content was observed in modified atmosphere packaged pretreated arils stored at 1⁰C. Modified atmosphere packaging with 100 percent nitrogen recorded minimum changes in physicochemical and sensorial parameters with minimum microbial growth. Untreated arils in perforated punnets and with air (control) gave shelf life up to 6 days only. The pretreatment of arils with 10 percent honey plus 0.1 percent nanosilver stipulated food grade hydrogen peroxide and packaging in 100 percent nitrogen recorded minimum changes in physicochemical parameters. The treatment also restricted microbial growth and maintained colour, anthocyanin pigmentation, antioxidant activity and overall fresh like quality of arils. The same dipping treatment along with modified atmosphere packaging extended the shelf life of fresh ready to eat arils up to 14 to 16 days with enhanced acceptability when stored at 1⁰C.
Effect of Dehydration Methods of the Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Functional Properties of Starch Flour Extracted from Maize
Effect of the dehydrated method on proximate, functional and mineral properties of corn starch was evaluated. The study was carried and to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of corn starch produced using three different drying methods namely (sun) (oven) and (cabinet) drying methods. The corn starch was obtained by cleaning, steeping, milling, sieving, dewatering and drying corn starch was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties, and mineral properties to determine the nutritional properties, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, and carbohydrate were in the range of 9.35 to 12.16, 6.5 to 10.78 1.08 to 2.5, 1.08 to 2.5, 4.0 to 5.2, 69.58 to 75.8% respectively. Bulk density range between 0.610g/dm3 to 0.718 g/dm3, water, and oil absorption capacities range between 116.5 to 117.25 and 113.8 to 117.25 ml/g respectively. Swelling powder had value varying from 1.401 to 1.544g/g respectively. The results indicate that the cabinet method had the best result item of the quality attribute.
Effect of Sprouting Period of Proximate Composition, Functional Properties and Mineral Content on Malted Sorghum Flour
Effect of sprouting period on proximate, functional and mineral properties of malted sorghum flour was evaluated. The study was carried out to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of sprouting period on malted sorghum flour produced. The malted sorghum flour was obtained by sorting, weighing, washing, steeping, draining, germination, drying, dry milling, sieving. Malted sorghum flour was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties and mineral contents. Moisture, protein, fat content, crude fiber, ash contents and carbohydrate of 24 and 48 hours, were in the range of 10.50-11.0, 11.17-11.17, 1.50-4.00, 2.50-1.50, 1.50-1.54 and 73.15-70.79% respectively. Bulk density ranged between 0.64 and 0.59g/ml, water and oil absorption capacities ranged between 139.3 and 150.0 and 217.3 and 222.7g/g respectively. Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron and Manganese were also range of 12.5, 59.3-60.0, 3.22-3.25, 3.80-3.90 and 3.22-3.25 mg/100g respectively. The results indicate that the germination of red sorghum resulted in the enhancement of the nutritional quality and its functional properties.
The Impact of Maternal Micronutrient Levels on Risk of Offspring Neural Tube Defects in Egypt
Neural tube defects (NTD) are important causes of infant mortality. Poor nutrition was essential factor for central nervous system deformation. Mothers gave NTD offspring had abnormal serum levels of micronutrients. The present research was designed to study the effect of maternal micronutrient levels and oxidative stress on the incidence of NTD in offspring. The study included forty mothers; twenty of them of 30.9+7.28 years had conceived fetuses with NTD were considered as cases; and twenty mothers of 28.2 + 7.82 years with healthy neonates. We determined serum vitamin B12 and folic acid by using radioimmunoassays. Also, serum zinc was assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. While serum copper and iron were measured colorimetrically and serum ceruloplasmin was analyzed by radialimmunodiffusion. Cases showed significantly lower levels of folic acid, vitamin B12 and zinc (P< 0.0005, 0.01, 0.01 respectively) than that of the control. Concentrations of copper, ceruloplasmin, and iron were markedly increased in cases as compared to controls (P < 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05 respectively). In conclusion, the current study clearly indicated the etiology of NTD cannot be explained with one strict etiologic mechanism, on the contrary, an interaction among maternal nutritional factors and oxidative stress would explain these anomalies. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and zinc supplementations should be considered for further decrease in the occurrence of NTD. Preventing excess iron during pregnancy favors better pregnancy outcomes.
The Effect of a Probiotic: Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, and Its Products on Growth Performance and Disease Resistance of Orange-Spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides
The aim of this study was to investigate a probiotic, Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, and its products, isomaltooligosaccharide and dextran, on growth performance, digestive enzymes, immune responses, and pathogen resistance of spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. The grouper were fed control and diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g), isomaltooligosaccharide (0.15%), isomaltooligosaccharide (0.15%) + L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g) (I + B4), and dextran (0.15%) + L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g) (D + B4) for 8 weeks. The result showed that final weights and percent weight gains of the grouper fed diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4 and I + B4 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The activities of digestive enzymes in the grouper fed with I + B4 were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05), too. After challenge with Vibrio harveyi, the enzyme activities of antiprotease and lysozyme as well as of respiratory burst of the fish fed with I + B4 and D + B4 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The grouper fed with the both diets also had higher survival rates than that of the control group after the challenge. Overall, the study indicated that feeding diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4, and its products, isomaltooligosaccharide, and dextran could be an effective method for enhancing the growth performance and disease resistance in orange-spotted grouper.
Environmental Risk of Pharmaceuticals, Drugs of Abuse and Stimulant Caffeine in Marine Water: A Case Study in the North-Western of Spain
The region of Galicia, found in north-western (NW) Spain, is a national and world leader in shellfish, especially mussel production, and recognized for its fishing industry. Few studies have evaluated the presence of emerging contaminants in NW Spain, with those published mainly concerning the continental aquatic environment. The objective of this study was to identify the environmental risk posed by the presence of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in this important coastal region. The presence of sixteen pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines, anxiolytics, and caffeine), and 19 drugs of abuse (cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opiates and opioids, lysergic compounds, and cannabinoids) was assessed in 23 sites located in the Rías (Coastal inlets) of Muros, Arousa, and Pontevedra (NW Spain). Twenty-two of these locations were affected by waste-water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, and one represented the effluent of one of these WWTPs. Venlafaxine was the pharmaceutical compound detected at higher concentration in the three Rías, with a maximum value of 291 ng/L at the site Porto do Son (Ría de Muros). Total concentration in the three Rías was 819,26 ng/L. Next, citalopram and lorazepam were the most prevalent compounds detected. Metabolite of cocaine benzoylecgonine was the drug of abuse with the highest concentration, measured at 972 ng/L in the Ría of Noia WWTP (no dilution). This compound was also detected at 142 ng/L in the site La Isla de Aros, Ría of Pontevedra. Total concentration for the three Rías was 1210 ng/L. Ephedrine was also detected at high level in the three Rías, with a total concentration of 579,28 ng/L. The results obtained for caffeine show maximum and average concentrations of 857 ng/L Isla de Arosa, Ría de Pontevedra the highest measured in seawater in Spain. A preliminary hazard assessment was carried out by comparing these measured environmental concentrations (MEC) to predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for aquatic organisms. Six out of the 22 seawater samples resulted in a Hazard Quotient (HQ) from chronic exposure higher than 1 with the highest being 17.14, indicating a high probability of adverse effects in the aquatic environment. In addition, the risk was assessed on the basis of persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT).